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Q U A N T U M T H EO RY O F M A N Y -PA R T I C LE SY ST EM S

A LEXA N D ER L. FEU ER Ass oci at e Pr of es sorof Physi cs St anf or d U ni ver si t y

JO H N D I RK W A LECKA Pr of e ss orof Physi cs St anf or d Uni ver si t y

Mc Gr a wl l i l l ,I nc.

New Yor k St .Loui s Sa n Fr a nc i s c o Auc kl a n d Bog ot l


Ca r a c a s Li s b on Lo nd on Ma dr i d Me xi c o Ci t y Mi l a n M on t r e c l Ne w De l hi Sa nJ u a n Si n ga Nr e Syd ne y Tok y o Tor on t o

C O N T EN TS

PREFACE

PART ON EQ I NTRO DU CTI ON


CHA PTER 1 SECO ND G UA NTI ZATI ON

1 THE S CHRODI NGE RE QUATI ON I N Fl RST AND SE COND


GUANTI M TI ON 4 B' os ons 7 M anypar t i cl e Hi l b er tspa ce and cr eat i on and de st r uct i on oper at or s F er mi ons 1 5 Fl ELDS 19 EXAM PLE:DEGENERATEELECTRON GAS

CHA PTER 2 STATI STI CALM ECHANI CS REVI E W OFTHERM ODYNAM I CS AND STATI STI CALM ECHANI CS I DEAL GAS 36 Bos ons 38 Fe r mi ons 45

33 34

CONTENTS

PART TW O Cl GROUNDSTATE ( ZEROTEM PERATURE)


FO RM A LI SM CHAPTER 3 G REEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I ELD THEORY ( FERM I ONS)
6 PI CTURES 53 Scbr di ngerpi ct ur e 53 l nt er ac t i on pi ct ur e 54 Hei s enber g pi ct ur e 68 Adi abat i c' ' swi t chi ng on' ' 59 Gel l -M a nn and Low t heor em on t he gr ound s t at ei n quant um f i el d t heo 61 7 GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS 64 De f i ni t i on 64 Rel a t i on t o obs er va bl es 66 Exampl e: f r ee f er mi ons 70 The Lehmann r epr es ent at i on 72 Phys i cali nt er pr e t at i on oft he Gr e en' sf unc l i on 79 8 W CKS THEOREM 83 9 DI AGRAM MATI C ANALYSI S OF PERTURBATI ON THEORY Feynman di agr ams i n coor di na t e spac e 92 Fe ynman di agr ams i n momen t um spac e 1G0 Dys on' sequat i ons 1O5 Gol ds t one' st heor em 111

5 3

CHAPTER 4 FERM ISYSTEM S 1 0 HARTREEFOCK APPROXI MATI ON 11 I M PERFECT FERM IGAS 128 Scaler i ng f r om aha r ds phe r e 128 Scat t er i ng t heor vi n moment um space 130 La dderdi agr ams and t he Be t he-sal pet erequat i on Ga l i l s ki i ' si n t egr a lequat i ons 139 The pr opersel f ener gy 142 Phys i calquant i t i es 146 Just i f i ca t i on oft er ms p e l ai ned 149 DEGENERATE ELZCTRON GAS 151 Gr ounds t a t e ener gy and t he di el ect r i c cons t ant 151 Ri ng di a gr ams 154 ' E val uat i on ofF I D 158 Cor r el a t i on ener gy 163 Ef f ect i ve i nt er act i on 166 CHAPTER 5 LI NEAR RESPO NSE AND COLLECTI V E M ODES 13 GENERAL THEORY OF LI NEAR RESPONSE TO AN EXTERNAL PERTURBATI ON 172 14 SCREENI NG I N AN ELECTRON GAS 175 15 PLASM A OSCI LLATI ONS I N AN fLECTRON GAS 180 16 ZERO SOUND I N AN I M PERFECT FERM IGAS 183 17 I NELASTI C ELECTRON SCATTERI NG 188 CHA PTER 6 BO SE SYSTEM S 18 FO RM ULATI ON OFTHE PROBLEM 19 GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS 203 199

120

171

198

CONTENTS

xi

ON THEOBY AND FEYNMAN RULES 207 20 PERTURBATI l nt er act i on pi c t ur e 207 Fe ynmanr ul esi ncoor di na t espace 208 F eynmanr ul esi nm oment um space 209 Dys on' se quat i ons 211 L ehmann r epr es ent at i on 214 21 W EAKLY I NTERACTI NG BOSE GAS 215 22 DI LUTE BOSE GAS W I TH 9EPULSI VECO9ES 218

PART THREEL FI NI TETEM PERATU RE FO RM A LI SM


CHAPTER 7 FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE 23 TEM PERATURE GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS Def i ni t i on 228 227

226
227

Re l a t t o nt oo bs e r v a b l e s 2 29

Exampl e :noni nt er act i ng sy st em 232 PERTURBATI ON THEORY AND W I CK' S THEOREM FOR FI NI TE TEM PERATURES 234 I nt er act i on pi ct ur e 234

Per i odi ci t yof@ 236 Pr oofofW i ck' st heor em 237 25 DI AGRAM MATI C ANALYSI S 241 Fe ynman r ul esi nc oor di nat espace 242 Feynman r ul e si n momen t um spac e 244 Eval uat j onoff r eque ncys ums 248 26 DYSON' S ECUATI ONS 250
CHAPTER 8 PHYSI CALSYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE 27 HARTREEFOCKAPPROXI M ATI ON 255 28 I M PERFECT BOSE GAS NEAR Tc 259 29 SPECI FI C HEAT OFAN I M PERFECT FERM IGAS AT LOW TEM PERATURE 261 Lowt emper al ur eexpans i on of@ 262 Har t r eeFock appr oxi ma t i on 262 Eval uat i on oft he ent r opy 265 30 ELECTRON GAS 267 Appr oxi mat e pr opers el f ener gy 268 Summat i on ofr i ng di agr ams 271 Appr oxi mat et her modynami cpot ent i a l 273 Cl as si c alI i mi t 275 Zer ot emper at ur el i mi t 281 CHAPTER 9 REALTI M E G REEN' S FUNCTI O NS AND LI NEAR RESPONSE 31 GENERALI ZED LEHM ANN 8EPRESENTATI ON 292
291 265

De f i n i t i o no f

2 9 2

Re t ar ded and a dvance df unct i ons 294 Temper at ur e Gr ee n' sf unct i ons and anal yt i c cont i nuat i on 297 32 LI NEAR RESPONSE AT FI NI TETEM PERATURE 298 Gener all heor y 298 Dens i t y cor r el a t i onf unc t i on 300 33 SCREENI NG I N AN ELECTRON GAS 303 34 PLASM A OSCI LL ATI ONS I N AN ELECTRON GAS 3Q7

xi i

CONTENTS

PART FO UR L CA NO NI CAL TRA NSFO RM ATD NS


CHAPTER 14 CANONI CALTRANSFORM ATI ONS 35 I NTERACTI NG BOSE GAS 314 36 COOPER PAI RS 320 37 I NTERACTI NG FERMIGAS 326

311
313

PA RT FI V EQ A PPL I CATI ONS TO PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S


CHAPTER 11 N UCLEAR M AU ER 38 NUCLEAR F ORCES:A REVI EW 341 39 NUCLEAB M ATTER 348 Nucj earr a di ia nd cha r gedi s t r i but i ons 348 The s emi empi r i ca lma s sf onnu# a 349

3 39
341

40 I NDEP ENDE NTP AR TI CL E( F E RMI GAS)MODEL 3 52 41 I NDEP ENDE NTP AI RAPPROXI MATI ON ( BRUE CKNER' STHE ORY) 35 7
Sel f cons i s t en tBe t heGol ds t one e quat i on 358 Sol ut i on f ora nons i ngul ars quar ewel lpot ent i al 360
366 42 RELATI ON T0 GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND BETHESALPETEB EQUATI ON 377 43 THEENERGY GAP I N NUCLEAR M AU ER 383

So l u t i o n f ap u r e h a r dc or eq ot e n t i a li 3 6 3 ent Pr oper t i es ofnucl earma t t erwr t h a' ' r eal st i c' 'pot i al

CH APTER 12 PHO NONS AND ELECTRO NS 44 THENONI NTERACTI NG PHONON SYSTEM 390 La gr angi an andhami l t oni an 391 Debyet b eor yoft bespe ci f i chea t 393 45 THE ELECTRONPHONON I NTERACTI ON 396 46 THECOUPLEDFI ELD THEORY 399 Feynma nr ul e sf or' r= 0 399 The e qui val entel ect r ooel ec t r oni nt e? act on 401. Ver t ex par t s :nd Dys on' s equat i ons 402 47 MI GDAL ' S THEOREM 406 CHAPTER 13 SUPERCOND UCTI VI TY 48 FUNDAM ENTAL PROPERTI ES OFSUPERCONDUCTORS 414 Ba si ce xpe r i men t alf act s 414 The/ modynami cr el a t i ons 417 49 LONDONPI PPARD PHENOMENOLOGI CALTHEORY 420 Der i va t i on ofLondon equat i ons 42Q Sol ut i onf orhal f s paceand s l ab 421 Conser va t i onandqua nt i z at i on off l uxol d 423 Pi ppar d' sgener a l i z edequat i on 425 50 GI NZBURGLANDAU PHENOM ENOLOGI CALTHEORY 430 Expans i on oft he f r a e en er gy 430 Sol ut i on i ns i m pl e cas es 432 Fl ux quant i za t i on 435 Sudacee ner gy 436

389

413

CONTENTS

5 1 MI CROSCOPI C( BCS)THE ORY


Gener alf or mul at i on 439 Sol ut i on f oruni f or m medi um

439 4 4 7
454

444

De l e r mi n a l i on o f t h eg a pf un c t i onZ( F)

Ther modyoam i cf unc t i ons 449 52 LI NEAR RESPONSETO A W EAK MAGNE TI C FI ELD Der i vat i onoft hegener alk er nel 455 M ei s snere f f ect 459
Nonl ocali nt egr alr el a t i on 463 53 M I CROSCOPI C DERI VATI ON OF GI NZBURGLANDAU EQUATI ONS 466 CHAPTER 14 SUPERFLUI D H ELI UM 54 FUNDAM ENTAL PROPERTI ES OF He 1 1 481 Bas i c exper i ment alf ac t s 481 Landau' s quasi par t i cl e model 484 55 W EAKLY I NTERACTI NG BOSE GAS 488 Gener a lf or mul at i on 489 Uni f or m condensa t e 492 Nonuni f or m condensa t e 495

Pe n e t r a t i onde p t hi n Pi p pa r d( n on l oc a l )I i mi t 4 61

479

CHAPTER 15 APPLI CATI O NS TO FI NI TE SYSTEM S :THE ATOM I C NU CLEU S 56 GENERALCANONI CAL TRANSFORM ATI ON TO PARTI CLES AND HOLES 504 57 TH E SI NGLE-PARTI CLE SHELL M ODEL 508 Appr oxi ma t e Har t r ee-Fock wave f unct i ons and I evelor der i ngs i na cent r alpot ent i af 508 Spi nor bi ts pl i t i ng 511 Si ngl epadi cl e mat r i x el ement s 512 58 M ANY PARTI CLES I N A SHELL 515

503

Two v al e nc ep a r t i c l e s;g e n e r a li n t e r a c t i o na n d8( x)f or c e


Sever alpar t i cl es:nor malcoupl i ng 519 The pai r i ngf or ce pr obl em 523 The bos on appr oxi mat i on 526 The Bogol i ubov t r ansf or mat i on 527 59 EXCI TED STATES :Ll NEARI ZATI ON OF TH E EQUATI ONS OF MOTI ON 538

T a mmDa n c o f fa pp r ox i ma i o n( T DA) 5 38 Ra n d omph a s ea pp r ox i ma t i o n( RP A) 5 4 O


Re duct i on oft he bas i s 543

S ol u t i onf o rt he E lB l d i me ns i o na l s up e r mu l t i p l e twi t h a8 ( x )f or c e
An appl i cat i on t o nucl ei :O1 6 555 60 EXCI TED STATES :G REEN' S FUNCTI ON M ETHO DS The pol ar i z at i on pr opagat or 558 Random phase appr oxi mat i on 564 Tamm Dancof f appr oxi mat i on 565 558

5 47

Con s t r u c t i o no f1 R( r , ) )i nt h e RP A

5 6 6

61 REALI STI C NUCLE AR FORCES 567 Tw o nucl eons out s i de cl osed shel l s: t he i ndependent pai r appr oxi mat i on 567 Bet he-Gol ds t one equat i on 568 Har moni cos ci l l at orappr oxi mat i on 570 Paul ipr i nci pl ec or r ect i on 574 Ex t ens i onsandca l cul at i onsofot herqua nt i t i es 574

xi v

CO NTENTS

A PPENDI XES
A B DEFI NI TEI NTEGRALS 579 RE VI E W OFTF I ETHE OHY OFANGUL AR MOME NTUM 5 8 Bas i ccommut 1 a t i on r el at i ons 581 Coupl i ng of t wo angk l l ar moment a : Cl ebs ch -Gor C dancoef f i ci ent s 582 oupl i n g oft hr e e angul armoment a: he6l r / c oe f f i c i e n t s 5 85 educi bl et ensorope r a t or sandt be Wi gner -Eckar Tr tt heor em 586 ensoroper a t or si ncoupl edschemes 587

579

I NDEX
589

N U M ER I CA L VA LU ES O F SO M E PH YS I CA L Q U A NTI TI ES
h- hl z , z
c

=l . 055 x 1 0-2 7er gs ec


- 2. 998 x 1 01 0cm s e c-l

k s
me m#

-l . 3 81x 1 0 -1 6e r g( O K) t
- 9. 11 0x 1 02 8g =1 . 673 x 1 02 4g

mp l me
t , Avogadr o' snum ber

=1 8 3 6
= 4. 8 03 x 1 0-1 0es u = 6. 022 x 1 02 3m ol e-t

e l l h c= a p . a= e h l z me c y , s= e h l l mp c lRy= e l j l a n= : 4 me l z h l
t u = hn l me el

=( 1 3 7 . 0 ) 1 =9 . 2 7 4x 1 02 1 e r gg a u s s l =5 . 05 1x 1 02 *e r gg a u s s l =1 3. 61e V
= 5. 292 x 1 0-9c m

A e=hl m. c A p= h l mp c
mpc 2

=3 . 8 6 2x1 0 1 'c m =2 . 1 0 3x 1 0 1 4c m
= 93 8. 3M e V

( a =h cl le
hc 1e v

= 2. 068 x 1 0-7gaus sc m2
=1 97. 3x 1 0-: 3M e Vc m =1 . 602 x 1 0-1 2er g

S ou r c e: Th i st a bl ei sc o mp i l e df r o m B.N.Ta yl o r ,W .H.Pa r ke r .an d

D. N.La ng e nG r g. Re t ' . Mo d. Ph ys . . 4 1 :3 7 5( 1 9 6 9 ) .

par t one

Introd ucti on

Second Q uanti zati on

The phys i calwor l d cons i s t s ofi nt er act i ng m anypar t i c l es ys t e ms . A n ac cur a t e des cr i pt i on ofs uch s ys t e m sr e qui r e st he i ncl us i on of t he i nt e r par t i c l e pot ent i al s i nt he m anypar t i c l e Schr di ng er equat i on. and t hi s pr obl em f or mst he ba s i c

s u b j e c toft h ep r e s e n tb o ok .l np r i n c i p l e ,t heNb od y wa v ef un c t i on i nc on hgur at i on s pac ec ont ai ns a l l pos s i bl ei nf or m at i on,but a di r e ct s ol ut i on of t he Sc hrdi ngere quat i on i si m pr ac t i c al . l ti st her ef or e nec e s s ar y ' t or e s or tt o ot her t ec hni que s , and we s hal lr e l y on s ec ond qua nt i zat i on, quant um t i e l dt heor y, and t he us e ofG r e en' sf unct i ons . l n ar e l at i vi s t i ct heor y,t he c onc eptofs e cond quant i zat i on i s es s ent i alt o de s c r i be t he cr e a t i on and de s t r uct i on of par t i c l e s . i Eve ni n a nonr e l at i v i s t i ct heor y.howe ve r ,s e cond quant i za t i on gr eat l ys i m pl i f i es t he di s cus s i on of m any i de nt i ca li nt er ac t i n g par t i c l e s . z Thi s appr oa ch m e r e l y
!P. A.M , Di r ac , Pr o c .Rt l y ' . So c . l o n d o n) , 1 1 4 A: 2 4 3( 1 9 2 7) . 2P. J or d a na nd 0.Kl e i n. Z. Ph ys i k.4 5: 75 1( I 9 2 7) ;P, J or d an a nd E.P.W' i g n e r , Z.Phv s i k, 47: 6 3l( 1 9 2 8) ;V.Foc k, Z. Ph y s i k,7 5: 62 2( 1 93 2) . Al t h ou gh d i f l k r e nti nd e t a i l ,t h ea p pr o ac h
pr es ent ed her ef ol l owst hes pi r i toft hi sl as tpaper.
3

l Nrqoouczl oN

r er or m ul at es t he or i gi nal Schr di nger e quat i on. N e ve r t he l es s ,i thas s e ve r al di s t i nc t advant age s:t he s ec ondquant i z ed oper at or si nc or por at et he s t at i s t i cs

( Bo s eorFe r mi ) a t e a c hs t e p , wh i c hc on t r a s t swi t ht h emo r e c umb e r s o mea p pr oa c h


of us i ng s ym m e t r i ze d or ant i s ymm et r i z e d pr odue t s of -s i ngl e par t i cl e wav e f unc t i ons . The m e t hods ofquant um se l dt heor y al s o al l ow ust o conc ent r at e on t hef ew m a t r i xe l e me nt sofi nt er es t ,t husavoi di ngt hene e df ordeal i ngdi r e ct l y w t ht he m any par t i el e wave f unct i on and t he coor di nat e s of a 1 lt he r em ai ni ng par t i c l e s. Fi na l l y,t he G r e en' sf une t i onscont ai nt he m os ti m por t antphys i c al i nf or mat i onsu ch ast l 4 egr ounds t at eene r gyandot hert her modynami cf bnc t i ons , t he e ner gy and l i f e t i m e of e xc i t ed s t at e s,and t he l i nea rr es pons et oe xt er nal pc r t ur ba t i ons . U no r t una t e l y.t heex actG r e en' sf unct i onsa r enoeas i e rt o de t e r mi net han t he or i g i l l a lwav ef unc t i on-and we t he r e f or e m ake us e ofpe r t ur ba t i on t heor y, whi c hi sher epr es ent e di nt heconc i s eand s ys t emat i cl anguageofFe ynm an r ul es and di agr am s . : The s er ul es al l ow us t oe val uat e phys i c al quant i t i es t o any or deri n per t ur bat i ont heor y. W es hal l al s os how, asf i r s tobs e r v ed b y Fe ynm an. t hat t he di s c onnec t ed di agr am s c anc el ex act l y. Thi sc ance l l at i on I eads t o l i nke dc l us t er e xpans i ons and m ake se xpl i ci tt he vol ume de pendenc e of aI ! phys i c al quant i t i es . I ti s pos s i bl et of or m ul a t ea s e t of i nt egr al equat i ons

( oys onse quat i ons )N Nhos ei t er at ons yi c l dt he Fe ynmanDys on pe r t ur bat i on


t heor yt o any ar bi t r ar y or der i nt he per t ur bat i on par am e t er and whi c h ar e i ndepcndeatoft he or i gi nalpe r t ur bat i on s er i e s . z si n ce t he pr oa r t i e s ofm anypar t i c l es ys t em s f r e qt t ent l y i nvol ve e xpr es s i ons t hat ar e nonanal y t i c i n t he coupl ng c ons t ant ,t he pos s i bi l i t y of nonper t ur bat i ve appr ox m at i ons i s ve r y i m por t ant . I n addi t i on.i ti sf ke quent l y pos s i bl et o m akephys i c alappr oxi ma t i onst hat r e duc et he s e condquant i z ed har ni l t oni an t o a qu adr at i ct br m . The r e sul t i ng pr obl em i st hen e xac t l ys ol vabl e ei t he r by m aki ng a c anoni c alt r ans f or ma t i on or by e xam i ni ng t hel i ne are quat i onsofm ot i on.

IITHE SCHRDI NGER EQUATI ON I N F I RST


A ND sEco No O UA NTI ZATI ON wes hal ls t ar tourdi s cus s i on by m e r e l yr ef or m ul at i ng t he Schr di ngere quat i on i nt he l a nguage of s e cond quant i z at i on. l n al m os t al le as e s of i n t e r e s t ,t he ham i l t oni an t akest he f or m
N N

H = . N . k k ) +J O N - Vl x k , r I ) .' . Tl
#=1 k=u 1 =1

wher er i st he ki ne t i ce ne r g y and V ri st he pot ent i ale ner gy ot i nt er ac t i on be t we en t he par t i cl e s. The quant i t y xk denot es t he c oor di nat e s of t he t h par t i cl e ,
1 R.P . Fe y n ma n, Ph ys .Re t ' . . 7 6: 7 4 9( 1 9 4 9 ) ; 7 6: 7 6 9( 1 9 4 9 ) . ' F. J .Dys o n-# / ? y ' . .Re t ' . . 7 5: 4 8 6( 1 9 4 9) *7 , 52 1 7 3 6( 1 9 4 9) .

SECO ND QUANTI ZATf ON

i nc l udi ng t he s pat i a l coor di nat e xk and a ny di s cr et e var i abl es s uch as t he z com ponent of s pi nf or a s ys t em of -f er mi ons or t he z c om ponent of i s ot opi c s pi nf or a s y s t em ofnuc l e ons . The pot ent i al e ner gy t er m r e pr es ent st he i nt e r ac t i on be t we en e ver y pai r of pa r t i c l e s ,c oun e dt l p ? t t x . whi c h acc ount sf or t he

f a c t oro f 1 .a n dt h ed ou bl es u mr un so v t l rt h ei n d i c c sk a n d/ s e p a r a t e l y . e x c l u d i n g
t he va l t t eke qualt oJ .s vi t ht hi shami l t oni an-t het i me dependentSc hr di nger equat i on i s gi ven bq

t oget herw i t h anappr opr i at es e tofboundar yc ondi t i onsf ort hewavef unct i onT . W es t ar t by e xpandi ng t he m anypar t i cl e wave f unct i on t 1 'i na c om pl e t e s e t of t i me i nde pendent s i ngl e pa r t i c l e wav ef unc t i ons t hat i nc or por at et he boundar y condi t i ons . For e xam pl e ,i fwe hav e al ar ge hom o ge neous s y s t e mi ti snat ur al t oe xpandi nas e tofpl a newave si naI ar geboxwi t h pe r i odi cboundar y e ondi t i ons :al t e r na t i ve l y,i fweha veas ys t e m ofi nt e r ac t i ng e l e c t r onsi n an at om , a com pl et es e t of s i ngl epar t i cl e coul om b wav ef unc t i ons i s com m onl y us e d, . f i nal l y,i fw' ehav e par t i cl esm ov i ng i n acr ys t all at t i c e.aconv eni e ntchoi cei st he com pl e t es e tofBl oc h wav ef unc t i onsi nt heappr opr i a t eper i odi cpot e nt i a l . We s hal ius et hege ne r a lnot at i on f ort he s i ngl e par t i cl ewavef unc t on

m 1 . s k ( x k )
.

whe r e Ek r epr e s ent sa c om pl et es e t of s i ngl e par t i cl e quant um num be r s . For e xam pl e ,Ekdenot esp f ora s ys t e m ofs pi nl e s sbos onsi n a box,orE, J,and $ f f oras e tofs pi nl es spar t i c l e si n ac ent r alt ' i e l d.orp.s ' zf orahom ogene ouss ys t e m off er mi ons .and s o on. I ti sconv eni e nt t oi ma gi ne t hatt hi si nl i ni t es e t of

s i ngl e par t i c l e quant um number si s or der ed ( 1 . 2. 3.. .. r s . t , .. ..u : )and


t hat Eg r uns ov er t hi ss e t efei g enval ues . W' ec an now ex pand t he m anybody wa ve f unc t i on asf ol l ows:
s 'X, v .; 1= y . t y y ( j j x 1 '. . y : ,. .,j r N,
.

A s '

Thi se xpr es s i on i sc om pl e t el y gene r aland i ss i m pl yt heexpans i on oft hem any-

p a r t i c l e w' a v ef u nc t i on i na c o mpl e t es e to fs t a t e s . Si n c et h e 4s ( . v )a r et i me
i ndependent ,a1 loft he t i me de pe nde nce of t he wav ef unc t i on appear si nt he

c o e mc i e n t st 7 ( f ' 1 .. .Es . . r ) . Le tu sn ow i n s e r tEq . ( 1 . 3 )i n t ot h eS c hr d i n g e r e q ua t i o na n dt h e nm u l t i pl y b3 't , h ee x p r e s s i on 4: , ( xh ) A '''' / i s v t xx l l ,wh i c hi st h epr o du c toft hea d j oi n t wa v ef u n c t i o nsc o r r e s p on d i n gt o aJxp ls e tt ? / q u a l l t u n lr / l f n / y c r . Ej...Es J . I n t e g r a t eo v e ra l I t h ea pp r o pr i a t ec o o r d i na t e s( t h i sma yi nc l u d e as u mo v e rs p l n coor di nat esi ft he pa r t i c l e s have s pi n) . On t he l ef t hand s i de.t hi spr oc e dur e
.

I NTRODUCTI ON

p r o j e c t sou t t hec o e c i e n tC c o r r e s pon d i n gt ot h egi v e ns e t of qu a n t u m nu mb e r s


fl ' ..fx,andwet her e f or ear r i veatt heequat i on d N i h& C( Ej...fs . t )= .-, ) () ( Jd x k /s . t xJlF( x k ) /p , t xJ p,
. . .

Ek qpz. + ,...Es , t )

x C( E1 '.'f: IW ' fk . y l

f1 lWz ' ' Et +l

( 1 . 4 )

Si ncet he ki net i ce ne r g yi sa s i ng l e par t i cl e oper at ori nv ol vi ng t he coor di nat e s oft hepa r t i c l e soneata t i m e,i tc an changeonl y one oft hes i ngl epar t i c l ewave f unc t i ons . The or t honor m al i t y of t he s i ng l epar t i cl e wave f unc t i ons ens ur es t hatal lbutt hekt h par t i c l em us tha ve t heor i gi nalgi ve n quant um num be r s ,but t hewavef bnct i on oft he1t h par t i cl ec ans t i l lrun ove rt hei nsni t es e tofquant um num ber s . To be v er y ex pl i c i t ,wehavede not e dt hi svar i abl ei nde x by l #'i nt he aboveequat i on. A s i mi l arr es ul thol dsf ort hepot e nt i alene r gy. Thes i t uat i on i sa l i t t l e m or ecom pl i c at e d,howev er ,be c aus et he pot e nt i ale ne r gyi nvol v est he coor di na t e soft wo pa r t i c l e s.Atm os t ,i tcan c ha ng et hewavef unc t i onsoft wo par t i c l es ,t he kt h and / t h par t i c l e sf or e xam pl e,whi l e aI lt he ot he r quant um

nu mb e r s mu s tb et h es a me a st h os e weha v ep r o j e c t e d ou t . Th eq ua n t u m
num ber soft hekt h par t i cl es t i l lr un ove ran i nfni t es e tofval ues ,de not e d by H? ' , andt hequant um numbe r soft he/ t h par t i c l es t i l lr unove rani nfni t es e tofval ue s , de not e d by Hz ' ' . Eac h gi ven s etofqua nt um num ber sEj '' 'Es l e ads t oa di f l kr e nte quat i on,yi e l di ng a ni nhni t es e tofcoupl e d di f l kr ent i alequat i onsf or t het i me de pe nde ntcoe ci e nt soft hem anypa r t i c l ewav ef unct i on. W enow i ncor por at et hes t at i s t i csoft hepar t i cl es . Them anypar t i c l ewa ve f unct i on i sa s s um ed t o havet hef ol l owi ng pr ope r t y

( 1 . 5 )
wher e,asdi s c us s e d abov e,t hecoor di na t ex:i nc l udest hes pi nf oran a s s e m bl y of

f e r mi on s . Equ a t i on( 1 . 5 ) s ho wst h a t t hewa v ef un c t i o nmu s t b ee i t h e r s y mme t r i c


orant i s ym m e t r i cundert hei nt er c hange oft hec oor di nat e sofany t wo par t i cl es .

An e c e s s a r ya n ds uc i e n tc on d i t i o nf o rEq . ( 1 . 5 )i st ha t t h ee x p a ns i onc oe c i e n t s
t he ms e l v esbe e i t hers ym m e t r i c or ant i s ymm et r i c unde rt he i nt e r change oft he cor r es pondi ng qua nt um num ber s

( y ( ...g ; j...l ; y..., f ). .: u ( y ( ...1 ? ; ...j g j..., j )

( j . 6 j

Th es uc i e n c yo fEq. ( 1 . 6 )i se a s i l ys e e nbys r s tc a r r yi n go u tt h ep a r t i c l ei n t e r c hangeon t hew a ve f unc t i on and t hen ca r r yi ng outt heappr opr i at ei nt er c hange

sccoNo OUANTI ZATI ON

o fdu mmys umma t i o nv a r i a b l e s . Th en e c e s s i t yi ss h ownb yp r o j e c t i n gag i v e n


coem c i e ntoutoft hewav ef unc t i on wi t ht heor t honor m al i t yoft hes i ngl epar t i c l e

wa v ef u n c t i on sa n dt h e nus i n gp r op e r t y( 1 . 5 )o ft h et o t a lwa v ef un c t i on . Thu s


wecan putal lt he s ymme t r y oft he wavef unct i on i nt ot he s etofcoec i e nt sC.
Boso Ns

Par t i c l e st hatr e qui r et he pl us s i gn ar ecal l e db os ons ,and we t e m por ar i l y conc ent r at e on s uch s ys t e ms. The s ymme t r y oft hecoe c i ent sunde ri nt e r chang e of quant um num be r s al l ows us t or e gr oup t he quant um num ber s appear i ng i n anycoemci ent . Outoft hegi vens etofquant um numbe r sE l ' ..fx,s uppos e t ha tt hes t a t e1occ ur sr l jt i me s , t hes t a t e2oc cur snzt i m es , ands oon, f orex am pl e,

c( 1 21 3 2 4 -.-, t j = C( 1 l l '-- 2 2 2=. w = = . v' =


a! Nz

A1 loft hos et e r m si nt hee xpans i on oft hewavef unc t i on wi t hnlpar t f cl e si nt he

s t at e1 , n 2pa r t i c l e si nt h es t a t e. 2 , an ds oon , h a v et h es a mec o e yc i e nt i nt h ewa v e


f unc t i on. l ti sc onve ni entt o gi v et hi scoemci enta ne w nam e

C( nl n z ...n . , / )> C( 1 1 1 -.. 2 2 2 --fl n g

( 1 . 7 )

Cons i de rt he nor mal i zat i on of t he manypar t i c l e wav ef unc t i on. The nor mal i za t i on c ondi t i on c an ber e pr es ent e ds ymbol i ca l l ya s

J1 ' Fl 2 ( # ' r )= 1

( 1 . 8 )

wh i c h me a ns :t a k et hewa v ef un c t i o n,mu l t i p l yi tb yi t sa d j oi n t ,a n di n t e g r a t e
overa1 1t he appr opr i a t ec oor di nat es . The r es ul t i ng nor mal i z at i on gua r ant e e s t hatt het ot a lpr obabi l i t yofsndi ng t hes ys t e ms om e whe r ei n consgur a t i on s pac e i suni t y. Theor t honor mal i t y oft hes i ngl e par t i c l ewavef unct i onsi mme di at e l y yi el dsa c or r e s pondi ngc ondi t i on on ourexpans i on c oe ci ent sC
Ej ' ''Es

( C( fl

f. v , t ) 1 2= l

( 1 . 9 )

W enow m akeus eoft he e qua l i t y ofal 1coe ci ent sc ont ai ni ng t he s am enum ber

ofpa r t i cl esi nt hes ames t at est or e wri t et hi scondi t i on i nt e r msoft hec oemc i e ntC
E ...E ( n , k a... J . ) Her et hes um i ss pl i ti nt ot wo pi e ce s:f i r s t ,s um ov era1 lv al uesoft he quant um

J (

1= 1

( l . l 0 )

num be r s EL Fz ' ' ' fx cons i s t ent wi t ht he gi ve ns e t of oc c upat i on num ber s

( n , n z n a ...n . ) ,a n dt h e ns um o v e ra l ls e t so fo c c u pa t i on nu mb e r s .I ti s
c l e ar t hat t hi s pr oce dur ei s mer e l y a wa y of r e gr oupi ng a1 lt he t er m si nt he s um . The pr obl em of s um m i ng ove r al ls et sofquant um num ber s cons i s t e nt wi t h ag i ve ns e tofoc cupat i on num be r si se qui val e ntt ot he pr obl e m ofput t i ng

I NTRODUCTI ON

No b j e c t si n t ob o x e swi t hr / jo b j e c t si nt h esr s tb ox , n zo b j e c t si nt h es e c o n dbo x , a n ds oo n ,wh i c hc a nb e do n ei nN ! / z 7 1 ! n z !. ''n .!wa y s . Wet h usob t a i n


t hem odi sed nor m al i zat i on s t at em e nt

2 .ni =N i =l

( 1 . 1 2 )

Byd e l i n i t i o n, h o we v e r , 0!i se q ua lt ol , a ndEq. ( 1 . l 1 )i swe l ld e hn e da swr i t t e n .


O ur r e sul t scan be e xpr e s s e d mor ee l e gant l yi f we desne s t i l lanot he r coe c i ent

fx , ? ) ' ) s , ( xl )-. .

ps s l x , s ' )

x*, a 1 x1xz . z . , . n.(

whe r eweha vede t i ne d

' / J s , ( xl )'''/s x ( x , v )
( n l , 1 a... ; . )
E ...E

Eq u a t i o n( 1 . 1 5 )i sa ni mp or t a n tr e s u l t , an di ts i mpl ys a y st h a tat o t a l l ys y mme t r i c


wave f unc t i on c an be e xpande di nt e r m s of a compl et e or t honor ma l ba s i s of c om pl e t el ys ym m et r i ze d wa ve f unct i ons t l l u, a.( xI .''v N ) . Fur t h e r mor e ,

sEcoNo aUANTI ZATI ON

t h ec o e c i e n t si nt h i se x p a ns i on a r ej u s tt h es e to f/' s . No t et h ef ol l o wi n g
Pr oper t i e soft he* ' s

l j j ( ...xj...xy... jc : u : a( j ) ( ...x y ...xj... j

j d xj.--# xsm. , , n , ,. .. a . ( xl.-.x s ) % *n , n p . . ., , .( xl.-.xs )


,

3 n : n ,

. . -

3, , .. ( ., 1 . 1 8 )

The sr s tr e s ul tf ol l ows i m m edi a t e l yf r om i nt er changi ng par t i c l e coor di nat es ,

a n dt h e n,c o r r e s po n di ng l y ,du mmy v a r i a b l e si nt he d e sn i n ge q ua t i on ( 1 . 1 6 ) ;


t he s e cond r e s ul tf ol l ow sf r om t he or t honor mal i t y of t he s i ngl epar t i c l e wave f unc t i ons . As an e xpl i c i te xam pl e,we s hal lwr i t e outt he wa ve f unc t i on f or

t h r e es p i n l e s sb o s on s ,t wo o f wh i c h oc c u p yt he g r o u nd s t a t e( d e n o t e db yt h e s ub s c r i p t1 )a nd o neo fwh i c h oc c u p i e st h ef i r s te x c i t e ds t a t e( d e n ot e db yt h e s u b s c r i p t2 ) : *2 1 :. .. ( ) ( . Y i . Y 2 . X 3 )

( / 1 ( 1 ) /1 ( 2 ) / 2 ( 3 ) +/1 ( 1 ) / X 2 ) /i ( 3 ) +/ 2 ( 1 ) / 1 ( 2 ) /1( =Y 3 ) 2 x / q
W er e t u r nt ot h ea n a l y s i so fEq. ( 1 . 4 ) , wh e r ei ti si mpo r t a n tt or e me mb e r
t hatE j . . ' fz vi sagi v e ns e to fq u a n t u mn u mb e r si nt h i se x pr e s s i o n . Co ns i d e r ir s tt he ki ne t i c e ner gy t er m ,whi c hc an be r e wr i t t e ni na n obvi ouss hort hand
N N

Z ZI c fk f rl r # ' )C( fl'''Ek jI # ' Q. . I'''EN , t )=k=1 ZZ ( ( fk t rr r P ' ) :=1 < <
( 1 . 1 9 )
He r e ,t he r i ght s i de m ake se xpl i c i tt he obs er vat i on t hatt he quant um num be r Ek oc cur s one l es st i m e and t he quant um num ber Hz roc cur s one m or et i me . N ow eve r yt i m eEkt ake st hes am eval uei nt he s um m at i on ove rk,1 e tuss a yE

( t hi so c c u r sn zt i me s ) ,i tma k e st h es a mec o nt r i b u t i ont ot h es u m. Th e r e f o r e ,


and t hi si st he c r u ci alpoi nti nt he whol et r e at me nt ,i ns t e ad ofper f or mi ng a s um overk f r om 1t o N ,wec an e qual l y we l ls um ov erE and wr i t e

Z n z E
Tha ti s ,as u mo v e rpa r t i c l e si se q ui v a l e n tt o as um o v e rs t a t e s ,a n d Eq.( 1 . 1 9 )
bec om es
N

Z Zf . E k 1 T! < )Ct fl '''Ek t1 . # f, + l '''Es, ? ) #=l G


=

) () (( Fj r( r f ' )ns E +
x C( nI nz-.-n s- 1 ---nw . + 1 .'-n . , t )

I NTROOUCTI ON

The s um on E i s now i nsni t e .runni ng overa1 loft he s i ngl epar t i c l e quant um num ber s ,butm os tof t he A 7 s ar e ze r os i nc et hos es t at esar e notocc upi e di nt he or i gi nal gi ven s et of quant um num ber s El . '.E, nal l y, i ti s conveni ent s . . Fi t os i m pl i f yt he not a t i on,whi ch yi el ds V N N', . . . Ek I . F' 1 4 / ' z ) C( Ej...E< ,I Z I Z ' F: ,...E. s . , t ) =j N ' n i / i E ' rp j' . k l; i :x i J -

h (( : % ( , 7 j ? 7 a . . .? ? i - 1 . ..1 1 ,h1 .../ 7 a a , t ) ( l . ( ! 1 )


Exa ct l yt he s am e m ani pul at i onsappl yt ot he pot e nt i ale ner g yt e r m:
V

1 r N' N'N'' ' EkE l i ; z ' I i j J , ' 4 , 6 , / ' ' . ) kc p tI =1 W' H '
% '
=

E1 /' E l+l - lU
l J
R= l=1 $ $ '1 i ' '

N' N N'.xEk E I' p ' . ! j f . ' j j , z ? . -. . -.

' 'l : E k- 1 - - - 1 1 w ru .1

l l . E I- 1 - --

, 7 p ' + 1 ' ..n . , t ) ( l . 2 2 )


As i nt he pr e ce di ng di s c us s i on.t he s t at e sEkand flar ee ac h occ upi ed one l es s t i me ,and t he s t a t e s Wz rand 1 1 , ' 'ar ee ac h occupi ' e d one m or et i mei nt hi ss um .

Ag a i n. e v e r yt i meEkt a k e st h es a m ev a l u e ,s a yf( t h i so c c u r sn Et i me s ) , a nd L t akest hes ameval ue, s a yE' ( t hi soc eur sns, t i mes ) . i tmake st hes a meeont r i but i on
t ot he s um . Ther ei s onl y one s l i ght f ur t her com pl i c at i on her e .owi ng t ot he r es t r i c t i on k # l i nt he doubl es um . Thus i ti s ne c es s ar yt o us et he f bl l owi ng count i ng f ort he num be roft er m sappe ar i ng i nt hi ss um

1 . ? ? s ? ? s , i fE % E'

! ws ( ? 7 s- l ) i fE = f'

bec aus et he r e s t r i c t i on k , # nldoes not af l kc tt he count i ng i fE y nF ' ,whi l et he e i ge nval ueE i sc ount e d onel e s st i m ei nt hes ec ondsum i fE = F ' . Thepot e nt i al ene r gy now be com esa doubl yi nt i ni t es um ,butm os toft he f ac t or s? 7 sand ny '

a r ez e r o. Tht l s . j u s t a sb e f o r e . wec anwr i t eEq . ( 1 . 2 2 ) a s N ' -1 1 -V . , u .5 = , L ' . Ek fj r p ' ( 4 f , . , r f , . ' ' y ,


-

kr h . l -1 # f kp' '

. .

Ek -lr J . ' k . l .. .EI f , z ' E I. - lj +l .

. .

t l X, t )

( 1 . 2 3 )

SECOND QUANTI ZATI ON

l ft h ec o e c i e n t sf de f i n e di n Eq.( 1 . 1 3 )a r es ub s t i t u t e di n t o Eqs .( 1 . 21 ) a nd ( 1 . 2 3 ) , wea r r i v ea tt h ef o l l o wi n gi ns n i t es e to f c o u pl e dd i Fe r e nt i a l e q u a t i on s

. . .a.,t )

. . nj- . ! . . . ng. j . j.

' ' '

( ni 2 ) !'''( n k> Fl ) !'''( n l M -l ) !'''1


. N!

( 1 . 2 4 )
wher e( et c. ' 's t andsf ort her em ai ni ng 1 3 pos s i bl ee num e r at i onsoft hee qual i t i es

and i nequal i t i e sbet we en t he i ndi ce si . j ,k,and / . M ul t i pl i cat i on by t he f ac t or ( Nl / nj ! n z !...n .! ) 1o n bo t hs i d e so ft h ee qu a t i o nf i n a l l yy i e l dst h ec o u p l e d


s e tofequa t i ons
i h & .( , 7 ,

n x, ? )

n . , t ) xJt a j '''n i -2 '''n k+ 1 -''nt + 1 '.'n . , ? )+ e t e .( 1 . 2 5 )


Ther ei ss uch an e quat i on f or eac hs etofval ue s oft he oc cupat i on num ber s nl nz . . .n.;i nt hi sf or m ,t he e quat i ons a r e ve r y com pl i c at e d. A ss how n i n t he f ol l owi ng di s c us s i on,howe ver ,i ti spos s i bl et or e c as tt hes ee quat i onsi n an ex t r em e l ycom pa cta nd e i e gantf or m.

I NTRO DUCTI ON M A NY-PARTI CLE HI LBERT SPACE AN D CREATI ON A ND D ESTRUGTI ON OPERATO RS

W es hal lt em por ar i l yf or g ett he j l z o vi ousana l ys i sand i ns t e ad s e ek a c om pl e t el y di pkr e nt quant um me chani c al bas i st ha t des cr i bes t he num ber of par t i c l e s occ upyi ngea ch s t at ei nac om pl e t es e tofs i ngl epar t i c l es t at e s . Fort hi sr eas on wei nt r oducet het i me i nde pe nde nta bs t r acts t at ev e c t or s

.. .y j x)
wher et henot a t i onm e anst hatt he r ear enjpar t i cl esi nt hee i ge ns t at e1, nzpar t i c l e s i nt he ei ge ns t at e 2,et c. W e wantt hi sbas i st o be com pl et e and or t honor mal , whi c hr equi r e st hatt hes es t at ess at i s f yt he c ondi t i ons

.t t X '! nj nz . .
or t hogonal i t y

( 1 . 2 6 )
c om pl e t ene s s

N ot et hatt he com pl et e nes ss um i g ove ral lpos s i bl e oc cupat i on num ber s ,wi t h no r es t r i c t i on. To m ake t hi s bas i s m or ec onc r et e,i nt r oduc et i l ne i nde pe nde nt ope r at or sbk hats at i s f yt hecom m ut at i on r ul es ,b% kt

( / u, ? ( ' )=b k k . b o s on s
p b, k 'kJ - pl k 5 : 1 k , 2 -0

( 1 . 2 7 )

Th e s ea r ej u s tt h ec o mmut a t i o nr u l e sf o rt h ec r e a t i c na n dd e s t r u c t i o nop e r a t or s o ft h eh a r mo ni co s c i l l a t or . AI Io ft h epr o pe r t i e so ft h e s eo p e r a t ot s ,f ol l o w


di r e ct l yf r om t hec om m ut at i on r ul es ,f ore xa m pl el

b % k b k ( pk )= a k f a k h n k= 0 , 1 , 2 ,..., : s ' k j n k )=( a k ) 1 ) A k- 1 ) b t k t n . )= ( n .+ l ) 1 ( n k+ 1 )

( 1 . 2 8 )

The num be r oper at or>l pe ct r um ofei genv al uest hati nc l udesa1 1t he k bk has a s pos i t i ve i nt e ge r s and z er o. b ki s a des t r uc t i on ope r at or t hat dec r e as e st he

o c c u p a t i o nn u mbe rb y1a n d mu l t i pl i e st h es t a t eb yn 1;b ki % sac r e a t i o nop e r a t o r t h a ti n c r e a s e st h ee i ge n v a l u ebyo nea n d mu l t i p l i e st h es t a t eb y( n k+ 1 ) + . Th e


pr oofoft hes er e l a t i onsappe ar si n any s t andar d book on quant um m e chani c s; s i nc ei ti sc r uci alt hatal loft he s er e s ul t sf ol l ow di r ec t l yf r om t he c om m ut at i on

r ul e s , wehe r ei n c l u deapr o o fo fEq s . ( 1 . 2 8 ) .


1Compa r e L.1 .Sc hi /,t t ou a nt u m Me c ha ni c s , ' '3 de d,pp.1 8 2 -1 83 .M c Gr awHi l lBo ok
Company,New Yor k,1 968. '

SECON D QUANTI ZATI ON


' Theoper at orb 'b i sahe r mi t i an oper a t orand t her ef or ehasr e ale i ge nval ue s, c al lt hi soper a t ort henu m be ro pe r at or . Theei genval ue soft he num be rope r at or ar e gr ea t er t han ore qualt oz e r o.a ss e e nf r om t he r e l at i on

, ' J ) Tb ' / ?,= N k -( b%. ? A ) / 1= ' x 1 1 .n.

m b, 7 2 .. - ( )

Now cons i dert hec ommut at i on r e l at i on,whi ch f ol l owsf r om Eq. (1 . 27) .

( / 7 ' b. > ), . -. . b
Wi t h Eq.(1 . 30) .i ti seas yt os e et hatt he oper at orb ac t i ng on an e i g ens t at eN Ni t h
ei ge nv al ue ? ; pr oduc e s: 1 nc N se i ge ns t at e of t he num berope r at orbutu . i t he i g enval ue r e duc ed by one uni t . Thi sr es ul ti s pr oN b e d ur i t ht he f ol l ou' i ng r e l a t i ons

b %b ( b' ? ? )= b l b ' b d ? ) ' ? ? ', -g / l f b? 7 )1 1 = ( n- l ) ( b. 1 , 3 ( ' )


Repe at e d appl i c at i ons of b t o any ei gens t at e m us te vent ual l y gi ve ze r o. s i nc e

ot her wi s e Eq.( 1 . 31 )coul d pr oduce a s t at e wi t h a nega t i ve ei g ens ' al ue oft he numbe r ope r at or .i nc ont r adi c t i on t o Eq.( l. 29) . Henc ez e r oi s one pos s i bl e ei g enval ue of t he number oper at or .I n exa ct l yt hc s ame wa y. t he a dj oi nt
c om m ut at i on r ul e

( l ' # b . d ? 1 ' )= b %
s howst hatb %i st hecr eat i on oper at orand i nc r e as e st het . l ue oft he num bc ' r . . ..al ope r at orby one uni t . The hr s tofEqs.( l . 28)i st huspr ove d. Fur t her mor e.a

combi nat i on ofEqs .(l . 29)and (1 . 3l )l ' i el ds t he s ec ond of Eqs .( 1 . 28) .ap ar t
f r om an ove r al lphas e whi c hc an be chos en t o be uni t y wi t h no l os sofge ner al i t y.

Fi nal l yt hel as tofEqs .( 1 . 28)i spr ove di ne xac t l ys i mi l arf a shi on. l
The pr e ce di ng di s cus s i on has bee nr es t r i c t ed t o as i ngl e m ode. howev er .r e adi l yv er i se dt h att he num be roper at or sf ordi f T er e ntm odescom m ut e . whi c h m eanst hatt hee i ge ns t at esoft het ot als ys t em c an bes i m ul t aneouse i ge n-

s t a t e soft he s e t( ? ? ' k t > t . )-( & ) .l np a r t i c u l a r ,ou rd e s i r e do c c up a t i o n n umb e r


bas i ss t at es ar es i m pl yt he di r e c t pr oduc t ofei gens t a t e s oft he numbe r ope r at or f orea ch m ode

1 ? 7 l ? 7 : ' .- z 7 a s ' '= -1 ? ? j


Cons i dernow t he qt l e s t i on.c an we r e wr i t et he Schr di ng ereqt l at i on i n t er m soft he s em or ea bs t r a c ts t at eve ct or s? For mt hef ol l ow i ng s t at e

1 ' 1 1 . * ( t ) ' N=

' V
1 1In2 ' ' ' Ra ;

f( r ? l n z '.'n x , t ) ! nI nz''

14

I NTBODUCTI ON

wh e r et h ef' sa r et a k e nt ob et h es e tofe x pa ns i onc o e c i e n t sofEq. ( 1 . 1 5 )a n d s a t i s f yt h ec o up l e dp a r t i a ldi se r e nt i a le qu a t i o n s( 1 . 2 5 ) . Thi ss t a t ev e c t o ri n


t he a bs t r actHi l ber ts pac es at i s se st hedi f l kr ent i ale quat i on i h

j j( Y' ( J ) )= a)nz X i hj j f( a! n z .-'a x . t ) i al n z '''a .) '''n .

( 1 . 3 5 )

Si nc et heba s i ss t at eve ct or sar eas s umed t o be t i mei nde pendent heent i r et i me ,t

de pe n d e n ' c eoft h ee qu a t i o ni sc on t a i n e di nt h ec o e c i e n t s J L Asa ne x a mp l e , l oo ka tt h es e c o ndk i n e t i c e n e r g yt e r mi nEqs . ( 1 . 2 5 ) .

( 1 . 3 6 )
The dum m y i ndi c e si nt hi ss um m a t i on m a y be r el abel e d wi t ht he s ubs t i t ut i on

n i - 1Y n ; n l+ 1> n J ' , N n t 't =h N -? ? /

n ke n y '

( k . +i or j)
( 1 . 3 7 )

Fur t her m or e,i ti spos s i bl et os um t hepr i me d oc cupat i on num ber sov ere xac t l y t he s am e val ue s as t he or i gi nalunpr i med occ upa t i on num ber s caus et he , be

c o e c i e n t( n ) 1 ( ? n+ 1 ) +v a n i s h e sf o rn J ' = 0a nd f orz ? ; = -1 . Thu sEq.( 1 . 3 6 )


ma y ber e wr i t t enas

i hj /1 F( / ) )- .-. + n 'n ') ( ) n ' i) g( i I F1 / )/( '#


l .l ' '. @ $ z 7
.

,---,t .n l j

( ( n 3 ' =s )
x( n ; +l ( ) 1( n J ( ) 11 ...n' j + l ...n j - 1. ( 1 . 3 8 )
N ow obs e r vet hatt hes t at eve c t orwi t ht heval ueofa' f r ai s e d by oneand t heval ue '

n j . l owe r e db yo n e , t o g e t he rwi t ht h emu l t i p l i c a t i v es t a t i s t i c a lwe i g htf a c t or , c a n


be s i m pl yr ewr i t t en i nt er m soft he c r e at i on and des t r uc t i on oper a t or sact i ng

o nt h es t a t ev e c t orwi t ha; a n dn J '

( n ; +1 ) 1( n J ) 1 I n(.-.n; + 1 -..n g ' - 1 -.


( 1 . 3 9 )
The onl y de pendenc e on t he occ upa t i on numbe rl e f ti nt hi se xpr e s s i on i sc on-

t a i n e di nt h ec o e c i e n t s fa n di nt h es t a t ev e c t o r ;h e n c et h es umma t i o nc a nb e c a r r i e d ou ta nd g i v e so uror i g i n a la b s t r a c ts t a t ev e c t orl k l e ( / ) )de sn e db y Eq . ( 1 . 3 4 ) . Th ust hi st e r mi nt h ee n e r g yr e d u c e st ot h ef ol l o wi n ge x p r e s s i on

i hj j1 : l P 4 / ) )- --. +) (, L i l rl # .+ --/)bi :/1 *1 / ) )


f #J
.
.

( 1 . 4 0 )

SECOND Q I JANTI ZATI ON

1g

Theot hert e r msi nt he hami l t oni an can be t r e at ed i ne x act l yt he s a me f as hi on;

a sa c o ns e q u e n c e ,t h i sa bs t r a c ts t a t ev e c t o r1 N' 4 1 ) )s a t i s h e st h eS c h r di ng e r
equ at i on

f / i j j1 , 1 , ( r ) )- 4 I , I . ' ( f ) )

( 1 . 41 )

whe r et he c i r cumcex denot es an oper at or i nt he abs t r actocc upat i onnumbe r

Hi l b e r ts p a c e( e x c e p twh e r et h i si so b v i o u s ,a si nt h ec r e a t i on a n dd e s t r uc t i on o p e r a t or s )a n dt heh a mi l t o ni a nX i sg i v e nb yt h ee x pr e s s i o n

X=Z b% i ( i 1 Fl / ) b i +' it Z b i % 4 ' J ' ( #l Fl k ' ) b k b k C J l kl


.
'

( 1 . 4 2 )

I ti si m por t ant t o di s t i ngui s h be t wee nt he optr at or s and c num be r si n

Eq.( 1 . 4 2 ) . Th usW i sa n op e r a t ori nt h i sa bs t r a c to c c u p a t i on nu mb e rs p a c e


be caus ei tdependson t he c r e at i on and de s t r uc t i on ope r at or s . I n cont r a s t ,t he ma t r i x el e ment soft he ki ne t i c ene r gy and t he pot e nt i alener gy t aken bet we en t he s i ngl e par t i cl e ei ge ns t a t esoft he Sc hr di nge re qua t i on i n sr s tquant i za t i on

a r eme r e l yc o mpl e xn umb e r smu l t i p l y i n gt heop e r a t or s . Eq ua t i o n s( 1 . 41 )a n d ( 1 . 4 2 )t o g e t h e rr e s t a t et h eS c hr di n g e re qu a t i oni ns e c o n dqu a nt i z a t i o n, a n da l 1


oft hes t a t i s t i c sand oper at orpr ope r t i e sar ec ont ai ne di nt hec r e at i onand de s t r uc-

t i on ope r at or s! / and b. The phys i calpr obl e m i sc l e ar l y unchang ed by t he

ne wf o r mu l a t i o n. I np a r t i c u l a rt hec o e c i e n t s /s p e c i f yt h ec o n ne c t i o nb e t we e n
Er s tand s ec ond qua nt i z at i on. Fo rev e r ys o l ut i o nt ot heor i gi nalt i med e pe nde ntmanypar t i c l eSc hr di nger

e q u a t i o nt h e r ee x i s t sas e to fe x pa n s i o nc o e sc i e n t s f Gi v e nt h i ss e to fe x p a n s i o n c o e sc i e n t s hi t i spo s s i b l et oc o n s t r u c t as o l u t i o nt ot h e pr o b l e mf as e c o n dq u a nt i z a t l bn , a ss h o wna b o v e . Co n v e r s e l yt ft h epr o b l e mf . s o l v e dI ' ns e c o n dq u a n dz a t i o n , wec a nd e t e r mi n eas e to fe x pa n s i o nc o e sc i e nt s h wh i c ht h e nyi e l d as o l u t i o nt o


t heor i gi na lt i me d e pen de ntman npar t i c l eSc h r di ngere quat i o n.
FERM I o Ns

I ft h en e g a t i v es i g ni nEq.( 1 . 6 )i su s e d, t h ep a r t i c l e sa r ec a l i e df e r mi o n s . Th e
s am e gener al anal ys i sa ppl i es ,but t he de t ai l s ar ea l i t t l e m or ec om pl i ca t ed be caus e oft he mi nus s i gns i nvol ve di nt he ant i s ymmet r y oft he c oec i e nt C.

C( ...Fj...E. j..., t )= -C( ...Eg...J i e t...j f )

( 1 . . 43 )

The C% s ar e ant i s ymme t r i ci nt he i nt e r c hange ofany t wo quant um numbe r s . whi ch i mpl i e st ha tt hequant um numbe rEkmus tbe di f l kr e ntf r om t he quant um numberEJ or t he coe ci entvani s he s . Thi sr e s ul ts howst ha tt he oc c upat i on numbernk mus tbee i t herz er oorone ,whi c hi st hes t a t e me ntoft hePaul ie xc l us i on pr i nci pl e. Any c oec i e nt st hathavet he s ame s t at e soc cupi e d ar eequa lwi t l k i n

ami nuss i gn,and i ti spos s i bl et o de sneacoe ci entC

C( a, nz.''n . , t )* C( '''Ej < EJ< Ek ''

( 1 . 4 4 )

16

I NTRODUCTI ON

whe r ewesr s ta r r angeal l t hequant um numbe r si nt hecoec i e ntCi nani nc r e as i ng s e quenc e. Exa c t l yasbe f or e ,t hemanypar t i c l ewav ef unct i onT canbeexpanded
as
l

T' ( xj...x s , t 4= nl ' ' ) ( 2q fl nk .--n . , t ) *n ,. . . . . ( xj ---x x j 'n o =( 1


( 1 . 4 5 )
wher et hebas i swavef unc t i ons* ar egi ve n by a nor mal i ze d det e r mi nant

'
*.: . . ... nj !

t r 4, . , n ( xl ).

k z z j o t xx l r j
( j
$ '

( xl.--x s j =

x!

a +1 .!
(

j( 1 . 4 6 )

1 /z . x ( ' ( xI ) -'-/s s ( , ( x . v ) !
The s i ngl e pa r t i c l e quant um num ber soft he oc c upi ed s t at esar e now as s um e d

t ob eo r d e r e d E l< fz 0... < fj . Th e s ef u n c t i o n sf or m ac o mp l e t es e tof


or t honor m alant i s ym m e t r i ct i me i nde pendentm anypar t i c l ewav ef unct i onsand ar eus ual l yr e f er r e dt o ast heSl at erdet e r mi na nt s . t l ti sonc e m or econv eni e ntt oi nt r oduc et he abs t r ac tocc upat i onnumbe r s paceand desne

X l ' ( f ) )= Sl5z Z f nj n2'''n . ' t ) 1 n1 n z -''n . ) ' * '? I *

( 1 . 4 7 )

He r et h ec o e c i e n t sfob e ye q u a t i o nswl l i c hd i f l k rf r o m( 1 . 2 5 )o nl y byph a s e f a c t o r s( s e eEq. ( 1 . 5 7 ) )a n dt h er e s t r i c t i o n st h a t nt = 0, I . Th i sr e s t r i c t i o n s whi c h


r e qe c t st he par t i c l es t a t i s t i c s ,mus t be i nc or por a t e di nt ot he ope ra t or si nt he abs t r act oc cupat i onnum ber s pac e. As a conveni en ' t pr oc edur e, we s hal l f ol l ow t hem et hod ofJ or dan and W i gne rzand wor k wi t hant i c om mut at i on r ul es

l l r s l s f l= 3 r s

f e r mi o n s ( 1 . 4 8 )

l J . , J , ) =( t 0, J 1 ) =0
wher et heant i com m ut at ori sde :ne d byt hef ol l owi ngr el at i on

( #, . B)- ! . 1 , . B) +% , . 4 . B+ . 9, 4

( 1 . 4 9 )

I ti seas i l ys e en t ha tt hi sdi Fer ents e tofcomm ut at i on r ul e spr oduc est hecor r ec t s t at i s t i cs:
l *a.l =J 1 J 2 =0 * 't h e r e f o r e df 01 0 )=0 , wh i c h oc cupyi ngt hes am es t at e.
'J.C.Sl at er ,Phys. Re v . , 3 4: 1 2 9 3( 1 9 2 9 ) . 2P.J or dan and E.P. W i gner .l oc.ci t.

p r e v e n t st wo p a r t i c l e sf r o m

SECOND QUANTI ZATI ON

17

2 a% a= 1- a a %( wh e r e we t a k et he o p e r a t o r sr e f e r r i n gt ot h es a me mo de ) ;
t he r e f or e

( f z f a s 2- 1- l aa %+ a a % a l f= 1- 2 / 2 +a ( l- J 2) a %= 1- a a %= a %a
or

a1 d l- a% * -0

( 1 . 5 0 )

Th i sl a s tr e l a t i o ni mp l i e st h a tt hen u mb e rop e r a t orf o rt hex t hmo d eH , =u 1 J ,


has t he ei genval u esz er o and one.asr e qui r ed. Fur t he r m or e,i ti ss t r ai ght -

f or wa r dt op r o v et h a tt h ec o mmt l t a t o rl r . r l s lv a n i s h e s ,e v e nt h ou g ht h e
i ndi vi dual cr e at i on and de s t r uct i on ope r a t or s ant i c ommut e. Thi sr es ul t

p e r mi t st h es i mu l t a n e ou sdi a g on a l i z a t i ono ft h es e t( H r ) , i na g r e e me nt wi t ht h e
de sni t i on oft heoc c upat i onnumbe rs t at ev e ct or s . 3 .Theant i com m ut at i on r ul e st he ms e l ve s .al ongwi t h an ove r al lc hoi ceofphas e , t her ef or e yi el dt he f ol l owi ng r e l at i onsf ort her ai s i ng and l owe r i ng ope r a t or s

c ' f p O )- I 1 ) )
af ' j h .I , = 0
The ant i com m ut a t i on r ul e ss l i ght l yc om pl i c at et he di r ec t pr oduc ts t at e

1 nl nz...r ? . ) ,b e c a u s ei tb e c o me se s s e n t i a lt ok e e pt r a c ko fs i gn s . Wi t h
t hede f l ni t i on
x 1 t n ! t u t l r l a...( u ' t ) n . j g . j n, n z .' 'n . =( t 7 ! ) 2 r . '

( j . j ; )

wecan com put e di r e ct l yt he ese ctoft he des t r uct i on ope r at orason t hi ss t at e; i fn s= 1 ,we 5nd
' a s : nb ? 7 1
, . .

& . x ) )= ( -j ) . VL a k j j n 1...L a s / Y s )...( a Y . ) n 1 o j ( ) j

( j . j 3 j
( 1 . 5 4)

wher et hephas ef a ct orSsi sdet i ned by

Ss = n!+ n z. k . .' ' +n , !

N ot et hati fns= 0,t he ope r at orasc an be m ov ed a1 lt he way t ot he vac uum , yi el di ng ze r o. I ft her ei sone par t i c l ei nt he s t a t ens ,i ti sc onve ni entsr s tt o us e 1= l - a% a, and t hen t ot ake t he as of t t he ant i com m ut at i on r e l at i on as as , he s ec ond t er m t ot he v acuum wher ei t gi v es z e r o. Thus we f i nal l y ar r i v e at t he t hr e er e l a t i ons i fns= 1 ot he r wi s e

i fn s =0 ( l . 5 5 )
ot her wi s e

a # .. .ns ' .. &a sj @

18

I NTRODUCTI ON

The t hi r dr el at i on i st be m os t us e f ul ,f ori ts hows t hatt he numbe r ope r at or i nt r oduc e sno e xt r a phas e s . Ther e as on f orwr i t i ng t hesr s tt wo e quat i onswi t h

t h ef a c t or( n , ) +a n d( a ,+ 1 ) 1i ns t e a do ft h emo r ef a mi l i a rn o t a t i onu s i n gn sa n d 1- n s i st h a tt he yn o wa s s u mee x a c t l yt h es a mef o r ma sb e f o r e s o ry a n i s h , e xc e pt f o rt h ee xt r aph a s e f a c t o r( -1 ) *.


As a n exampl e oft he r ol e pl aye d by t hi sf ac t or i nt he ca s e off e r mi ons ,

c on s i d e rt hek i n e t i c e ne r g yt e r mi nEq . ( 1 . 4 )

i hj j C( E1.''fs, t j = k=l j g1) ; Ek J FI 1 z P ' ) G


xC( El--.Ek lWz fk m l-'-Ex . , t )+ --- ( 1 . 5 6 )
whe r eEj '. .Es i sagi ve ns etofquant um num ber s . Thes equant um num be r s

i ! s p

z ' l k '

c a nb er e or d e r e ds i mu l t a n e ou s l yo n8 0 t hs i d e so ft h i se q u a t i o ni n t ot h ep r op e r
s eque nc e. O ne pr obl e m r em a i ns ,howe v er ,be c aus et he quant um num be rI ' F appear son t her i ght ,wher eEkappear son t hel e f t . I fI ' Pi sm ove dt oi t spr ope r pl ac ei nt he or de r e df or m ,an e xt r a phas ef a ct or

( -1 ) n p r + l + a p ' + z +'. ' + n E k l F < Ek ( -1 ) a z : k + I + a f k + a +' ' ' ' b n w l j ? f ' r > Ek
i sne ede d,r e pr es ent i ng t he num berofi nt er change st o putF ' i ni t spr operpl ac e.

J u s ta sb e f o r e , wen o wg oo v e rt ot h e/c o e c i e n t sa nda g a i nc h a n g ev a r i a b l e s .


For e xa m pl e ,c ons i de r par toft he ki net i cen er g yt e r m P .

1 h. j j7 %' ( t ) )= ... + nj . N . I , . o' iN S ,( i r FI j ) ' aa ' '''nc <j


.

/ ' ( .. .t t ' j .. .t ' ) ;..., ( j ( n j ' yj j 1( n J j 1j a y . j J a y , j x( -1 ) ' I + I + a i ' + z +' '' + n J ' l ( ...ni ' u I -' 1 ..-' t n * J ' . -* 1 ... % )+ ... ( . l . 5 8 )
x
.

N ot et ha tt he phas ef ac t or appe ar i ng i nt hi se xpr es s i on i se qui val e nt t o

( -l ) S J S ' n ' .f u r t h e r mo r e ,t h i st e r mc on t r i b u t e so nl yi fn ;i se qu a l t o0a n dn )i s


e q ua l t o1 , s ot h a tt hi sph a s ef a c t o ri s j u s t( -1 ) &: f . Equ a t i on s( 1 . 5 5 )n o w al l o w
us t or e wr i t et he r el e vantf act oras

b n i ( ) 3 , ) ' I ( ? ? ; +l ) 1 ' ( n , ' ) 1 ( -1 l s l . s i J ...n ' i + 1 .--n J ' - 1 '.) - J! a l jj n1...n . ' ) ( l . 5 9 ) whi c h de mon s t r a t e st h a tt h ec r e a t i on an dd e s t r u c t i o n op e r a t o r sd e fn e d wf f / l
.

t he anl i c omm t l : at i o nr ul es i nde e d hav et he r e qui r ed pr ope r t i e s . l nt hi s way t i i eSc hr di ngere quat i on agai na s sumest hef ol l owi ng f or mi ns e cond quant i z at i on 0 . -

, zg 1 , . 1 , ( ? ) p- z ? ' 1 . 1 . ( ? ) > t
r s

H ' *= j ) a t r y x r( t y$ j u v x z . f 7 s+ j x u ' t u j ' c . s y s! p ' $ t uy , a r s x . ( 1 , . ua f


rst ; l
.
,

sEcoNo UANTI ZATI ON

19

N ot e par t i c ul ar l yt he or der i ng of t he snal t wo des t r uc t i on om r at or si nt he ha mi l t oni an,whi c hi soppos i t et ha toft hel as tt wo s i ng l e par t i cl ewav ef unct i ons

i nt hema t r i xe l e me n t so ft h epo t e nt i a l ( t h er e a d e ri sur g e dt ov e r i f yt h i si nd e t a i l f o rhi ms e l f ) .I nt h ec a s eo f bo s o ns , of c ou r s e , t hi sor de r i n gi si r r e l e v a n tGc au s e


t he Enalt wo de s t r uc t i on ope r at or scom m ut e wi t h eac h ot he r ,butf orf e r mi ons

t h e or d e ra se c t st h eo v e r a l ls i g n . Ex a c t l ya sb e f o r e , Eq.( 1 . 6 0 )i s who l l y
e qui v al e nt t ot he Sc hr di nger e quat i on i n Er s t quant i z at i on,but t he phas e s ar i s i ng f r om t heant i s ym m e t f y oft hee xpans i on coe E ci ent shavebe e ni nc or por at e d' i nt ot heha mi l t oni an and t hedi r e ct pr oducts t at eve ct or s .

Z/FI ELDS I ti sof t enconveni entt of or mt hel i nearcom bi nat i onsoft hec r e at i onanddes t r uc -

t i o nop e r a t or s( d e n o t e dc 'a n dcf o rg e n e r a l i t y )

# ( x )- Z / 2x lc k
'

C( x )-X /2x ) f c l k

.( 2 . j )

wher et he c oeE c i e nt sar et hes i ng l e par t i cl e wa vef unct i onsand t he s um i sov er t he com pl et es etofs i ngl e par t i c l e quant um num ber s. l n pa r t i c ul ar ,t he i ndex

kf o rs pi nf e r mi o nsma yd e no t et h es e t o fq u an t u mn u mbe r s ( k , J z ) or L E. L, LM ;
and t hecor r es pondi ng wav ef unct i onshav et wo c ompone nt s

( x ) I O Sk z ( ao / 2x )= /k / l x i t z= j , k( x ) 2 Th e s equ a n t i t i e s' # , a n d' ( da r ec a l l e d/e l #o pe r a t o r s . Th e ya r eo p e r a t or si nt hi s


.

abs t r actoc cupa t i onnum berH i l ber ts pa cebec aus et he y de pe nd on t hecr eat i on and de s t r uct i on oper at or s. The Eel d ope r a t or ss a t i s f ys i m pl ec om m ut at i on or a nt i com m ut at i onr e l at i onsdependi ng on t hes t a t i s t i c s

( f k ( x ) , ' / ; ' ( x ' ) ) v-I k/ k ( x ) . / . ( x ' ) ;-3 . j : t x-x ' )


( f k( x ) , #j ( x , ) ) v- E #. t ( x) , ## 1 . ( x' ) ) v- ( )

( 2 . 3 J )
( z . a , )

wh e r et h eup p e r( l o we r )s i g nr e f e r st obo s o n s( f e r mi o n s ) . He r et h es r s t e q u a l i t y i n Eq.( 2 . 3 J )f o l l owsf r om t h ec o mmu t a t i on o ra n t i c o mmu t a t i o nr e l a t i o nsf o r


t he cr ea t i on and de s t r uc t i on oper at or s .and t he s e cond f ol l owsf r om t he c om pl e t enes soft hes i ngl e par t i cl ewavef unc t i ons . Theham i l t oni a n ope r at orcan ber ewr i t t eni nt er m soft hes esel d ope r at or s asf ol l ows:
.

4 =J#3 x## ( x ) r( x) #( x) +. l . J Jd' xdq x ' ## ( x) ## ( x ' )F( x , x ' ) Wx ' ) Wxl
( 2 . 4 )

Thi se xpr e s s i on i sr ea di l y ve r i se ds i nc et he i nt e gr a t i on ove rs pat i alcoor di nat e s pr oduce st hes i ngl e par t i cl ema t r i xe l e m ent soft he ki net i ce ner g y and pot e nt i al

2:

I NTRODUCTI ON

ene r gy,l e avi ng a s um oft he s e m at r i xe l em e nt sm ul t i pl i ed by t he appr opr i at e cr eat i on and des t r uct i on oper a t or s . An addi t i onal ma t r i x el eme nt i ns pi n

s pa c ei si mpl i e di ft hep a r t i c l e sh a v es pi n . Not ec a r e f ul l yt h eor d e r i n go ft he


l a s tt wo he l d ope r at or si nt hepot e nt i alene r gy,whi ch agr ee swi t h ourpr e vi ous

r e ma r k sa n de n s u r e st h a t #i sh e r mi t i a n .l nt h i sf o r m, t heha mi l t on i ans u g g e s t s
t henam es e c ondqu ant i z at i o n, f ort heaboveex pr es s i on l ooksl i ket hee xpe ct at i on

v a 1 l ueo ft h eh a mi l t on i a nt a ke nbe t we e nwa v ef un c t i o ns . Th eq ua nt i t i e s# a n d #a r eno t wa v ef un c t i o ns , ho we v e r , bu t f l e l do p e r a t o r s ; t h usi ns e c o n dq ua n t i z a t i on t h eh e l d sa r et heo pe r a t o r sa n dt h ep o t e n t i a la nd k i n e t i ce n e r g ya r ej u s t


compl e xc oe c i e nt s . Thee xt e ns i ont oa nyot he roper at ori snow cl ea rf r om t hef or egoi nganal ys i s. Forexampl e,cons i de rage ne r a lonebody ope r at or
N

J= f 1 2 J( xj ) x . z l

( 2 . 5 )

wr i t t en i n r s t quant i z e df or m. Thecor r e s pondi ng s e c ondquant i z ed ope r at or i sgi ve n by

7=72 t rI Jl J )4 c s 'J
=

Jd% J 2 # , ( x ) # J( x) # , ( x ) c % v c s FJ
Jd3 x#A ( x) J( x) #( x) ( 2 . 6 )

whe r et he l as tf or m i s es pe c i al l y us e f ul . I n pa r t i c ul ar ,t he number dens i t y ope r at or


N

n ( x )= =l 1 43 ( x-xt ) -1
bec omes

( 2 . 7 )

H ( x) -) (/. ( x ) #/ a ( x) c rc # a - 4' ( x) 4 ( x ) r '


whi l et het ot al num be rope r at oras s um e st hes i m pl ef or m

( 2 . 8 )

X =J#3 x: ( x )=72 c 1 r c , =IA v


=

J:3 x4# ( x) lx)

.j g , . 9 j

be caus e of t he or t honor m al i t y of t he s i ngl epar t i c l e wav ef unc t i ons . The

n umb e ro p e r a t o rc o mmu t e swi t ht h eha mi l t on i a no fEq. ( 2. 4 ) , a sc a nb ev e r i f e d


by us i ngei t he rt hec om m ut at i on r ul e sf ort hec r e at i on and des t r uc t i on ope r at or s or t hos e of t he se l d oper a t or s . Thi sr e s ul ti s phys i cal l y obvi ous s i nce t he or di nar ySc hr di nge rham i l t oni a n doe snotc hanget het ot alnum be rofpar t i cl es .

Wei n f e rt h a tX i sa c on s t a n to ft h e mo t i on a n dc a nb e di a g on a l i z e ds i mu l t aneous l y wi t ht he ham i l t oni an. Thus t he pr obl e m i nt he abs t r a ct H i l be r t

sEcosD aUANTI ZATI ON

21

s pac es e par at e si nt o as e quenc eofpr obl e msi nt he s ubs pac e sc or r e s pondi ng t oa f i xe dt ot alnumberofpa r t i cl es . Ne ve r t hel es s ,t heabs t r a ctHi l ber ts pacec ont ai n s

s t at e swi t ha n yn u mb e ro fp a r t i c l e s .
K EXAM PLE : DEG ENERATE ELECTRON GAS To i l l us t r at et heut i l i t y ofs e cond quant i z at i on,wecons i de ra s i mpl e modelt hat pr ovi de ' sa sr s tappr oxi mat i on t o a me t alora pl as ma. Thi ss ys t e mi san i nt er ac t i ng e l e c t r ongaspl ac edi n auni f or ml ydi s t r i but e d pos i t i vebac kgr ound c hos e n t o ens ur et hatt het ot als ys t e mi sne ut r al . l n ar e alm e t alorpl as m a,ofcour s e, t hepos i t i vechar gei sl ocal i z edi nt hei oni cc or es ,whos edynam i calm ot i on m us t a l s o bei nc l ude di nt he c al cul at i on. The s e pos i t i vei onsa r e m uch heav i ert han t hee l e c t r ons ,howe ve r,a nd i ti spe r mi s s i bl et o neg l e ctt hei oni cm ot i on ent i r e l y. I n cont r a s t ,t he as s umpt i on ofa uni f or m bac kgr ound i smor e dr as t i c;f ort hi s r e as on,t hepr e s e ntm ode lc an pr ovi deonl y aqual i t at i veac countofr e alm et al s. W e ar ei nt e r es t ed i nt he pr ope r t i e s oft he bul k me di um, I tt her ef or ei s eonve ni entt oe ndos et he s ys t e mi n al ar ge c ubi ca lbox wi t hs i de sofl eng t h L; t hel i mi tL -* : c ; wi l lbet ake n att heend oft hec al c ul at i on. I nauni f or mi nhni t e me di um ,a1 lphys i c alpr oper t i e s m us t be i nvar i ant unde rs pat i a lt r ans l a t i on; t hi sobs e r vat i on s ugge s t st he us eofpe r i odi cboundar yc ondi t i onson t hes i ngl e par t i cl ew a vef unc t i ons ,whi c ht he n be c om epl anewaves t at es

/k A ( x )= Fle z f k ' x T
s pi nup and s pi ndown al ong achos enzaxi s ,
1 Tt= 0 0 T(= 1

( 3 . 1 )

He r eP ( >Z3 )i st h ev o l u meo ft heb o x ,a n d' q a r et het wo s p i nf u n c t i on sf o r

Theper i odi cboundar yc ondi t i onsdet e r mi net heal l owe d wave numbe r sa s
ki= l vni ni= 0, +1, +2, L Thet ot alhami l t oni an c an be wr i t t enast hes um oft hr e et er ms
H = He t+ H v+ H e l v whe r e H
N z 1 N e -Hj r y y j j P J 2 2 + -e
-

e 2=

i - 2 =1

i *: J

r i r f- r y I

( 3 . 4 )

i st heham i l t oni a nf ort hee l e c t r ons ,

Hb =1 ' C 2J Jd' X#3 X '

N ( X) D ( X ' ) E ' B I X X ' t I x x, l


-

22

I NTRODUCTI ON

i st h ee n e r g yo ft h ep o s i t i v eb a c k g r o un dwh os ep a r t i c l ed e n s i t yi sn l x j , a n d H N D ( X ) ' V l X -' ' ' e t b =-E ' 2f I J#3 x i -j , ( 3 . 6) a . l X- r I


i st he i nt er ac t i on ener gy bet we en t he e l e c t r ons and t he pos i t i ve bac kgr ound. W e have i ns e r t e d an expone nt i alconv er genc ef a ct or t o de hne t he i nt egr al s , and J zwi l le ve nt ual l y be al l owe dt o vani s h. Be c aus e oft hel on gr angenat ur e

oft h ec o u l o mb i n t e r a c t i o n, t h tt h r e et e r msi n Eq.( 3 . 3 )i nd i v i d u a l l yd i v e r g ei n t he e 4 t her m odynami cl i mi t ' ' N -> . c c, F >c c, bu t n = N/ P 'c o n s t a n t . The

e nt i r es ys t e m i s neut r al ,howe ve r .a nd t ht s um of t hes et er ms mus tr e mai n me ani ngf uli nt hi sl i mi t . The pr e s e nce of t he conver genc ef ac t or J ze ns ur es t hatt he e xpr e s s i ons ar e mat hema t i cal l y wel ldesned ate ver ys t e p and al l ows ust om a ket hi scanc el l at i one xpl i c i t . Si ncewear ei nt er es t e di nt hebul kpr oper l i mi t i ng pr oc edur e wi l lbe f i r s tL + . c oa nd t hen p. +0. Equi val ent l y.we c an as s um ep, -i< tL a tea ch s t c pi nourc al cul at i on;t hi sal l owsust os hi f tt heor i gi n of i nt e gr at i on atwi l l ,apar tf r om s ur f ac ec or r e ct i ons ,whi c ha r e ne gl i gi bl ei n t hi sl i mi t .

t i e so ft h en e u t r a lme di um,f ore x a mp l e E( N( whi c hd e p e n dso n l yo nn ) ,o ur

I nEq. ( 3 . 3 ) t heon l yd yn a mi c a l v a r i a bl e s a r et ho s er e f e r r i n gt ot h ee l e c t r o n s ,
bec aus et he pos i t i vebac kgr ound i si ne r t . ThusH bi s a pur ec num berand i s

r e a d i l ye v a l u a t e df ora u n i f br md i s t r i b u t i o nn ( x) = NI P ' :

H b . p 2 ( X v ) 2 J Jd ' x d ' x ' C I x Y ' X x X ' ' ! p 2 ( X p v ) 2 j y ' . x j d q z e Z ' z


- . =

J , 2 ' . p ' '' H


M

M 24, r'

He r et he t r ans l at i onali nvar i anc ehasbee n us ed t os hi f tt hc or i gi n ofi nt e gr at i on i nt he s e cond l i ne. Thequant i t y N -1 . J f ,di ver ge si nt he l i mi tJ . t+ . 0,bec aus e t he l ong r ange of t he coul omb pot ent i alal l ows ev er ye l ement of c har ge t o i nt er a ctwi t he ve r y ot herone . I n pr i nc i pl e,H e t saonc par t i cl e ope r at ors i nc ei ta ct son ea ch el e ct r on. -bi Fort he pr e s e nts ys t em ,howe ve r y agai n us et het r ans l at i onali nv ar i anc e , we m a t o wr i t e N N t ' -9l X-T 6 t He l -1 ) = -e2 - d3 x -

d . 1/ '
N

l 1 x-r f !
z

= -e 2f P d? z
-l

e -P Z

= - e2

N 24.

+ 0 #

( 3 . 8 )

SECOND QUANTI ZATI ON

23

s howi ng t hatH e t si nf acta cnum be r . Thet ot alham i l t oni an t husr e duc est o -bi

S = -J e 2 NlP ' 1 4 , a p . 2+ Se l
and a 1 1oft he i nt e r e s t i ng phys i ca le f l kct sar ec ont ai ne di n H et. W e s hal lnow

r e wr i t e Eq.( 3 . 9 )i ns e c on d qu a n t i z a t i on . Th ek i n e t i c e n e r g yt e r m r e qu i r e s
t he m at r i xe l e m ent

=l
=

hlk2 j Az j -d3 xel ( k z -k I ) . x mP ' : 2'

' ' ' 2J Aj jk l m A a l k a

2 A21 . .

( 3 . 1 0 )

whe r et he us ualde sni t i on oft heK r one ckerde l t a

J d5 xg f ( k a . k l ) . x= p r j k 1 k a
hasbee n us e d. Theki net i ce ner g y ope r at orbe c om e s

j' =
k /

h2k2t z 1a
2 m

k /k A

whi ch c an be i nt er pr e t ed a st he ki net i c ene r gy ofe ach m ode m ul t i pl i e d by t he cor r es pondi ng num be r oper at or . For t he pot ent i al e ne r gy i ti s nec e s s ar yt o e val uat et hef ol l owi ng m or ec om pl i c at e d m at r i xe l e m ent

( 3 . l 3 )
Wi t ht he s ubs t i t ut i on x = xz a nd y = xl- xc ,t hi st xpr e s s i on r e duc e st o

) kl 21 k2 A z r l Z l k3 A 3 k4 A 4 )= Fj J3 xe f f k l m k a k J k 4 l * x
&

e2

e2 4. , : . I z a8 z a, 1 4k T 3A l y k z , k a + k . ( kj- ky ) 2+ y . 21 3 1 4 )

wher et heK r one ckerde l t asi nt hes pi ni ndi ce sar i s ef r om t heor t hogonal i t y oft he s pi n wa vef unct i ons . O nc eaga i n,wehaves hi f t e dt heor i gi n ofi nt e gr at i on, and

24

I NTRO DUCTI ON

t hef i nalKr one cke rdel t ar e pr e s e nt st hec ons e r vat i onofmoment um i na uni f or m s ys t em . Thet ot alhami l t oni ancan now bewr i t t en as

1e 2 N1 4 = . = -' i# 'j+ p

:2

h 2 k2 e 2 t / k z t uj+. j p 2X Y =
k:AlkzA a kzA : sk4A 4

J )J (J )3 , 4 1 A y 3 : 2 A 4 k I m k a , k y y k .
47 1 . # ' t
,

X' - --

a ( kly -k3 ) i + -pz J k ! A I J k z z J k 4 A A k , : 1 3

( 3 . 1 5 )

The e l e c t r i c alne ut r al i t y ofour s ys t em m ake si tpos s i bl et o el i mi nat e p, f r om t heham i l t oni an,aswe s ha l lnow s how. The cons er vat i on ofm om e nt um

r e a l l yl i mi t st hes umma t i o no v e r( kf )t ot h r e ei n de p e n d e n tv a r i a b l e si ns t e a do f
f our. Thec ha ng eofvar i abl e s
kj= k + q kz= p - q k)= k k4= p

g u a r a nt e e st ha tk: +k c= ks+ kl , a n df u r t he r mor ei de n t i he s t kl- k3 )= qa s


t he m oment um t r a ns f er r e di nt he t wopa r t i c l ei nt e r a ct i on. W i t ht he s t ne w

v a r i a b l e s , t h el a s t t e r m ofEq . ( 3 . 1 5 ) be c ome s
el 2P '
kp q A: A z

4, r t # ' k ' iJk4 . q, A)Jp-q,AzJpA at q2+. j z p 1

( 3 . 1 6 )

whe r et wooft hes pi ns um m at i ol l shavebee neval ua t edwi t ht heK r one ckerde l t as .

I ti s c o n v e ni e n t t os e p a r a t eEq. ( 3 . 1 6 ) i n t ot wot e r ms , r e f e r r i n gt oq# 0a ndq= 0 ,


r es pe c t i ve l y, e 2 , 4. r . t t c Jk+q.A:Jp-q,A zJp Az t z kA: 2P 'kx AlAaq2 + p. / 2 + -2F

4, r & & jJk zjJ p z z Jp A ,Jk A l k p l /z >

whe r et hepr i meon t hef i r s ts ummat i on means:omi tt het e r m q= 0. Thes ec ond s um m at i on m a y ber ewr i t t en wi t ht heant i com m ut at i on r e l at i on as

2# ' i

e l 4, v e l 4, v J f a ( a # A J p z , - 3k p3A k A , k A l p : : z z )= j ys -. j ( X2- Sj p .k A J t l pz z

wh e r eEq.( 2 . 9 )ha sb e e nu s e dt oi de n t i f y 4. S i n c ewes h a l la l wa y sd e a lwi t h s t a t e sofh x e d N,t he o p e r a t o rX ma yb er e pl a c e db yi t se i g e n v a l u eA r ,i he r e by


yi e l di nga T numbercont r i but i on t ot heha mi l t oni a n , 2N l4v , 2N 4o

YT-O 8 -Y PO M

( 3 . 1 8 )

sEcoND GUANTI ZATI ON

l ti sc l e a rt h a tt hef i r s tt e r mo fEq.( 3 . l 8 )c a n c e l st h ef i r s tt e r mo fEq .( 3 . 1 5 ) . Th es e c o ndt e r m ofEq .( 3 . 1 8 )r e pr e s e n t sane n e r g y -J 4 =c 2 ( U g2 ) -1p e rp a r t i c l e


and vani s hesi nt he pr operphys i call i mi tdi s cus s e d pr e vi ous l y:f i r s tL + .: y zand

t h e nJ z. + . 0( a l wa y sk e e pi n gp . l < < :A) . Thu st h ee x pl i c i tp . 2d i v e r g e n c ec a n c e l s


i dent i c al l yi nt he t he r m odynam i cl i mi t ,w hi ch r e se c t st he e l e c t r i c alneut r al i t y oft he t ot als ys t e m ;f ur t he r m or e,i ti s now per mi s s i bl et os etp t= 0 i nt he sr s t

t e r mo fEq. ( 3 . 1 7 ) ,s i n c et h er e s ul t i n ge x p r e s s i oni swe l l de hn e d. W et h e r e f o r e


obt ai nt hesnalham i l t oni an f ora bul k el e c t r on ga si n a uni f or m pos i t i veba ckgr ound ' ' h2k2 & 02 , 4n # t H = 2m - Jk AJk Ahl I -u q , Al Jp -q , A a t l p y h af l k A I ' ' qjJk
k/ kp q 21 / 2

wher ei ti s under s t ood t hat t he l i mi tN + .c c,

N(P ' = n= cons t ant i s

i m pl i c i t l y as s umed. I ti s now conveni e ntt oi nt r oduce di m ens i onl e s svar i abl es . W e def i ne a l engt hr oi nt er msoft hevol umepe rpar t i c l e:

P ' H Gr ar ) N
r t li ses s ent i al l yt he i nt e r par t i cl es pa ci ng. The c oul om b i nt er act i on pr ov i de sa s e cond l e ngt h, gi ve n byt heBohrr adi us
t zf l=

h2

a n dt h e( d i me ns i o nl e s s )r a t i ob e t we e nt h e s et woqu a n t i t i e s
Q r& H an

ev i de nt l yc har ac t e r i ze st he de ns i t y oft he s ys t e m. Wi t hr f last he uni tofl engt h, wede snet hef ol l owi ngquant i t i es

F= r 3P '

Q= r v k

j= r o p

I= r o q

a n dt h u so b t a i nt h ef ol l owi n gdi me ns i o n l e s sf o r mo fEq. ( 3 . 1 9 ) e 2 1f2 t r , , 4. n . j t u t u - q, A, cp-q,A . J . ' ?= c j al k Auz+ af p q a u y z i t z k z ,


t u r, k A k y a a , a z

( 3. 2 4 )

Thi si s an i m por t ant r es ul t ,f ori ts hows t hatt he pot ent i alene r g y be com e sa

s ma l lp e r t u r b a t i on a sr s-> . 0, c or r e s p on di n gt ot h eh i g h de n s i t yl i mi t( r a. > . 0 ) .
Thus t he l e adi ng t er m i nt he i nt er act i on e ne r g y of a hi g hde ns i t ye l e ct r on gas c an beobt ai ne d wi t h fr s t or de rper t ur bat i on t heor y,e ven t hough t he pot ent i al i sne i t he rwe ak nors hor tr ange. O nem i ghtex pec tt ha tt hegr ounds t at eene r gy ha sa power s e r i esexpans i on i nt he s m al lpar am e t err s ,but ,i nf ac t ,t hes e c ond-

26

I NTRODUCTI ON

or d e rt e r md i v e r g e sl og a r i t hmi c a l l y( s e ePr o b s .1 . 4a n d1 . 5 ) .l n s t e a d, t hes e r i e s


t ake st hef or m

E = anrs z ( a+ b r s +c r 2 , l nr s +# r 2+ ... , )
wher ea,:,c,d .. .ar e num er i c alc ons t ant s. W e s ha l lnow e val uat ea and b. whi l ec m aybei nf er r ed f r om t hecal cul at i on i n Pr ob.1. 5. Thepr ope rc al c ul at i on ofc a nd hi ghercoe ci ent si sve r y di c ul t howe ve r , a nd r equi r es t he m or e , e l abor at et e c hni quesde ve l ope di n Chaps .3 t o 5. I nt he hi ghde ns i t yl i mi t ,t he pr e c edi ng di s cus s i on enabl esus t os epar a t e

Ne 2

t heor i g i n a ldi me ns i o na lf o r mo ft h eha mi l t on i a n( Eq .( 3 . 1 9 ) )i nt ot wo p a r t s : X0= h2 zk2 ( / k z a k z ( 3 . 2 5 4 )


k 2

- e2 , H L= 2P '

kx Aj A z

4, p . ' -il. j AlJp-q . j ,A aJp AaJkA q k+q, l

( 3 . 25 : )

wh e r e Xni st h eu np e r t u r b e d ha mi l t on i a n, r e pr es e nt i ng a noni nt e r ac t i ng Fe r mi s y s t e m, a n d X 1i st h e( s ma l l )p e r t u r b a t i on . Cor r e s po n di n g l y, t heg r o un d s t a t e


ene r gy E m ay be wr i t t e n asE f 0 )+ E( 1 )+ .. . whe r eEt 0 1i st he gr ounds t a t e ener gy ofa f r ee Fe r migas .whi l e E l $i st hesr s t or de rener gy s hi f t . Si nc et he Paul iex cl us i onpr i nci pl eal l owsonl yt wo f e r mi onsi ne ac h m om ent um e i ge ns t at e,

on ewi t hs p i n up a n d on ewi t hs pi n d own ,t h eno r ma l i z e dg r ou n ds t a t eI F)i s


obt ai ne d by sl l i ng t he m om e nt um s t at es up t o am a xi m um va l ue,t he Fer mi m om ent um pF= hkF. I nt he l i mi tt ha tt he vol um e of t he s ys t em be com e s i nfni t e ,wecanr epl ac es um sove rs t at e sbyi nt e gr a l swi t ht he f ol l owi ng f am i l i a r r e l at i on

Z k / l X ( k ) n x Z n y a a Z A X( ! $ 2 71 L u / L . + . r J j j d n x d n y d n x I A ) / A j ( M)
=

p ' ( 2 , r r ) 3j j jdn ky A ( k ) A

( 3 . 2 6 )

He r e , Eq. ( 3 . 2 )h a sb e e nu s e dt oc on v e r tt h es um ov e rmome n t ai n t oa s u m ov e r t h ei n t e g e r sc h a r a c t e r i z i n gt h ewa v e n umb e r s . Fo rv e r yl a r geZ,t h ef u n c t i onf


var i e ss l owl y whe nt he i nt e ge r schange by uni t ys ot hatn x,nyand nz m ay be

c on s i d e r e dc on t i nu o usv a r i a b l e s . Fi n a l l y ,Eq. ( 3 . 2 )a g a i na l l o wsu st or e p l a c e t h ev a r i a b l e s( ? 1 Jb y( ki J , l e a v i n ga ni nt e g r a l ov e rwa v e nu mb e r s .


Them axi m um w a ve num berkri sdet er mi ne d bycom put i ngt heex pe ct at i on

v a l ueo ft henu mb e rop e r a t o ri nt h eg r ou n ds t a t eI F) N =X ' FI X1 F)- ) (( FI H k A l F)= Z %kF- k 4


k
=

7( 2 , r ) 3J ( fd5 kp t ks- k )= ( 3 *2 ) Fk l . =N 2

( 3 . 2 7 )

SECOND GUANTI ZATI ON

27

( 3 . 2 8 ) 0 x< 0 Thi si m por t ant r el at i on be t wee nt he Fe r m iwave num ber ke and t he par t i c l e
dens i t yn- h' /P wi l lbeus e dr e peat e dl yi ns ubs e que ntwor k;anal t er na t i vef or m
k 3=2N i ' 9z r1 p= s =

wh t r e# ( x )d e n o t e st h es t e pf u n c t i o n 8 @) 1 x >0 =

( j -r c 1 . ' 4 C 1 . 9 2 r n 1
h2

s howst hatkv -ti scompar abl e wi t ht he i nt e r par t i c l es pac i ng. The expe ct at i on

v a l u eo fXtma yb ee v a i u a t e di nt h es a mef a s h i o n
e' g '

=k F( / %( F ) =j y / c 2 ( F ( u z t F ) k/ j sy k z # ( / c , -k ) k;
h2 h2

=j yU 7 4 2 z 4 3 j d 5 k k 2 # ( / c s -k j A
=

3X 2 k/ e l N: $9 *' ' c l 2 . . 2 , ) Jl m N= 2 a = . N j F s i % 2 5: r s :

I n af r eeFer m igas ,t hegr ounds t a t eener gy pe rpar t i c l eEf 0 )N i s. hydr ogen at om . W es hal lnow comput et hef i r s t or derene r gy s hi f t

j . o ft h eFe r mi e ne r g ye f= h l k l j l m ;a l t e r n a t i v e l yEt 0 ) / . N ma yb ee x pr e s s e da s2 .2 b 1 r , 2r y t r y de r g ) ,wh e r e 1r y=e l l l a z ; k : 1 3 . 6e vi st h eg r o un d s t a t eb i n d i n ge n e r g yo fa


s( l )= ;sj s -l! sx ; I z
.

2p z
- -

kx :A z

4n sl t / k v q u ,q. a y s) , qi( A I pg aa n > a k z :

The m at r i xe l e m enti sr ea di l y anal yz ed asf ol l ows;t he s t at es l t z Acand kAmus be oc cupi e di nt he gr ound s t at eI F' z , , s i nce t he de s t r uct i on fpe r at or sact i ng t o t he r i ghtwoul d ot he r wi s e gi vez er o. Si mi l ar l yt he s t at e sk +. q,A,andp - q, Aa tal s o be oc cupi e di nj FA mt l S j g , s i n c et h eo pe r a t o r sa %a c t i a gt ot h eI e f twou l d ot her wi s egi vez er o. Fi nal l y, t hes ames t at ea ppe ar son ea ch s i deoft he ma t r i x el em e nt ,whi ch r e qui r e st het wo c r e at i on ope r at or st ot i l lup t he hol esm a de by t he t wo des t r uct i on ope r at or s . The ope r at or s mus tt her ef or e be pai r ed o&, and t he r ear e onl yt wo pos s i bi l i t i e s' . k + q, A1= kAj k + q, Al= pAc
p - q, Aa - pA2 p - q,A2= kAI

28

I NTRODUCTI ON

The sr s tpa i r i ng i sher ef or bi dden be caus et he t e r m q= 0 i se xcl ude df r om t he s um ,and t hemat r i xe l e mentbec omes 8k+ q,p3A, A z 1 Fl J 1 + q . A , J l ' z l J k b q , A l f l k A ! 1 F1

k + q a3 A l z z f F1 ? %+ q , A , ? l k z , l F) = - 8k +q A ,z z%k F- l k+ ql ) %k F- O ( 3 . 3 3 ) .p Ac o mbi na t i o no fEq s .( 3 . 31 )a n d( 3 . 3 3 )y i e l ds


- -

e2 x. xv ,4, p , S( 1 )= - r sy g y $# s- j k+q 1 ) o l k y . -# )
A! k q

=-j . ( 2 62J#3 kd3 qq2p t ks- l k+q( )# t k s-k ) =)

e 2 4=7

( 3 . 3 4 )

whe r et he f ac t or2 ar i s esf r om t hes pi ns um,and t he r es t r i c t i on q # 0 may now be om i t t e ds i ncei tale c t st hei nt egr and atonl ya s i ngl e poi nt . I ti sc onve ni e nt

t oc h a n g ev a r i a b l e sf r o m kt oP = k + i q, whi c hr e du c e sEq .( 3 . 3 4 )t ot hes y mm et r i calf or m

Et l ' =-4=e 2F( 2 =) 6fd%q2j#3 . pp t / c s- ( P+j qj ) Sks- j p-j qj l


Ther eg i on ofi nt e gr at i on ov erP i ss howni n Fi g.3. 1 . Bot h par t i c l e sl i ei ns i de

t h e Fe r mis e a ,s ot h a tI P+ qla n dI P-! qlmu s tb 0t hb es ma l l e rt h a n kF .


P+ q V P- 4
P k

P+l ' ql <k ' Re g i o n 1


l P-! ql < y

Fi g. a. 1 I nt egr at i on r egi on i n moment um s pa c ef orFt ' ' .

The e val uat i on oft hi svol ume i sa s i mpl e pr obl em i n ge ome t r y,wi t ht her e s ul t

f#3 #p t k =k) . s- I P+h 1 ) t ks- I P -i qj )=4 y ( 1-l ' x+l . x3 ) P ( 1-x )


x> q ( 33 j )
l kr .

Ther e m ai ni ng c al c ul at i on i sel em e nt ar y,and wef md

E t t =4 = e 2 F 4 2 , v ) 6 j g r k l 2 k s j 0 ' d x 4 7 4 1 -l x + x 3 )
= -

,2 N 9. n .1 3 2 u ,r si -i 7=

N r 2 a, s

e 2 0.91 6

( 3 . 3 6 )

SECOND LUANTI ZATI ON

29

Thus t he gr ounds t at ee ne r g y per par t i c l ei n t he hi ghde ns i t yl i mi ti s gi ven appr oxi m at e l y as E el 2.21 0. 91 6

Xr , . . 02 az r z

r ,

N ot et hatt hee ner gy pe rpar t i cl ei shni t e ,whi c hs howst hatt het ot ale ne r g yi san

e x t e n s i v eq ua nt i t y . Thef i r s tt e r mi n Eq. ( 3 . 3 7 )i ss i mpl yt h ek i n e t i ce n e r g yo f


t he Fe r m iga s ofel e ct r ons;i tbe com e st hedom i nantt er m asr ,. > . 0,t ha ti s ,i n t he l i mi t ofve r y hi gh de ns i t i e s . The s e cond t er m i s known a st he exch ange e ne r gy and i sne ga t i ve. l tar i s e sbe caus et heeva l uat i on oft he m at r i xe l e m enti n

Eq.( 3 . 31 )i n v o l v e st wo t e r msE Eq.( 3 . 3 2 ) 1 ,d i r e c ta n de x c ha n g e ,o wi n gt ot he


ant i s y m me t r y oft he wa ve f unc t i ons . A swe ha ve s e en,t he di r e ctt e r m ar i s e s f r om t he q = 0 par t oft he i nt er ac t i on and s e r vest oc ance lH b+ H e i s - v . Thi
E/ V O. 1 / 2a( 0t , ) Exactr esul tasr ,-. . .0

2
-

4 6 : r s= 4. 83

1 c 5

0l 0e1 I 2ao

- - + . GW i gners ol i d ' EI N = - 0.095eg Ijav

Fi g. 32 App r ox i ma t eg r ou nd s t a t ee n e r g y '( f i r s tt w ' o t e r msi nEq. ( 3 . 3 7 ) )o fa nel e c t r o ng a si n aun i f or mp os i t i v e


backgr ound.

c anc el l at i on l e ads t ot he r es t r i c t i on q # 0 and r e ie ct st he e l e ct r i c alne ut r al i t y of

t h es y s t e m. Al 1 t ha tr e ma i n si st h e( n e ga t i v e )e x c ha n g ee n e r g y . Th er e ma i ni n g t e r msi nt hi ss e r i e s( i n di c a t e db ydo t s )a r ec a l l e dt h ec o r r e l at i o ne n e r g y; l wes h a l l


r e t ur nt ot hi spr obl e mi nSe cs .1 2and 3 0,wher et hel e adi ngt e r mi nt hec or r e l at i on e ner g y wi l lbe ev al uat ed e xpl i ci t l y. For t he pr es ent showev er ,i ti si nt e r e s t i ng t o cons i de rt he f i r s tt wot e r ms

o fEq. ( 3 . 3 7 )a saf u nc t i o no fr s( Fi g .3 . 2 ) . Thea t t r a c t i v es i g no ft h ee x c h a n g e


e ner g y ens ur e st hat t he cur ve has a m i ni m um oc cur r i ng f or ne gat i ve val ues of

t h ee n e r g y;t hes y s t e mi st he r e f or ebo u nd. Asr s+ . 0( t h eh i g h de ns i t yl i mi t ) , Eq.( 3 . 3 7 )r e pr e s e n t st h ee x a c ts o l u t i on t ot he p r ob l e m. Fo rl a r g e rv a l t l e sof


r , ,our s ol ut i on i sonl y appr oxi m at e ,butwe can now us et he f am i l i ar Rayl ei g hRi t zv ar i at i ona lpr i nci pl e , w hi ch as s e r t st ha tt hee xac tgr ound s t at e ofa quant um me chani c als ys t e m al way s ha sa l owerener gy t han t hateval uat e d by t aki ng t he e xpec t a t i on v al ue oft he t ot alham i l t oni an i n any nor m al i ze ds t at e. The c ondi t i ons oft hi spr i nci pl e ar ec l e ar l ys at i s se d,s i nc e we have m e r el yc om put ed t he

e x p e c t a t i on v a l u e oft h e ha mi l t on i a nX i nt h es t a t e1 F= ' .l tf o l l owst h a tt he


!E, P.W i g n e r . Ph y s . Re r . , 4 6: 1 0 02( 1 9 3 4 ) .

3c

I NTRODUCTI ON

ex ac ts ol ut i on t o our m odelpr obl em m us tal s or epr e s e nta bound s ys t em wi t h

e n e r g yl y i n gb e l ow t h ec u r v ei n Fi g .3 . 2 . Th emi n i mu mo fEq.( 3. 3 7 )o c c u r s
a tt heval ue s

( r x l mi n= 4 . 8 3

=-0 . 0 952 ml n az

e 2

( 3 . 3 8 )

Al t hough t he r ei sno r ea s on t o expe c tt hatours ol ut i oni sc or r e cti nt hi sr e gi on, i ti si nt er es t i ng t o obs er ve t hatt hes e val ue s

r s= 4 . 8 3

W = -1 . 2 9e v

a tmi n i mu m

( 3 . 3 9 )

com par ef av or abl y wi t ht he e xpe r i me nt al val ues f or m e t a l l i cs odi um unde r l abor at or y condi t i ons l

Na( e x p e r i me n t )

( 3 . 4 0 )

whe r et he bi ndi ng ene r gy i st he he atofvapor i zat i on oft he m e t al . Thus t hi s ver ys i mpl e m ode li s abl et o expl ai nt he l ar ges tpar toft he bi ndi ng ener gy of m et al s . I nr ealm e t al s ,one m us tf ur t he rl oc al i ze t he pos i t i v e backgr ound of c ha r geon t hec r ys t all at t i c es i t e s ,assr s tdi s c us s ed by W i gnerand Sei t z. 2, 3

l t i s a l s oi n t e r e s t i ngt ou s eEq. ( 3 . 3 7 )t oe v a l u a t et h et h e r mo dy n a mi cpr op e r t i e soft heel ec t r on gas . Thepr es s ur ei sgi ve n by

p=

. v. z u . ,

' E

( J P 'x

= -

6 I Ed r s Ne lr s2 ( 2. 21 )- 0 . 9 1 6 = .

d r s dV 2 J 03P ' r l

r t ,

( 3 . 41 )

The pr e s s ur evani s hesatt hepoi ntr s= 4. 83,w he r et hes ys t c mi si n equi l i br i um . Fur t her m or e ,t hebul k m odul us

B-

' ' t ap . l . v z a o 9 p (r s-

e . p

. x z2 5 ( 2 . 2 1 ) 2 ( 0. 91 6 )

r -1

( 3 . 4 2 )

vani s he satt hehi gherval ue r ,= 6. 03 ,wher et he s ys t em c e as e st o be m e t as t abl e i nt hi sappr oxi m at i on.

I nt h el o wde n s i t yl i mi t( r ,+ . c c ) )W i g n e r 4h a ss h o wn t ha to n ec a no bt a i n
al ower ene r gy oft he s y s t em by al l owi ng t he el ec t r ons t oS i cr ys t a l l i z e ' 'i na t f Wi gner s ol i d. ' ' Thi ss i t uat i on oc cur s bec aus et he z er opoi nt ki net i ce ner gy as s oc i at e d wi t hl oca l i z i ng t he e l e ct r ons e vent ua l l y be com e s negl i gi bl ei n com par i s on t ot he el ec t r os t at i c ene r gy ofa cl a s s i call at t i c e. W i gnerhas s hown t hat
1S e e , f ore x amp l e , C. Ki t t e l . s ou a nt u m Th e o r y ofS ol i ds , ' ' p.1 1 5 ,J oh nW i l e ya nd S on s . I n c. ,
New Y or k,1 963. 2E.P.W i gnerandF.Sei t z.Ph ys .Re v . , 4 3: 8 0 4( 1 9 3 3 ) ; 46: 5 0 9( 1 9 3 4 ) . 3A moder n ac countoft he r el e vantcorr e ct i onsmay bef ound i n C.Ki t t el ,o p.cl ' r . ,pp.93-94. 11 5.

4E. P.W i g ne r . Tr a n s . Fa r a d. So c . , 34: 6 7 8( 1 93 8 ) ;W . J .Car r , J r . , Ph y s . At ' & . , 1 2 2: 1 4 3 7( 1 9 61 ) .

SECOND QUANTI M TI ON

31

t heener gy perpar t i cl ei nt hi ss ol i di sgi v en as ym pt ot i cal l y by


= 9 u. . . zao r s

e2

1 . 7 9 2. 66 + j . + . .. r s

: x

,. wi g n e rs o l i d

( 3 . 4 3 )

and i ti sc l e art hatt hi sexpr e s s i on gi vesal owerval ue oft heene r gy t han t hatof

Eq.( 3 . 3 7 ) . Th el owd e n s i t yl i mi t( Eq.( 3 . 4 3 ) )i ss k e t c he da st h edot t e dl i nei n


Fi g.3. 2. Thevar i at i onalpr i nci pl eguar ant e est hatt hi sW i gne rs ol i dr epr e s e nt s a be t t e rwa vef unct i on asr ,-. > .x ) ,be ca us ei thasal owerene r gy.

PRO BLEM S

1. 1. Pr o v et ha tt h en umb e ro p e r a t o r# = J# * ( x) #( x ) J3 xc ommu t e swi t ht h e


ha mi l t o ni a nsofEqs . ( 1 . 4 2 )a n d( 1 . 6 0 ) . 1. 2. Gi v e na h o mo g e n e o u ss y s t e mo fs pi n . ipa r t i c l e si n t e r a c t i ng t hr ou g ha
pot ent i al F

( J )s h ow t h a tt h ee x p e c t a t i o nv a l u eoft heh ami l t on i a ni nt h en o ni nt e r a c t i n g


gr ound s t a t ei s

k r h2k2

k :
-

s ( o+s ( l ) -2 y a . +! y k k j ' A ' f t k z k , z , j z l A u , y , j k


whe r eA i st hezc ompone ntoft hes pi n.

( k k' ' j p ' I k ' z ' kl ; 4

( b ) As s u me F i sc e n t r a la n ds p i ni n d e p e nd e n t .I f F( I xl - xa l )< 0 f or a l 1 I xl -x c Ia n dJl F( x) 1 #3 x< c c,p r o v et ha tt h es y s t e m wi l lc o l l a ps e( Hi nt :s t a l


f r o m( f( 0 ) + E t t ) l Na saf u nc t i o no fd e ns i t y ) .
1. 3. Gi ve n a homoge neouss ys t e m of s pi nz er o par t i cl es i nt e r ac t i ng t hr ough a pot e nt i alF

( J )s h ow t h a tt h ee x p e c t a t i o nv a l u eo ft h eha mi l t on i a ni nt h en o ni n t e r a c t i ng g r o u nds t a t ei sEC L S I N =( #- 1 )F( 0 ) / 2F = aF( 0 ) , wh e r e

P ' ( q) = Jd3 xF( x) e t q * x

a n d

F( 0 )me an sF( q=0 )

( b ) Re pe a tPr o b.1 . 2 . ( c ) tS h ow t ha tt h es e c o n do r d e rc on t r i b u t i on t ot he g r ou n ds t a t ee n e r g yi s

E( 2 ) N =

N - 1 d% l F( q ) 1 2 n #% j F( q ) j 2 2F ( 2 z 43 h2 qa ( m = -i ( 2 =) a ha qz l m

1Us es t a n da r dv o nd or d e rx r t u r b a t i ont he or y:I fH = Ho+ Htan dt h eu nm r t ur -. de i g e n-

v Kt o r sI /)s a t i s f y/ 51 . / )= Fg I /) , t he n

E t z ) =7) l ( 0 E I z f A 1 E / ) J 1 1 =t 0 I KF a P H . HL I 0 ) J# e
wh e r el 0)i st h eg r ou nd s t a t ee i g e n v Kt oro f Howi t he ne r n Sq , a n dP = 1- 1 0)( 01 i sap r o -t i o n
o >r a t oront hee x c i t e d Ma t e s .

:2

I NTRODUCTI ON

1. 4. 1 S h o wt h a tt h es e c o n do r d e rc on t r i b u t i ont ot h eg r o un ds t a t ee n e r g yof a n e l e c t r o ng a si sgi v e nbyEt 2 1 =( Ne l j 2 a v ) ( k L+ 6 1 ) , wh e r e

f l= - 3 d ? qr z , gr d , pp ( 1 -k ) : ( 1-r ) g . p , 5 q4 jj k y q j >j- :j p l q j wj . q2+ . q. ( k+ . p )


e '- 1 6 , 5 q z , k + q 1 >,d kj l p + q I > l# #( q+k+p l i l q i +qt k+p ) j 1. 5. Th ee x c ha ng et e r m di nPr o b. 1 . 4i s hn i t e , wl l i l et hed i r e c tt e r me :d i v e r g e s .
( * Co n s i d e rt h ef un c t i onfl q)d e hn e da s /( p ( 1- k ) d ( 1-p4 3 ds q . -, 9 ( l- k ) p ( l-p 4

) =J l k i q l > L d 3 k J l p + q l > l d 3 #q 2 . j q p t k +p )

S h o wt h a tfl q); k ) ( 4 =/ 3 ) 2 :2a sq> . : x )a n d fl q ); k J i ' ( 2 =) 2 ( 1- l n2 ) qa sq+ . 0.

He n c ec o n c l u d et ha te q= -( 3 / 8 =5 )Jdhfl q l q k di v e r g e sl og a r i t h mi c a l l yf or
s mal l q.

( : )Th ep ol a r i z a b i l i t yo ft h ei n t e r v e n i n gme di um mo d i f e s t h ee f l kc t i v ei n t e r a c t i o n
bet wee nt wo e l e ct r onsatl ongwave l e ngt h,whe r ei tbehave sas

l ' X#l e f f ; Q $ 4 =8 2 :2+ L 4 r s ( =j k( ( 4 ( 9 =) % j t


f o rq. > . 0 .E s e eEq . ( 1 2 . 6 5 ) . )I nt h el i mi t r s. + . 0 , u s et h i sr e s u l tt od e mo ns t r a t e
t ha t

e := 2 =2 ( 1- l n2 ) l nr s +c o n s t= 0 . 0 6 2 2l nr s +c o ns t ( c ) Howdo e se :o f pa r tba f l kc t t h ee q ua t i ono fs t a t e ? Fi ndt hed e n s i t ya t whi c h


t hecom pr es s i bi l i t y be com esne gat i ve. 1. 6. Cons i de r a pol ar i ze d el ec t r on gas i n whi ch N x de not e st he num be r of

e l e c t r o n swi t hs pi n u p( d own l . l ( a )Fi n dt h eg r o u n ds t a t ee n e r g yt oE r s tor de ri nt h ei n t e r a c t i o np ot e n t i a la sa f u nc t i o no fN = N++ N-a n dt h ep o l a r i z a t i o n (= ( N+- Nj I N. ( : )P r o v et ha tt h ef e r r oma g n e t i cs t a t e( (= 1 )r e p r e s e nt sal o we re n e r g yt h a nt he u nma g n e t i z e ds t a t e( (= 0 )i fr ,> ( 2 =/ 5 ) 4 9 */ 4) 1 ( 2 1+ 1 )= 5 . 4 5 . Ex pl a i n wh y
t hi si ss o.

( c )S ho wt h a t %EJ N) ( D( 2 j ( . ( )b e c o me sn e g a t i v ef o rr ,>( 3 =2 / 2 / =6 . 0 3.
( #)Di s c us st heph y s i c a l s i g n i h c a n c eof t h et woc r i t i c a l d e ns i t i e s . Wha t h a pp e n s
f or5. 45< r ,< 6. 03?

1. 7. Re p e a t Pr o b. 1 . 6f o rapo t e n t i a lFt l x-yI ) = g3 t 3 ' ( x- y ) .S ho wt h a tt h e s y s t e mi sp a r t i a l l y ma g n e t i z e df or2 0 / 9<gNI VT< ( 5 / 3 ) 2 1= 2 . 6 4 ,wh e r eT i s


t h e me a n ki n e t i ce ne r g yp e rp a r t i c l ei nt h e un ma g n e t i z e ds t a t e ,a nd N( Vi st h e
c or r e s pondi ng par t i c l edens i t y. W ha thappensout s i deoft hes el i mi t s? tSe ef o ot no t eonp. 3 1 . lF.Bl oc h, Z. Ph y s i k, 5 7: 5 45( 1 92 9) .

2 Stati sti calM echani cs

Be f or e f br m ul at i ng t he quant um me chani c al des cr i pt i on of many par t i cl e a s s e m bl i e s si ti sus e f ult or ev i e ws omet her m odynam i cr el a t i ons . Theel em e nt a r y di s cus s i onsus ua l l y cons i deras s em bl i esc ont ai ni ng a hxe d num be rofpar t i cl es , but s uch a des cr i pt i on i st oo r e s t r i ct e df or t he pr e s e nt pur pos es . W e m us t t her e f or egene r al i z et he t r e at mentt oi nc l ude t hepos s i bi l i t y ofvar i abl e num be r ofpar t i cl esN . Thi sappr oac hi sm os ts i m pl ye xpr es s e di nt hegr and canoni ca l

e n s e mb l e ,wh i c hi sg e n e r a l l y mor et r a c t a b l et h a nt h ec a n o ni c a le ns e mb l e( h' sx e d ) .I na d di t i o n ,t h e r ea r ep h y s i c a ls y s t e ms wh e r et h ev a r i a b l en u mb e ro f


par t i c l es i s an es s ent i alf e at ur t,r a t he rt han a m a t he m at i c alconv eni enc e;f or e xam pl e . t hem ac r os copi cc ondens at ei ns upe r iui dhel i um andi ns uper c onduc t or s ac t s as a pa r t i c l e bat ht ha tc an ex change par t i c l e swi t ht he r e m ai nder oft he s ys t em . I nde e d,t he s es ys t e m sar e be s tdes cr i be d wi t h m ode lham i l t oni anst hat do notev en c ons er v e N,and t hem or ege ner alde s c r i pt i onm us tbeus e d.
: u

I NTRODUCTI ON

K REVI EW O F THERM ODYNAM I CS A ND STATI STI CAL M ECHANI CS Al t hough i ti s pos s i bl et ot r e at s ys t em s c ont ai ni ng s e ver aldi ser ent ki nds of par t i c l es ,t he a dded ge ner al i t yi snotnee ded f ormos tphys i c alappl i cat i ons ,and we s hal lcons i der onl ys i ngl e components ys t e ms . The f undament alt her m odynam i ci dent i t y dE = TdS - P dv + p . dN s pe ci he st he chang ei nt he i nt er nale ne r g y E ar i s i ng f r om s m al li ndepe nde nt change si nt heent r opyS, t hevol um eP ' , and t henum berofpar t i c l e sN . Equat i on

( 4 . 1 )s h owst h a tt h ei n t e r n a le n e r g yi sa t h e r mo dy n a mi cf u n c t i onoft he s et hr e e v a r i ab l e s ,E = EI S, F, . N' ) ,a n dt ha tt h et e mpe r a t u r eF,t h epr e s s u r eP,a n dt h e


c hem i calpot e nt i alp, ar er e l at e dt ot hepar t i alde r i vat i ve sofE : O E T = DS
vs

Jf -# = . x = dP -s x

O E g = ON s ' z

I nt he par t i c ul arcas e ofa quant um m ec ha ni ca ls ys t e m i ni t sgr ound s t at e,t he e nt r opy vani s he s ,and t hec he mi c alpot e nt i a lr e duc e st o

M( y . ) F
-

whe r eE i st h eg r o u n ds t a t ee n e r g y . Mo r eg e n e r a l l y ,Eqs . ( 4 . 1 )a n d( 4 . 2 )ma y


be i nt e r pr e t ed asdefni ngt hec hemi c alpot e nt i a l . Thei nt er na lene r gyi sus e f ulf ors t udyi ng i s e nt r opi cpr oc e s s e s;i n pr a ct i ce . howev er ,expe r i me nt sar e us ual l y pe r f or m ed atsxe d F.a nd i ti sc onve ni entt o

ma ke a Le g e nd r et r a n s f o r ma t i o nt ot h ev a r i a b l e s( r, V, N)or( F , #, N) . The r e s ul t i ngf u n c t i o n sa r ek n own a st h eHe l mh o l t zf r e ee n e r g y FI T, P ) z V)a n dt he Gi b b s f r e ee n e r g y G( r, #, . N) , de f i n e db y F = E - TS G = E - TS+ PV ( 4. 4 ) Thed i se r e nt i a loft h e s et woe q u a t i on sma yb ec omb i n e d wi t h Eq. ( 4 . 1 )t oy i e l d d F= -SdT- PdV+ y . d N d G = -SdT+ Vd P+J z d N ( 4 . 5 )
whi c h de m ons t r at est ha t F and G ar ei nde ed t her modynami cf unct i ons of t he s xc i ed var i abl e s . I n par t i cul ar ,t he chemi c al pot ent i almay be de sne d as
.-

( l x ' ) T F ( y ' a W M G v J T P

( 4 . 6 )
( 4 . 7 )

Fur t he r mor e,i ti sof t en i mpor t antt o cons i de rt he s etofi nde pendentvar i abl e s

( F, F, p ) , whi c hi s a pp r o p r i a t ef or v a r i a bl eN. A f u r t he rLe g e n d r et r a ns f o r ma t i on


l ea dst ot het her mod ynami cpot e nt i al

Q( F, F, J z )= F- gN = E - TS- m N

STATI STI CAL M ECHANI CS

36

wi t ht hecor r es pondi ng di Fe r e nt i al

dk t= -SdT- PdV- A #r z
Thecoeci ent sar ei m m edi at e l ygi v en by
s- -

( 4 . 8 )

( , % , . ) -, ( ? a ? ; , ) -x ( ? J s ) -

( 4 . 9 )

whi c h wi l lb e par t i cul ar l y us e f uli ns ubs e qu entappl i c at i ons .

Al t hough elF,G,and f lr epr e s e ntf or mal l ye qui val entwaysofde s c r i bi ng t hes ames ys t e m, t hei rnat ur ali nde pe nde ntvar i abl esdi f l kri n onei mpor t antwa y.

l npa r t i c u l a r , t hes e t( u %P ' , N) c o n s i s t se nt i r e l yof e x t e n s i v ev a r i a b l e s . p r op o r t i o na l


t ot he ac t ualam ountofm at t erpr es ent . The t r ans f or mat i on t o F and t he nt o G or D may be i nt er pr e t e d as r e duci ng t he number of e xt ens i v e va r i abl e si n f av or ofi nt e ns i ve on es t hat a r ei nde pendent of t he t ot alamount of mat t er . Thi sdi s t i nc t i on bet we en e xt ens i veand i nt ens i vevar i abl esl e adst o an i m por t ant

r e s u l t . Con s i de ras c a l ec h a n g ei nwhi c ha l le x t e n s i v equ a n t i t l e s( i n c l u di n gE, F,G, a n df 1 )a r emu l t i pl i e db yaf a c t o rA . Fo rd e s n i t e n e s s ,wes h a l ls t u d yt h e


i nt e r nalener gy.whi c h be com e s

h E = E( h S, hV, h Nj
Di f l kr e nt i at ewi t hr e s pec tt o A and s etA= l:

s s ( k f ) F N +p ' ( j p f r s ) S b . + x t a E ) , S ' F r s , p + , , N
wh e r eEq. ( 4 . 2 )h a sbe e nu s e d. Eq u a t i on( 4 . 1 0 ) , wh i c hh e r ea r i s e sf r o m ph y s i c a l
ar gument s ,i sa s pe ci alc as e of Eul er ' st he or em on hom og eneous f unc t i ons . Ther emai ni ngt he r modynami cf unct i onsar ei mme di at el yf ound as

F= -PV + yh'

G=y ' N

D = -PI . '

( 4 . l l )

whi c hs howst hatt hec hemi ca lpot ent i ali n aone components ys t e mi st heGi bbs

f r e ee n e r g yp e rpa r t i c l e/ . t =N1 G( r, #, N)a n dt h a tP= -P ' 1 D( F, P ' , / z ) . Th i s l a s tr e s ul ti sa l s oa no b v i ou sc o ns e q u e n c eo fEq.( 4. 9 ) ,b e c a u s ef la n dP ' a r e


e xt e ns i ve,whe r e asF and J , tar ei nt e ns i ve . To t hi s poi nt . we hav e us ed onl y m ac r os copi ct her modynam i c s ,whi ch m er el y cor r e l a t es bul k pr ope r t i e s of t he s ys t em . The m i c r os c opi c cont e nt of t het heor y m us tbeadde ds e par at e l yt hr ough s t at i s t i e alm e c hani c s ,whi c hr e l at es t het he r m odynam i cf unct i onst ot heha mi l t oni a n oft he m anypa r t i cl eas s em bl y. I nt hegr and canoni calens em bl eatc hem i ca lpot e nt i alp , and t e m pe r at ur e
T
-

ks #

( 4 . 1 2 )

I NTRODUCTI ON

wh e r ek si s Bo l t z ma nn' sc on s t a n t ,ks= 1 . 3 81x 1 0 1 6e r g / de g r e e ,t h eg r a n d


par t i t i on f unc t i on Zoi sdene d as

Zo- ; J ( 2 e C C E J I ' N ' N J


=

2 1 Z( Njl d / 6 X B * ' l A7 ) N J
Tr( e b ( RH R t j ( 4 . 1 3 )

est hes e tofa1 1s t at esf orasxe d numbe rofpa r t i c l esN,and t hes um wher e.jdenot n d N. A f un d a me nt a l r e s u l tf r o ms t a t i s t i c a l i mpl i e di nt het r ac ei sove rbot h.ja me c hani c st hen a s s e r t st hat

Dt r, F, p , )=-ksFl nzs

( 4 . 1 4 )

whi ch al l ows us t o comput e a1 lt he macr os copi c equi l i br i um t her modynami c s f r om t hegr and par t i t i onf unct i on.

Th es t a t i s t i c a l op e r a t o rl oc or r e s po n di n gt oEq. ( 4 . 1 3 )i sg i v e nb y

)s=z( ; ! e # ( #p A )
Wi t ht h ea i do fEq. ( 4 . 1 4 ) , ) ( ; ma yb er e wr i t t e nc omp a c t l ya s ) s= e # ( t ' ) 8 + # l # )
Fo ra n yo pe r a t o r, t h ee n s e mbl ea v e r a g e( O)i so bt a i ne dwi t ht h ep r e s c r i p t i o n

( )- Trt l o) = Tr t e l t of+ M x l d) Tr ( e l ( WB N ' ) = Tr e j ( p . s p ;


.

( 4 . 1 7 )

The ut i l i t y oft he s ee xpr e s s i ons wi l lbe i l l us t r at ed i n Se c.5,whi ch r evi ewst he t he rmodynami cbe hav i orofi dea lBos e an d Fer migas es .

SEI DEA L GAS. W enow appl yt hes er e s ul t sby r e vi e wi ng t hepr oper t i esofnoni nt e r ac t i ng Bos e and Fe r mig as es . Thr oughoutourdi s c us s i on we us et henot at i onals i mpl i sc at i on

#= ( kBF) 1
'Th ea r gu me nt si nt h i ss e c t i on a r ec ont ai n e di na ny g oo db ook o ns t a t i s t i c a lme c h a ni c s ,f o r t x a mpl e.L.D.I a nda ua n d E.M .Li f s h i t z ,' ' S t a t i s t i c a lPh y s i c s . ' 'c h a p.V,P e r ga mon Pr e s s , Lon do n,1 95 8 .

STATI STI CAL M ECHANI CS

37

I fEq. ( 4. 1 3 )i swr i t t e no u ti nd e t a i l wi t ht hec o mpl e t es e t ofs t a t e si nt h ea bs t r a c t


occ upa t i onnum berHi l be r ts pac e,wehave

ZG= Tr ( e l t J l e B A ) )
=

# 1 : ' ' 'F l x )

.1 e # ( M A #( ) ) j a l ...n . j J g ; nL...n

( 5 . 2 ) s i n c et h e s es t a t e sa r ee i g e ns t a t e so ft h eh a mi l t o ni a n. 4:a n dt hen umbe ro p e r a t or #, b ot ho pe r a t o r sc a nb er e pl a c e db yt h e i re i g e n v a l ue s

=e # f ) ( j ( T, F, s )

'n .1 e x pjp , ) ( ) ni -J 2 e . n, 1 a,-'.a . )


Theexpone nt i ali snow acnum berand i sequi val entt oapr oduc tofe xponent i a l s; he nce t he s um ove r expe ct at i on val ues f ac t or si nt o a pr oduc t of t r ac es ,one r e f e r r i ngt oea ch m ode ,

za= ( j ) ( nj I e # t B n l f . a ' ' 1 n1 ) ''.12 ( ? ut c # t B > * ' *a * ' I n . )


aj 5*

( 5 . 4 )

whi c h m aybewr i t t e nc om pac t l yas

zG= yjTr j e l f e l / z l t
f a . 1

( 5 . 5 )

For bos ons t he occupat i on number s ar e unr es t r i ct ed s ot hat we mus t

s u mn t o v e ra 1 l i n t e g e r si nEq. ( 5 . 5 )
X * *

zo= ( !p l( c / ( > e l ) ) a= 1 I( 1- e # ( 8 f l ) ) 1 l -1 a =0 l =1
Th el og a r i t h mo fEq . ( 5 . 6 )y i e l dst h et h e r mo d y n a mi cp ot e nt i a l
*

( 5 . 6 )

f h n t r, F, p )= -k.T l n1 7( 1- e f t B e I ' ) 1
f -l
*

Da t r , F, p , )= k sF j zl n( 1- e l t B f t ' )
t =l

Bo s e

( 5 . 8 )

Theme an numbe rofpar t i cl esi sobt ai ne df r om t ' l nbydi f l kr ent i at i ngwi t hr es pe c t

t ot h ec h e mi c a lpo t e n t i a l , a si n Eq. ( 4 . 9 ) ,k e e p i n g Fa nd F ( e q ui v a l e n t l yt hee j )


Nxe d:

I N? $= l I f= 9 .ln

1 1 ( f e f H )- 1 f =l

Bo s e

( 5 . 9 )

wh e r en 2i st h eme a no c c u p a t i o nn u mb e ri nt h ef t hs t a t e .

3g

I NTRODUCTC ON

For f e r mi ons ,t he occ upat i on number s ar eei t he r 0 or 1 ,and t he s um i n

Eq . ( 5 . 5 )i sr e s t r i c t e dt ot h e s ev a l ue s
* l e o

Zc= H ; ( e # t 8 f l ) X = FI( 1+ e # B f l ' )


1 -1 n -( 1 1 -l

( 5 . 1 0 )

Taki ng t hel ogar i t hm ofbot hs i de s ,weha ve


*

f 1 a ( 7 l F, / z )= -k aF Z l n( 1+ e l t B f l ) )
l -1

Fe r mi

( 5 . 1 1 )

whi l et henumG rofpar t i cl esG c omes * * 1

r #)- 1 1 2n 2- I e# ( e j p )+ j . .l
-1

Fe r mi

( 5 . 1 2 )

Al t hough bos ons a nd f er mi ons di f l kr onl y by t he s i gn i nt he de nomi nat or i n

Eqs .( 5 . 9 )a n d( 5 . 1 2 ) ,t hi ss i g nl e a d st or a t he rr e ma r k a b l ed i Fe r e nc e si nt h e
G havi oroft hes eas s embl i e s .
BosoNs

W es hal lEr s tcons i dera c ol l e c t i on ofnoni nt e r ac t i ng bos ons ,whe r et he e ner g y s m ct r um i sgi venby p2 :2 k2 f P= 2 - = 2-

W eas s umet hatt hea s s e mbl yi sc ont ai ne di nal ar gev ol ume F a ndappl ype r i odi c

bo un d a r yc o nd i t i o ns ont hes i n g l e p a r t i c l ewa v ef u n c t i o n s .J us t a si nEq. ( 3 . 2 6 ) ,


s umsove rs i ngl e par t i cl el e ve l sc an ber e pl ac e d byani nt e gr a love rwave number s a c cor di ng t o

72 . > . gJd3 n=gF( 2 = ) 3Jd3 k

( 5 . 1 4 )

wher eg i st hedeg ene r ac yofe ac hs i ngl e par t i cl emoment um s t at e. Forexampl e,

g= 1f ors pi nl e s spa r t i c l e s . Wi t h Eq. ( 5 . 1 3 ) ,t h ed e n s i t yo fs t a t e si n Eq. ( 5 . 1 4 )


ca nl y er e wr i t t e n as 'V 4

( 2 9 3 . 1 a d k ( . p F . , ( 2 h > a l j 1 e 2 e d + n = g 4 = V 2 j z V z j l e d e
k B rk B T4 A ' * F 2 ( 2 # z j i 9 j * 0 d e r l j n t j e # ( s e )
-

( j . j j )
( 5 . 1 6 )

a n dt et h e r mo dy n a mi cp o t e n t i a l Eq . ( 5 . 8 )f -a ni de a lBo s eg a sGc o me s
t ' l o= PV .

As i mpl e par t i a li nt e gr at i on t hen yi e l ds

pp ' -4 # 4 F

( y l m ) 1 2 j j * : we j j r j ) . j

STATI STI CAL M EcHANl cs

Al t e r na t i v e l y ,ac o mb i n a t i on o fEqs .( 4 . 9 ) ,( 4 . 1 0 ) ,a nd ( 5 . 8 )a l l o wsust owr i t e


gF / 2v 1 * e l

E=z / n f I =oz j , a ( j # e e # ( . . ) -j
s h owi ngt ha tt h ee qu a t i o nofs t at eo fa ni de a l Bos eg a si sgv e nb y

( 5 . 1 8 )
( 5 . 1 9 )

PV= J S
I nas i mi l arway,t henum- rofpa r t i c l e sG c ome s N g 2 - 1 * e *
.

ee j ( . . j , j j ( 5 . 2 0 ) P= 4 =a y :p Al t ho u g h Eq s .( 5 . 1 7 )a nd ( 5 . 2 0 )d e t e r mi net h et he r mo d y na mi cv a r i a b l e so fa n i d e a lBo s eg a sa sf un c t i on so fF,F, a nd/ z , Eq. ( 5 . 2 0 ) c a ni npr i n dpl el ) ei n v e r t e d


t o obt ai nt heche mi c alpot ent i alasaf unc t i on oft henum be rofpar t i c l e s. Sub-

s t i t ut i o ni n t o Eq.( 5 . 1 7 )t h e ny i e l d st het h e r mo dy n a mi cv a r i a bl e sa saf u n c t i o n


ofr,F,and N.

Eq u a t i on( 5 . 2 0 )i sme a n i n g f u l on l yi f
e- J z> 0

Ot her wi s et heme anoc cupa t i onnum be ra0woul d% l es st hanz er of ors omeva l ue s ofe. l n par t i cul ar ,ec an vani s hs ot ha tt hec hemi calpot e nt i alofan i de alBos e gasmus ts at i s f yt hecondi t i on

p , <0

( 5 . 2 1 )

To unde r s t and t hi sr e l at i on, wer e ca l lt hecl as s i ca ll i mi toft hechemi c alpot e nt i al f orf i xed N 1 t

kXr * ' *
s

r .- > . a )

( 5 . 2 2 )

I nt hi sl i mi twes e et hatBos eand Fer migas esgi vet hes ameexpr e s s i on

N. sr e l ( ! , e t )
whi c hi s j u s tt h ef a mi l i a rBo l t z ma nnd i s t r i b ut i o n ,a nd

( 5 . 2 3 ) T+* ( 5 . 2 4 )

f 1 := -Pv= -k sT J ge ' l n q 6 b = -Nk. T l

whi c hi st hee quat i on ofs t at eofani deal c l as s i c alga s . Thes um m a y% ev al uat ed appr oxi m at e l ya san i nt e gr al

7 2 eb q t =g ( 2 . ) $FJd' ke O: 2 / 2 4T l
'-

m kzT 1 = gv 2 a =h tL. D. xn da ua n dE.M.Li f s hi t z , o p. c i t . . =. 4 5.

( 5 . 2 5 )

40

I NTRODUCTI ON

a ndEq .( 5 . 2 3 )t h e ny i e l d st h ec l a s s i c a le x pr e s s i o ny . cf ort h ec h e mi c a lp ot e n t i a l
/ 2 e N l=h2 1 k =l n gv vk ' sF sF

i nt e r mso fr, F, N. No t et h a tEq. ( 5 . 2 2 )i s i n de e ds a t i s s e da sF-> . ( x ) . Fu r t h e r mor e,i ti scl eart hatFer mi ,Bos e ,and Bol t z ma nn s t at i k t i csnow coi nci de ,s i nce t ho par t i c l e s ar e di s t r i but e d ove r m any s t at es . Thus t he m ean oc c upat i on num be r ofa ny one s t a t ei sm uch l es st han one ,and quant um r e s t r i c t i onspl ay no r ol e.

Th ec l a s s i c a lc he mi c a lp o t e n t i a lofEq.( 5 . 2 6 )i ss k e t c h e di n Fi g .5 . 1 . As t h et e mp e r a t ur ei sr e d u c e da ts x e dd e n s i t y ,y ' c l k B l -pa s s e st hr ou g hz e r oa n d


l N 2=*2 7 nr
k .T
# t
$

$ y

X . x k:r N v. . ' ' N N N. x x

My r r ml

p p' ' h . ' h '

x
w .' x . h .' h . x . h .' Nx h .

XB O 9 C

-k s l -

WM X

a #

Bc

Fi g.5. 1 The c hemi c al pot ent i al of i deal cl as si cal ,Fermi ,and Bose gas es f or hxed N and F.

bec om es pos i t i ve ,di ver gi ng t o +: s atF = 0. Si nc et hi s be hav i orvi ol at esEq.

( 5 . 2 1 ) ,t hec h e mi c a lp o t e n t i a lf o ra ni d e a lBo s eg a smus tl i eb e l o wt h ec l a s s i c a l


val ue,s t ayi ng ne gat i v e orz er o. Le tTobe t het em pe r at ur ewhe r et heche mi c al pot e nt i alofan i de al Bos eg as vani s hes . Thi s cr i t i ca lt em pe r at ur ei sr e adi l y

d e t e r mi n e d wi t h Eq . ( 5 . 2 0 )
N . g ' lm @ ' * e l

V= 4 eef/ =2 hl t )J vT 0- 1 whi c hma yb er e wr i t t e nwi t ht h en e wv a r i a b l exE B6 / / f s Faa s


N

4 =2

T' j = g 2m ks . . .
2 h

a e -1

# X

x1
x

( 5 . 2 8 )

Thei nt egr ali se val ua t e di n Appe ndi xA

N- g z z / l ksL

P 4 nz , 2
r-' y / . g h2

( ( 1 ' ) 1 > 0)
! 'N ' i 3.31 hl N ' #

a n dEq. ( 5 . 2 9 )ma yb ei n v e r t e dt og i v e

( , , r ( s . ( ( # $ )( w )g . , ( v )

4x2

( 5 . 3 0 )

STATI STI CAL M ECHANI CS

41

ast he t e m pe r at ur eatwhi c ht hechemi c alpot e nt i a lofan i dea lBos egasr eac hes z er o. Thi sv al ue hast hes i mpl ephys i c ali nt e r pr e t at i on t ha tt het he r male ner gy ksrci sc ompar abl ewi t ht he onl y ot he ri nt ens i ve e ne r gy f ora pe r f ec tgas ,t he

z e r o p o i nt e n e r g y( h 2 / m) ( N/ P ' ) 1a s s o c i a t e dwi t hI oc a l i z i ngap a r t i c l ei nav o l u me VI N.

W hathappe nsasweI owe rt het empe r at ur ebe l ow To? l ti sc l e arphys i c al l y t hatma ny bos onswi l ls t ar tt o oc cupy t he l owe s ta vai l abl es i ngl e par t i cl es t at e, name l yt he gr ound s t at e. For p . = 0 and r < Fn , howev er ,t he i nt e gr al i n

Eq.( 5 . 2 0 )i sl e s st h a n Nl P ' b e c a us et h e s ec on di t i on si nc r e a s et h ed e no mi n a t or r e l a t i v et oi t sv a l u ea t L . Th ust he t h e o r ya p p e a r st ob r e a kd own be c a us e Eq. ( 5 . 2 0 )wi l l n otr e p r o du c et h ef u l l d e n s i t yNl F. Th i sd i mc u l t yc a nb et r a c e d t ot h er e p l a c e me n to ft h es u mb ya ni n t e g r a li n Eq .( 5 . 1 4 ) ,a n d wet h e r e f or e


e xam i net heor i gi na ls um

N =) (( e l t e l ? 2 ) -1 ) -1 f
Asp,. + . 0. al loft het e r msex c eptt hehr s tappr oac h aEni t el i mi t; t hes um oft hes e

hn i t et e r msi sj u s tt h a tg i v e nb yt hei n t e g r a le v a l u a t e da bo v e . l I nc o n t r a s t ,t h e
:r s tt er m hasbe e nl os ti n pas s i ng t ot he i nt egr albe ca us et he E 1i nt he dens i t y of s t at es vani s he s at e= 0. W e s ee , howe ve r ,t hat t hi s sr s tt e r m bec omes ar bi t r ar i l yl ar ge asp .+ . 0a nd c an t her ef or e make up t he r es toft he par t i c l e s . Thi sbe hav i orr e qe ct st he ma cr os copi c occ upat i on oft he s i ngl e quant um s t at e e = 0.

Fort e mp e r a t u r e sF< L . wec o n c l u d et h a tt h ec h e mi c a lpo t e n t i a lp , mu s t


bei nsni t es i mal l ys mal land ne gat i ve

p . =0 dN

f o rF< To
g 2m 1 e +JE

( 5 . 31 )

I nt hi st e mper at ur er ange,t he dens i t y ofpa r t i cl eswi t he ner gi e s e> 0 bec omes

VS= 4 # e- j 02 h2 e
Ne>0.

( 5 . 3 2 )

wi t ht hei nt e gr at e d val ue

P ' 4 =2! . h2 ) a e - 1 X y F:

gl 2 M/ f s T1 1 *y x' Y * =Ni T1

( 5 . 3 3 )

Ther e mai ni ng par t i cl esar et hen i nt hel owes tene r gys t at ewi t h e= 0
N-,- x j-

p 'p ( w r o ) .

( 5 . 3 4 )

tSt r i c t l ys p e a ki n g, t h eoc c up a t i onnu mG ro ft h el o wl y i nge x c i t e ds t a t e si so for d e rN k . wh i c h l v ome sn e g l i g i bl eo nl yi nt h et he r mo dy n ami cl i mi t .Ar i g or o us di xu s s i on of t he Bo s e Ei n s t e i nc ond e n s at i o n ma yl xf ou ndi n R. H. Fowl e ra n dH . J o ne s , Pr o c. C' a l n r f l gePh i l . So c . .

M: 5 7 3( 1 93 8 ) .

42

I NTF y ooucTl oN

I nt h ed e g e n e r a t er e g i o n( F< Tz )wh e r et h ec he mi c a l po t e n t i a l i sg i v e nb y Eq .( 5 . 3 1 ) , t h ee n e r g yo ft h eBo s eg a sa r i s e se n t i r e l yf r om t h os ep a r t i c l e sn o ti n


t hec onde ns at e

E= g z vk sF 1a : .u x l

# 4 . 2 : 2 )A a FJ oG xe x -1
Thi si nt e gr ali sa gai nt r e at e di n Appendi xA,and we5nd E - g 2? nksF 1 4=2

P (A a) k . r ( 0 ) P 0 )

( 5 . 3 5 )

wh i c hma yber e wr i t t e ni ht e r mso fL f r o m Eq . ( 5 . 2 9 )a s

E- 1 0)l xl xk s
5o

( ( 1 ) r ( l )r t j j ' t l . 7 7 o x k s r t . j l lr v z . ,
.

( 5 . 3 6 )

Thec ons t ant vol ume he atc apaci t yt hen be com es

c v j/ x x k s ( s r 0 ) 1 p < r c
whi c hv ar i e sasF1 and va ni s hesatF = 0. Equ a t i o n( 5 . 3 5 )a l s oc a nb eus e dt o r e wr i t et heequat i on ofs t a t e:

# 2E 22V1 mhk .T) %g - jy, -j4 .c( ( . 1 . )l n ( 1 ) y q


-

0. 0 8 51 v1 ( ksT4 %h ? g

T< ra

Thepr e s s ur evani s hesatz er ot e m pe r at ur ebe c aus ea 1 loft hepa r t i c l esar ei nt he z er omoment um s t at ea nd t her ef or ee xer tnof or c eon t hewal l soft hecont a i ner .

Fur t h e r mor e ,t hepr e s s u r ei si nd e pe n de nto ft h ed e n s i t yN/ U,d e pe nd i n go n l y


ont het e m pe r at ur e r < ra . W e have s ee nt ha tt hei dea lBos e gashasa c r i t i c alt e mpe r at ur e Fowhe r e

t h ec he mi c a lpo t e nt i a lc ha ng e si t sa n a l y t i cf o r m. S i n c eJ z ( F, V, N)i sr e l a t e dt o t h ef r e ee n e r g yb yEq. ( 4. 6 ) , i ti sn a t ur a l t oe x pe c ts i mi l a rd i s c o nt i n ui t i e si no t h e r


t her m odyna mi cf unc t i ons ,a nd we now s how t hatt heheatc apa ci t y atc ons t ant

vol ume Ck hasa di s c ont i nuouss l ope atF( ) . The be ha vi orf orF < Fci sg i ve n

i n Eq.( 5 . 3 7 ) ;t h ec or r e s po n di ngqu a n t i t yf orF> roc a nb ef ou n da sf ol l o ws : De fn et h e( t kt i t i ou s )nu mb e ro fpa r t i c l e sc o mpu t e df orp , =0a n d F> F( jb y
.

N' : ( r)H 4=z hz

P ' 2m i ' ' o e + t uw. . j ( )de e,

Thi se xpr es s i on cl ear l yi mpl i e s

# c ( F c )

#0 ( F)= #0 ( F)
x

( y 1 F > r c

F1

STATI STI CAL M ECHANI CS

43

Eq ua t i on( 5 . 2 0 ) , wh i c hd e t e r mi ne st h ea c t u a l/ z t r, V, Njf orF> r ; ,c a nn o wb e


r e wr i t t e n

N -. N; ( F)= 4 *z h g

gv l m 1 *u

ee - e / k s , r.. j- e q f k .r. aa 'P)

Thedomi nantcont r i but i on t ot l l i si nt egr alar i s esf r om s mal lval uesofebe c aus e

p t ks ri ss ma l la n dn e g a t i v ef o r0< F- F c< Fn . Thu s we s h a l le x p udt h e


i nt e gr and t og i ve

N &( F ) = 4 g , v , z ( 2 j , i , j 1 g , g s wo ' s as + ( , + 1 j s j ) ; k ; 4 g . p z ' ( 2 s p , j 1 s w s v o j s j 1


ombi nat i on wi t h whe r e we have s e t F = Fo t ol ea di ng or de ri n F - Fo. A c

Eq. ( 5 . 2 9 )l e a d st o
J z= = -

( 0)P( 1 )2 ( F)- 1 2 ksro Xn


= N

( 0) F0)2
, v.

F@ 2 k s z ' ; ( y J'1 F k F a

No t et h a tJ zv a n i s h e squ a dr a t i c a l l ya sT+TI s ot h a tJ z ( F, V. N)h a sad i s c on t i n uo u ss e c on dde r i v a t i v ea tro( s e eFi g . 5 . 1 ) . ofs t a t e( 5 . 1 9 )


Ther e mai ni ngc al c ul at i oncanbecar r i e d outbydi f l kr e nt i at i ngt hee qua t i on

( ' > ' E ; ) r ' 3 i ( . e P s P . ' ) r ' 1 x


wh e r et hel a s te qu a l i t yf ol l ows f r o m Eqs . ( 4. 9 )a n d( 4 . 1 l ) . Thi sr e s u l t a l l o wsu s
t o:ndt hechangei ne ner gyar i s i ngf r om as mal l changei n p. atcons t antrand P .

I fEI T, F)i st hee ne r g yf o rz e r oc he mi c a lp o t e n t i a l( Eq.( 5 . 3 5 ) ) , t h e nt h ea c t u a l


e ne r gyi sgi ve n appr oxi m at el yas

E = E( F, P ' )

) f ' ( r , P ' ) + j , N .T > F o


-

F< F n

W enow changevar i abl est oE P ' ,a nd N us i ngt hee xpr es s i on obt ai ned a bovef or

p , t r, V , N) . Thej u mpi nt hes l o p eo fCp , i st h e ng i v e nb yl


'

'Cv ?r r,-

t Nk .z ot 0)PQ)2 0 2 r1
=

2 l ? r z ( r L )-1 ) w ,
( 5 . 3 9 )

7t f ! . )r( ! . )2 Nk. = -2 y wo = -3 . 6 6Nk. = Fp

1F. Lo ndo n, i s sup e r f l ui d s , ' ' v ol . l I , s e c . 7 , Do v e r , Ne w Yor k, 1 96 4; w , eh e r ef ol l o wt hea ppr o a c h o fL. D.La n da ua n d E. M. Li f s bi t z , o p. c i t . , p.1 7 0.

44

I NTRODUCTI ON

The f ul lcur vei ss ke t c he di n Fi g.5. 2. Suc h di s c ont i nui t i e si m pl yt hatan i dea l Bos egasex hi bi t saphas et r an si t i on a ta t e m per a t ur eF; . Thi st e m per at ur ehas a phys i ca li nt e r pr et at i on ast he poi ntwher ea hni t ef r a ct i on ofa 1 1t hepar t i cl es be gi nst o oc c upy t hez er om om e nt um s t at e. Bel ow F( )t he oc cupat i on num ber

a oft h el o we s ts i n g l e p a r t i c l es t a t ei so fo r d e rN,r a t h e rt h a no fo r d e rl . As
e mphas i ze d by F.London, lt he as s embl yi s or der e di n mome nt u m s pac e and noti nc oor di nat es pac e;t hi sphe nome non i sca l l e d Bos e Ei nst e i nc on dens at i on.
Cg Nk a ? l ?

1
7 Fi g.5. 2 Const ant v ol umehe atcapac i t y C' vofan

7 5

Ti d e a lBos eg a s .

To e s t i ma t et he m agni t ude oft he quant i t i esi nvol ve d,we r ec al lt ha tt he dens i t yofl i qui d He 4a t1 ow t em pe r at ur ei s P4= 0. l 45gcm -3

I n s e r t i n gt h i sq ua n t i t yi nt oEq. ( 5 . 3 0 ) , we5 ndt h ev a l u e L =3 . 1 4 0 K

( 5 . 4 0 )

ast het r ans i t i ont em pe r at ur eofani dea lBos ega swi t ht hepar am e t e r sappr opr i a t e t ol i qui d he l i um . Be l ow t hi st em pe r at ur e,t he f or e goi ng di s cus s i on i ndi cat e s t ha tt he as s e m bl y cons i s t soft wo di fe r entc om pone nt s ,one cor r e s pondi ng t o t hepar t i cl est hatoc cupyt hez er om om ent um s t at eandt he r e f or ehaveno e ner gy, and t heot hercor r e s pondi ng t ot hepar t i c l e si nt heex ci t e ds t at es . I ndee d,i ti s

a ne x pe r i me nt a l f a c t t h a t l i q u i dHe 4 h a sat r a ns i t i o na t 2. 2 0 K( t h eAp o i nt ) b e t we e n


t he t wo phas e sH eIand H el I . Be l ow t hi st e m pe r at ur eH e 4a ct sl i kea m i xt ur e ofa s upe r iui d and a nor ma lf l ui d,and t he s upe r qui d hasno he atc apac i t y or vi s cos i t y. I ti sal s ot r uet hatt hef r ac t i on ofnor m alcom ponentvani s he sast he t e m per at ur e goes t o ze r o. The Bos e Ei ns t ei n conde ns at i on oft he i dealBos e gast he r e f or epr ovi de sa qual i t at i v e des cr i pt i on ofa ct ualH e 4 . ln det ai l ,howe ve r,t he i dtalBos e gas i s an ovt r s i m pl i se d m ode l . For e xam pl e,t he ac t ua l s pe ci scheatvar i esasr3atl ow t e m per at ur eand bec omesl ogar i t hm i cal l yi nsni t e att heA poi ntf orl i qui d He 4 . I naddi t i on, i ti si ncor r ec tt oi dent i f yt hes uper iui d c om ponent ofH e 1 1 wi t ht he par t i c l e si nt he ze r om om ent um s t at e. I nde e d, t heexc i t at i on s pe ct r um oft hei de a lBos egaspr e c l ude ss upe r Cui di t yatany l i ni t e ve l oc i t y. Thes eques t i onsar edi s c us s e di n de t ai li n Chaps .6,1 0,and 1 4,wher e we s how t hatt he i nt er pa r t i c l ei nt e r ac t i onspl ay a cr uc i alr ol ei n unde r s t andi ng t hepr ope r t i e sofquant um iui dss uc h asl i qui dHe 4 .
1F. Lo ndo n,o p.c i t . . pp. 3 9 ,1 4 3 .

sTATl sTl cAu M EcHANl cs

*s

FERM I O NS

w eno wd i s c u s sEqs .( 5 . 1 1 )a n d( 5 . 1 2 )r e f e r r i n gt oa na s s e mbl y off e r mi on s ,


whi ch s e r ve sasa m ode lf orm any phys i c als ys t em s . The bs i cequat i on i st he mean occ upat i op num be r

J= ( e # ( e f / z ) +1 ) 1
bos onsgi ve s
2 #F 2 m 1 = e l
.

( 5 . 41 )

wi t ht h eno n r e l a t i v i s t i ce n e r g ys pe c t r u m( Eq.( 5 . 1 3 ) ) ,t h es a mea n a l y s i sa sf o r

Pv= j F - j4 . z =a h
N

ee j ( r s )j ( )# .j
e 1

( 5 . 4 2 )
( 5 . 4 3 )

#- 4 2V =

g l m 1 *

cd ee b ' l , ' +1

wh e r eg i st he d e g e n e r a c yf a c t or( g= 2 f o ra s p i n Fe r mig as ) . As n o t e d
pr e vi ous l y,t heonl y di f l kr e ncebe t wee n bos onsand f er mi onsi st hemi nusorpl us

s i g ni nt h ed e n omi na t o r sofEqs . ( 5 . 4 2 )a n d( 5 . 4 3 ) . Con s i de rt h ed i s t r i bn t i o nf un c t i o na 0 . Eq u a t i on ( 5 . 41 )s h owst h a tt h e


c ondi t i on
n0 < 1

i sg u a r a n t e e df o ra l l v a l u e so fp . a n dF. I ti si n t e r e s t i ngt oi n v e r tEq . ( 5 . 4 3 )an d


det e r mi net hec he mi calpot e nt i alf orsx ed N ;t hi sf unc t i on i ss ke t c he di n Fi g.5. 1 . l nt hehi g ht emper at ur eorc l as s i c all i mi t ,weaga i n End
0 = eb n l l ' b

wh i c hi sj u s tt h ef a mi l i a r Bo l t z ma n n di s t r i b ut i o n. Un l i k et h es i t u a t i o nf or
bos ons , howev er , t her ei snot hi ngt opr e ventt hec hem i c al pot e nt i al f r om be com i ng pos i t i v east het em per at ur ei sr e duc ed;i n par t i c ul ar ,wehave
whe n e= p,

I nt he z e r ot e m per a t ur el i mi t ,t he Fe r m idi s t r i but i on r educe st o as t e pf unct i on


1 0 - . : # I ) / k e( s' r+ j r . c j e> J z e< j z
=

9 ( / z- e )

( 5 . 4 4 )

Thi sbe havi ori sr e adi l yunde r s t ood,be caus et hel owes te ner gys t at eoft hes ys t e m i sobt a i ned by fl l i ngt hee ner gy l eve l supt o
atF = 0

He ncct hec hemi ca lpot e nt i alofan i de alFe r migasatze r ot e mpe r at ur ei sa hni t e pos i t i ve number ,e qual t ot he Fe r mi e ner gy. The e qui l i br i um di s t r i but i on numbe r si nt hr eer epr e s e nt at i v ecas esar es ke t che di n Fi g.5. 3.

*e

I NTRODUCTI ON

W es hal l fr s te val uat et htpr om r t i e sofan i de alFe r migasatr= 0. Fr om

Eq s . ( 5 . 4 3 )a nd( 5 . 44 ) , t hed e ns i t yi sg i v e nb y
N

#= 0 2V

g 2- 1 #

dq : +

G ca us et he di s t r i but i on numbe ri st hen a s t e pf unct i on. Thi si nt e gr a li se as i l y eval uat ed as


N = ..c 2 - 12
I 1 T= 0
1

# 4 .2 j 2 - #
F> ( ) J t> 0
1

( 5 . 45 )
T -'+ x : 1-+ -=

i '

r e M &s

#' -< F .( F) Fi g.B. 3 Ahe ma t i c di s t r i but i on f u n c t i ons a ( e )f o ra ni d e a lFe r mig a sa tv a r i ous


t emN at ur o.

whi ch may% i nv er t t dt o *nd t heFer mie ner g y

o a:x aN 1 R 2 k ; e ,- AT = 0 )= # S i' P =2 m
ort heFe r miwave numa r k 6 .2N 1 F= gF Si mi l ar l y,t heene r gyi sobt ai ned f r om E g 2 - 1 # g 2- 12

( 5 . 4 6 )

( 5 . 47 )

' P= 4 qe l= 4 =2 V ;d =2 V Ac omb i n a t i o nwi t h Eq. ( 5 . 45 )y i e l ds N= j s= :e s


-

. k y
( 5 . 4 8 ) ( 5 . 4 9 4 )
( 5 . 4 9 : )

Fi n a l l y, t h ee q u at i o no fs t a t e( 5 . 4 2 ) Gc o me s PV= J F = qN F

P = l ( 6 -2 g * j 1 i h ; 2 i j x V j 1

STATI STI CAL M ECHANI CS

47

whi ch s how st ha ta Fer migase xer t sasni t epr es s ur eatz er ot em per at ur e . Thi s r es ul tar i s esbec aus et he Paul ipr i nci pl er equi r e st hatt he m om e nt um s t at esbe sl l e d up t ot he Fer m imoment um,and t hes e hi gherm ome nt um s t at esexe r ta pr es s ur eon t hewal l sofany c ont ai ne r . W enow t ur nt os mal lbutsni t et e m pe r at ur e ,whe r et hedi mc ul tpar ti st he

i nv e r s i o no f Eq. ( 5 . 4 3 )t od e t e r mi net hec he mi c a l po t e n t i a l i nt e r mso ft h et o t a l n u mb e r ofp a r t i c l e s . De sn et h ev a r i a b l e x> ( e- J z l / ks r. Eq ua t i on ( 5 . 4 2 )


m ay t hen ber e wr i t t enas

P p ' 2 J 4 K . n V . j ( 2 ? j 2 ( k s r ) 1 j ' o v ' k . r d x Z 6 e 6 x % + q 1 . T . ) %


i nt er es t e di nt hel i mi t= . + .: v . . Cons i dert hei nt e gr al
.

( 5 . 5 0 )

I ti sa l s oc on v e n i e ntt oi nt r o d u c e=H J z / / c s r;s i n c ep ti sl i n i t ea sF > . . 0 ,wea r e

f ( ) -J . d xe x . j j-J . d xe x i +J o d x e x s . 1 -

( x+ a ) 1

( =+ . x ) l '

x ( z. # . x) 1

The change of v ar i abl e x*-x i nt he f i r s ti nt e gr aland us e of t he i dent i t y

( e x+ 1 ) -1 H 1- ( e x+ . 1 ) 1 y i e l d I l

x j =j o d x ( a -x ) ! ' +j f j d x

( a+ x ) 1- ( a- x ) l '

e x . 4 . j +J z d xt a x o j .

x ( a- v ) 1

Thel as tt e r mi se xponent i al l ys ma l li nt hel i mi tofl a r ge( x, and wec anappr oxi m at e t henumer a t ori nt hes e c ond i nt e gr alas

As t r a i g h t f o r wa r dc a l c u l a t i o n( s e e App e n d i x A)t h e r e f o r eg i v e st h ea s y mpt o t i c


e xpans i on

( 5 . 5 2 )

Not ' et hat t hi sr es ul tgi ve s #P ' ( r, 1 ' . / 2 ) ,B' hi c h ar et he pr ope rt her modq ' nam i c
var i abl esf ort het her m odyna mi cpot e nt i al . Thec or r e ct i ont er msi nt hi seqt l at i on

( i n di c a t e db ydo t s )a r eo fhi g he ro r de ri n7 2a n dt hu sne g l i g i b l et ot h ep r e s e n t


or de r . The num ber of par t i cl e sc an be det e r mi ne di m m edi at e l yf r om t hi sexpr e s x=

j P ( # P / z F ' ) j w z = 4 t % * V j z ' V z z l j l J 2 g s o . ( z . s w ) c j = / . , l 1 . + . .

4:

I NTRODUCTI ON

I fN/ P 'i sr e wr i t t e ni nt e r mso ft heFe r mie n e r g yf su s i ng Eq.( 5 . 4 6 )weh a v e


*2I kul' jl 1

J z =e s1 +yj' s)+' '.


whi c h m ay bes ol v ed f orJ zasa powers e r i esi n7 2
, p . 2k w z #' = t B ' 1- i j s F + .. .

( 5 . 5 5 )
( 5 . 5 6 )

Th ee n t r op yc a nb ed e t e r mi n e df r o m Eq. ( 5 . 5 3 ) byd i f l k r e nt i a t i n ga t /x e #Va n dg

s ( r , p , p . ) ( 0 ( a P w P ' ) j z s 4 # . n P a ' ( 2 s ? j 2 J j 2 4 = 2 : j w s + + . . . j
p a r t i c ul a r , s u bs t i t u t i onofEq. ( 5 . 5 6 )y i e l ds
.

( 5 . j 7 )
( 5 . 5 8 )

Si nceS i sat her m odynam i cf unc t i on,i tm ay be e xpr es s e di n any va r i abl e s' ,i n
ksr *2

& ( r, v . N) = Nks fF j ' es ,. 2 k r

t ol owe s tor deri n F. W ec an t husc omput et he he atc apaci t yf r om t her e l at i on

c v r t aj s s , j . y k . 2 s
whi ch gi ve s

( 5 . 5 9 )

mj . 2N s p r! . Cr ; i, = S= / ? a 6 VF x ..

( 5 . 6 0 )

N ot et hatt he hea tc apa ci t yf ora Fe r m igasatl ow t e m pe r at ur ei sl i neari nt he t e m per a t ur e. I nc ont r as t , at hi gh t e mp er at ur e. whe r e Bol t z m ann s t at i s t i cs

a p p l y , t h eh e a tc a pa c i t yo fap e r f e c t( Bo s eo rFe r mi )g a si s C ) . > . j Nku T> . : t )

( 5 . 6 1 )

and t he he atc apaci t y ofan i de alFer m igasatal lt e m per a t ur e si si ndi c at e di n Fi g.5. 4. N ot et hata Fer m igashas no di s cont i nui t i e si nt he t her m odynam i c var i abl esatany t e m per at ur e.

Fi g.6. 4 Cons t ant vol ume heatcapaci t y ofan i dealFer migas .

srATl sTl cAu M EcHANl cs

4:

The noni nt er act i ng Fer m igas f or m sa us ef ulsr s tappr oxi mat i on i nt he t heor y ofm et al s ,i nt het heor y ofl i qui d H e3 ,i ns t udi e sofnuc l e ars t r uc t ur e ,and e ve nf orunder s t andi ng s uch di v er s e phenome na ast he s t r uc t ur eofwhi t e dwar f and ne ut r on s t ar s . Fora de t a i l e d under s t andi ngoft hebe havi oroft he s em anybody a s s e m bl i es ,howe ve r ,wem us ti nc l udet hei nt e r ac t i onsbet we ent hepar t i c l es , whi c hf or mst hece nt r alpr obl em oft hi sbook. PRO BLEM S 2. 1. Pr ovet ha tt hee nt r opy ofan i dea lqua nt um gasi sgi ve n by

S= -ks) (l n 2 l nn ?7 F : ( 1+ n 3 ) l n( 1: ! u a y ) ) i
wh e r et h eu pp e r ( l o we r )s i g n s r e f e rt obo s o ns ( f e r mi on s ) . Fi n dt h ec or r e s po nd i n g
e xpr e s s i on f orBol t zmann s t at i s t i cs . Pr ovet hatt he i nt e r na le ner g yi s gi ve n by

E= j l E f n f o ra l lt h r e ec a s e s .
f

2. 2. Gi v e nt he e n e r g ys p e c t r um e p= R#c ) 2+ z n c 4 ) 1> . p c( p> . . c c ) ) ,p r o v e


t hatan ul t r ar el at i vi s t i ci de algass at i s sest heequat i on ofs t at ePV = E/ ? wher e Ei st het o t a le n e r g y. t co mpa r ewi t hEqs . ( 5 . 1 9 )a n d( 5 . 4 2 ) . )
2. 3. Show t hatt he r ei sno Bos e Ei ns t e i nconde ns at i on atanysni t et e mpe r at ur e f ora t wodi me ns i onali de alBos e gas .

2. 4. Co ns i d e r a ni d e a l g a s i nac u bi c a l b ox( P ' = L3 ) wi t ht heb ou n da r yc o n d i t i on


t hatt hes i ngl epa r t i c l ewavef unc t i on vani s h att hewa l l s .

( J ) Fi n dt he d e n s i t yo fs t a t e s .I nt he t h e r mo d y na mi cI i mi t ,s h o wt h a tt h e
t he r modynami cf unc t i onsf orbot h bos onsand f e r mi onsr educet ot hos eobt ai ned i n Se c.5 .

( : ) Di s c us st h eo ns e tofBos ec o n de ns a t i on a n dc o mp ut et h ep r o pe r t i e sf o r F<L .
2. 5. W hen a met ali she at e dt oa s u ci ent l y hi gh t e m pe r a t ur e,e l e c t rons a r e emi t t e df r om t he m e t als ur f a c e and can be col l ec t ed as t he r mi oni cc ur r e nt . As s um i ngt heel ec t r onsf or m anoni nt er a ct i ng Fe r m igas ,der i vet heR i c har ds on-

Dus hma ne qu a t i o nl f o rt he c ur r e nti= ( 4 =e mkTl ( h 2 ) e W' ' k B T wh e r e! # 'i s


t h e wo r kf un c t i o nf o rt h e me t a l ( i . e . ,t h ee n e r g yn e c e s s a r yt or e mo v ea n e l e c t r on ) .

2. 6. Pr o v et ha t t h ep a r a ma g n e t i cs p i ns u s c e pt i b i l i t yof af r e eFe r mi g a so f s p i n !

pa r t i c l e sa t F= 0 i sg i v e n by y ( F= 0 )= j . L 2 m( h 2 k ; ) y , j NJ V wh e r ey , oi st h e
magne t i c m oment of one of t he par t i c l e s . Der i ve t he cor r es pondi ng hi gh-

t e mp e r a t u r er e s u l ty ( F+ . c c ) ) =S X i N/ I C B TV.
'S. Du s hma n, Re v . . M' t l # . Ph ys . . 2: 3 81( 1 93 0 ) .

so

I NTRODUCTI ON

2. 7. For a sr s t appr oxi m at i on t oa t om i c nucl ei ,cons i der t he nuc l eus a sa dege ner at enoni nt e r ac t i ng Fe r m igasofneut r onsand pr ot ons .

( t 8 Wh a ti st h ede g e n e r a c yf a c t o rf o re a c hl e v e l ? ( : )I ft h er a d i u so fa n u c l e u swi t h, 4 nu c l e on si sg i v e nb yR= r c Wlwi t hr c =


1 . 2x 1 0-1 3cm ,whatar eksand e r? H ow do t he yvar ywi t hW ?

( c )W h a t i st h epr e s s ur ee x e r t e db yt h i sFe r mi g a s ? ( #)l fe a c hnu c l e oni sc o ns i d e r e dt ob emo vi n gi nac on s t a n tpo t e n t i a lo fde p t h P r c , h o wl a r g emus tL b e? ( e )Atwha t t e mp e r a t u r ewi l l t h en u c l e u s a c t l i k eac ol l e c t i ono f pa r t i c l e sd e s c r i b e d
by Bol t z m ann s t at i s t i cs?

2. 8. A s a m ode l of a whi t edwar fs t ar ,c ons i de r an e l e ct r i ca l l y neut r algas

c omp o s e doff u l l yi o ni z e dHe( ap a r t i c l e s )a n dd e g e n e r a t ee l e c t r o n s . ( c )Wr i t et h ee qu a t i o no fI o c a lh y d r o s t at i ce q u i l i b r i u mi nt hel owd e ns i t y( no n r e l a t i v i s t i ce l e c t r o ng a s ) a n dh i g h de n s i t y( r e l a t i v i s t i ce l e c t r o ng a s ) l i mi t sa s s u mi n g


an i de alFe r m is ys t e m.

( b )He n c e :n de x p r e s s i on sf o rt h ed e n s i t yp ( r )a n dt h er e l a t i o n M =M( Rj
bet we e nt het ot almas sM and t her adi usR oft hes t ar .

( c )S ho wt h e r ee x i s t sama x i mu m ma s sM m a xc o mp a r a b l ewi t ht h es ol a rma s s


M e. Expl ai nt hephys i csofwhyt hi si ss o.

( #)Ch e c kt he i n i t i a lmo d e lu s i n gt h et y p i c a lp a r a me t e r so f a wh i t ed wa r f pq $1 0 7g / c m 3; k ; 1 0 7 p e,M ; k : 1 0 3 3 g; k ; M esc e n t r a lt e mp e r a t ur e; k ; 1 07 O K$ 1 rz.


N ot et hef ol l owi ngr es ul t sobt ai ned by num er i c ali nt e gr at i on: l

T' ( 0 ) -0 ; /( 1 ) -0

) 1 ' i k # t ( y a . # d . J ( j y g i m p l i e s y , t l j ) ; = j , y s . a ' ft j a a o y
a -

f, ( 0 ) -0 , ' . / . ( 1 ) -0 1

P 1 W d ( y c d f ( ) . y 3 ) i m p l i e s y , ( o 6 . 8 9 , 7 ft l ' l -2 . 0 1 8

lL.D.Landau and E.M .Li f s hi t z,o p.ci t . ,s e e c.1 06.

part 1w o

Gr ou nd state

( Zer ot em per atur e)


Fo rm al i sm

3 el d T heor y Gr een' s Functi ons and Fi

( Fer mi ons)

I n m os tc as es ofi nt e r e s t ,t he Nr s tf ew or der s of per t ur bat i on t heor y cannot pr ovi de an a de quat e des cr i pt i on of an i n t e r a ct i ng m anypar t i c l es s t e m . For t hi sr e as on,i tbe com ese s s e nt i alt o dev el op s ys t e ma t i cme t hodsf ors ol vi ng t he Schr di ngerequat i on t o a1 1or de r si n per t ur bat i on t he or y.

6LPI CTURES

Asa pr e l i mi nar ys t e p,wes hal li nt r oduc et hr e ei mpor t an:pi ct ur e s( Schr di nger ,


i nt e r ac t i on,and Hei s enber g)t hatar e us e f uli n anal y zi ngt he s e c ondquant i ze d

f o r mo ft h eS c h r d i n g e re q u at i on( Eq s . ( 1 . 41 )a n d( 1 . 6 0 ) J .
SCHRDI NGER PI CTURE Theus ualel ement ar y de s c r i pt i on ofquant um m e chani c sas s um e st hatt he s t at e ve ct or sar et i m ede pendent .wher east heoper at or sar et i m ei ndepe ndentand ar e
53

5 4

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EMPE RATURE )F ORMALI SM

cons t r uc t e d by t he f a mi l i ar r ul e sf r om t he cor r es pondi ng c l as s i c alquant i t i e s . TheSchr di nge re quat i on t he r e f or et a ke st hef or m

i hj jI ' I s ( ? ) )- W' $ : Fs ( / ) )

? ,

( 6 . 1 )

wh e r e. f ? . ' i sa s s u me dt oh a v eno e x p l i c i tt i mede p e n d e n c e .S i n c eEq .( 6 . 1 )i sa


hr s t or de rdi f l kr e nt i ale quat i on,t hei ni t i als t at e att odet e r mi ne st he s ubs e que nt be hav i or ,and af or m als ol ut i on i sr e adi l yobt ai ne d by wr i t i ng

1 ' 1 ' s ( r ) )- e i Wf ' t : ' / 9 l ' l ' s ( f p)

( 6 . 2 )

Her et he expone nt i al of an ope r at or i s de f i ne di nt er m s of i t s powe r s e r i es

e x p a n s i o n. Fur t h e r mor e ,X i sh e r mi t i a ns ot h a tt h ee x p on e n t i a lr e p r e s e n t sa
uni t ar y oper a t or . Gi ve nt he s ol ut i on t ot he Sc hr di nge requat i on att he t i me

t o ,t h eu ni t a r yt r a n s f o r ma t i o ni nEq. ( 6 . 2 )g e n e r a t e st h es o l u t i o na tt i met .
I NTERACTI O N PI CTURE

As s um e ,asi sus ual l yt heca s e,t hatt heham i l t oni an i st i m ei ndependentand c an bee xpr es s e da st he s um oft wo t e r ms

X = Xt l + X1 ( 6. 3 ) wh e r eXta c t i n ya l on ey i e l dsa s o l u b l ep r o bl e m. Ho wc a n wen ow i n c l u d ea I l


t he e f l kct s of S l ? Deine t he i nt er ac t i on s t a t ev ec t or i nt he f ol l ow i ng way

( ' t 1 , ' s ( ? ' ) )M e i n z ' / 9 t t ' l 7 s ( J ) )

( 6 . 4 )

whi chi sm e r e l yauni t ar yt r ans f or m at i on c ar r i e d outatt het i m ez . Theequat i on ofmot i on oft hi ss t at evec t ori seas i l yf ound by c ar r y i ngoutt he t i meder i va t i ve

, y s j v( ) )+ : / / ? ; , / , m Pj i h I ' I ' ; ( ? ) )=-. f %e a x/ j jv st t l )


? . j s

=e k z t l h L l h +#( j +#j ) e t / l e f / A j N p I ( , ) )
and we t her e f or eobt ai nt hef ol l owi ngs etofe quat i onsi nt hei nt e r ac t i on pi c t ur e

i h 1 . 1 . , ( ? ) )- . ? ?j ( r ) 1 ' . I r , ( , ) ) '
z ; l ( ? )- e i B z t l ' i1 e f n e e / .

( 6 . 5 )

I ng e n e r a l ,/ % do e sno tc o mmut ewi t hX1 .s ot ha tt h ep r o p e ro r d e ro ft he s e


ope r at or si sve r yi m por t ant . An ar bi t r ar y mat r i xe l emcnti nt he Schr di nge r pi c t ur e may be wr i t t e n as

( ' l ' ' s ' ( ? ) 1 :s I ' 1 ' s ( r ) )- ( ' l ' J ( / ) I e i 4 : l ' .dse f /e l ' ' I ' I ' z ( f ) )

( 6 . 6)

GRE EN' SF UNC TI ONS AND F I EL D THEORY ( F E RMI ONS ) s 5 whi ch s ugge s t st hef ol l owi ng desni t i on ofan oper at ori nt hei nt e r ac t i on pi ct ur e

oz ( , ) .e k n o t t h ose f n a t / , ( 6 . p Equ a t i o n s( 6 . 4 )a nd ( 6 . 7 )s ho wt h a tt h eo p e r a t or sO ( t )a nd t h es t a t e v e c t o r s1 k F ' z ( / ) )b o t hde p e n do nt i mei nt h ei n t e r a c t i o np i c t u r e . Thei mp o r t a nt


poi nthe r ei st hatt he t i m e depe nde nce oft he oper at or si spa r t i cul a r l ys i m pl e.

Di f l kr e n t i a t eEq. ( 6 . 7 )wi t hr e s p e c tt ot i me . n ! / , osJ i hP :, ( ? )- e t ( , ( ? . . o- J ' o os ) : ( J ? : f / ,


.

--

( t ) , ( r ) , z ? c 1

( 6. 8 )

H er et he t i mei ndepende nc e oft he Schr di nge r oper at orhasbee n us ed al ong wi t ht heobs e r va t i ont hatanyf unc t i onofanope r at orc om m ut eswi t ht heope r at or

i t s e l f . Co n s i d e rar e pr e s e n t a t i o ni n wh i c h Xoi sd i a g o n a l .

J %-j g h kc l c k k
Thet i m ede pendenc eoft hecr ea t i onandde s t r uc t i onoper at or si nt hei nt e r ac t i on pi ct ur ec an bede t er mi ne df r om t hedi f l kr ent i a lequa t i on

i h& c k z ( ? )- e l ? ( ' , y s E c k s , p( ) j e t a v t / s .y j .: c g g l t )
whi c hi se as i l ys ol ve dt o yi e l d

J .

C k f ( f ) =C k e ' t l ? k a l o n gwi t hi t sa d j o i n t

( 6. 1 0 J ) ( 6 . 1 0 )

c l k l ( / )=4e a ' . f

Thus t he t i m e occ ur s onl yi n a com pl e x phas ef a ct or ,whi c h me ans t hat t he

op e r a t orpr op e r t i e so fhl t )a n dc 1 ( r )a r ej u s tt h es a mea si nt heSc h r di n g e r pi c t u r e .l np a r t i c u l a r ,t h ec o mmu t a t i on r e l a t i on so fc ka n dc la r es i mpl yt h e


canoni calone sf r om Cha p.1 . Fur t her m or e,an y ope r at ori nt he Sc hr di nge r

pi c t u r ema yb ee x pr e s s e di nt e r mso ft h ec o mp l e t es e tc ka n dc 1 . a ndt hec o r r e s pondi ng ope r at ori nt he i nt er act i on pi ct ur ei s obt a i ned wi t ht he s ubs t i t ut i on

c k+ . c k g l t ) , c l+ . t i( ? ) . Th i sl a s tr e s u l tf o l l o wsf r o mt h ei d e n t i t y
1= : f R( ) t l he k R( ) t l h

whi ch m a y bei ns e r t e d bet we e n eac h ope r at ori nt heSchr di ngerpi c t ur e. w es hal l now t r yt os ol vet heequat i onsofm ot i on i nt hei nt e r ac t i onpi ct ur e. D esne a uni t a r y oper a t or 1 . ' 1 . ( / , / : )t h a tde t e r mi n e st h es t a t ev e c t o ra tt i me ti n t er m soft he s t a t ev ec t oratt he t i m et v .

I ' l ' z ( ? ) )- t ' J ' ( ? , J ( )! ' Fz ( ? o ) )

5 6

GROUNDS TATE ( ZEROT EMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

Ev i d e n t l y ,( ' )mus ts a t i s f yt her e l a t i on 0( / 0 . / 0 )= l ( 6 . 1 2 ) Forh ni t et i me sL ' / l t s t z )c a nb ec o n s t r u c t e de x pl i c i t l yb yus i ngt h eS c h r d i ng e r


pi c t ur e:

1 : 1 C , ( / ) )- e ' J ? ' e f / ' I ' l ' s ( ! ) )- e ' * n ' / ' e ' 9 t ' ' n ' / ' 1 T, ( f : ) ) =e f / 1 : 1 / h ' t / ? ( t t ( ) ) / e 4 Ro t ( ) / h t ' t j p . J ( / ( ) ; j
whi ch t he r ef or ei dent i ses

pL t .0 t)z c z o i n . o t / , e f n ( t t ( ) ) / , : e i J ) t l t o ) p j t j i n j t et j me s ) ( 6. 1 3 ) S i n c eX a ndXodono tc o mmut ewi t he a c ho t h e r , t h eor d e ro ft h eo pe r a t o r smus t b ec a r e f u l l y ma i n t a i n e d. Eq ua t i on ( 6 . 1 3 )i mme di a t e l yy i e l dss e v e r a lg e n e r a l p r o p e r t i e sofP t ' ) ' t ( ? , / . ( ) )f ; ( / . , / 0 )- L ' l l t n t o )6 1 ( / , / 0 )- 1
whi ch i mpl i est hatL ' /i suni t ar y:

t ' ) t ( ? , / o )- r 71 ( r , / ( ) ) P( / 1 , / c )Cl t z , t s s- P( ? 1 ' / 3 ) wh i c hs ho wst h a tP h a st h eg r ou pp r o p e r t y , a n d 0( / , / 0 )Cl t t n t j= 1


whi c hi m pl i est hat

( 6 . 1 4 ) ( 6 . 1 5 )

P( f a , r )= I l ' jt , t z j

( 6. 1 6 )

Al t ho ug h Eq.( 6 . 1 3 )i st h ef o r ma ls o l u t i on t ot h ep r o bl e m po s e db y Eq. ( 6. 1 l ) , i t i s no t v e r yus e f u l f o r c omp ut a t i o n a l pu r p os e s .I n s t e a dwes ha l l c o ns t r uc t a ni n t e g r a le q ua t i o nf or0,wh i c hc a nt h e nbes ol v e db yi t e r a t i on .I ti sc l e ar f r om Eqs . ( 6 . 5 )a n d( 6 . 1 1 )t ha t0 s a t i s s e sadi fe r e n t i a l e qu a t i o n

i h& I ' ) ( r , ? a )= P1 ( / )I / ' l t t t


l nt e gr at et hi se quat i on f r om t ot ot

( 6 . 1 7 )

Cl t i 'd f ) l- I / ' l t o v t o j= -j t ' Xj ( / ' ' )t /l t , , G) ,t


r e

Th i sr e s u l t ,c o mb i n e d wi t ht h eb ou n da r yc o n di t i o n( 6 . 1 2 ) ,yi e l dsa ni nt e g r a l
e quat i on

r 7( ? ,r a )- 1- i j td t ' 4j ( / ' )t ' ) ' ( / ' , t o 4


r c

( 6 . 1 8 )

GRE EN' SF UNGT I ONS AND F I E LD THE ORY ( FE RM I ONS)

67

l fP we r eac n umb e rf un c t i o n, Eq . ( 6 . 1 8 ) wou l db eaVo l t e r r ai n t e g r a l e qu a t i o n,


be c aus et he i ndepe ndentvar i abl e tappe ar s ast he upperl i mi t oft he i nt egr al . Under ve r y br oa d condi t i ons Vol t er r a equa t i ons may be s ol v ed by i t er at i on, and t he s ol ut i on i sguar ant e ed t oc onver ge,no mat t e r how l ar ge t he ker ne l . ' The r ei sno as s ur anc et hatt hepr es e ntope r a t ore quat i on hast hes a mepr ope r t i e s;

ne v e r t h e l e s swes h a l l a t t e mpt t os o l v eEq. ( 6 . l 8 )b yi t e r a t i o n, a l wa y sma i n t a i n i n g


t hepr ope ror der i ngoft he ope r at or s . Thes ol ut i on t hust akest hef or m

Cons i dert het hi r dt er mi nt hi se xpans i on. l tmay b er ewr i t t e n as

J ' e j s , j t ' o d t , pi ( , , ) sj ( / , ) -' l ' j ' t o d t ' j ' o ' # ? ' t k ; t ' ) I ' j l t ' ) +! . j t , a t s : ' / ' . f , ' d t ' . 4 1 ( / . ' ) . ? l ( r , ' )( 6 . 2 0 )
s i n c et h el a s tt e r mo nt h er i g h ti sj u s to bt a i ne db yr e v e r s i n gt heo r de ro ft he
i nt e gr at i ons,a si l l us t r at e di n Fi g.6. 1. W enow chang edum m yvar i abl e si nt hi s

F i g.6. 1 l n t e g r a t i on r e g i on sf o rs e c on do r de r

t e r mi n Ol t . f c ) .

s e c o n dt e r m, i n t e r c ha ng i ngt h el a b e l sf ' a ndf ' . a ndt h es e c on dt e r m ofEq . ( 6 . 2 0 )


t he r e f or ebe c om e s

The s et wo t er m sm aynow ber e com bi ned t o gi ve

y ( j d tj j ( t ) j y j y j j y t j d t( j , . # j j , ) .j j t # / . , s j t # y ,
,
.

t'

, ,

x( . / / . l ( t ' ) f . ? ' I ( r ' ) 0 ( t ' -t ' )+ I k l t ' ). / . 3 1 ( / ' )0 ( t n- t z ) )


lSee,f or exampl e.F.Smi t hi t s.t i lnt e gr alEquat i ons , ' 'p.31,Cambr i dge Uni ver si t y Pr es s, Ca mbr i d ge ,1 9 6 2.

'

s:

GHOUNDST AT E( ZE ROTE MP ERATURE )F ORMALI SM

wh e r et h es t e pf un c t i on( E q. ( 3 . 2 8 ) )i se s s e n t i a l b e c a u s et h eop e r a t o r sX: don ot n e c e s s a r i l yc ommu t ea tdi f l kr e n tt i me s . Eq u a t i on( 6 . 21 )h a st hec h a r a c t e r i s t i c


f e at ur et hatt he ope r at orc ont ai ni ng t he l a t es tt i mes t ands f ar t hes tt ot he l ef t .

Wec a l lt h i sat i me o r d e r e dpr o d u c t o fo pe r a t o r s . d e n ot e db yt h es y mb ol r. Th u s Eq. ( 6 . 21 )u a nber e wr i t t e na s ' t , r vj yk t j j , . t * t ( -# ? ( -# J ( ? ) , ( ? ) -. ! . # , , r p j. j t, j yj p , j j ( 6 . j g j

. ' l ( ). ' t ( )
. . L J

.c l 'J , ( , d tr E. ( ? )! (
,.

Thi sr e s u l t i sr e a di l yg e n e r a l i z e d, a ndt h er e s u l t i n ge x p an s i onf orC' b e c o me s


X
' -. -

( f a / ( ) )=
n =0

h ' 1 ' ' f / f )' 1 ! t ( ) .

i l r

.n

' .

( 6. 2 3 )

whe r et h e? ? = 0t e r mi sj us tt heu ni top e r a t o r . ' Th ep r o ofo t -Eq.( 6. 2 3 )i sa s


f ol l ows . Cons i de rt hent ht er mi nt hi ss er i e s . Ther ear en! pos s i bl et i m eor de r i ngs oft he I abel st I .' 't n . Pi ck a par t i cul arone,s ay,J l' >r c> ? a . ' .> ? , , . A ny

ot h e rt i meor de r i n ggi v e st hes a mec o n t r i bu t i o nt o P. Th i sr e s u l ti se a s i l ys e e n


bJ 'r el abel i ng t he dum m y i nt e gr at i on var i abl es t it o agr ee wi t ht he pr evi ous or der i ng.and t hen us i ng t he s ym met r y oft he r pr oduc tunderi nt er change of i t sar gument s:
. .
.

l Ij l t j l
.

( 6. 2 4) Eqt l a t i on ( 6. 2 4) f ol l ows f r om t he de ni t i on of -t he F pr oduc t .w' hi ch put st he


ope r at oratt he l a t es tt i m ef a r t hes tt ot he l ef t , t he oper at oratt he ne xtl at es tt i me ne xt .and s o on,s i nc et hepr es cr i pt i on hol dsequal l y w' e l lf orbot hs i de sofEq.

( 6 . 2 4 ) .I nt hi swa y , Eq . ( 6 . 2 3 )r e p r o du c e st h ei t e r a t e ds e r i e so fEq . ( 6 . 1 9 ) .
HEI SENBERG PI CTU RE

The s t at eve ct ori nt he Hei s e nbe r g pi ct ur ei sdesne d as

1 k I . H( t ) 'E Eei J ? ' ' 91 5 1/ ). ( 6. 25 ) $( l t st i meder i vat i v emaybecombi nedB' i t ht heSc hr di nge requat i on( 6. l )t oyi el d
.

i h& T V I s ( / ). =0

P .

( 6 . 2 6 )

whi c hs how' st hat ! V l . * s' . i st i m ei nde pendent . Si nc e an ar bi t r ar y m at r i x el ement i nt he Schr di ng erpi ct ur ec an be w r i t t en a s

v ) j a t j y j j Qs, ! l . j * ) j , j . m . a. . u y4 p g e i / 1 t j h psy y i J ) t h k j . l , s s l f . h ( ny
.

( 6 g y j .

1Equ a t i on( 6. 2 3 )i ss o me t i me swr i t t e na sa f o r ma lt i me or d e r e de xp on e n t i a l

( / 6 / , ? : ) F f t e x p g l ' ' . ( , ' 0 d t ' . 4 , ( ? ' ) j l /


s i n c et h ep owe r s e r i e se x p an s i o nr e p r o du c e sEq. ( 6. 2 3 )t e r m byt e r m.

QK= m b -cX
A=. T Y:

>

GRE EN' SF UNCT I ONS AND F I E LD T HE ORY ( F ERM I ONS)

59

a gene r aloper at ori nt he H e i s enber g pi ct ur ei sgi v en b y

oz f ( / )u se i pt : osp f / ? f h ( j . g g ) No t et h a t OH ( t ) i sac o mp l i c a t e dob j e c t s i n c eX a n dOs i ng e n e r a l d ono t c o mmut e .


we s e et hat t he H e i s enber g pi c t ur e as cr i be s a1 1t he t i me /dependenc et ot he ope r at or s , wher eas t he cor r es pondi ng s t at e ve ct or s ar et i me i ndependent . l n

c ont r as t ,t he ope r at ort ) si nt he Sc hr di nge r pi c t ur ei st i me i ndependent ,and t het i mede r i v at i veofEq.( 6. 28)yi e l ds

P s , / , os y y j e-i at f h= j i h) -Ov q t ) =e i g , ywt / j s sj


r

Thi si m por t antr e s ul tdet e r mi nest heequa t i on ofm ot i on ofany oper at ori nt he

He i s e n b e r gpi c t ur e .I np a r t i cu l a r . i f t ' h sc ommu t e s wi t hX, t h er i g ht s i d ev a ni s h e s i dent i cal l y.and Ou i sa c ons t antoft hemot i on. Equa t i on ( 6. 28)c an be r ewr i t t en i nt e r msofi nt e r ac t i onpi ct ur e oper at or s ( Eq. ( 6 . 7 ) q OJ f ( / 1= P i / ? t / : t ' i J ? o t / hO1 ( t ) ( y f z ' ? ( ) : / C ? i J 1 t t ' h ( 6 ' 3 ( j ) a n dt hef o r ma ls ol u t i o nf ort h eo p e r a t orC ' g Eq. ( 6 . 1 3 ) 1 y i e l d s H ( ? )- I ; r ( ( ) , ? )O, ( t 4t ) / ( ? , 0 )
l n addi t i on.t hevar i ousde hni t i onss how t hat

1 . I . ' H ' , =I Y 1 S ( 0 ) ' . =1 . V 1 ' * . f ( 0 ) ' z ' Os- :s ( 0 )- ; ( 0 )


s ot hatal lt hr e e pi c t ur esc oi nc i deatt het i me t= 0. Thes t at i onar ys ol ut i onst o t he Sc hr di nge re quat i on hav e a de f i ni t ee ne r gy,and t he cor r es pondi ng s t at e ve ct or si nt he H e i s enber g pi c t ur es at i s f y t he t i me i nde pende nt f or m of t he Schr di ngere quat i on
.

J ?1 ' ' 1 s -E ' i n ' .

Thes es t at e ve c t or s ar et he r ef or et he exac te i ge n st at e s of t he s ys t e m and ar e

n a t u r a l l yv e r yc o mpl i c a t e df o ra ni n t e r a c t i n gs ys t e m. Eq ua t i on ( 6 . 3 2 )a n dt h e de s ni t i o no ft h eo pe r a t o rC ' t o g e t he rl e a dt ot h er e l a t i o n I ' l j . * H' xc ml : t j . q ( ( ) j u= S ; ( 0'y ( ; j ; V j . > j ( y ( ; j ' y ( 6 . y 4 j ; 1


.

w hi ch al l owsust o cons t r uett hes e ex actei gens t at e sf r om t he i nt er ac t i on s t at e

v e c t or sa tt h et i met owi t ht h eun i t a r yo pe r a t o rC L


ADI A BATI C ' ' SW I TCHI NG ON' '

Thenot i onofs wi t chi ngont hei nt e r ac t i onadi abat i c al l yr e pr es ent sam at he m at i c al dev i c et hatge ner a t ese xac te i g ens t at e soft hei nt e r ac t i ng s ys t e mf r om t hos eoft he

e 0 GROUNDST AT E( ZE ROTEMPEB AT URE )F ORMAL I SM noni nt e r ac t i ng s ys t e m . Si nc ewepr e s umabl yknow al la boutt henoni nt e r ac t i ng s ys t e m ,f ore xampl e ,t hegr ound s t at e ,t hee xci t ed s t at e s ,e t c . ,t hi spr oce dur el et s us f ol l ow t he de ve l opme ntofea ch ei gens t at e as t he i nt e r a ct i on bet we en t he par t i c l e si ss wi t che d on. Spe ci sc al l y, we i nt r oduce a new t i me de pendent ham i l t oni an

X = Pn+ e f I ' l Pl

( 6 . 3 5 )

whe r e 6i sa s mal lpos i t i ve quant i t y. Atv er yl ar get i mes ,bot hi nt hepas tand

i nt h ef u t u r e ,t h eha mi l t on i a nr e du c e st oJ %, whi c hpr e s e n t sas o l u bl ep r o bl e m.


Att het i me / = 0,X b e c o me st hef u l lha mi l t o n i a n oft hei nt e r a c t i n gs y s t e m.
I fet e ndst oze r o att heend oft hecal cul a t i on,t hepe r t ur bat i on i st ur ne d onand of l -i nsni t e l ys l owl y,or adi abat i c al l y,and any me ani ngf ulr e s ul t mus t be i nde pe nde ntoft hequant i t ye .

Theh a mi l t o n i a n( 6. 3 5 )pr e s e n t sa t i me d e p e n d e n tp r o bl e mt h a . tde p e n d s


on t hepar am e t erE . ,and wes ha l ls e ek as ol ut i oni nt hei nt e r a ct i on pi ct ur e . lti s

r e a d i l yv e r i f e dt h a tEq s . ( 6 . 1 7 )a n d( 6 . 2 3 )r e ma i nc o r r e c te v e n wh e n Pl i st i me
depe nde nti nt he Schr di ngerpi c t ur e,and wei mme di a t e l yobt ai n

( ' l ' z ( / ) )- L . ' E ( f . G) t ' l ' l ( G) )


-( r , / . ( ) ) ,. &, td t k.-. , d t n , , . j ) n ! t , ( n=0 Q j
-

( 6 . 3 6 )

whe r et he t i me de ve l opme ntoper at orde pendse xpl i c i t l y on e and i s gi ve n by


, . o

n1 i i'

xe f ( l t l l +. '' + I r , I ) Fg / l ' j L t j ) ...J ) j ( / j ) j

No wl e tt h et i met oa p pr oa c h-c o; Eq . ( 6. 3 5 )s ho wst h a t# t h e na pp r o a c he sJ %.


I nt hi sl i mi t ,t heSc hr di nger pi ct ur es t at eve c t orr e duc est o

l Ts ( G) )= e ' f n ' Q / I *( ) ) ( 6 . 3 8 ) wh e r e( *0 )i ss o met i me i n d e p e nd e n ts t a t i on a r ye i g e ns t a t eoft h eun p e r t u r b e d


ha mi l t on i a n 4: Xa I *0 )- . QI *( ) )
and t hec or r es pondi ngi nt er a ct i onpi c t ur es t at eve c t orbec om e s

( 6 . 3 9 )

1 Tz ( G) )- e f Nn t 0 / ' 1 k I 7 ' s ( G) )= 1 *0 ) ( 6 . 4 0 ) Th usl ' l P z ( / ( ) )be c o me st i mei nd e p e n de n ta st o+ . -c s, 'a l t e r na t i v e l y,t h es a me


c onc l us i on f ol l owsf r om t heequat i on

i h. y1 k 1 C z ( ? ) )= e f l ' l Xl ( / ) 1 k l P z ( J ) )> . 0

( 6 . 41 )

l ft he r e we r eno per t ur bat i on,t he s eei gens t at e si nt hei nt er ac t i on pi c t ur ewoul d r em ai ncons t anti nt i m e,bei ng t hes t at i ona r ys t at es ol ut i onst ot he unper t ur bed

GRE EN' SF UNC TI ONS AND F I E L D THEOR Y( F E RMI ONS)

61

Sc hrdi nge re quat i on. A s t i ncr e as es f r om -c c, howev er ,t he i nt e r ac t i on i s

t u r n e do n ,a n d Eq .( 6 . 3 6 )de t e r mi n e sh ow t h es t a t ev e c t o rd e v e l o p si nt i me ,a 1 l
t he way t ot he t i m e t= 0, when t hei nt er ac t i on i satf ul ls t r eng t h. Forsni t et i m es

I f1 <e ' ,a l 1ofo u rpr e v i o usr e s ul t sr e ma i nv a l i d ,i np a r t i c u l a rEqs .( 6 . 3 2 )a n d ( 6 . 3 4 ) . W et hu sob t a i nt h eb a s i cr e l a t i o n

l t l oh= l Tz ( 0 ) )= t k( 0 , -o a ) t *( ) l

( 6 . 4 2 )

wh i c he x g r e s s e sa ne x a c t e i g e n s t a t eo ft h ei nt e r a c t i n gs y s t e mi nt e r mso fa ne i g e n s t a t e ofH o . W e m us t now as k wha t happens i nt he l i mi t e> . 0. D o we ge tt i ni t e me ani ngf ulr es ul t s? Thi s que s t i on i s ans we r e d by t he G el l M ann and Low

t heor e m,whi ch i spr ov e di nt hene xts e c t i on.


GELLM ANN AND LOW THEOREM O N THE G RO UND STATE I N QUANTU M FI ELD THEO RYI

The G e l l M ann and Low t heor e m i se as i l ys t at ed :I ft he f ol l ow i ng quant i t y e xi s t st oa l lor de r si n per t ur bat i on t he or y,

1 i b ' ( 0'-: x ) ) 1 ' ( l ) a ) EE 1 k 1 b 0' m f r . o. : t *: . j r . , / 6 ( 0, -: ' c ) 1 j *( ) . , u mo l ! p k c , . . . )


-- - .

( 6 . 4 3 )

t he ni ti san e i g ens t at e ofH ,

' - . j t l . * ' . s H ( ) , , ,

r . *0 1 % 1 , 0 )

( *: 1 ' 1o s

j ' k l . ' q . p z

a.

( 6 . 4 4 )

Thi spr es cr i pt i on gene r at est he e i g ens t at et hatdev e l o psadi a bat i c al l yf r om p 4 ) o. ,

a st hei n t e r a c t i o ni st ur n e do n. l fk mo )i st h eg r o u nds t a t eo ft h en o ni nt e r a c t i n g s y s t e m, t h ec o r r e s po n di n ge i g e n s t a t eo fX i su s ua l l yt h ei n t e r a c t i n gg r o un ds t a t e ,
but t hi si s by no m e ans ne ce s s ar y. For e xam pl e ,t he gr ounds t at e ener gy of s om e s ys t e m s doe s not ha ve a per t ur bat i on s e r i e si nt he c oupl i ng c ons t ant .

( Fo ra n ot h e re x a mp l es e ePr o b.7 . 5 . ) Mu l t i p l yEq.( 6 . 4 4 )f r o mt h el e f tb yt h e s t a t ef ma i ; s i n c eXo p ( 1 ) c )= Eo1 , f 1 ) ( ) 2 ) , wec on c l u d e


t Q) ( ) i H -1 ( k l *' ) . E - E( ) =o , $ j s . *0 !0 ) .

( 6. 45 )

An e s s e nt i alpoi ntoft he t he or em i st hatt he numer t orand t he de nom i nat or

ofEq .( 6 . 43 )d ono ts e pa r a t e l l ' ' . x ' l ' J ra sE ' > . 0 . An e q ui v a l e n ts t a t e me n ti st h a t Eq. ( 6 . 4 2 )b e c o me sme a n i n g l e s si nt hel i mi te+0, ' i n de e d, i t sp ha s edi v e r g e sI i k e e -li nt hi sl i mi t . The de nomi nat ori n Eq.( 6. 43)s er ve spr ec i s el yt o ca nce lt hi s i n hn i t epha s eg s e e Eq.( 6. 51 )a n ds u bs e q u e n tdi s c u s s i on l . Th et h e o r e mt h u s as s e r t st ha ti ft h er a t i oi n Eq . ( 6 . 4 3 )e x i s t s , t hee i g e n s t a t ei swe l ld e s n e da n dha s t h ee i g e nv a l u eg i v e ni nEq . ( 6 . 4 5 ) . W ep r o c e e dt ot hepr o o fg i v e nb yGe l l N l a n n
and Low. lM . Ge l l Ma nn a n d F.Lo w' , Ph ys .Rt u ' . , 8 4: 3 5 0( 1 9 51 ) .

6 2

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MP ERATURE )F ORMAL I SM

Cons i de rt heexpr es s i on

( P0 -. G) I ' l %( e ) )-( Xt-fo ) t %( 0 , -*) 1 *0 )- ( Pn , 1 1( . 0 , -*) ) 1 *0 )( 6 . 4 6 )


W es ha l lexpl i ci t l ye val uat et hecom m ut at ora ppe ar i ng on t her i ghts i de . C on-

s i d e rt h ea t ht e r mi nEq.( 6 . 3 7 )f o rt h eo pe r a t o rC,a n dpi c ka na r bi t r a r yt i me


or de r i ng of t he n t i me i ndi c e s. The as s oc i at e d com m ut at or c an be wr i t t en i de nt i cal l yas

I ) f . ' ? . ' ( , , z ? ' l ( ? f ) . f ? ' l ( ? , ) .-.. J ? 1 ( &) 1- ( z ? t z ? ' 1 ( ? . y ) ( I . 4, ( / . , ) .--I l t l t k ) + 4I ( ? f ) ( z ? e ' , . 41 ( / , ) )--.41 ( r . )+ --+I lt l t i ) . 41 ( ) / , ) --.1 ) . 4( , , z ? ' 1 ( &) )
Fu r t h e r mor e , Eq. ( 6 . 8 )a l l o wsu st owr i t e h8 4, ( / )-

i p ?

E z %, z 3 , ( J ) 1

( 6 . 4 7 )

I nc o ns e qu e n c e , e a c h oft h ec o mmu t a t or swi t h Xt j y i e l d sa t i med e r i v a t i v eoft h e


i nt e r ac t i on ha mi l t oni an,

L . l k . t l t . l t i l l ' j l t o . l...z ? ' 1 ( &) 1 =I 0 + 2+ --' + 0l Xj ( / f ) XI ( / J ) ***. f ?j ( 1 : ) f j 't a


f o ra l l po s s i b l et i n l eo r d e r i n g s . Equ a t i o n( 6 . 46 )t h u sb e c o me s
* zjn -l j 0
=

h ?

( )

( z ? t E ! ' l % ( e ) ) ' n( h i. d t k . . d t n
l

xe n ( 1 l +'' . + l n )
i =1

0 rg 4j . L t j ) ...I I ' L ( / a ) j j t p4 ) l ( 6 . 4 s ) 1i

I nd e r i v i n g Eq.( 6 . 4 8 ) ,a l lt h et i me d e r i v a t i v e sh a v eb e e nt a k e no u t s i d eo ft h e
t i me or de r i ng s ym bol . The va l i di t y oft hi ss t e p can be s ee nf r om t he i dent i t y
' a
$ =l

P / o l t p -t q ) p ( / v- t r )''-b l t u- t v )e 0 f
'

whe r ep,q,r , . .. ,u,ri sany p er m ut at i on oft he i ndi c esl,2, .. di Fe r ent i at i on i s m os te as i l y eval uat ed wi t ht he r epr e s e nt at i on

The

0 ( t ) -j 'd t ' ( ? ' )

GRE EN' SF UNCTI ONS AND F I E LD THE ORY ( F E RMI ONS)

he i nt egr and of Eq. wh i c hi mme d i a t e l yy i e l d sd e l t j l d t= 8 ( f ) =& ( -t ) . n us t ( 6 . 4 8 )ma y% r e wr i t t e na s


r

g ( y l . ' l a : , , ) # ( , l ) .. z ? . l ( & ) j ( 7 d ) 1 a ' , ) r E # . ( ' l )J ? l ( f a ) l

Al l t h et i me d e r i v a t i v et e r msi nEq .( 6 . 4 8 )ma k et h es a mec on t r i b ut i o nt o t h ei n t e g r a l ,a ss h o wn b yc ha ng i n gd ummyva r i a b l e s ;wet h e r e f o r er e t a i nj u s t on e , s a yW f j ,a n dmu l t i p l yb yaf a c t ora .I n t e g r a t ebypa r t swi t hr e s l xc t t ot t :
n i spr oce dur el e adst ot wo t e r ms ,oneofwhi chi ss i mpl yt hei nt egr and e val uat e d a tt hee nd poi nt s ,andt heot he rar i s esf r om t hede r i va t i veoft headi aba t i cf ac t or . W et he r e f or eobt a i n

( #c- Fc ) l ' l %( e ) )- -#! l ' l %( e ) )+ e i h gt -1 : F, ( M)


g

( 6. 49 )

whe r e #ji sa s s u me d pr o p or t i o na lt o ac o up l i ngc o n s t a ntg i no r d e rt o wht e


-

( n= i h gb g n n- 1 ) ! # g# 'h i Byt hi sme a ns , weo b t a i nas e r i e st h a tr e pr od u c e st h es t a t ev e c t o rl 7: ( M)a g a i n .


Eq u a t i on( 6 . 4 9 )i sr e a d i l yr e wr i t t e na s

ja -1

a -/ aj

( z ?- ek ) I ' l %( M)- i he gj -I ' l %( M)


g

( 6 . 5 0 )

Mu l t i p l yt h i se q ua t i o nont h el e f tb y( ( *: l 1 l %( e ) ) 1 1 ( *e 1 ; s i n c e( a / g) ( *a I =0 .
we:nd

( *( ) l Xl l V%( e ) )= i l ( * h e gv n( *c 1 l %( e ) )- E - Ez= LE :l 1 l %( e ) ) d g

( 6 . 5 1 )

I fewe r eal l owe dt o vani s h att hi spoi nt ,i twoul d% t e mpt i ng t o conc l udet hat

LE = 0 , wh i c hi sc l e a r l ya bs u r d .I nf a c t , t h ea mp l i t u d e( * l N%( M)mu s t a c qu i r e a ni n : n i t eph a s cp r o po r t i o n a lt oi e 's ot ha te 1 n( t Nl q%( 4)r e ma i n s n i t ea s e> . 0. 1 Equ a t i o n( 6. 5 0 )ma yb ema n i pu l a t e dt o$v e

( z ; s , f A e g j : j ) j o l i ( , 1 v e t f n l ( ) e ) ) r * 1 : ( F , I 2 ' l % 0 ( ) e ) ) ( f A d g j l I n ( * c I . I ' , ( e ) ) j
a n dac o mb i na t i o nwi t hEq . ( 6 . 51 )sn a l l yy i e l ds

1 l %( M) = i y e gy o I ' l %( ( # - E) 1 j vM) ( 4 : *( , 1 ' 1 %( e ) ) # '4 :( h :v ) )


-

( 6 . j z )

p' e ar e aow i n a pos t i on t ol ete go t o ze r o. By as s umpt i on,t he quant i t yi n

br a c k e t so nt h er i g hts i d e ofEq.( 6 . 5 2 )i ss ni t et oa l lo r de r si nm r t u r b a t i o n
t> . f o re x ampl e . J .Hubb a r d, Pr o c . Ro y.S oc . ( &z # n a ) ,m : 5 3 9( 1 9 5 D.

6 4

GROUNDST AT E( ZE ROTEMPE RATURE )F ORMALI SM

t heor y,t hati s ,i n g,and t he de ri vat i Ne wi t hr e s pec tt o g cannotchange t hi s pr oper t y. Si ncet heri ghts i de i sm ul t i pl i e d bl e ,i tvani s hesasft endst oz er o, whi ch pr ovest hebas i ct he or e m

( # E4 : 1 , * 0 ( e ) 7 : -0 l i m ! , e . . o ( *( ) t 1 ( ) ( . ' ) )
-

Thi spr oofappl i e se qual l y we l lt ot hequant i t y

t %( 0 , +) l *o )) t *o I G( 0 , +c s ) I *o
wher e

( 6 . 5 4 )

t k( 0 , +c o ) - P1 ( t . x. 0 )
He r et h es y s t e m' ' c o me sba c k' 'f r om ?= +. x , ,wh e r et h ee i g e n s t a t ei s/ *0 ) , .I f t h es t a t et h a td e v e l op sou tof) *a )i sn o n de g e n e r a t e , t h e nt h e s et wode sn i t i o n s
m us tbe t hes am e. The y coul d di f l krby a phas ef ac t or ,butt hecom m on nor m al i zat i on c ondi t i on

( *n

l 1 %) 1( *o1 k l ' ( ) ) '- 1


=l i m

( 6. 5 5 )

or a nonde ge ne r at ee i g ens t at e pr e c l udes e ven t hi s pos s i bi l i t y. Thus,f

l i ( 0 , +c c ) )*( ) J m 0e -

e y o ( mo f &r ( O , +c c , ) f *o ) e . o ' t mo f &r ( O , -c c ) ( *0 )

C( 0. -' x ) ) l ( 1 ) ( ) X ? .
.

( 6 . 5 6 )

A snot edbe f or e,t hes t at eobt a i ned f r om t headi abat i cs wi t chi ng pr oc edur ene e d notbe t he t r ue gr ound s t at e,e ven i f *t ) ' xi st he noni nt e r ac t i ng gr ound s t at e. The Gel l M ann and Low t he or em me r e l y as s e r t st hat i ti s an e i ge ns t at e; i n addi t i on,i fi ti sa nonde gene r at ee i ge ns t at e,t he n bot h waysofc ons t r uc t i ng i t

I Eq . ( 6. 5 6 ) Jmu s ty i e l dt h es a mer e s u l t .
7QGREEN' S FUNCTI ONS

Th i ss e c t i on i n t r o du c e st h ec on c e p to fa Gr e e n ' sf u n c t i o nl ( o rp r op a g a t o r , asi t i ss o me t i me sc a l l e d ) , whi c hpl a y saf u n da me n t a l r o l ei nou rt r e a t me n tofma n y par t i c l eas s e m bl i es .


DEFI NI TI ON

The s i ngl e par t i cl e Gr e en' sf unct i on i sdesne d byt hee quat i on

i G (

x bx l , x' t ' )=

( ' Pn 1 FE #, , a ( x / ) l ' ; Lb ( x ' / , ) ) 1 * 1 * 0 )


( v oj v( ) )

lV.M .Gal i t s ki ian d A.B.M i g d al ,So v .Ph ys . JETP,7: 9 6( 1 9 5 8 ) ;A.Kl e i n an d R.Pr a ng e. Ph y s . Re t ' . , 1 1 2: 9 9 4( 1 9 5 8 ) ;P. C. Ma r t i na n dJ .S c h wi n g e r , Ph ys . Ae r , 1 1 5: 1 3 42( 1 9 5 9 ) .

GRE E N' S FUNcTl oNs AND F I E L D THE OR Y( F E RMI ONS)

66

wh e r e1 Y%) i st h eHe i s e n b e r ggr ou n ds t a t eoft h ei n t e r a c t i n gs y s t e ms a t i s f y i n g X1 ' F: )= E 1 ' F( ) ) an dgu q l x t )i saHe i s e n b e r go pe r a t o rwi t ht h et i med e pe n de n c e ; t H x ( x/ )= e i Bt l h # , / ) a ( x ) e i k l t l h
'

( 7. 2 )

( 7 . 3 )

He r et h ei n d i c e sa a n d# l a b e lt h ec o mp on e n t sof ' t h ef e l d op e r a t or s ;xa n dj


c a nt a k et wov a l u e s f or s pi n!f e r mi on s , whe r e a st he r ea r en oi nd i c e s f ors pi n z e r o
bos ons ,be c aus es uch a s ys t em i s de s c r i be d by a one component se l d. The

Fp r o du c th e r er e pr e s e n t sag e ne r a l i z a t i o n oft h a ti n Eq. ( 6 . 2 2 ) :

Fl iu u l xt ) ' J l f j t x ' / ' ) # z r a t x/ l ' f j t x' r ' ) ) - +f 1/x , t , ) ' i uxl x t )


'
'

( 7 . 4 )

wh e r et h eup p e r( I o we r )s i g nr e f e r st ob o s on s( f e r mi on s ) . Mo r eg e n e r a l l y ,t he
r pr oductofs eve r alope r at or sor der st hem f r om r i ghtt ol e f ti n as c endi n gt i me

or d e ra nda dd saf a c t o r( -1 ) # , wh e r eP i st h en umb e ro fi n t e r c h a n g e so f e r mi o n


oper at or sf r om t he or i gi nalgi ve n or der . Thi sde hni t i on agr e eswi t ht hati n

Eq. ( 6. 2 2 ) , b e c a u s eX j a l wa y sc o nt a i n sa ne v e nn umb e r of f e r mi ons e l d s . Eq u a t i o n( 7 . 1 )ma yn ow b ewr i t t e ne x p l i c i t l ya s

' t ' I %l #, , a t x r l ' Ab l x' / . ) 1 : F( , )


i G ( x bxt , x' / ' ) = r ' l %1 ' I %) v ;( x, t , ) ysz +' Co 1 f ,# t x/ ) j k l ' t ) ) t ' Fa I ' Po )
( 7 . 5 )

The G r e en' sf unc t i on i san ex pe c t a t i on va l ue offe l d ope r at or s;ass uch,

i ti ss i mp l yaf un c t i o no ft h ec o or di n a t ev a r i a b l e sx ta n d x' t ' .I fX i st i me


i ndepe nde nt ,t hen G depe ndsonl y on t he t i m e di f l br e nc e f- t' ,whi ch f ol l ows

i mme d i a t e l yf r om Eqs . ( 7 . 2 )a n d( 7 . 3 ) : i Gj ( x / , x ' t ' )

e t ' l ' 4( x ) e t W t f ' ' ' / ' ( ' 7( ) 1 , t l r ) ei t t e t l h( 01 b x' 0


=

f ' Fo I ' Pn ) r , . l . ' I 4# ( x ' ) e f / ( f r ' ) / . 4x( x) I ' l %) +e i r( l -l e ) ? : 0 # f ' l %l ' l %)


-

( 7 . 6 )

He r et h ef a c t o re x pf z j z i E( ? -t ' j l h ?i sme r e l ya c o mp l e x cnu mb e ra n d ma yb e t a k e no u toft h ema t r i xe l e me n t ;i nc o n t r a s t ,t heop e r a t orP b e t we e nt h eE e l d


ope r at or sm us tr emai n aswr i t t en.

6 6
RELATI ON T0 OBSERVABLES

GR OUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MP ER ATURE )F ORMAL I SM

The r ear es eve r al r e as onsf ors t udyi ngt heGr e en' sf unc t i ons . Fi r s t , t heFe ynman r ul esf orsndi ng t he c ont r i but i on ofa t h or derper t ur bat i on t heor y ar es i m pl e r f or G t han f orot herc om bi nat i ons of5e l d oper at or s . Thi sr e s ul ti s di s c us s e d i n de t ai li n Se c.9. Se c ond,a l t houg ht he gr ounds t at e ex pec t at i on v al ue i n

Eq. ( 7 . 1 )i mp l i e st h el o s so fmu c hd e t ai l e di n f or ma t i o na b ou tt heg r o un ds t a t e ,


t he s i ngl e par t i cl e Gr e e n' sf unc t i on s t i l lc ont ai ns t he obs er v abl e pr ope r t i e s of gr eat e s ti nt e r e s t: l.Theexpe ct at i on val ueofany s i ngl epar t i cl e oper at ori nt he gr ound s t at e of t bes ys t em 2. Thegr ounds t at eene r gyoft hes ys t em 3.Theexc i t at i on s pe ct r um oft hes ys t e m Thehr s tt wo poi nt s ar e demons t r at ed be l ow,whi l et he t hi r df ol l owsf r om t he Le hm ann r epr e s ent a t i on,whi c hi sdi s cus s e dl a t e ri nt hi ss ec t i on. Cons i de rt hes i ngl e par t i cl eope r at or

=f: 3 xy( x ) wh e r e #( x )i st h es e c o n d q u a n t i z e dd e n s i t yf o rt h eh r s t q u a n t i z e do p e r a t o r
Jb x l x t :

#( x ) -a ) ( # ; t x l l j z t x l ' ( k t x l #
Thegr ounds t at ee xpec t a t i on v al ueoft heoper a t orde ns i t yi sgi ve n by

( #( x ) )-( ' l %1 , /( x ) 1 : 1 ' n )


vj vo )
-

l i m 2 . &. ( x ) ' X . x) u p ( : F( , 1 : 1 %) + . fl i ml i mJ J . / j . t x l G. j t x/ , x' / ' )


-

( . 1 ' o I v f , ( x' ) , y 1 a ( x ) 1 : Po )

1 , . . 1 +x ' -xa#

=L k i l i m 1 i m t rV( x ) G( x / , x' t ' ) ) t ' y f+ x' ex


J m aycont ai ns pat i alder i vat i v es ,asi nt hem om ent um oper at or . Fur t her m or e , t hes ymbolt sde not e sa t i mei nhni t e s i ma l l yl at ert han t ,whi c h ens ur e st hatt he

He r et h eo p e r a t orJ j a t x )mu s ta c tb e f or et h el i mi tx' > . xi sp e r f o r me db e c a us e


Fi na l l y,t he s um overs pi ni ndi ce sma y be r e cogni z ed asa t r a ce oft he m at r i x pr oduc tJG ,whi ch i s her e denot e d by t r . For e xam pl e ,t he num ber dens i t y

: e l d op e r a t o r si nt h et hi r dl i n eo c c u ri nt h epr op e ro r d e r( c o mpa r e Eq. ( 7 . 5 ) ) . ( ? 1 ( x ) ) ,t h es p i nd e ns i t y( ( x ) ) ,a n dt h et o t a lk i n e t i ce n e r g y( f ' )a r er e a d i l y


f ound t obe

( H ( x ) )= z k i t r Gl x t n x t + )

GRE EN' SF UNCT I ONS AND FI EL D THE ORY ( FE RMI ONS)

*7

( ( X) )= ii t r( *G( Xl , Xl + ) l

l w g s g j

( /)=z k iJ#3 xl i m K . x
' -

h2/2 - 2m t r Gt x/ , x' I + )

( 7 . 1 0 )

The i nt e r e s t i ng que s t i on now ar i s e s:I si tal s o pos s i bl et oc ons t r uc tt he pot e nt i ale ner gy

fP) iI fd' ( ' I %I f 4( x ) # / ( x ' ) p ( x , x ' ) . . , , , # , 4 , . ( x ' ) 4 . , ( x ) I vo ) x#3 x' ( . t %1 v, )


- '
,

p q'

( 7 . 1 1 ) a ndt h e r e byd e t e r mi n et het o t a l g r ou n d s t a t ee n e r g y? S i n c eEq. ( 7 . 1 1 )i n v o l v e s


f ourf i e l d oper at or s ,wemi ghtex pe c tt o nee dt het wopar t i cl eGr e en' sf unct i on. The Sc hr di n gere quat i on i t s e l fc ont ai nst he pot e nt i alene r gy,howe ve r ,whi ch

a l l o wsust o5 nd(P)i nt e r mso ft h es i n g l e p a r t i c l eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i on . Co n s i de r

t heHe i s e n b e r gs e l do p e r a t or#sz ( x? ) , wi t ht heh a mi l t on i a n J ?- 72f :3 x#1 ( x) r( x ) 4z t x l


.

+! . ) (Jd3 x#3 x' #) ( x ) #j f t x ' )F( x , x ' ) . . , j , #j . ( x' ) #a e ( x) ( 7 . 1 2 ) ,# xx '


) #'

The i de nt i t y of t he par t i c l e si nt he as s embl yr equi r e st hatt he i nt e r ac t i on be unc hanged unde rpar t i c l ei nt er c hang e

F( x , x' ) . a , p b , = F( x ' , x) j # , . . z ( 7 . 1 3 ) ( Mo r ef o r ma l l y ,s u c h at e r mi st h eo nl yk i n dt h a tg i v e sano nv a ni s h i n gc o n t r i b ut i o ni nEq .( 7 . 1 2 ) . ) Th eHe i s e n be r ge qu a t i o no fmo t i on ( Eq. ( 6 . 2 9 ) )r e l a t e s

t h et i med e r i v a t i v eofft ot hec ommu t a t oro f , wi t h#.


l sf / s ( i h P#s . ( x/ )= e j x ( x ) , #j e f n t l h
,

( 7 . j 4 )

wher e

( # . ( x ) , #) -) # : j ' :3 z( # . ( x ) , 4 ) ( z ) r( z ) 4 , ( z ) ) +! . # z # fd q zy ' z ' y y J x( # . ( x ) , f #z ) # y # ( z ' ) F( z , z ' ) j j , , y y , f y ( z ' ) # j ( z ) )( 7 . 1 5 )


W enow us et he v er yi m por t anti dent i t y

( , 4 , 1C ' ) = ABC - BCA = ABC - BAC + BAC- BCA ( . x, #) C - B( C, W) = ( ( 7 . I 6 ) z 4 , 1) C- . #( C, z 4 ) wh i c ha l l o wsu st oe x p r e s sEq.( 7 . 1 5 )i nt e r msofe i t h e rc o mmu t a t o r sora n t i c omm ut at or s. Forde sni t e nes s ,c ons i de rt he f er mi on c as e,s i nc et hi si s m or e

6 8

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SK !

c ompl i c a t e d. W i t ht h ec a n on i c a la n t i c o mmu t a t i o nr e l a t i o n s( Eq.( 2. 3 ) )t he


com m ut at ori sr eadi l ye val uat e d,and we5nd

E #. ( x ) , #!- F( x) 4 a t x )- ! .I f d ' z, g( z ) p ' ( z , x ) j j . , . y , 4 y , ( x ) 4j , ( z ) l #' y '


.

+! . b I # 3 z ' # ; ( z ' ) F ( x , z ' ) . j , , y y , # y , ( z ' ) t ' J j . t x l ' yy'J


I nt h e:r s tp o t e n t i a l e ne r g yt e r m. c h a n g et h ed u mmyv a r i a bl e s# + . y, j'+ . y' , y' + . $' ,x+z ' . Th es y mme t r yo ft h ep ot e n t i a l( Eq .( 7 . 1 3 ) 1a n dt h ea n t i c ommu t a t i v i t yo ft h eN e l ds? ;t h e ny i e l d

E ' X( x ) , P1 = F( x ) 1 ; a l x ) +#' ) ( J# 3 z ' # ; ( z ? ) P ' ( x , z ' ) . j , , y y , # y ' ( z ' ) ' t / j , t x l y ?'


( 7 . 1 8 )

whi l et hese l de qu a t i o n( 7 . 1 4 )b e c ome s

i hy - F( x ) #s a t x r )
-

b ' ? y '

Z Jd' z ' #i y t z ' ? )# ' ( x, z ' ) a j . , y . ' #, , y . t z ' / ) , ; , , ; ' ( x / ) ( 7 . 1 9 )

Eq u a t i ons( 7. 1 8 )a n d( 7 . 1 9 )a r ea l s oc o r r e c tf o rb os o n s .

Mu l t i p l yEq. ( 7 . 1 9 )b y' ( 1. ( x' t ' 4o nt h el e f t , a n dt h e nt ak et h egr ou n d s t a t e


e xpe ct at i on val ue

i hP ' Ft h l ## s a t x' / ' )#sa ( x? ) 1 ' l %) #a z , & r( x )t I J , ( : F( , 1 ' l %) # , y y , r ' k l r o l f z s a t x' r ' ) # s ' y t z ' t 4F( x, z ' ) a , ' , , , y ' #s y ' ( z ' t j ' J sj ' ( x? ) ! ' 1 %) x ( : 1 %1 : F0) . . ( , y . a o
-

I nt hel i mi tx'-, . x,t'+ . t+ ,t hel ef ts i dei sequa lt o ,,

u i u f l i m l i m i hs - F( x ) Gx x l xt , x t) t+ x' y l' y x w, w
. . -

( 7 . 2 1 )

W eno ws u m o v e r= a nd i n t e g r a t eo v e rx,whi c h sn a f l yy i e l ds( c o mp a r e Eq. ( 7 . 1 1 ) j P ,, (P)= u t r l . f f #3 x l' l i m 1 i m i h j j r( x ) Ga a t x / , x t) ( 7 . 2 2 ) . +f+ x' -y x Ac o mb i n a t i on o fEq s .( 7. 1 0)an d( 7 . 2 2 )t h e ne x pr e s s e st h et o t a lgr ou n d s t a t e
e ne r gys ol e i yi nt er m soft hes i ng l e par t i cl eG r e en' sf unc t i on.

E- ( J + P)- ( I )

= +! . J#3 xl i m 1 i m i hx + F( x )t rG( x/ , x /) y r+ x' j x %' T .


'
. . . -

,,

= +! . fJ#3 x1 i m l i m i h. c -. t + x' , A x
' .
-

P hlV2 rGl x t , x ' t ' j l m t

GRE EN' SF UNCTI ONS AND F I E L D THE OR Y( FE RMI ONS)

6 9

The s eexpr e s s i onsas s ume a s i mpl erf or mf ora homoge ne ouss ys t e mi na l ar geboxofvol um eF,whe r et hes i ngl epar t i cl eGr e e n' sf unc t i onmaybewr i t t en

a s( c o mp a r eEq. ( 3 . 1 ) ) 1

G a / x r , x ' t ' ) =F k

* d ul

g x j z e f k * t f f ' e f t r r ' G . # ( k , ( t 4 -X

( 7 . 2 4 )

I nt h el i mi tP ' . . > . c c, t h es u m ov e rwav ev e c t o r sr e d u c e st oa ni nt e g r a l( Eq . ( 3. 2 6 ) )

G . b ( x ? , x ' J ' ) =( 2 * ) 4 J d 3 k j * . d t > e f k * t x x ' e l L u ' t ' G x b ( k , t . ) j


a n dac omb i n a t i o no fEq s . ( 7 . 8 ) , ( 7 . 2 3 ) , a n d( 7 . 2 5 )g i v e s

N. f d 3 x t ? i ( x ) ) -+ , ' ( z j ) 4 , l . i n t f d q k j , J r x l e t n t r c t k , f z , )
l i m J E = +! . t al 4q ? kJ . . # ( x ) e l u l ' la m +h a t t r G ( k , ( s ) o,. d
-

( 7 . 2 6 )

c o

h2k2

He r et heconN er genc tf ac t or
j i m :i a ? ( l ' -t ). l i m ei u ' ' l
l ' . . + f + ' r ) + 0+

desnest he a ppr opr i at e cont ouri nt he compl e xu tpl ane;he nce f or t h,t he l i mi t T+ . 0+wi l lbei m pl i ci twhe nev ers uc h af ac t orappear s . For s ome pur pos e s .i twoul d be mor e conveni entt o hav et he di f l kr enc e

h -h l k2 j 2 ma pp e a r i n gi n Eq .( 7 . 27 ) . Th i sr e s u l tc a nb ea c h i e v e d wi t ht h e
f ol l owi ng t r i ck,appar ent l y due t o Pa ul iand s i nc er t di s cove r e dma ny t i mes . z Theha mi l t oni ani swr i t t en wi t h a var i abl ec oupl i ngcons t antA as

z ?( A )- J ? o+ A J ? l
t he n

4( 1 )= J ? a n d 4( 0 )-/ %
and we at t empt t os ol v et he t i me i ndep ende nt Sc hr di nge r equa t i on f or an a r bi t r ar yval ueof/ :

4( A ) ' 1 %( A ) )- f( A ) ' 1 %( A ) )
wher et hes t at eve c t ori sas s um e d nor m al i z e d

( 7 . 2 8 )

( ' Fc ( A ) i ' 1 ' a ( A ) ' )- 1


'Fora pr ooft hatG dependsol y on t hecoor di nat edi fe r enc ex - x'i na uni f or ms ys t em.s ee

t h edi s c us s i on p r e c e di ngEq. ( 7 . 5 3 ) . 2Se e ,f o re x a mp l e , D. Pi ne s , l 6 l h eM a n yBod yPr ob l e m, ' 'p. 43 ,W .A. Be n j a mi n,I n c. ,Ne w Yo r k ,1 9 61 ;T.D.S c h ul t z ,* s oua n t um Fi e l dTh e or yan dt h eMa n y Bo dyPr obl e m, ' 'p .1 8 ,
Go r do na ndBr e a c h,S c i e n c ePu bl i s he r s . Ne w Yo r k,1 96 4 .

7 :

GROUNDST AT E( ZE ROTEMPER ATURE )F ORMALI SM

Th es c a l a rpr o du c tofEq. ( 7 . 2 8 )wi t h( Ta ( 1 ) 1 i mme di a t e l yy i e l ds f( l )- 4 ' l %( 4l #( A ) I ' l %( z ) )


and i t sde r i vat i vewi t hr e s pe ctt ot hepar amet e rAr e duc e st o

a # z z r ( A ) 4 t d * F : ) ( A ) j y ? ( A ) 4 n ? c ( z ) ) + 4 n r : ( A ) ( y ? ( A ) d ' : P ) ( l ) ; )
-

A F ( Tc( J J ? ( ? ), p( A ) ) A ) l #j l o

1 : ( z )# t vo ( z ) I vc ( A ) )+t ' rc ( z ) l z ? l I n r a ( z ) )
-

dz

--

( vo ( A ) I #l I vn ( A ) )

( 7 . 2 9 )

whe r et he nor ma l i z at i on condi t i on has bee n us e di n obt ai ni ng t he l as tl i ne.

I nt e g r a t eEq.( 7 . 2 9 )wi t hr e s pe c tt of r o mz e r ot oon ea n dn o t et ha tE( 0 )= Eo a n df( l )= E

E-Ez-

1dh
Q

w( ' l %( A ) l A J %l ' l %( A ) )

( 7 . 3 0 )

Thes hi f ti nt hegr ounds t at ee ner g yi sher ee xpr e s s e ds ol el yi nt e r m soft hemat r i x

e l e me nto ft h ei n t e r a c t i onA XI . Un f o r t u na t e l y , t h i sma t r i xe l e me n ti sr e qu i r e d


f oral Iv al ue soft hecoupl i ng cons t a nt0< A< 1. l nt he us uals i t uat i on,wher e

4 1r e pr e s e n t st h ep o t e n t i a le n e r g y( Eq.( 7 . 1 2 ) ) ,a c o mb i n a t i o no fEqs .( 7 . 2 2 ) a n d( 7 . 3 0 )g i v e s 1dt j d f - Eo= H f 0 j - #3 xt 1 i m l i m i h z j- F( x )t r GA ( x / , x ' t ' ) y g + xz y x


. .

wi t ht hec or r e s pondi ng e xpr e s s i on f ora uni f or ms y s t em # ' l#A c o hl kl


ExAM etE: FREE FERM I ONS

E-E v =i . f ( 2 * ) 4( ) y # 3 k j c o d t . o e t ' gh u l -2 mt r G A ( k , a )( 7 . 3 2 )

A s an exa m pl e oft he above f or m al i s m ,cons i der t he G r ee n' sf unct i on f or a noni nt e r ac t i ng homoge neous s ys t em of f e r mi ons . I ti s hr s tc onveni ent t o mr f or m a canoni c alt r ans f or mat i on t o par t i cl es and hol e s . I nt he de ni t i on

oft h ei e l d( c omp ar eEq s . ( 2 . 1 )a n d( 3 . 1 ) )

Wx )= Z / k A ( X) C k A k A
wer e de hnet hef er mi on oper a t orck aas 1 ck A k > kF par t i c l e s

f k 3= b !kA
.

k< kr

ho l e s

C' MI

'n eab s e n c eo fapa r t i c l ewi t hmome nt um + . kf r o mt b ehl l e dFer mi s e ai mp l i e st ha tt h es y s t e m pos= s es a moment um -k. For a pr om r i nt er pr et ati on oft he s pi n of t he hol e st at e,s e e S e c. 5 6.

GRE EN' SF UNCTI ONS AND F I E L D THE OR Y( FE RMI ONS)

whi c hi sa c anoni c alt r ans f or mat i on t hatpr es e r v est he ant i commut at i on r ul es

f J . , J 1 1-f *. : 1 , 1= 3 . , .

( 7 . 3 5 )

and t her e f or el eav est he phys i csunc hange d. He r et heJ' sand b' scl e ar l y ant i c ommut e wi t h ea ch ot herbe ca us et hey r ef e rt o di fe r e ntmode s . ' Fhe a %and a om a ' at or scr e at e and de s t r oy par t i c l e sabove t he Fer mis e a,whi l et he b %and b om r at or scr e at e and des t r oy hol e si ns i de t he Fer mis e a,asi sevi dentf r om Eq.

( 7. 3 4 ) . n efe l d sma yn o wb er e wr i t t e ni nt e r mso ft h e s en e wo mr a t or sa s

#s ( X )= kAZ /k A ( X ) D k AV k< 1 1 /k 2X) Yk A >k F k F #z ( Xf )= k>k Z w /k z ( X ) Wl * & WA+ kA< Xkr /k A ( X ) d f * * Yk A

( 7 . 3 6 ) ( 7 . 3 D

wher et hehr s te quat i on i si nt he Sc hr di nge rpi c t ur eand t hes e c ond e quat i oni s

i nt h ei n t e r a c t i o n pi c t u r e . Equ a t i on s( 7 . 3 6 )a n d( 7 . 3 7 )d i F e ro n l yi nt h a tt h e
i nt e r ac t i onpi c t ur ec ont ai nsac ompl e xt i mede m nde ntphas e . Cor r e s pondi ngl y, t heham i l t oni an bec om es

Xc= ) ( h k c l Ac k A k A
=

k> kr ( pa r t l c l e x )

J (h u t k J 1 A J k z-kX h a i k l d k z 5 k z+ k/L t t l k < kr <k r


( pl e z ) ( f l l l e d' Yr ml: e. )

( 7 . 3 8 )

I nt he abs enc e ofpar t i c l e s orhol e s ,t he e ner gy i st hatoft he 5l l e d Fer m is ea. Cr e at i ng a hol el owe r st heene r gy,wher e ascr ea t i ng a par t i cl er ai s e st heener gy. l ft het ot alnumbe roff e r mi onsi sExed,howe ver ,par t i cl esand hol t sne ce s s ar i l y occ uri n pai r s . Eac h par t i cl ehol e pai rt he n hasa netpos i t i vee ne r gy,s howi ng t ha tt heil l e d Fer m is e ar e pr e s ent st hegr ound s t at e. By de sni t i on,t he noni nt e r ac t i ng f er mi on Gr e en' sf unct i on i sg i ve n by

f G , ( xr , x' r ' ) -( *o I rE #z . ( x / ) 41 /x' r ' ) ! I *e )

( 7 . 3 9 )

wher et he noni nt e r ac t i ng gr ound s t at ev ec t or i s as s ume d nor mal i z ed,and t he s upe r s c r i ptz e r oi ndi ca t e st hatt hi si sa Gr ee n' sf unc t i on wi t h no i nt er act i ons . W enow obs er v et hatt hepar t i c l eand hol ede s t r uct i on om r at or sb0t h anni hi l at e t hegr ound s t at e

k z I *o )= J k l *0 )= 0
i ngt er mf orea c ht i meor de r i ng i se as i l ycomput e d,and we:nd

( 7 . K)

s i n c et h e r ea r en opa r t i c l e sa b ov eorh ol e sY l ow t h eFe r mi s e ai nt h es t a t e1 *: 2 ) .


Eq ua t i o n( 7 . 4 0 )s ho wst heus e f u l n e s so f t hepa r t i c l e h ol en ot a t i o n. Th er e ma i n -

i Gk b l x t . x z t ; )= j z j) z ' 1j k e f k . l x x ' ) e l t t h l f 1 ' )


k

x( p ( ? -t ' )0 ( k- kz . )- # ( J ' -t )9 4 kz -k ) )( 7 . 41 )

72

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPERATURE )F ORMAL I SM

whe r et he f a ct or 3 a, a r i s es bt caus et he s um ov er s pi ns t at es i scompl et e. I n t he l i mi tofan i nfni t e vol um e,t he s um m at i on overk bec omesan i nt e gr at i on

i GQ a j ( x/ , x' t ' ) =3 a j ( 2 z 83j d3 kp i k * t x x ' ) d i a h f f r ' ) xI ) ( /- t ' ) ( k- ks )- 9 ( / ' -? ) b q k F- A) )( 7 . 4 2 )


l ti snow us e f ult oi nt r oduc eani nt egr alr e pr es ent at i onf ort hes t epf unct i on

8 ( /- t ' ) =-

( : c i d e -i t , l , ( t -t ' ) .o)+ I . 2=, T -.

( 7 . 4 3 )

Eq ua t i on ( 7 . 4 3 )i sr e a d i l yv e r i t i e da sf o l l ows : l ft> t ' , t h e nt h ec on t ou rmu s tb e


c l os e di nt he l ower hal fu )pl ane,i nc l udi ng t he s i m pl e pol e at ( . v= -i T wi t h r es i due-1. l fl< / ' ,t hen t hecont ourm us tbec l os e di nt heuppe r hal ft z lpl ane andgi ve sze r o,be c aus et hei nt e gr and hasnos i ngul ar i t i esf orl mf s > 0. Equat . i on

( 7 . 4 3 )ma yb ec omb i n e dwi t h Eq. ( 7 . 4 2 )t og i v e

whi ch i mme di a t e l yyi e l ds

b ( k-k p )y f t / c s-F c j x 3 , j g ( , c o , + , j. o , , , . , y j( , y . 4 4 )
-

G1 ( k- ks )+ 0 ( k F- k ) j ( k, )= a j #

( . o- o ) k+ i ' q f . e- k- i , r l

l ti si n s t r u c t i v et ov e r i f ye x pl i c i t l yt h a tEq. ( 7. 4 4 )i n d e e dr e pr o du c e sEq .( 7 . 4 2 ) , a n da l s ot h a tEq .( 7 . 45 )g i v e st h ec o r r e c tv a l u ef or( i 9? $( Eq. ( 7 . 2 6 ) )a n dE H Ef j ( Eq.( 7 . 2 7 ) ) . Equ a t i o n( 7 . 4 5 )a l s oc a nb ed e r i v e d di r e c t l yb ye v a l u a t i n gt h e Fo u r i e rt r an s f o r mo fEq. ( 7 . 4 2 ) , i nwh i c hc a s et h eii yt e r msa r er e qu i r e dt or e n de r
t het i m ei nt e gr al sc onve r ge nt .
TH E LEHM AN N REPRESENTATI O Nl

Ce r t ai nf ea t ur es of t he s i ngl epar t i c l e Gr e en' sf unc t i on f ol l ow di r e ct l yf r om f undam e nt alquant um me chani c alpr i nc i pl e s and ar et her ef or ei ndependentof t he s pe c i f kf or m oft he i nt e r ac t i on. Thi ss e e t i on i s de vot e dt os uch gener al

p r o p e r t i e s . Al t ho u g h ou rsn a le x pr e s s i o n sa r ef o r ma l l ya pp l i c a b l et o bo t h
bos ons and f er mi ons ,t he exi s t enc e of Bos e conde ns at i on atT = 0 i nt r oduc es

a d di t i on a lc omp l i c a t i o ns( s e eCha p .6 ) ,a n d wes h a l lc o n s i d e ro nl yf e r mi o n si n


t hene xtt wo s ubs e ct i ons . Thee xa ctG r e en' sf unct i on i sgi ven by

i Gx b l x t , x ' t ' )= ( % %) rl v M s x t x/ ) v e sj f t x ' t ' ) ) 1 k 1 %)

( 7 . 4 6 )

1H.Le hmann,Nuovo Ci me nt o, 11 : 3 42( 1 9 5 4 ) . Ou rt r e at me n tf ol l owst h ato fV. M .Ga l i t s ki i and A.B.Mi gdal ,I oc.ci t .and A.A.Abr i kos ov.L.P.Gor kov,and 1.E.Dzyal os hi ns ki i ,

t Me t hod so fQua nt um Fi e l d Th e or yi n St a t i s t i c a lPhy s i c s , ' 's e c. 7 ,Pr e n t i c e l l al l ,l n c. , En gl e wood Cl i fs.N .J. ,1 963.

GRE E N' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I E LD THE ORY ( F ERMI ONS)

73

wh e r et h eg r oun ds t a t ei sa s s u me d no r ma l i z e df ( k P( ) I k I ' %)= l ) .I ng e ne r a l , t h e


He i s enber g he l d oper at or s and s t a t e ve ct or si nt hi sexpr e s s i on ar e ve r yc omPl i cat ed. Nev er t he l es s ,i ti s pos s i bl et o de r i ve s ome i nt e r e s t i ng and ge ne r al r e s ul t s . l ns er ta com pl et es etofHei s enber gs t at esbe t wee nt hehel d oper a t or s; t he s es t at es ar ee i ge ns t at e s of t he f ul lhami l t oni an, and i ncl ude a l lpos s i bl e

n u mb e r sof pa r t i c l e s . Ther i g h ts i d eofEq. ( 7 . 4 6 )b e c o me s

d Gz j t x r , x' t ' )= ) ( ; ( p ( ?- t ' ) t t l ' 0 f #s . ( x ? ) ( ' . Fn )t t l ' ' a t #i j t x' / ' ) ( t 1 %) 0 ( t ' -t ) t k l ' c c l l / 1# ( x' t ' ) I T, )t ' l ' a l #s . ( x ? ) l k I %) J( 7 . 4 7 )
-

Ea ch He i s enber gope r at ormay ber ewr i t t e ni nt hef br m

0H ( / )= d i W ' / 0Se i W ' /


whi c h al l owsust o m ake e xpl i c i tt het i m e depe nde nceoft he s e mat r i x el ement s

l ' Gaj( xt x' / ' )= ) (( # ( /- t ' ) e i E n E ' t ' ' ' ' / ' ( k l . ' 1 1 / x ) 1 k ra)( 5 1 . 7 #j f ( x' ) 4 1 F ' ) , ( ) a( nr ( )
a

-0 ( t , -/ ) e j t z a . s l ( f t ' ) / , ( A j . c ( ) j yt # t x' ) j k l . p n )( k j . a a j yu ( x ) 4 T* ( j ) j( 7 . 4 j ) Asapr e l i mi n a r ys t e p, wes ho wt h a tt h es t a t e sJ T, , )c on t a i nN + 1pa r t i c l e s i ft h es t a t e! H 7 ' ( j )c o nt a i n sN p a r t i c l e s . The nu mb e ro p e r a t o rh a st h ef or m

#-) ( fd3 x#J ( x ) 4. ( x) a


a n di t sc ommu t a t o rwi t ht h ese l dop e r a t ori se a s i l ye v a l u a t e d( f brb 0t hb o s on s a n df e r mi on s )a s

( #, ' ; /z ) ! - -#j ( z )
or ,e qui va l e nt l y,

4' ; j ( z ) -, J # ( z ) ( 4-1 ) App l yt hi sl a s to p e r a t o rr e l a t i ont ot h es t a t e1 T1): X( ' ; ' j ( z ) 1 ' l ' ' ( , ) ) -C N-1 ) ( #j ( z ) l ' 1 %) 1 ( 7 . 4 9 ) wh e r e we h a v eno t e dt h atl k Fc )i sa ne i g e n s t a t eoft h e nu mb e ro pe r a t o rwi t h e i g e n v a l u eN. Th ust h es e l d9 a c t i n gont h es t a t e1 T' 0 )y i e i dsane i g e n s t a t eo f t henu mbe rop e r a t orwi t ho nel e s sp a r t i c l e . Si mi l a r l y , t h eo p e r a t or#1 ' i n c r e a s e s
t hen umb e ro fpa r t i c l e sbyon e . Equ a t i on( 7 . 4 8 )t hu sc o nt a i n son ene wf e a t u r e
t hatdoes not occ ur i nt he or di nar y Sc hr di nger e qua t i on,f or we mus tnow cons i deras s em bl i eswi t h di ser entnum ber sofpar t i c l e s. U nt i lt hi spoi nt , t hedi s cus s i on hasbee nc om pl e t el y ge ner a l ,as s um i ngonl y

t h a tX i st i mei n d e p e n de n t . Al t ho u gh i ti sp os s i b l et oc on t i nu et h i sa na l y s i s
wi t houtf ur t herr e s t r i ct i on. we s ha l lnow c ons i de ronl yt hes i m pl e rcas eoft r ans l at i onali nvar i anc e. Thi si mpl i es t hatt he moment um oper at or ,whi c hi st he

g e n e r a t o ro fs p a t i a ld i s p l a c e me nt s , c o mmu t e swi t h 4. I ti sn a t u r a lt ou s et h e

7 4

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPE BATURE) F ORMAL I SM

p l a n e wa v eb as i sofEq. ( 3 . 1 )f ors u c has y s t e m, a n dt h emo me n t um o p e r a t ori s


gi ve n by

w ) (J#3 x( ( x) ( -f V) f k( x )= I kc l z c k A ? kA
i se as i l ye val uat ed a s
-

( 7 . 5 0 )

Thec o mmu t a t oro f wi t ht hes e l do p e r a t o r9 ( f orb o t hb o s on sa n df e r mi o n s )

/ Vfz ( x )= I #. ( x) , )
( 7* 5 g )

Whi c hc an al s o ber ewr i t t en i ni nt e gr a lf or m;

y1 ( x )= e i t . x l h yX ( ( pv i e. x l h
ma t r i xe l e me n t si nEq . ( 7 . 4 8 ) :

Si nc ef : i sac o n s t a n to ft h e mo t i on , t h ec o mp l e t es e t ofs t a t e sa l s oc a nb et a k e n
as e i g ens t at e s ofmome nt um. W e t her e f or e ex t r actt he x depe nde nce oft he

' i Ga b ( x/ , x' f ' ) =) ( )( # ( t -t ' ) e f t f k f ' f ' J ' ' ' ' e f P p . t x x ' ) / 5
x( . 1 . e ( ) l f kt 0 ) 1 T, n )( ' 1 n l ## f ' ( 0 ) 1 . 1 o )- 0 ( t ' -t ) e i %E ' ( ' t ' ' ' ' e ' ' %. ( x x ' ' / .

x( ' l P : 6 ' ; /0 1 ) t ' F ' n )( ' ' l ' n ( fa ( 0 ) ( ' l C c ) 1


t r ans f or mi s

( 7 . 5 3 )

wh e r e weh a v eo bs e r ve dt ha ti k l ' o ' )= 0 . Eq u a t i o n( 7 . 5 3 )ma k e se x pl i c i tt ha t


Gd e pe n dson l yo nt h ev a r i a b l e sx- x' a n dt -f / . : k Th tc o r r e s po nd i n gFou r i e r

Gx b ( k, ( , > )= f#3 ( x- x' )j #l f- t ' ) t a i k * t x x ' ) e i w s t t ' ' Gxj( xr x' t ' ) > Cl %1 #a ( 0 ) i ' F. ' , ) t ' Ll f1 /0 ) 1 V 1 ' e 0 ) I z ' ) (d k , p a / , t a 5 ,, ( s.- y)+ j , y
. -

s +FZ3 r : F0 . ; ) ( 0 ) l ' 1 ' a ) t ' I ' ' a 2 1 k k( ) 1 . 1 %) '( k . w/ , --1 h j l k z e) -0 , . , 2 7 . 5 4 )

* +

wher et hez ki ' r li sa gai n ne c es s ar yt o ens ur et he c onv er g enc e oft he i nt e gr alove r


t - t' .

l nt h es r s t ( s e c o n d) t e r m, t h ec o n t r i bu t i o nv a n i s h e su nl e s st h emome nt u m o ft h es t a t el 9' a )c o r r e s p on d st o aw ' a v e nu mb e rk( -k ) ,wh i c hc a nb eu s e dt o


r e s t r i c tt hei nt er me di at es t at es2

G. /k, 4 ' l %l # a ( 0 ) l ' ? k )( a k I ' 3( 0 ) I ' l %) ' f a ) )= P ' t s j s .s) . j . t y (a


-

+r : 1 %1 , 1 / ) ' ( 0 ) ( a , k )( n , kt ' v 1 . ( 0 ) l % ' a ) i s) i x l


'

( . o+ h ( E' n -

( 7 . 5 5 )

tFo rma n ypr o bi e msi ti smo r ec o nv e ni e n tt oa s s umet h a tt h ei n t e r a c t i ngp a r t i c l u mov er e l a t i v e


t oas x e df r a meof r e f e r e nc e. For e x amp l e , i nt h ep r o bl e m of i n t e r ac t i nge l e c t r on si nc r y s t al l i ne s ol i d san da t oms ,t hec r y s t al l i ne l a t t i c ea nd h e a v y at o mi cn uc l e uspr o vi d es u c hs x e df r a me s .

l nt b i sc a s et h e oft hei nt e r a c t i ngp ar t i c l e snol o ng e rc ommut e swi t h 4,an dt h eGr n' s


f u n ct i on ma yd e x nd e x pl i c i t l y on x a nd x' . Th i smor ec ompl i c a t e ds i t u a t i on i sdi s c us s e di n Chap.l5.

GRE EN' SF Q I NCT ONS AND FI E LD THE ORY ( F ERMI ONS)

7 5

Thust hegene r alpr i nci pl esofquant um mec hani cse nabl e ust o exhi bi tt hef r e que ncy de pendenc e oft he Gr e en' sf unct i on,G c aus eutnow a ppe ar sonl yl ht he

d e n o mi n a t o ro ft h i ss u m.

I ti s hel pf ul t o exami ne t he s e de nomi nat or si n al i t t l e mor e det ai l . I n t he Er s ts um t he i nt e r me di a t es t at e ha s N + lpar t i cl es ,and t he denomi nat or m ay be wr i t t e n as

( . o- h3 L En I N+1 )- S( 1) )= t , y- h L L XL N+ 1 )- E( N+l ) ) Ai ( F( #+1 )- El Nj j( 7 . 5 6 )


-

Now E( N+1 )- E( Nji st h ec ha n g ei ng r ou n ds t a t ee n e r g ya so nee x t r apa r t i c l e


i sa dded t ot he s ys t e m . Si nc et he vol ume oft he s ys t em i ske ptcons t ant ,t hi s
'

c h a ng ei ne n e r g yi s j us t t hec h e mi c a l p ot e n t i a l ( c omp a r eEq. ( 4 . 3 ) 1 . Fu r t h e r mo r e . t he q u a nt i t y En ( N+ 1 ) - E( N +1 )> E & ( # +1 )i st h ee xc i t a t i o ne n e r g yo ft h e N + 1p a r t i c l es y s t e m ;b yd e fn i t i on ,%( #+1 )i sg r e a t e rt h a no re q ua l t oz e r o.


Si mi l a r l y,t hede nom i nat oroft hes e cond t er m can bewr i t t e n

( . o+ l L En I N-1 )- F( #) )= o ) - 1 ( f( #)- E( N-l ) ) + 1 L En I N-l j- E( N-1 ) ) =t s- 1 J z+ ! e . ( N-1 ) ( 7 . 5 7 )


s i n c eE( N)- E( N-1 )i sa g a i nt h ec h e mi c a l po t e n t i a l r z , a p a r tf r om c o r r e c t i on s o for d e rNt .I n de e d, t hev e r yd e E ni t i ono ft het h e r mo d y na mi cl i mi t( N. +c c, F> . c c . bu tN1 Fc o n s t a n t )i mp l i e s p . I N+1 )= b 4N)+ 0( #-1 ) ( 7 . 5 8 )
Al t hough we s hal lnot at t e m pt t o pr ov et hi sr e l at i on i n gene r al .i ti sr e adi l y de m ons t r at ed f oraf r eeFe r m igasatz er ot em pe r at ur e, wher et hePaul ipr i nc i pl e

f u r t he re ns ur e st ha tp , = 4. Equ a t i o ns( 7. 5 6 )a n d( 7. 5 7 )c a nn o wb ec omb i n e d


wi t hEq . ( 7 . 5 5 )t og i v et heLe hma n nr e p r e s e n t a t i on

. , ( k , t u ) = A F Y( u w . g e g v f y o j ) o j p +6 : 1 %1 # /0 ) 1 a , k )( n , -k l # . ( 0 ) I ' l %) yj o h u t ; + e . . ( N 1 ) i , q 1( .
'

( ' l %) # . ( 0 ) ) n k ) r a k) # ; ( 0 ) ) t l %)

l ti s pos s i bl et os i mpl i f yt he mat r i xs t r uct ur e ofG i nt he s m ci alc as e of

s p i nl . .S i n c eG i sa2x 2ma t r i x , i tc a nb ee x pa n d e di nt h ec ompl e t es e tc on s i s t i ng oft he uni tm at r i x and t he t hr e e Paul is pi n m at r i ce s n. l ft her ei s no pr e f er r eddi r e c t i oni nt hepr obl e m,t he n G mus tbeas ca l arunders pa t i alr ot at i ons . Si ncek i st heonl y ve c t oravai l abl et oc ombi ne wi t h e,G ne ce s s a r i l yt akest he f or m

G( k, t s )= J I +: l. k

76

GROUNDST AT E( ZE ROTE MPE RATURE) FORMAL I SM

wher et he i nv ar i anc e underr ot a t i ons i mpl i est ha ta and b ar ef unc t i onsofk2 and . 1 f ,i n addi t i on,t he hami l t oni an i si nv ar i antunde rs pat i a lr e qe ct i ons , t he n G mus tal s o ha ve t hi spr ope r t y;but l. ki s a ps eudos ca l ar unde rs pa t i a l r e qe c t i ons ,s ot ha tt he c oe c i e ntb m us tvani s h. Thus si ft he ham i l t oni an and gr ound s t at ea r ei nvar i a ntunde rs pat i a lr ot at i onsand r e ie c t i ons ,t he G r e e n' s f unct i on ha st hef ol l owi ngm at r i xs t r uct ur e

Ga # t k, t , a l= 3 . #G( k, f , t ) )= 8 = bG( ! k1 , ( z > )


pr opor t i onalt ot heuni tm at r i x.

I ti si n s t r u c t i v et ou s eEq .( 7 . 5 9 )t or e p r o du c eo u rpr e v i o use x p r e s s i onf or G0 ( k, f s )( Eq. ( 7 . 45 ) )i n af r e eFe r mis y s t e m. Fort hef i r s tt e r m ofEq.( 7. 5 9 ) ,
t headded pa r t i c l em us t1 i eabov et he Fe r m is ea,and t hem at r i xel e m ent soft he fe l d ope r at or sbe com e

f ' l ' 0 1 4 a ( 0 ) i ? ' k )( n kl # ) ( 0 ) l ' F n )*P ' ' 3 j 9 ( k-: , )

( 7 . 6 1 )

I nt hede nom i nat oroft hi st e r m ,t heexc i t at i on ener gy i st hedi f l kr e ncebe t we en t heac t ua le ner g y oft headdi t i onalpar t i cl ea nd t hee ner gy t ha ti twoul d haveat t heFer m is ur f a ce. Thust heener gydi f l kr enc ei sgi venby

t N+1 )- E( X+1 )M e k ( X +1 )' > ' e k- e k=

2 ( k 2- k / ) l m

Thes e c o n dt e r mo fEq .( 7 . 5 9 )c l e a r l yc o r r e s po nd st oah o l eb e l o wt h e Fe r mi


s ur f ac e,and t hem at r i xe l ement soft heEe l d ope r a t or sbec om e

( ' Fo I ' ; ' ) ( 0 ) l n , k ) ( n , kl # z ( 0 ) l k 1 ' o )+ . # ' ' 3 z j g t k s-k 4


The gr ound s t at e oft he N - 1 par t i cl es ys t e m i sr ea che d by l et t i ng a par t i c l e f r om t heFe r mi s ur f a c ec omedownandf l l lupt hehol e; henc et hee ner gydi f r e r e nce i nt hes e cond de nom i nat ori sgi ven by

Ek z l k;- k2 ( N-1 )- f( N- 1 )- e k ( X-1 )> ' e k- f 0 k= h 2 m )


-

Si n c ep , =e k f o ran on i n t e r a c t i n gs y s t e m, weo b t a i nEq. ( 7 . 4 5 ) .


Asn ot e da bo v e ,Eq. ( 7 . 5 9 )e x h i b i t st h ed e p e n d e n c eo ft hee x a c tGr e e n ' s
f unct i on on t hef r eque nc yu ) ,and i ti si nt er es t i ngt o cons i de rt heanal yt i cpr oper -

t i e so ft h i sf un c t i on . Th ec r uc i a lob s e r v a t i on i st ha tt h ef u n c t i o n G( k , ( o )i sa me r o mo r ph i cf u n c t i o no f a ) ,wi t hs i mpl epo l e satt h ee xa c te xc i t a t i o ne n e r gi e s o ft h ei n t e r a c t i n gs y s t e mc o r r e s po n d i n gt o a mo me n t u m k. Fo rf r e qu e n c i e s b e l o w gl h , t h e s es i n g u l a r i t i e sl i es l i g h t l ya b o v et h er e a l a x i s , a n df o rf r e q u e n c i e s a bo v el x l h, t he s es i n g u l a r i t i e sl i es l i g ht l ybe l o wt h er e a la x i s( c o mp a r eFi g . 7 . l ) .


l nt hi s wa y.t he s i ngul ar i t i e s of t he Gr e en' sf unct i on i mme di at el y yi e l dt he ener gi e soft hos eexc i t e ds t at e sf orwhi c ht he nume r at ordoesnotv ani s h. For an i nt er a c t i ng s ys t e m ,t he it l d ope r at or c onne et st he gr ound s t at e wi t h ver y m any e xci t e ds t at es of t he s ys t e m c ont ai ni ng N : i :1 par t i c l e s . For t he non-

GREE N' SF UNCTI ONS AND F I E L D THEORY ( F E RM I ONS)

7 7

i nt e r ac t i ng s ys t e m ,howe ve r ,t he se l d ope r at or c onne ct s onl y one s t at et ot he

g r ou n ds t a t e , s ot h a tG0 ( k, ( s )h a son l y as i n g l ep ol e , s l i g h t l yb e l o wt h er e a l a x i s a th u t =h 2 k 2 ( 2 mi fk > ya n ds l i g h t l ya b ov et her e a la x i sa tt h es a mev a l u eo f


hu li fk < kF . I ti sc l e ar f r om t hi sdi s cus s i on t hatt he G r e en' sf unct i on G i sanal yt i ci n nei t hert he uppe r nort he l owe r( s pl ane . Forcont ouri nt e gr a t i ons ,howe ver , i ti sus e f ult oc ons i de rf unct i onst hatar eanal yt i ci n onehal fpl a neort heot her .
A o z pl a n e
( ) F z- n . -k( X-1 ) +i T e k t ' Noi nt e r a c t i o ns )

XXXX XXXXXXX AX X M
XXXXXXXXX X

/ *+ ' n k( X+1 ) -l h
Fi g. 7. 1 S i ng ul a r i t i e so f G( k, ( z 9i nt he
compl exhl . opl ane.

W et he r e f or e deine a ne w pai r off unct i ons ,known asr et ar de da nd adv ance d Gr e en' sf unc t i ons

I ' G ' l j t x/ , x' t ' ) =( ( t l %r ( #s . ( x / ) , #) . I j t x' t ' ) ) ( 1 F0 )0 ( t- t ' )


( 7 . 6 2 )

f t oj t x r , x' t ' )= -( Ye o l ( 1 J s a ( xr ) , ' f sj ' t x' t ' ) ) 4 11)0 ( t ' -r )


whe r et he br ac es denot ea na nt i com m ut at or . The anal ys i s of t hes ef unc t i ons pr oce e dstxa ct l y asf ort het i me or de r e d Gr ee n' sf unc t i on. I n a hom og ene ous s y s t em ,we fnd t he f ol l owi ng Le hm ann r e pr es ent at i on oft he i r Four i ert r ans f or m s:

GR A ( k( I V I o 1 1 / x ( 0 ) q N k ) t D k1 f ) ( 0 ) 1 ' Fo ' , x) s)= h1 z - ' J j ,

t , o- y - r a k t x+1 )s i v
.

t k l ' 0 1 . t ; f j ( 0 ) 1 n , -k>L n , -k( f , z ( 0 ) $ k l ' o ) hol- p,+ % ,- k( N-1 )+ i y Not et h a tt heFo u r i e rt r a n s f o r msGR ( k, ( s )a n d GA ( k, ( s )a r ea g a i nme r omo r p h i c
+

f u n c t i o n so ft s . A1 lt h ep o l e so f GR ( k, t s )1 i ei nt h el owe rha l fp l a n e ,s ot h a t GR ( k, ( o )i sa n a l y t i cf o rl mf , t a>0, 'i nc o n t r a s t ,a 1 lt h ep o l e sofGA ( k, )l i ei nt h e u p p e rh a l fp l an e .s ot h a tf P( k, t x ? )i sa n a l y t i cf o rI mt , e< 0. Forr e a lo p ,t h e s e


f une t i onsar es i m pl yr e l at ed by

E G1 k ( k , t , 3 . ) *- G / . ( k , u 9

( 7 . 6 4 )

wh e r et h ea s t e r i s kd e n ot sc o mpl e xc on j u g a t i o n. Th er e t a r d e dan da d v a n c e d
Gr e e n' sf unc t i onsdi f l krf r om e ac h ot herandf r om t het i me or de r e dGr e e n' sf unc-

t i o no nl yi nt h ec o nv e r g e n c ef a c t o r s i, wh i c ha r ei mp o r t an t n e a r t hes i n g u l a r i t i e s .
I f( . oi sr ea land gr e at ert han -1 J z ,t hen t he i nsni t es i m ali m agi nar y par t s +f 4

7:

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EMPE RATURE )F ORMALI SM

i nt h es e c o ndt e r mo fEqs . ( 7 . 5 9 ) a n d( 7 . 6 3 )p l a yn or ol e . Wet h e r e f or ec o nc l u de


t hati nt hi sl i mi t e d dom a i n oft hec om pl e xu ;pl ane

Gl # ( k, )= G. # ( k, )
Si mi l a r l y,

h r e a l ,>r z h r e a l , <J z

( 7 . 6 5 / ) ( 7 . 6 5 5 )

t Q, ( k. )= G. , ( k, t t 0

Asnot e d pr e vi ous l y,G. ji s us ual l y di agona li nt he s pi ni ndi c es:G. ,= G3 aj . Wi t ht he s ame as s um pt i ons ,t he r e t a r ded and advanc ed Gr e en' sf unc t i ons ar e

a l s od i a g on a l , a n d wema ys o l v ef orG a sG = ( 2 x+ 1 ) 1 Ea Gu x- ( 2 J+ 1 ) 1 G. a
wi t ht heconve nt i on t hatr epe at ed i ndi c e sar et o bes umme d.

l ft h es p a c i n gb e t we e na d j a c e n te n e r g yl e v e l si sc h a r a c t e r i z e dbyat y p i c a l
val uee ,t he di s cr et el e ve ls t r uct ur eca n be r e s ol ved onl y ove rt i mes ca l esl ong

c omp a r e d wi t hh j Le . Co n v e r s e l y ,i fa no bs e r v a t i o nl a t sf ora t y p i c a lt i mem , t he nt h ec o r r e s p on d i n ge n e r g yr e s o l u t i o ni sofo r d e rh l r .S i n c e ebe c ome s


vani s hi ngl ys mal lf ora macr os copi cs ampl e,i tgene r al l ys at i s se st her es t r i c t i on

Ae< h l r . a ndwet h e r e f o r ed e t e c ton l yt heI e v e l d e n s i t y, a v e r a g e do v e ra ne n e r g y i n t e r v a lh l r. I nt het h e r mo dy n a mi cl i mi to fa bu l ks y s t e m, i tf o l l o wst ha tt he


di s c r e t e var i a bl e a can be r epl a ce d by a c ont i nuous one. I ft f a de not e st he numa rofl ev el si n as ma l lene r g yi nt e r va le< e a k< e+ dE ,t hen t hes umm a t i ons

i nEq s . ( 7 . 5 9 )a n d( 7 . 6 3 )c a nber e wr i t t e na s

( 2 J . +1 ) 1F ) ( 2 ! ( a kI #1 ( 0 ) l N %)1 2..'

( 2 J+ 1 ) 1FJd nI ( a kl #1 ( 0 ) 1 ' 1 ' a )1 2''.


=

( 2 a+ 1 ) 1Fff f eI ( a k( #1 ( 0 ) I ' F( ) )1 2w ...

#a

M 1J# e W( k , e ' ).
and

( 7. 6 6 / )
( 7 . 6 6 : )

( N +1 ) -1FJ JI @, . kI f k( 0 ) l t 1 %)1 2 ... - 1. fd e1( k, e 1 )

wh i c hd t in et h epo s i t i v e d e Nn i t ewe i g h tf u nc t i o nsa d t k, e / la n d #( k, e / ) . Th e


c or r e s pondi ng Four i ert r ans f or m oft hes i ngl e par t i c l eG r e en' sf unc t i on be comes

Gl k,

a( k, t x ) ' ) . :1, 4 . , : . ) t , a l =j o d t z 'o , -, l s u ) , +i . o +( . , ) -, l s+ u , , -y


.
,

( 7 . 6 7 )

whi ch now has a br anc hc uti nt hecompl ex o )pl aneal on gt he whol er ealaxi s .

Th u st h ei n fn i t e v ol u mel i mi tc omp l e t e l ya l t e r st h ean a l y t i cs t r u c t ur eofG( k, t M,


bec aus et hedi s c r e t epol esha ve mer ged t of or m a br anch l i ne . Thes amer e s ul t de s c r i a sasni t es ys t em whe ne ve rt hei ndi vi duall ev e l sc annotber e s ol ve d.

GRE E N' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I EL D THE ORY ( FE RM I ONS)

7 9

As i mi l aranal ys i sf ort her e t ar ded and a dv ance d Gr e en' sf unc t i onsyi e l ds

GR '

X ( k , t z ) =j o d f z l( . o -: l s -f s , si y l +( s -: 1 s+o ' : j u i x l ( 7 . 6 8 )
.

W( k, ( , a ' )

#( k, ( s ' )

whi ch s howst hata 1 lt hr e e Gr e e n' sf unct i onsc an be c ons t r uc t ed i f, 4 and B ar e known. l n addi t i on,t he s ym bol i ci de nt i t yval i df orr e al( . o
1 = ( . o+ i . r l

@: Fi r ' r b l u ) ) ( t )
* d' l m GR . A ( k( . v ' j
-

( 7 . 6 9 )

s howst hatGRand GA s at i s f y di s pe r s i on r e l at i ons

eGR. ? ( k, o a )= E F . t #

X C

* -

, '-

( 7 . 70 )

wher e, ' de not esa Cauchy pr i nci pa lval ue. Thi se quat i on al s o hol dsf orsni t e s ys t e ms ,whe r eI m Gi sas um ofdel t af unc t i ons . Thes e Gr e en' sf unct i ons al lhave a s i mpl e as ympt ot i c behavi orf or l a r ge Cons i dert he gr ounds t a t ee xpe ct at i on val ue oft he ant i c omm ut at or

' t : ' l ' %I f ' i k ( A 2 ) , ' ; l ( X ' ) 1 l V0 )- a j ( X-X ' )


Ana n a l y s i ss i mi l a rt oEq . ( 7 . 5 3 )s h owst ha t

3 ( x- x' )= ( 2 J+ 1 ) -1j ) ( e f P n * t x f ' l / l t t k 1 ' a ; 1 J 1 ( 0 ) i k Fo )i , 2


.

j . g f P ? ! @ ( x x ? ) / h j ) 1 j . . * a j ) ) . , j x ( ( ; ) k j % O

and i t sFour i e rt r ans f or m wi t hr es pec tt o x - x' yi e l ds

1= ( 2 J+ 1 ) 1P ) (( t t n k1 1 / 1 ( 0 ) 1 ' 1 ' a )1 2+ i ( a , . . k! , 1 J a ( 0 ) 1 I %)l 2 !


-

j = 0 # t s ( : ( k , ( s ) +a ( k , ( s ) J

yi e l d

wh e r et h el a s tl i nef o l l o wsf r o m Eq. ( 7 . 6 6 ) . Fo r1 f . z ) 1 + . c c, Eq s . ( 7 . 6 7 )a n d( 7 . 6 8 )

c ( k . ( s ) c / ( k , o a ) = G , . ( k , ( z , ) f 1 z a j * 0 t t s ' g z 4 ( k , ( s ' ) + s ( k , ( s ' ) j


whi ch r e m ai nscor r ec tf oran a r bi t r ar yi nt e r ac t i ng s ys t em .
PHYSI CAL I NTERPRETATI ON OF THE G REEN' S FUNCTI ON

Tounder s t andt hephys i cal i nt e r pr e t at i on oft hes i ngl epar t i c l eGr e e n' sf unct i on,

( x' t ' ) : f 4# ( x' ? ' ) l H ' * J ( ? ' ) ) . Al t h ou g ht h i ss t a t ei sn oti ng e ne r a la ne i g e n s t a t eo f

c on s i de rt h ei nt e r a c t i on p i c t u r es t a t e1 Tz ( / ' ) ) ,a n da d d a pa r t i c l ea tt hep oi n t

8 0

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MP ERATURE )F ORMALI SM

t h eha mi l t on i a n, i ts t i l l pr op a g a t e si nt i mea c c o r d i n gt op( t , / ' ) 41 gx' f ' ) I t F, ( / ' ) ) . l c o rt> t ' wha ti st h eo v e r l a po ft h i ss t a t ewi t ht hes t a t e' ; 1 a ( x? ) . I k l ' z ( ? ) )?
( ' l ' , ( r ) i , ; z a ( x/ )C ' ( t , t ' 4 ' J l j t x' ? ' ) i ' F, ( / ' ) ) - ( *( ) 1 t ' ) ( v c , ? )E P( ? , 0 ) ' ; s z ( x ? )t ' ) ( 0 , J ) )I ' / l t n t ' j xE r . ' ) . ( ? ' , 0) ; , Lb l x' ? ' ) t ' ) ( 0, / ' ) 1 C l ' ( t ' , -: s) 1 *0 ) t ' 1 ' o l f , l a t xr l # 1 , /x ' ? / ) 1 : 1 c )
wh e r e we ha v e us e dt h er e s u l t so fS e c .6 . Th i squ a n t i t yi sj u s tt h e Gr e e n ' s
f unct i on f or t> /' , whi c ht her e f or ec ha r ac t er i ze st he pr opaga t i on of a s t a t e cont ai ni ng an a ddi t i onalpar t i cl e. I nas i mi l arwa y,i ft< t' ,t he se l d oper at or sr s tcr e at e sahol eatt i m et ,and t hes ys t e mt henpr opagat esac c or di ngt ot hef ul l hami l t oni an. Thes e hol es c an be i nt e r pr e t ed as par t i cl es goi ng bac kwar di n t i m e, asdi s c us s edi nt hef am ouspaper sofFe ynm an. l Thepr obabi l i t yam pl i t ude ata l at e rt i met 'f orfndi ng a s i ng l e hol ei nt he gr ound s t at e oft he i nt er a ct i ng

s y s t e mi sa g a i nj u s tt h eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i onf o rt< t ' .


W es hal lnow s t udy how t hi s pr opagat i on i nt f m ei sr el at ed t ot he f unc t i on

t i me s c al ei st oo s hor tt or es ol vet he s epar at eene r gy 1 ev el s . 2 By t he deEni t i on oft he Four i ert r ans f or m ,t he t i m e de pe nde nce i sgi v en by

G( k, ( s ) ,a nd ,f o rd e f ni t e n e s s ,wes h a l lc o n s i d e ron l yt heu s u a lc a s ewh e r et he

G( k, a zd o l ? )= x ; ; c -f l G( k , ( s ) =T F
-

'

I ft> 0,t hei nt e gr alma y bee val uat e d by de f or mi ng t hecont ouri nt ot hel owe r

h a l fo . kp l a n e .S i n c e G( k, c o )h a sa r at h e rc omp l i c a t e da n a l y t i cs t r u c t u r e ,i ti s c on v e ni e n tt os e p ar a t eEq . ( 7 . 7 3 )i nt ot wopa r t s: G( k, l )=


$ 1 1 hJl . s * dul -2 e f t i ' ' G( k, )+ l -e i L O : Gt k , t z ) l = . -a 7 / 2 h 2=

( 7 . 7 4 )

I nt h es r s tt e r m( ( sr e a l a n d< h -1 p , ) , G( k, f z ) ) c o i n c i d e swi t ht hea dv a nc e d Gr e e n ' s f un c t i onGA ( k, t r) .( Eq. ( 7 . 6 5 : ) 1 , a n dt h ei n t e g r a l t h u sb e c o me s


l A I he , u l l hlt s ' - . .. 2 i ( . , t G( k t s )= . . e -i a l r GA ( ky( x ) ) *e ' 2 =

No w GA ( k, ( o )i sa n a l y t i ci nt hel o we r ha l fp l a n e , a n dt h ec on t ou rc a nb ed e f or me d f r om C' 1t o CL '( Fi g .7 . 2 J ) . Equ a t i o n( 7 . 7 2 )s ho wst h a tGA( a nd GR )b e ha v e s


!R. P. Fe y nma n, Ph ys . Re v . , 7 6: 7 49( 1 9 4 9 ) ; 7 6: 7 69( 1 9 4 9 ) .
2Ourar gumentf ol l owst hatofV.M .Gal i t s ki iandA.B. Mi gdal , I oc.ci t . andofA. A. Abri kos ov, L. P.Go r k ov ,a nd1 . E. Dz y a l os h i n s ki i , l o c . c i t .

GRE E N' S FUNC TI ONS AND F ' E L D THE ORY ( F ERMI ONS)

8 1

l i k et r if br1 4 . , a i > . a z ; J o r d a n ' sl e mma lt h use n s u r e st h a tt hec on t r i b ut i o nf r o m


t hear cati nni t yvani s hes ,and Eq.( 7. 75)r educe st o
H l ht / *
-c o

2 ef o , r G( k, f x ) )= . n.

.-

v/ ' h

i z o t Gz t t k, ( s ) : -f . zr re v/

Jc o

( 7 . 7 6 )

Th es e c o n dt e r mo fEq. ( 7 . 7 4 )c an b et r e a t e ds i mi l a r l y, b e c a u s e G( k, ( o ) c o i n c i de s wi t h GR ( k, f . t ) )f or r e al( z ?> J zh. Ther ei sone i mpor t antnew f eat ur e,howev er ,

Fi g.7. 2 Con t o ur su s e di ne v al u at i n g G( k, t )f c l rt> 0.

b e c a us eGR ( k, ( s )i sn o ta n a l y t i ci nt hel o we rh a l f( . op l a n e bu ti n s t e a dh a ss i n gu l ar i t i es . Forde f i ni t e nes swe m ake a l ) p r ) 'e I e me l k / ar q 'm o delof t he i nt er a ct i ng

a s s e mb l yan da s s u met ha tGB ( k. c o )ha sa s i nl pl epo l ec l o s e; t ?t h er e a l a xi si nt h e


l ower hal fpl ane at ( . o= l t -l E k- i yk wi t hr e s i due a.wher eE ' k> p ,and 6 k- / . t>

h ykl . p0 .( l fGR h a ss e v e r a lp ol e s , t h es a mean a l y s i sap p l i e st oe a c h on es e p a r a t e l y . ) The c on t ou r( 7 2c a nb ed e f o r me dt o Ca '( Fi g .7 . 2 : 4 ,a nd t h el a r g ea r c a ti n f i n i t ya g a i n mak e sno c o nt r i bu t i on;t he s e c o n dt e r m ofEq.( 7 . 7 4 )t h e n
be com es . t y *
s? &

2 0 . e f c ' r G ' ( k , ( , ) -j j * c a ' r G A ( k , ( o ) -i a t ? f 6 k ' 7 ' e k ' k '


. vf s , n.

r . . , ' ' i -i xd

Ac omb i n a t i on o fEqs . ( 7 . 7 6 )an d( 7 . 7 7 )y i e l d s

Gt k, t )=

v , ' h
l x l 9-i f n

l( s

' j -i o t ' g 6' X ( k' t o )- G& ( k, c t ) ) J -i ae -i E k f / ' 9 e k ' k : z re

I fr i sn e i t h e rt o ol a r g en ort o os ma l l , t h ei n t e g r a l i n Eq. ( 7 . 7 8 ) i sn e g l i g i bl e ,
and t hes t at ec ont ai ni ng oneaddi t i onalpar t i cl e pr opagat esl i kean appr oxi m at e e i ge ns t at e wi t h af r equency e k f / h and dam pi n gc ons t ant vk . M or e pr ec i s e l y, we s hal lnow s how t hati f

1 t l l e k- r z ) >h i t 1 yk; :l
tSe e,f or e xampl e.E.G .Phi l l i ps,t l l unct i ons ofa Compl ex Var i abl e. ' gp.122,l nt er s ci ence Publ i s her s,I nc. ,New Yor k.1 95 8.

:2

GROUNDS T ATE ( ZEROTE MPE RATURE) F ORMAL j SM

t ht nl

' G' t k# / )Q; -i ae f e : f / e M k t

( 7 . 7 9 )

Not et hatt hec ondi t i on 6 k- J z> h yki sas s umed i mpl i ci t l y,s ot hatt hepol emus t

l i ev e r yc l o s et ot h er e a la x i s .I nt h i sc a s e ,Eq .( 7 . 7 9 )s h owst h a tt her e ala n d i ma g i na r yp a r t so ft h ep o l e so ft h ea na l y t i cc o n t i nu a t i o n ofGR ( k, t o )i nt ot h e


l owe r hal t -pl ane det e r mi ne t he f r e quenc y and l i f e t i me of t he e xc i t ed s t at es

ob t a i n e db ya dd i n ga p a r t i c l et oa ni n t e r a c t i n gg r o un ds t a t e . Equ a t i on( 7 . 7 9 ) i sr e a d i l yp r ov e db yn o t i ngt ha tt h ei nt e g r a n di nEq. ( 7 . 7 8 )i se x po n e n t i a l l ys ma l l


as I mf . s be com e sl a r ge and ne ga t i ve ,s ot hatt he dom i nantcont r i but i onscom e f r om t her e gi on ne art he r e alax i s . Ont her e alaxi s ,i nt hevi ci ni t y oft he pol e we have

GR ( k,t a t ) ); k s t o- r k / / j +i y g GA ( k,u J ) ) =( GR ( k, ( s ) ) *; k ; ( . o- y j h- i y z

whe r tt hes e c on dr e l a t i onf o l l o wsf r o m Eq. ( 7 . 6 4 ) . The s er e l a t i o n sa l l ow u st o an a l y t i c a l l yc o nt i n ueGR ( k, ( s )a n d GA ( k, ( s )i nt ot h ec o mpl e xf spl . a n e ,a n dt h e i n t e g r a li n Eq . ( 7 . 7 8 )c a nt h e r e f o r eb ewr i t t e na s
v : h #4 s
BI h -i c o 0.

2t ? -f o a f g cA t k, t s , l- GR ( k, t s ) J
; k ; li yka

#1 h

#( s

e -i f . t ) f
-

. =( ( z ) -hj 6 k ) a+ y 2 k # t / h -t x )2 = ( ) y.+ ( ( p . - q)- s y z


du z .j
el z r

' ?k a e- i y t l h c o
= -

; k ; -4 =1 ) -1 y : a h l s -e x ) 2 e i H t i h. t- i ae *k t l h e t k t ( 78 0 ) whe r et h et h i r dl i ne i so bt a i n e d wi t ht hes u bs t i t u t i o n u= f l ( , ) - -i p ) . Th e
hnalf or m f ol l ows by us i pg as s umpt i ons 1 and 2,al ong wi t ht he condi t i on

y ' k . < 4h -1 ( q -/ z ) . Not et h a tt hel a s ti ne 4u a l i t yi nEq. ( 7 . 8 0 )f a i l si ft i st ool a r g e


or t oo s mal l . l n a whol l y anal ogous f as hi on,t he pol e s oft he ana l yt i c con-

t i n u at i on o fGz t t k, f . o li n t ot h eu p p e rh a l fo apl a n ed e t e r mi n et h ef r e qu e n c ya n d l i f e t i me o ft hes t a t eob t a i n e db yc r e a t i n gah ol e( d e s t r o y i n gap a r t i c l e )i nt h e


i nt e r a ct i ng gr ound s t at e .
'Th ea pp a r e nte x p on e nt i a ld e c ay i ss l i g ht l y mi s l e a di n gb e c a u s ec ond i t i o n2r e s t r i ct su st ot h e r egi on wher ee-' '; k J1- yt .

GREE N' S FUNCTI ONS AND FI EL D THEOR Y( FE RMI ONS)

83

8DW I CK' S THEO REM ' Thepr ec e di ng s ec t i on de f i ne dt hes i ngl e par t i cl eG r e en' sf unc t i on and exhi bi t ed i t sr e l at i on t o obs er v abl epr oper t i es . Thi sanal ys i si n no way s ol vest hef undame nt a lm a nybodypr obl em , howev er , and wem us ts t i l l cal cul at eG f ornont r i vi a l phys i ca ls ys t e ms . A s our gener al m e t hod of a t t a ck,we s hal leva l ua t et he Gr ee n' sf unc t i on wi t h pe r t urbat i on t heor y. Thi s pr oc edur ei s mos te as i l y c ar r i ed outi nt hei nt e r a ct i on pi c t ur e,wher et heva r i oust e r msc an bee numer at ed wi t hat heor e m ofW i ck,de r i v ed i nt hi ss ec t i on. Ther em ai nderoft hi sc hapt e r

( S e c . 9 )i sd e v o t e dt ot h edi a g r a m ma t i ca na l y s i so ft h ep e r t ur ba t i on s e r i e s .
TheG r e e n' sf unct i on c ons i s t sofam at r i xe l e m entofH e i s enbe r g oper at or s i nt heexa cti nt e r ac t i ng g r ound s t at e. Thi sf or mi si nc onv eni entf orpe r t ur ba t i on t heor y,and we now pr ove a bas i ct heor e m t hatr el at est he m at r i x el em e ntofa

He i s e n be r go p e r a t ort X( / ) t ot h ema t r i xe l e me nt o f t h ec o r r e s p o n di n gi n t e r a c t i on
o p t r a t o rOg ( t ) :

( ' F ' ( ) I :, , ( J ) l ' l %).

( : 1 ' 0 1 ' 1 P ( ) . t * c l , 9 i * o l j o o j *j j f j v 2 1 j u t a , J d t v
.-

v -o

Xe e t I t J / +. + I , p l ) r( . J . ? . j ( / y ) He r et h eop e r a t o r. Li sde f i n e db y

. ? ? ! ( ? v ) t ) , ( / ) 3 1 *c ) ( 8 . 1 )

S= t ' Vc s , -a a ) t 1 l %) CO, +c c ' l ( *0 ) f *c l ' l ' 0 ) ( ( p : ( t %( 0 . u i u : x ? ) ( ( l ' : ) .


.

( 8 . 2 )

Thepr oofi sasf ol l ows:TheG e l l Ma nn and Low t heor em e xpr e s s e st hegr ound s t a t e oft he i nt e r ac t i ngs y s t em i nt hei nt e r ac t i on pi ct ur e
=

Th e de no mi n a t o r on t h el e f ts i d e ofEq.( 8 . 1 )c a nb ec a l c u l a t e db y wr i t i n g

I . k( 0 , -c c ) 1 *0 N , ) o nt h er i g h t a n dt %( 0 , : c ) t *o ) ) o nt h el e f t ( 1 1 , ( ) 1 F0 ) ( *c I G( 0 , c s ) fG( 0 , -c c ) 1 *n )
t f *c 1 , ' l ' e )t 2
'

t t *o 1 ' 1 ' o )l 2

C *( ) r G( ' x , , 0 ) f $ ( 0, -: c ) 1 *0 )
( 8 . 3 )

t t me l k l p . o l ' t a ( *0 1 . 91 *0 ) = =( ( * z ot ' l ' 0 )l

whe r ebo t hEqs . ( 6. 1 5 ) a n d( 6 . 1 6 ) ha v eb e e nus e d . I nas i mi l a rwa y , t h en u me r a t oront h el e f ts i d eofEq. ( 8 . 1 )b e c o me s , wi t ht h ea i do fEq. ( 6. 3 1 ) ,

t *( , I t %( c c , 0 ) t ' ) e ( O , ? ) dz ( ? ) t %( r , 0 ) t %( : , -' x ) ) 1 *0 )
l f *c l ' I ' ' ( , )1 2
-

4 *0 1 I %( c c , J ) z ( ? ) L hl t . -c c ) 1 *0 )( s 4 ) . lo j s-;j c .
. : ro o

lG . C. wi c k, Ph y s . #e t , . . &) ; 2 6 8( 1 9 5 0 ) .

>

GROUNDS T ATE ( ZE ROTEMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

Th ec o mmo nd e n omi na t o r so fEqs . ( 8 . 3 )a nd( 8 . 4 )c a nc e li nf or mi n gt her a t i o ,


and we5nd

) r( f ' l %I :, , ( / ) l ' F c )- ( *o 1 t %( =, r f ) G( f , -c c ) I *c )
- -

. : . 1 ' c 1 . 1 %)

( *a I , 9I *( , )

( g . 5 )

The r em ai ni ng pr obl e m i st or e wr i t et he num er at or oft he r i ghts i de of

Eq. ( 8 . 5 ) , c o n t a i n i n gt heo p e r a t o r

t %( *, f ) 0z ( f ) t ' Vf , -*)
= =
* -j a j x j h - df j .. . n ! t n=0
*

dj a e g ( j . j 1 +. .. + j t a j ) pg . / . ' / G ' l ( j l j.... j g e ' . l ( j a j j


l *
-

x 0z ( / )

h m! d t l..' -.d t m .

im 1

xe e ( I t l 1 +' ' ' + l t I ) Tg J ) l ( t j ).... J . ' J ' j ( t y p j ) )( 8 . 6 )


wh e r eEq. ( 6. 3 7 ) h a sb e e nu s e d. Thet he o r e m wi l l n ow b epr ov e db yd e mo n s t r a t i n gt ha tt heo pe r a t ori nt h enu me r a t oro nt her i g h ts i d eo fEq .( 8 . 1 )i se qu a lt o Eq . ( 8 . 6 ) .l nt hev t ht e r mo f t hes um i nEq. ( 8 . 1 ) , d i v i d et hei n t e g r a t i o nv a r i a bl e s
i nt o nf a ct or swi t ht i> tand m f a ct or swi t ht t< t ,whe r em + n = v. The r ea r e

v! / v! n! wa y st oma k et hi spa r t i t i on , a n das u mma t i o nov e ra 1 l v a l u e so fm a n da


cons i s t e ntw i t ht he r e s t r i ct i on p= m + n c om pl e t el ye num e r at e st he r e gi ons of

i n t e g r a t i oni nt hi sp f o l dmul t i p l ei n t e g r a l . Theo pe r a t o ri nEq. ( 8 . 1 )t h e r e f o r e


be c om e s
( x )
p .0
-

y i v1 * * 31 y ' . x dt .m+n ' lh l z 'n=0 m =0 ' m . . ! n. ' l


.

a )
- -

dt nef ( I f . 1 + '''+1 t a I )

xF ( 4j ( f I ). . . . 4 l ( K ) ( 1 : , ( / ) J 'd t t J 'd t m
xe e ( I t l I +' .' + I 1 1 ) r( #k ( f j ) ...J /j t f a ) ) ( 8 . 7 )
TheKr one cke rde l t ahe r eens ur e st hatm + n= p , buti tal s ocanbeus e dt ope r f or m

t h es umma t i o no v e rp , wh i c hpr o v e st h et h e o r e mb e c a u s eEq. ( 8 . 7 )t h e nr e d u c e s t oEq. ( 8. 6 ) .


I nas i mi l a rm a nner ,t he e xpec t at i on val ue of t i meor der ed H e i s enber g oper a t or sm aybewr i t t e n as

( ' l % l F ( 0 z I ( ? ) 0 s ( f ' ) 1 1 ' 1 C 0 ) -y oj , j 1 j oa ( o ( , j y )( i > 1 ' t 4 % 1 : 1 % ) v) ; j


, .., x

j * * : / ,. . . J f * * # f . e e ( I , ! l + . . . + 1 , . 1 )

x F( Xl ( l l )---#I ( f . ) z ( l ) z ( / ' ) ) I *c ) ( 8 . 8 )

GRE EN' SF UNCTI ONS AND FI E LD THE ORY ( F ERMi ONS)

8 5

Thi sr es ul tdependson t he obs e r vat i on


.

t q mo r l 9 t t c c , o l( r 7 e ( 0 , ? ) ; ( t 4 6f , ( / . 0 ) 1 ( P, ( 0 , ? ) O, . ( t ' )t ' . ) t ( ? ' , 0) ) f , . ( O, -x) ! *( ) ' p -' : t p( ) I t 7 . r r ( *, ? ) t ' ) , ( ? )Pt ( ? , J ' )z ( J ' )C ' ' ( t ' , -c r : . ) r *( ) )
.
.

and we m us tt her e f or e par t i t i on t he i nt e gr at i on var i a bl es i nt o t hr e e di s t i nct

gr oups . Ot her wi s e ,t he pr oofi si de nt i c alwi t ht hatofEq.( 8. 1 ) . Si nc e Eqs . ( 8 . 1 )a n d( 8. 8 )b ot hc on s i s tofr a t i o s ,t h ed i v e r g e n tp h a s ef a c t or sc a nc e l ,a n di t


i s pe r mi s s i bl et ot ake t he l i mi te '. +0. l nt hi sl a s tf or m ,t hes et he or e m sar e am ongt he m os tus e f ulr es ul t sofquant um f i el dt he or y. A san i nt e r e s t i ng exa m pl e,t he ex actG r e e n' sf unct i on m ay be wr i t t en as

l . c a j ( x , . , , ) - L h ip !. d t , . . .j # ? p =0 . -.

X z

pj c c

. > x )

y '

f ( l ) o ! F( Xj ( / I ) ...X I ( t p ) ) ; a ( x) l ' y 1 4 y) ) ' ( l ) ( ) z z


-- -

'

- -

tmol Sl *( ) ) '

whe r et he n ot a t i o n xE ( x , r ' ( ) ) -( x, J x )ha sb e e ni n t r o du c e d . He r ea n d he n c e f or t h, t he s ubs cr i pt 1 wi l ) be om i t t e d.s i nc e we s ha l lc ons i s t ent l y wor ki nt he i nt er a ct i on pi c t ur e . l ti s al s o conveni ent t or e wr i t et he i nt er par t i c l e pot e nt i a l

i n X ja s
whi ch al l ows us t o wr i t et he i nt e gr at i ons s ym m e t r i ca l l y. l For ex am pl e, t he

n ume r a t o ro fEq. ( 8 . 9 ) , wh i c h wewi l l d e n o t eb yI ' C, b e c o me s


.

i c ' . ; ( x , y ) -I ' G O I j t x , y ) + . . ( / j . ) jd n x , J 4 x / ( v . ( x j , . v ( ) h a , . s s ,
2/ $ pp t '
q' r' # t w * Y '' 2 ' ? ' A ' ' ' xt F k ( l ) t *o1 . yA ( A1 ) t ' / , ' s ( xl ) ' / ? s , ( xl ) ' t / ? A ( A ' l ) v ' a ( x) ' z ' j ( A ' ) 1 I a z ' F -'' ' .Fk
.

j,

Wh e r ef G0 a y ( x , J . ) =t ' t 1 ) l / ' x) 9 . 1 ( I ' ) J . *( e f e r st ot h en o ni n t e r a c t i n gs y s t e m. ( )rl a( ? 3 ' ) r


. . .

Thi se xpr es s i on s howst hatwe m us te v ' al u at et heexpe ct at i on v ' a l ue i nt he noni nt e r ac t i ng gr ound s t at e ofF pr oduc t sofc r e at i on and des t r uct i on oper at or s of t hef or m

/ f 1 ) F( y , , 1 . . .# G ' h x ) t , / 1 ' 4 3 . ' ) q I ( 1 ) ) 01 k a( j . 0


.

( 8 l 2 ) .

' Th eGr e e n' sf un c t i o nn ow a s s ume sac ov a r i an ta pp e a r a n c ea nd, i n de e d, i s j us tt ha tob t a i n e d


i nr e l at i vi s t i c quant um el e ct r odynami cs .wher et he i nt er act i on ofEq.( 8, 1 0)i s medi at ed b5 ' t he exchange ofvi rt ual phot ons of t he el ect r omagnet i cf i el d. The onl y di pkr enc ei st hat quant um el ect r ody nam i cs i nvol ve st he r et ar ded el ect r omagnet i ci nt er act i on, whe re as t he pr e s ent t heory i nvol ves a s t at i ci nst ant aneous pot ent i alpr opor t i onal t o a del t af unct i on

& ( t 3- / a ) .l ts ho ul db ee mp ha s i z e d.h owe v e r .t h att hef or l ' l a l i s l t td e N ' e l op e dh e r ea pp l i e s


equal l y wel lt or el at i vi st i cquant um f i el dt heor y.whi ch i ses peci al l yevi denti n Chap. 1 2.wher e wecons i deranonr el at i vi st i cr et ar ded i nt er act i on ar i si ngf r om phononexchange.

86

GR OUNDS TATE ( Z EROTE MPE RATURE) FORMAL I SM

l ti s cl ear t hatt he cr ea t i on a nd de s t r uc t i on ope r at or s mus t be pai r ed or t he expe ct at i on va l uevani s he s;e veni nt hi sl owes t or de rt er m, howe ver ,t hes t r ai ght f or wa r da ppr oac h ofc l as s i f yi ng al 1pos s i bl econt r i but i onsby di r e c tappl i c at i on oft hec om mut at i on ora nt i commut at i on r e l at i onsi sver yl e ngt hy. I ns t e ad,we s hal lr e l yon W i c k' st heor e m,whi ch pr ovi de sagene r alpr oce dur ef oreval uat i ng s uch m a t r i xe l e m ent s . Thees s e nt i ali deai st o moveal ldes t r uct i on oper at or st ot her i ght ,wher e t hey anni hi l at et he noni nt e r ac t i ng gr ound s t at e. I ns o doi ng, we gene r at e addi t i onalt er ms ,pr opor t i onalt ot hecom m ut at or sorant i com m ut a t or soft he oper a t or si nvol ve di nt he i nt e r change s ofpos i t i ons . Formos t pur pos es ,i ti s mor ec onv eni e ntt o us et he se l d ope r at or s di r e c t l yr at hert han t he oper at or s

( c k )r e f e r r i ngt oas i n g l emod e .I nmos ts y s t e msof i n t e r e s t , # ( x ) c a nbeun i q ue l y s e p a r a t e di n t o ad e s t r u c t i on p a r t#t + ' ( x )t h a ta n ni hi l a t e st he n on i n t e r a c t i n g g r ou n ds t a t ea n dac r e a t i o npa r t' /' ( x ) . t # ( x )= #t + ' ( x)+ ' /' ( x ) ( 8 . 1 3 ) 4 7 + ' ( x) 1 *0 )= 0 ( 8 . 1 4 )
'

Co r r e s p on di n g l y , t hea d j o i n to p e r a t orb e c o me s f 7 f ( x )= #t + ) ' ( x )+ #( ) f ( x )


wher e

( 8 . 1 5 )

' 4 J C ' ( x) ( *0 )= 0 ( 8 . 1 6 ) Thu s<t + ' ( x )a n d1 J f ' 1 ( x )a r eb 0t hd e s t r u c t i on p a r t s ,wh i l e<t ' ( x)a nd W+ ) ( x)
ar ebot hc r ea t i on par t s . Thenot at i on i sa ve s t i g e oft he or i gi nalappl i c at i on of

Wi c k ' st h e or e mt or e l a t i v i s t i cqu a n t um E e l dt h e o r y ,wh e r e( +)a n d( -)s i g n s


r ef e rt o a Lor e nt zi nvar i antde c om pos i t i on i nt o pos i t i veand ne ga t i vef r equenc y par t s . Forourpur pos es , howe ver ,t heyc anbecons i de r e ds uper s cr i pt sde not i ng de s t r uct i on and c r e at i on par t s . A san e xpl i c i texa m pl e oft hi sdec om pos i t i on, c ons i de rt he f r e ef er mi on se l d,r ewr i t t en wi t ht he canoni c alt r ans f or mat i on of

Eq. ( 7 . 3 4 ) ' . , j ( x l= J ( F1e d t k * x t / k r ) T a k A+ j l F+e l t k . x u hf l ' f l y ! k


k>k F k/<k F

c1 J t + ' ( x )+ ' /) ( x )

( 8 . 1 7 )

I nt h i sc a s e , t h es y mbo l s( +)a n d( -)ma yb ei n t e r p r e t e da st h es i gnoft hef r e quenc i e soft hese l dc om pone nt sm e a su r e d wi t hr e s pe ctt ot heFe r m ie ne r g y. To pr e s entW i ck' st he or em i n aconci s eand us e f ulmanner ,i ti snec e s s ar y t oi nt r oduc es omene w de Gni t i ons . l . Tpr oduc t :The F pr oductofa c ol l e ct i on off i el d oper a t or shasal r ea dy

be e n de Gn e d( Eq.( 7. 4 ) ) .I tor de r st h eN e l do p e r a t or swi t ht hel a t e s tt i me o n


1Foradi s c u s s i o nof t h es p e c i a l pr o bl e msi nh e r e n ti nt h et r e a t me n tof c on d e ns e dBo xs y s t e ms ,
s e eChap.6.

GREE N' SF UNCTI ONS AND FI E LD THE ORY ( F ERMI ONS)

87

t he l ef tand i ncl udesan addi t i onalf ac t orof-1f orea ch i nt er changeoff er mi on oper at or s . By desni t i on

Tl v i . b ... )- ( -1 ) ert c, i ' x/ ... )

( 8 .1 8 )

whe r eP i st henum be rofper m ut at i onsoff e r mi on ope r a t or snee de dt or e ar r ange

t h epr od u c ta sg i v e nont h el e f ts i deo fEq .( 8 . 1 8 )t oa g r e ewi t ht heo r d e ront h e


r i g hts i de. I ti sc l e ar l yper mi s s i bl et ot r e att he bos on f i el dsasi ft he yc om m ut e and t he f er mi on sel dsas i ft he y ant i com m ut e when r e or der i ng fel ds wi t hi na T pr oduct . 2.N o r m alor der i ng:Thi st er mr e pr es ent sadi f l kr entor der i ngofa pr oduct ofse l d ope r at or s ,i n whi ch al lt heanni hi l a t i on ope r at or sar epl ac ed t ot her i ght ofal 1t hecr eat i on ope r at or s ,a gai ni nc l udi ng af ac t orof-1f orev er yi nt e r c hange off e r mi on ope r a t or s . Bydesni t i on

Nl z i cb ... )- ( -l ) P . N' ( d WX ..' )


f e r mi on hel ds ,
.

( 8 . 1 9 )

s ot hatt hese l dswi t hi n a nor m al or de r ed pr oduc tcanagai n bet r e at ed asi ft he y

c ommu t e( b os on s )o ra n t i c o mmu t e( f e r mi on s ) . Fo re x a mpl e ,i fwede a lwi t h

N( #t + ' ( x) #t ) ( y ) )= -1 J t ' ( y) 4t + ' ( x )


( 8 . 2 0 )

N' ( 1 / f + ) ( x ) 1 J t + ) f ( y ) )= -1 J f + ) 1 ( y ) ' ? ; t + ' ( x)

I nbot hc as e st hec r e at i on par toft hef i e l di swr i t t ent ot hel ef t ,and t hef a ct or- 1 r e qec t st he s i ngl ei nt er change of f er mi on ope r at or s . The r eade ri s ur ge dt o wr i t eouts e ve r alex am pl esofea ch de fni t i on. A nor mal or de r e d pr oduct of se l d oper at or si s es pe c i al l y conv eni e nt

b e c a u s ei t se x pe c t a t i o nv a l u ei nt h eu n pe r t u r b e dg r o u n ds t a t e1 *: )v a ni s h e s
i d e n t i c a l l y( s e e Eq s .( 8 . 1 4 )a n d( 8 . 1 6 ) J . Th i sr e s ul tr e ma i n st r u ee v e ni ft h e p r o d uc tc o n s i s t se n t i r e l yo fc r e a t i on pa r t s ,a si sc l e a rf r om t h ea d j o i n toft h e
equa t i ons de sni ng t he des t r uc t i on par t s . Thus t he gr ounds t at ee xpec t at i on

v a l u eo fa F pr o d u c to fo p e r a t or sg f o re x a mpl e( 8. 1 2 ) Jma yb ee v a l ua t e db y
r educi ng i tt ot he c or r e s pondi n ga N pr oduct;t he f undament alpr obl e m i st he enum er at i on oft headdi t i onalt er m si nt r oduce di nt her e duc t i on. Thi spr oce s s i ss i m pl i se d by not i ngt hatb ot ht he Tpr oduc ta nd t he N pr o ductar edi s t r i but i v e. Forex am pl e,

NL I X + ) ( C + X) ''' ) = NI A C.
I ti st her ef or es uf l i ci entt o pr ovet he t heor em ss e par at el yf orc r e at i onordes t r uc t i on par t s.

3.Co nt r a c t i o n s :Th ec o n t r a c t i o no ft wo o p e r a t or sC Jan d Pi sde no t e d 1 ? . P' a n di se qu a lt ot h ed i se r e n c eb e t we e nt h er pr od u c ta n dt hea V pr od uc t . L 1 . P' > r( PP) - A( PP) ( s .2 1 )

8 8 GROL I NDST ATE ( ZEROTE MPC RATURE )F ORMAL I SM I tr epr e s ent st he addi t i onal t er m i nt r odu ce d by r e ar r angi n g at i me or der e d pr oducti nt o a nor ma l or de r e d pr oduc tand i st her ef or e di f l kr entf ordi f l kr ent t i m eor de r i ngsoft heoper at or s . Asanex am pl e, aI I oft hef ol l owi ngc ont r ac t i ons vani s h
.

j ( + ) ' j( ) . = y( + ) j ' . y( ) f ' . =, j( + ) ' f . yt ) . =. j ( + ) . y( ) f . . =( )

( y. ) , ; )

b e c a u s et heT p r o du c to ft h e s eo p e r a t or si si d e n t i c a lwi t ht h eN pr o du c to ft h e
s ame ope r at or s. To be m or es pe ci fc ,cons i der' t he fr s tpai r of ope r at or si n

Eq. ( 8 . 2 2 ) . Th e i rFp r o du c t i sg i v e nb y

F( #t + ' ( x) ' # t ) ( f 7 + 1 ( x ) #C 1 ( y ) J ' ) 1H +# ( ) ( y , ) y y+ ) ( x )


.

t x> t y t y> t x

( 8 2 3 )

wher et he + i nt he s e c ond l i ne r ef er st o bos ons or f er mi ons . But t he se l d

o pe r a t o r' ( $ i sal i n e a rc ombi n a t i onofi n t e r a c t i on p i c t u r eo p e r a t o r so ft h ef or m c k e i a ' k '( c o mpa r e Eq.( 6 . 1 0 f 8) . Th u s ,f o re i t he rs t a t i s t i c s ,Eq.( 8 . 2 3 )ma yb e
r ewr i t t en as

F! #t + J ( x ) 1 J i h ( . p ) ) = +fC ' ( y ) 1 ; t + ) ( x ) b e c au s e #( )a n d' ? / t + )c o mmu t eo ra nt i c o mmu t ea ta n yt i me . Not et h a tt h i s


r es ul ti st r ue o nl yi nt he i nt er ac t i on pi c t ur e,wher et he ope r at or pr ope r t i e s ar e t he s ame asi nt heSc hr di nge rpi c t ur e. By t he desni t i on ofa nor m al or de r e d pr oduct ,we ha ve

A ' / t + ' ( x) #t ' ( > ' ) 1 M: i : #f ' ( . $' J t + ' ( x )


and t hei rc ont r ac t i on t her ef or evani s hes

( 8 . 2 5 )

( 8 . 2 6 ) Th eo t h e rc o n t r a c t i on si nEq .( 8 . 2 2 )a l s ov a ni s hb e c au s ea l l oft h epa i r e di n t e r a ct i onpi c t ur eoper at or scom m ut eorant i com m ut ewi t he ac h ot her .

Equ a t i o n( 8 . 2 2 )s h owst h a tmo s tc o nt r a c t i o n sa r ez e r o .I n pa r t i c u l a r ,a


c ont r ac t i onoft wocr eat i on par t sort wo des t r uc t i onpar t svani s he s ,and t heonl y nonz er ocont r ac t i onsar egi ven by

y( + ) ( x ) ' y( + ) t ( y ) . i Ghxs yj t x> t v =


0 t y> t x

y( ) ( x ) ' y( ) # ( y , ) ' =

( )
f GXx, . . $

t x7 -t y
t y> t x

Forf e r mi ons ,t hi sr e sul ti sde r i ve d wi t ht hec anoni c alant i com m ut at i on r el a t i ons

o ft h ec r e a t i o na n dd e s t r u c t i onop e r a t or s( Eq.( 1 . 4 8 ) )a ndt h ed e h n i t i onoft h e f r e e Gr e e n' sf un c t i o ng i v e ni n Eq,( 7 . 4 1 ) .As i mi l a rd e r i v a t i o na p p l i e sf br n on c on d e n s e db o s on s( s e e , f o re x a mp l e , Cha p.1 2 ) . No t et h a tt h ec o nt r a c t i o ns

GRE E N' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I EL D THE ORY ( F E RMI ONS)

8 9

a r ecnumbe r si nt heocc up at i onnum b erH i l ber ts pac e,notoper at or s . Equat i on

( 8 2 7 )i smor e s i mp l yd e r i v e d wi t ht h eob s e r v a t i on . ' t N( f J ' P) ( t pa ,= P 'P' t t p o r r( PP) 1 m: )- ( *( ) ! P' P' l *( ) z +. x*o; . .


.
s

( 8 . 2 8 )

s i n c e( *o 1 N( PP) 1 *o 'v a ni s h e sb yde f i n i t i on. Th ed i s t r i bu t i v ep r o pe r t i e st h e n


yi e l dt hecont r a ct i on oft heNel d oper at or st hem s el ve s

, ? ; ( x ) ' . , / $ 1 ( 3 , ) ' =i G ' t ( x, a j a j , )


.

( 8 . 2 9 )

4. z ' f co nve nt i o n: W e i nt r oduc e a f ur t her s i gn conv ent i on. Nor ma l or der ed pr oduct soff l el d ope r at or swi t b m or et han onecont r ac t i on w i l lhavet he c ont r ac t i ons denot ed by pai r s ofs uper s cr i pt s wi t hs i ngl e dot s ,doubl e dot s ,et c. Two f a ct or st hat ar ec ont r a ct e d m us t be br ou ght t oge t he r by r e ar r angi ng t he or de r of t he ope r at or s wi t hi nt he nor malpr oduct ,al ways k eepi ng t he s t andar d s i gn convent i on f or i nt er change of oper at or s . The c ont r act e d oper at or s ar e

t he nt o be r epl a ce d by t he va l ue oft he c ont r ac t i on gi v en by Eq.( 8. 27) . Si nc e t hi s c o nt r a c t i oni sn owj u s t af u n c t i ono ft h ec oo r di n a t ev a r i a bl e s . i t c a nbet a k e n


out s i deoft he nor m al or der ed pr oduct .

Nl . , i ' ' c q ' b ... )- +At , g t ' c n . /z ' ).., )-z b z z i . t l ' ' Nl b ... )
Fi nal l y,not et hat

( 8 . 3 0 ) ( 8 . 31 )

( . / . P' =: i : p* C'
or de r e d pr oduc t . l ti snow pos s i bl et os t a t e 5. W i c k' st he or e m:

wbi c hf o l l o ws f r o m Eq.( S . 2 l )a n dt h ed e sni t i on of r pr o d u c ta n dn or ma l -

Theba s i ci de a oft het he or em i sasf ol l ows:Cons i de ragi v en t i m eor der i ng,and s t ar tm ovi ngt hecr eat i on par t st ot hel e f tw' i t hi nt hi spr oductoff i e l d ope r at or s . Eac ht i me a c r e at i on par tf ai l st o com m ut e or ant i com m ut e ,i tgene r at es an

a dd i t i on a lt e r m,wh i c hi sj u s tt h ec on t r a c t i o n. I ti sp e r mi s s i bl et oi n c l u d ea I 1
pos s i bl ec ont r ac t i ons ,s i nc et he cont r a ct i on vani s hes i ft he c r e at i on par ti s

a l r e a d yt ot h el e f to ft h ed e s t r u c t i o np a r t( r e me mb e rt h a tmo s :c o n t r a c t i o n sa r e z e r o ) ;he n c et h et he or e mc l e a r l ye nu me r a t e sa l lt h ee x t r at e r mst h a toc c u ri n


r e or de r i ng a F pr oducti nt o a nor m al or de r e d pr oduc t .

9 0

cqouqns' r A' r E( ZE ROTE MPER ATURE )F oqMAL l su

To pr ove t he t he or e m,we s ha l lf ol l ow W i c k' sde r i v at i on and sr s tpr ov e t hef ol l owi ng.

6.Ba s i cl e n t malI fAI t )P '..k?ji sa n o r ma l o r d e r e dp r o du c ta n d; i saf a c t o rl a b e l e d wt s t ha t i mee a r l i e rt h ant het i me sf or0,P ' ..X,# ' ,t h e n AI PP ...k?) 2 = AI PP ...E?. ;' )+ AI PP .'.E' # 2* ) + N( I /' P ...k f T, ) + AI f . ) ' P ..'k? 24 ( 8 . 3 3 )
. .
.

Thusi fa nor m al or der ed pr oducti sm ul t i pl i e d on t heri ghtwi t h any oper at or atan e ar l i e rt i m e,w eobt ai n a sum ofnor m al or der ed pr odu ct scont ai ni ng t he e xt r a ope r at orcont r act e di nt ur n wi t h al lt he oper at or ss t andi ng i nt he or i gi nal pr oduct ,al ong wi t hat e r m whe r et he ex t r a ope r at or i si nc l uded wi t hi nt he nor m al or de r e d pr oduct . To pr ove t he l em m a, not et he f ol l owi ng poi nt s:

( J )I f2 i sa d e s t r u c t i on o p e r a t or ,t h e na l lt h ec on t r a c t i o n sv a n i s hs i n c e F( X2) = N( v i 24 . Th u s ,o nl yt h el a s tt e r mi n Eq.( 8 . 3 3 )c o n t r i bu t e sa n dt h e
l e m m ai spr ove d.

( : )Th eop e r a t o rpr od uc t0f ''''kf ' c a nb ea s s u me dt ob eno r ma lo r d e r e d,


s i nce ot he r wi s et he oper at or sc an be r e or de r e d on b0t hs i de s oft he equat i on. Ours i gn c onv ent i ons e ns ur et he s am e s i gnat ur ef ac t oroc cur si ne ac ht e r m of

Eq . ( 8 . 3 3 )a n dt he r e f or ec a n c e l si de n t i c a l l y . ( c ) Wec a nf u r t h e ra s s umet ha t2 i sac r e a t i o no p e r a t or , an d P ''' ? a r ea I l


des t r uc t i on ope r at or s . l ft hel emm a i spr oved i nt hi sf or m ,c r e at i on oper at or s m ay be i nc l ude d by m ul t i pl yi ng on t he l e f t;t he addi t i onalcont r act i ons s o i nt r oduce dv ani s hi de nt i ca l l y and ca nt her ef or e be adde dt ot he r i ght s i de of

Eq. ( 8 . 3 3 )wi t ho u tc ha n g i n gt h er e s u l t .

He n c ei ti ss u mc i e ntt op r o v e Eq.( 8. 3 3 )f ork a c r e a t i on o pe r a t ora n d


P ''' ? d e s t r u c t i on o p e r a t or s . Th epr oo ff ol l o wsb yi n du c t i on . Eq ua t i on ( 8 . 3 3 )i se v i de n t l yt r u ef o rt woo p e r a t or sb yd e sn i t i o n( Eq. ( 8 . 21 ) ) 3 2 = F( ?2)- ?. 2. + N(f T) ( 8 . 3 4 )

W en ow a s s u me i ti st r u ef o rno pe r a t o r sa n dp r o v ti tf orn+ l o g e r a t or s .
Mu l t i pl yt hel e mma( 8 . 3 3 )ont h el e f tb ya n o t h e rd e s t r u c t i o nop e r a t o rD h a v i n g at i mel a t e rt ha nt h a tof 2.

X1 Y) ( 8 . 3 5 )

S i n c e P,P .''X, ? a r ea l ld e s t r u c t i o no p e r a t or sa n dt h ec o nt r a c t i on of2' wi t ha n yd e s t r u c t i ono p e r a t ori sacn umb e r ,b h a sb e e nt a k e ni n s i d et h en o r ma l o r d e r i n ge x c e p tf ort h ev e r yI a s tt e r mi n Eq. ( 8 . 3 5 ) , wh e r e: i ss t i l l a nop e r a t or .

GREE N' S FUNCTI ONS AND FI EL D THEORY ( F E RMI ONS)

Cons i dert hi sl as tt er m ,whi c h,w eas s er t an be wr i t t en as ,c

DNI I /b > ...z L ' ?k)- N( D' ( ' ) P ...## :' )+ Nl bob ' k...k?2) ( 8 . 3 6 )
Thi se quat i on i sr e adi l yv er i he d.

DNI L ' / Z ...z %? 4 = ( -1 ) ,D2I ) b 7 ...k? - ( -1 ) 1r( >:)PP '..#f ' = ( -1 ) 'X' 2. PP ...v kL r +( -1 ) , , + *xl zb)t J / P ...#f r = ( ( -1 ) e ) 2b. ( ' ) P ...kf q. +g ( -1 ) r + t ? ) 2 Nl bl ?b ' y...k?kj = ,( . f ) . PP ...k?z' l + sl bf kb s ...## :) I nt hes ec ondl i ne2 i smove dt ot hel e f twi t hi nt henor mal or der e d pr oduc t , i nt r odu c i n gas i gn a t u r ef a c t o r( -1 ) P . Thef a c t o r sn ow ' a pp e a ri nn or ma l or de r , an d t he N pr oductc an be r em ove d. Fur t he r m or e t he pr od u c t bz i s a l r e a d y t i me ,
or der edbyas s um pt i on. Thef our t hl i nef ol l owsf r om t hedehni t i on ofa c ont r ac -

t i o n,wi t h af a c t or( -1 ) 0a r i s i n gf r om t h ei n t e r c ha n g e ofX a n d 2. Th el a s t t e r mi nt h ef ou r t hl i n ei s i nn or ma l or de r , b e c a u s ePP .'.Xk ' a r ea l l d e s t r u c t i on


oper at or s . The s i gn c onve nt i ons t hen al l ow us t or eor der t he oper at or st o

o bt a i nt hes na l f o r m,whi c hpr ov e st h eb as i cl e mma( 8 . 3 3 ) .


The r t s ul tcan be gene ra l i z e dt o nor ma l or de r ed pr oduc t s al r eady cont ai ni ng cont r a ct i ons ofEel d ope r at or s . Mu l t i pl y bo t hu i d e so fEq.( 8 . 3 3 )b y t he cont r a ct i on oft wo m or e oper at or s ,.l ' t ' ' S' ' ,s a y ,a nd t he ni nt e r c ha n g et he oper at or son bot hs i de s . Ea ch t e r m ha st he s am e ove r al ls i gn change whi ch

c a n c e l si d e nt i c a l l y. Th uswec a nr e wr i t et heb a s i cl e mma( 8. 3 3 )a s N( PP-.-.#' -?4 2 = sr ( t ' ) P' '...#. .1 7 . 2. )+ ... + N( 0' P* *...k. 'L r 2. j+ x( I ? ' f ' '...k ' '9 2) ( s.38) 7 .Pr o o fo f Wi c k' st h e o r e m: Ag a i nt h et h e o r e m wi l l b epr o v e db yi n du c t i o n.
l ti sobv i ous l yt r uef ort wo oper at or s hedefni t i on ofacont r act i on , by t

z ' ( t 7 f ' )= x( t 7P)+ t ' ) ' P.

( 8 . 3 9 )

As s um e i ti st r uef ornf a ct or s n dmul t i pl yo nt h er i g h tbyano p e r a t o r( 1wi t h ,a at i mee ar l i e rt han t hatofany ot he rf ac t or .

FI PPT .'.X# 2) t ' 1 - rl r / f z l f z...8?2t h 4 - N( I ?b 7 k '...E 2) f l+ x( r J ? 'P' ) l '...f ' ::) j 1+ .. - xt pr z l , f z ...## ' z) +A' t s u m ov e ra l I p os s i b l ep a i r so fc o nt r a c t i o n s )( 8 . 4 0 )

92

GR OUNDS T ATE ( ZE ROTE MPER ATURE) FORMAL I SM

The o p e r a t orL c a n bei n c l u de di nt h eF p r o du c tbe c a us ei ti sa ta t i mee a r l i e r


t han any oft hos eal r e ady i nt heF pr oduct . On t her i ghts i de,weus eourbas i c

l e mma ( 8 . 3 3 )t oi n t r od u c et h eo pe r a t o rL hi nt ot hen or ma l or de r e d pr o du c t s . Th er e s t r i c t i on o nt he t i me o ft he o p e r a t or( 1c a nn o wb er e mov e db ys i mu l t a n e ou s l yr e o r d e r i n gt h eo p e r a t o r si ne a c ht e r m ofEq .( 8 . 4 0 ) . Ag a i nt hes i g n


c onve nt i ons gi v et he s am e ov er a l ls i gn on bot hs i des of t he e quat i on,w hi c h t he r e f or er e m ai ns c or r e ct . Wi c k' st he or em has now be en pr ov ed unde rt he as s um pt i on t hatt he oper at or s ar ee i t her c r e at i on or des t r uc t i on par t s of t he f l el d, The T pr oduc t and t he nor m al or der ed pr oduc t ar e bot h di s t r i but i ve , howev er ,and W i ck' st he or e mt husappl i e st ot hehe l dst he ms e l v es . l tm us tbe e m phas i ze dt hatW i ck' st he or em i s an o per at or i d ent i t yt hat r e m ai ns t r ue f or an ar bi t r a r y m at r i xe l e me nt . I t sr ealus e,howe ver ,i sf or a

g r ou n ds t a t ea v e r a g e( *a l''. ! *0 ) ' ,wh e r ea l 1u n c o n t r a c t e d no r ma l o r de r e d p r od u c t sv a n i s h. I np a r t i c u l a r , t h ee x a c tGr e e n ' sf un c t i o n( Eq.( 8 . 9 ) Jc o ns i s t s


ofa l lpos s i bl ef ul l yc ont r a de dt er ms .

9UDI AGRAM M ATI C ANALYSI S OF PERTURBATI O N THEORY

Wi c k' st h e o r e m a l l o ws u st oe v a l ua t et h ee x a c tGr e e n ' sf u n c t i on ( 8 . 9 )a sa


per t ur bat i on e xpa ns i on i nvol vi ng onl y whol l y cont r ac t ed f i e l d ope r at or si nt he

i n t e r a c t i o np l ' i ' ' l r e T' , . e s ec on t r a c t i o nsa r ej u s tt h ef r e e s e l d Gr e e n' sf u n c t i o n s G%( Eq .( 8 . 2 9 ) ) ,a n dG i st h e r e b ye x p r e s s e di na s e r i e sc on t a i n i n gU a n d G% . Th i se x p a n s i o nc a nb ea na l y z e dd i r e c t l yi nc o or di n a t es pa c e ,o r( f o raun i f or m s y s t e m) i n mo me n t u m s p a c e . As n o t e dp r e v i o us l y ,t h ez e r o t e mpe r a t u r e t h e or yf orc on d e n s e db os on sr e qu i r e sas p e c i a lt r e a t me n t( Cha p. 6 ) , a n dwes h a l l
cons i deronl yf er mi onsi nt hi ss e c t i on.
FEYNM A N DI AGRA M S I N coo Rol NATE spAcE

As an ex am pl eoft he ut i l i t y ofW i ck' st heor e m ,wes ha l lcal cul a t et he sr s t or de r

c o nt r i bu t i o nsi n Eq. ( 8 . 1 1 ) . Th ee x p e c t a t i on v a l u eo fa l lt h et e r msc on t a i n i n g


nor m al or der ed pr oduc t s of oper at or s va ni s he si nt he noni nt er ac t i ng gr ound

s t a t et *; ) , l e a v i ngo nl yt h ef ul l yc on t r a c t e dp r o d uc t sof fe l do p e r a t o r s . Wi c k ' s t h e or e mt h e nr e qu i r e sust os u mo v e ra l lpo s s i b l ec on t r a c t i o n s ,a n d Eq.( 8 . 2 9 ) s ho wst h a tt h e on l yn on v a n i s hi ng c o n t r a c t i on i sb e t we e nas e l d; ' xa n da n a d j oi n th e l d#: : .I nt h i swa y , t h es r s t or de rt e r m ofEq. ( 8 . 1 1 )b e c ome s
j J( l ) ( x, f 1 x p . v )= hl -

d4 xl d4 xl z ( y t xj j xj / l a g , , s s ,
f Al ( s)

AA' b z y'

( I ' G. 0 j ( x, y )( j G0 F z H ( xl z , x; ) j G0 a , z t xj , xj )- i G; n t . A ( xl ' , xj ) 1 G0 z v ( xl , x; ) )
+k ' Go z z t x, xj )g j ' Go z , j j t xj , xj ? ) Gs 0 ' j ( xj ' , y)- f Go z , j ( xl , y) / Gs 0 , s t xj ' , xl ' ) )
( c) ( E) f nt ( F)

+1 G. 0 H ( x, xj ' ) ( ; Gs 0 , A t xj ' , xl ) i G ) . # ( xl , y )- i G; 0 . , j ( xj ' , y) j ' Gz 0 A ( xI , xj ) ) )

GRE E N' S FUNCTI ONS AND FI E LD THE ORY ( F ERMI ONS)

9 3

Th er e a de ri sur g e dt oo b t a i n Eq. ( 9 . l )d i r e c t l yf r o m Eq. ( 8 . 1 1 )b ye n ume r a t i n g


a l lnonvani s hi ng c ont r i but i onsf oral 1pos s i bl et i m eor de r i ngs . Thi spr oce dur e i sv er yc om pl i cat e d,ev en i nt hefr s tor der ,and W i ck' st he or em cl e ar l ypr ovi de s a ve r y powe r f uland s i m pl et ool .
X
R'

X ' l
.

j
A A'
A1

J z #,
X1

z ' X1 A .

# t . . X ' 1 y. '
8 Y!# e

# ( z d)
X

( #)
A'

( C)

A 1

# E

Xl

r z l t ,

x
A A

x
.

p . J z '

A A ' ,

X1

X ' 1 .

b '

( f ) )

( E)

( F) Fi g.9. 1 Fi r s t or de rc o nt r i b ut i o nst oCa p l x s y ) .

W ecan now as s oci a t eapi ct ur ewi t hea ch oft het er m sa ppea r i ng i ne xpr e s -

s i o n( 9. 1 ) ,a si l l u s t r a t e di n Fi g. 9. 1 . Th e Gr e e n' sf u nc t i o n G0i sde n ot e db ya


s t r ai ghtl i ne wi t h an ar r ow r unni ng f r om t hes e cond ar g um e ntt ot he f i r s t l e . whi t he i nt er act i on pot ent i ali sdenot ed bya wavy l i ne. The s edi a gr am sappe ar i ng i nt hepe r t ur bat i on anal ys i sofG f or m aconv eni e ntwayofcl a s s i f yi ngt het er ms obt ai ned wi t hW i ck' st he or em . The y ar e know n asFe ynmandi a gr amsbec aus e t ht f i r s tdi agr am m a t i ce xpans i on oft hi sf or m wa sde vel ope d by Fe ynm a ni nhi s

9 4 GROUNDS TATE ( ZEROT EMPE RATURE )F onMAusu wor k on quant um e l e ct r odyna mi cs . l The pr e c i s er e l a t i on wi t h quant um sel d

t he or y wassr s tdemons t r at e d byDys on. z

Th ea n a l y t i ce x p r e s s i o ni n Eq.( 9 . 1 )a n dt he c or r e s p on d i n gd i a gr a ms ( Fi g . 9 . 1 )h a v es e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n gf e a t u r e s .
1 .Thet er ms, 1, B,D,a ndFcont a i naGr ee n' sf unct i onwi t hbot har gument s att he s am e t i me,whi c hi si ndi c at ed b y as ol i dl i ne c l os e d on i t s e l f . By t he

d e s ni t i on( Eq. ( 7 . 41 ) ) , t hee x pr e s s i o nf Gj j ( x, x)i sa mb i g u o us , a n di t i sn e c e s s a r y t od e c i d eh o wt oi nt e r p r e ti t . Th i sq u a nt i t yr e p r e s e n t sac on t r a c t i ono f# a nd


f h 1 ' ,but t he t i me or der ed pr oducti s unde hne d at e qua lt i mes . Suc h at er m,
howev er , ar i s e sf r om ac ont r ac t i onoft wosel dswi t hi nt hei nt e r ac t i onham i l t oni an

Xl .wh e r et h e ya p p e a ri nt h ef o r m' ( $ ( x ) ' ( kt x lwi t ht h ea d j o i n ts e l da l wa y s


o c c u r r i n gt ot h el e ft oft h es e l d .I nc o n s e qu e nc e , t h eGr e e n' sf un c t i ona te qu a l
t i me sm us tbei nt er pr et e da s

t 4; ( x , x ) -t l i m *o I F( # . ( x ? ) # ; ( x / ' ) ) 1 *0 ) ' -> f6 4 ( *o l # ; ( x ) # a ( x ) I *o )


-

( 2 . 8+ 1 ) 1 bj a 0 ( x )
&x bN

= -( 2 u n fo r ms y s t e m ( 9. 2 ) J+ 1 )P ' f ora s y s t e mo fs p i n xf e r mi o ns . He r ea 0 ( x )i st h epa r t i c l ed e n s i t yi nt h eu n p e r t ur b e dg r o un ds t a t e( c omp a r eEq. ( 7 . 8 ) )a n dn e e dn otb ei d e n t i c a lwi t ha ( x )


i nt he i nt er ac t i ng s ys t em be caus et hei nt er a ct i on m ay r edi s t r i but et he par t i c l e s .

Fo rau n i f or ms y s t e m,h owe v e r , n 0= n= NI V,b e c au s et h ei n t e r a c t i ond o e sn o t


change t he t ot alnum ber ofpar t i cl es . The t er m s D and F t hus r epr e s e ntt he l owes t or der di r e c ti nt e r a ct i on wi t h a1 1t he pa r t i cl e st ha t make up t he non-

i nt e r a c t i n gg r ou nds t a t e( hl l e d Fe r mis e a ) .wh i l et h et e r msC a n d E pr o v i d et h e


cor r e s pondi ng l owe s t or de rexc hangei nt er act i on. He r et het e r m sS ' di r e ct l 'and ' ex change' 'ar i s ef r om t he or i gi nalant i s ym m e t r i z ed Sl at er det er mi nant s ,as

di s c u s s e db e l o w Eq. ( 3 . 3 7 ) .
2.The t e r m s. , d and B ar edi s c onne ct eddi a gr am s ,cont ai ni ngsubuni t st hat

a r en ot c on n e c t e dt ot h er e s t of t h ed i a g r a mb ya n yl i n e s . E qu a t i on( 9. 1 )s h o ws
t hats uc ht er m st ypi cal l y hav e Gr e en' sf unct i ons and i nt er ac t i ons whos e ar gume nt scl os e on t he ms el ve s . A sar e s ul t .t hecont r i but i onoft hi ss ubuni tc an be

f a c t or e d ou to ft h ee x p r e s s i on f or C. Thu s ,i nt h et e r ms , 4 an d# a b o v e , f Ga 0 j ( x, y )r e p r e s e n t son ef a c t oran dt h ei nt e g r a lr e p r e s e nt sa no t h e rf a c t o r . To hr s t o r d e ri nt h ei n t e r a c t i o n. wea s s e r tt ha tEq. ( 8 . 1 1 )c a nber e wr i t t e na ss ho wn


i n Fi g.9. 2. Eac h di agr a mi nt hi shgur ede not e sawel l desned i nt e gr al ,gi veni n

Eq. ( 9. 1 ) . Th ev al i d i t y ofFi g .9 . 2i sr e a d i l yv e r i h e db ye x p a n di n gt h epr o du c t a n dr e t a i ni n gon l yt h ehr s t o r d e rt e r ms .whi c ha r ej u s tt ho s ei nFi g .9 . l . Th e


1R.P.Feynman.I oc.c i t .

2F. J .Dy s o n. Ph y s .Re v . , 7 5: 4 8 6( 1 9 4 9 ) ; 75: 1 7 3 6( 1 9 49 ) .

GRE E N' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I EL D THEOR Y( F E RMI ONS)

9 :

I 4( x. y )-

+' . .x 1+

+. .

Fi g. 9. 2 Fa c t or i y At i o noff l r s t or d e rc on t r i b ut i o nst oCG x, # ) .


a ddi t i onalt e r msofs e cond or deri nt hei nt e r ac t i onar ehe r euni mpor t antl wr>us e

t h ep r e s e n tc a l c u l a t i o ni sc on s i s t e n to nl yL ojr s to r d e ri nt h ei n t e r a c t i o n. Thede n o mi n a t o r( *: 1 JI *n )= ( *a I 0( *, -*) I *: )i n Eq.( 8 . 9 )h a sY n


i gnor e dt ot hi spoi nt ,and wes hal lnow e val uat ei tt o Er s tor de ri nt hei nt er act i on

po t e nt i a l . Th eo p e r a t or 04 *, -*)i st he s a me a st h a ti nt he nu me r a t o ro f

Eq .( 8 . 9 ) , e x c e p tt h a tt h eo mr a t o r s# . ( x ) # J ( y ) mu s t %d e l e -d . Ti ms t h e denomi nat or can al s ol x e val uat e d wi t h Wi ck' st he or em,and onl yt he f ul l y


cont r ac t e dt er m s cont r i but e. The r es ul t i ng ca l c ul at i on evi dent l y yi e l ds t he t e r mss hown i n Fi g.9. 3,wher ee ach di agr am agai ns t ands f or a we l l de ne d
FI g. 9. 3 Di s c o nnt e d di ag r ams i n t h e
A

d e nomi na t orofG# ( x, y) .

<*( j 1 J1 %>-l +

+. . .

i nt e gr al . Thes ei nt e gr al sar e pr e ci s e l yt hes ame a st hos ea pm ar i ng i nt he t e r ms

Aa n dB o fEq. ( 9 . 1 ) . Wet h e r e f o r ec o n c l u d et h a tt h ec o n t r i b u t i o no ft h ed e n o mf a a/ o ri n Eq .( 8 . 9 )e x ac t l yr l a e e l lt h ec o n t r i b u t i o no ft h ed i s c o n n e e t e dd l Wg r i nt henume r at or . Thi si mpor t antr es ul thass of ar% en ve ri he d onl yt ol owe s t or de ri nt hei nt er ac t i on,butwes hal lnow pr ovei tt oal lor de r s . l A di s c onnec t e d di agr am c l os eson i t s e l f;c onm uenuy,i t scont r i but i on t o

G. j ( x, y )f a c t o r s .nu st hev t hor de rt e r mo ft hen u me r a t o ro fEq.( 8 . 9 )r >n


bewr i t t en a s

. # f Jt ' ' ( x , y) -

* * -i > + 1 >. ! * * A a, m ! ..dt l - -. dt . - 3 . . . + --!


@ -0 PI -Q
v

x4 : *( , 1 F( 41 ( / 1 )---#l ( f ) # . ( x ) # ) ( z ) ! I *: ) . . . . . , x

j * * d f , . + 1 . . . J ( * * d t . ( * c l r ( #l ( l . + , ). . #1 ( f . ) 1 I * , )
( 9. 3 )

whi c h c ' n be s e en by appl yi ng W i ck' st he or em on bot hs i de soft hi sex pr es s i on. n es ec ond f a ct or ,cont a i ni ng n i nt erat i ons ,i n ge ner a lc ons i s t s of many di s -

c on n e c t e dp a r t s . n ef a c t o rv! / a! m !r e p r e s e nt st h en u m-ro fwa yst h a tt hev


'He r ewef ol l ow t h ep r oo fgi v e nby A.A.Ab r i k os ov ,L.P. Gor ko v, a nd 1 .E. Dz y a l - hi Mki i ,
o p.ci t . .= .8.

: 6

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPER ATURE )F ORMAL I SM

o p e r a t o r sPl ( / j )c a nb ep a r t i t i o ne di n t ot wog r ou p s ,a nd ,a sn ot e db e f or e ,Xj


c anbem ove di ns i det heF pr oduc twi t h noaddi t i onal changesofs i gn. Equat i on

( 9. 3 )mu s tn o wb es u mme d ov e ra l lp ,whi c hi st r i v i a l l y pe r f or me d wi t ht h e Kr o ne c ke rd e l t a ,a n dt hen u me r a t o rofEq. ( 8 . 9 )b e c o me s


' < '
-

I ' f. # ( x, y)m -0

h - , - -. d t L.-' -. d t m n!
*

fm 1

x' : mo l rE z hl t r , l --.I l j l t m t 1 / 1 . ( x) v ' f # t z l l l mo l c e n n e c t e u


-

x
n=0

i 1
*

c o

c o

dt j .. .
-X -X

#/ n

x( ( 1 ) ( ) J F( H ' j ( t j )--.H -I ( t , ) ) p *( ) )
f or mul a
*
-

( 9 . 4 )

Thesr s tf ac t ori st hes um ofal 1c onne c t e ddi agr am s ,whi l et hes e cond i si dent i c al

wi t ht h e de n omi na t o r( *f ) I Xi *o ) . We t h e r e f or e ob t a i nt h ef u n da me n t a l
i G( x j ( x , y )=
m=0

h m!

im 1

c o

d t j''' -. d t m OX

c o

x( *( , I rE . f ? . ( ? . )-..4l ( / m l f z t x l 4 l t z l l r mn l c o n n e c t e u( 9 . 5 )
whi ch e xpr es s est hef act or i z at i on ofdi s c onnec t eddi a gr am s . Ar el at e d l i nke d-

c l u s t e r ' ' e x pa n s i o nf o rt h eg r o u n ds t a t ee n e r g ywa sf i r s tc o n j e c t ur e db yBr u e c k ner , lwho ve r i he dt he e xpa ns i on t of our t h or de ri nt he i nt er act i on pot ent i al ; t he pr ooft o al lor der s was t hen gi v en by G ol ds t onez wi t ht he t e chni que s of

qu a n t u m s e l dt h e o r y . Eq u a t i on ( 9 . 5 )i si mp or t a n tb e c a u s ei ta l l o ws u st o
i gnor eal 1di agr a m st hatcont ai n pa r t snotconne ct ed t ot hef e r mi on l i ner unni n g f r om y t o x.

Th ee x p a ns i o no fG. j ( x, y )i n t oc o n ne c t e d di a g r a msi swho l l ye q u i v a l e n t


t ot heor i gi nal pe r t ur bat i on s e r i e s . Thes ear et hece l e br at edFe ynmandi a gr ams , and we s hal lnow de r i vet he pr e c i s er ul est hatr el a t et hedi agr am st ot he t er ms oft he per t ur bat i on s e ri e s. I tmus tbe e m phas i ze d,howev er ,t ha tt he de t a i l e d s t r uct ur e oft he Feynm an r ul e sde pendson t he f or m oft he i nt e r ac t i on ham i l -

t on i a nX1 , a ndt h ep r e s e nt d e r i v a t i ona p pl i e s o n l yt oas y s t e mo f i de n t i c a l p a r t i c l e s


i nt e r a ct i ng t hr ough at w obody pot e nt i a l . 3.For any gi v en di agr am .t he r ei s an i dent i ca l cont r i but i on f r om al l s i mi l ardi a gr am st hatdi Se r m er e l yi nt he pe r m ut at i on oft he l abel s 1 ' '.m

i nt h ei n t e r a c t i onha mi l t on i a nI j . Fo re x a mpl e , t h et wodi a g r a msi n Fi g . 9 . 4


havet hes am e numer i calval ue be c aus et hey di f l ' e rm er el yi nt he l abel i ng oft he dum m y i nt e gr a t i on var i abl e s . I n addi t i on,t he y have t he s am e s i gn be c aus e
1K .A . Br u k n e r , Ph y s . #0 . ,1 *: 3 6( 1 9 5 5 ) . 2J . Gol d s t on e , Pr o c . Ro y. So c . t f , ( ) n d t / al ,A23 9: 2 6 7( 1 95 7 ) .

GREE N' SF UNCT I ONS AND F I EL D THE ORY ( F E RMI ONS)

97

lz

Xz

x1

x' 1

X!

x2

xz '

F i g. 9. 4 T y p i c a lp e r mu t a t i o no fI hi nc o n nec t ed di a gr am s.

I jc o nt a i n sa ne v e nnumb e roff e r mi o ns e l dsa n d ma yt h e r e f o r eb emo v e da t


wi l lwi t hi nt he F pr oduc t . l n vt h or dert her ear e m !pos s i bl ei nt e r c hange sof t hi st ype c or r es pondi ng t ot he m !waysofchoos i n gt hei nt e r ac t i on ham i l t oni an

4ji na pp l y i n gWi c k ' st he or e m. AI I oft h e s et e r msma k et hes a mec o n t r i bu t i o n t ot h eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i on , s ot h a twec a nc ou nt e a c hd i a gr am j u s fo n c ea n dc an c e l t h ef a c t o r( r n! ) 1 i nEq. ( 9 . 5 ) . No t et ha t t hi sr e s u l ti st r u eo nl yf o rt h ec o n n e c t e d
di agr ams ,wher et he e xt e r na lpoi nt sx and z ar e sx ed. l ncont r a s t ,t he di sc o nne ct ed di agr am s hown i n Fi g.9. 5r epr e s e nt sonl y as i ngl et er m . Thi sr e s ul ti s
Xz xa

Fi g.9. 6 Ty pi c a ld i s c on ne c t e dd i a gr a m.

X l

Xl ,

e a s i l ys e e nb ye x p a n di n g( *0 1 X1 *0 )wi t hW i c k' st h e o r e m. Th e r ei so nl yo n e
way t o cont r a cta1 loft hese l ds ,and t he di agr am obt ai ne d by t he i nt er c hange x: xl '= xz xa 'doesnotc or r e s pond t o a new and di fer entanal yt i ct e r m. Thi s di s t i nc t i on be t wee n conne c t e d and di s conne c t e d di a gr ams i s one of t he bas i c r e as ons f or s t udyi ng t he G r e en' sf unct i on;t he sxe de xt er nal poi nt s gr e at l y s i m pl i f yt hec ount i ng ofdi a gr am si n pe r t ur bat i ont he or y. W et he r e f or e 5nd t he f ol l owi ng r ul ef ort he at hor dercont r i but i on t ot he

s i n g l e pa r t i c l eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i onG. /x, y) :


( J ) Dr a wa l lt o po l o g i c a l l yd i s t i n c tc o nn e c t e d di a g r a mswi t hni n t e r a c t i on l i n e s
U and 2n+ ldi r e c t e dGr e en' sf unc t i onsG0 .

Thi spr oc edur ec an bes i mpl i Ee d wi t ht he obs e r vat i on t hataf e r mi on l i ne

e i t h e rc l o s e so ni t s e l fo r u n sc o n t l hu o u s l yf r o m zt ox. Ea c ho ft h e s ed i a g r a ms

9 :

GROUNDS T ATE ( ZER OTEMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

r epr es e nt sal lt hea!di Fe r e ntpos s i bi l i t i e sofc hoos i ng among t hes etofvar i abl es

( xj xJ ) '''( . Lx ; ) .l ft he r ei sa qu e s t i ona st ot h epr e c i s e me a n i n g oft op o l ogi c al l y di s t i nc t di agr ams ,W i ck' st heor e m can a l ways be us e dt ov er i f yt he e num e r at i on.

4.I no u rs r s t or de re x a mpl e( Eq. ( 9 . 1 ) )weno t et h a tt h et e r msC a n dE a r ee qu a l ,a sa r et h et e r msD a n d F;t he ydi fe ro nl yi nt h a txa ndx'( a n dt he c o r r e s p on d i n g ma t r i xi n di c e s )a r ei n t e r c h a n g e d,wh e r e a st h epo t e n t i a li ss y mme t r i cu n de rt hi ss u bs t i t u t i o n( Eq.( 7 . 1 3 ) 1 .I ti st h e r e f or es u c i e ntt or e t a i n j u s to n edi a g r a mo fe a c ht y p e .s i mu l t an e ou s l yo mi t t i n gt h ef a c t or! . i nf r on to f Eq.( 9 . 1 $ wh i c hr e q e c t st hef a c t o r! . i nt h ei n t e r a c t i on po t e n t i a l( E q.( 2 . 4) ) . 1
l z ' / t y p'

Fi g.9. 6 Mat r i xi n di c e sf or&( x, y ' ) z z . . . . , . W et her e f or eobt ai nt headdi t i onalr ul es:

( ) La b e le a c hv e r t e xwi t haf o ur di me ns i on a l s p a c e t i mep oi n t xi .

( c ) Ea c hs ol i dl i n er e p r e s e nt saGr e e n ' sf un c t i on( 4j ( x , y)r u nn i n gf r om y t ox. ( #)Ea c hwa v yl i n er e pr e s e n t sani n t e r a c t i on &( x, > ' ) , A , , a . ' - F( x, y ) A A , , , . b l t x- t y )
wher et heas s oc i at i on ofm a t r i xi ndi c e si ss hown i n Fi g.9. 6.

( e )I nt e g r a t ea l 1 i n t e r n a l v a r i a bl e so v e rs p a c ea n dt i me .
5.W e not et hatt he s ummat i onsappe ar i ngi nt hes ubs cr i pti ndi c eson t he

Gr e e n' sf u n c t i o nsa n di n t e r a c t i onpo t e n t i a l si nEq. ( 9 . 1 )a r epr e c i s e l yi nt h ef o r m


ofa mat r i x pr oduc tt hatr unsal ong t he f er mi on l i ne. Thuswe s t at et he r u l e:

( /)Th e r ei sas p i nma t r i xpr od u c t a l o nge a c hc o n t i nu ou sf e r mi o nl i n e , i n c l u d i n g


t hepot ent i a l sa tec h ve r t e x.

6 .Th eo v e r a l ls i g no ft h ev a r i o u sc o n t r i bu t i o n sa pp e a r i n gi nEq .( 9 . 1 )o r
t hedi agr amsappe ar i ngi nFi g. 9. 1i sde t er mi nedasf ol l ows . Eve r yt i meaf er mi on l i nec l os e soni t s e l f ,t het e r m ac qui r esa ne xt r ami nuss i gn. Thi si ss ee n bynot i ng t hat t he ie l ds c ont r a ct e di nt o a cl os ed l oop c an l h ea r r ange di nt he or der numbe r ofi nt e r c hang e ' s off er mi on oper at or si s now ne e ded t o move t he l a s t se l d om r at orov e rt oi t spr ope r pos i t i on att he l e f t . Thusweobt ai nt he r u l e:

( : 1 1 ( 1 ) * 1 / ( 1 ) ' ' ) f ## ( 2 ) ' * /4 2 ) * ' ' )''.I y 1 ( A) ' Jwi t h no c h a n g ei ns i gn . An o d d

( g )Axas i g nf a c t o r ( -1 ) Ft oe a c ht e r m, whe r eFi st h en u mbe ro f c l os e df e r mi o n


l oopsi nt hedi agr am.
'Not et h a tt h i sr e s u l ta g ai n ap pl i e sonl yt oc on ne c t e dd i a g r a ms ,a si se v i d e n tf r o m Fi g .9. 1 2 andB.

GAE E N' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I EL D THE ORY ( F E RMI ONS)

7 .Thea t ho r d t rt e r mo fEq. ( 9. 5 )h a sa ne x p l i c i tn ume r i c a lf a c t o r( -i l h ?,


whj l et he 2n+ 1c ont r ac t i onsofhel d om r at or scont r i but e an addi t i ona lf a ct or

f >+ l( =eEq. ( 8 . 2 9 ) 1 . W et h e r e f o r eob t a i nt h er ul e: f h )To c omp u t e G( x, y )a s s i g n af a c t o r( -f ) ( -# ) * ( f ) 2 a + l =( i l h ?t oe a c h at h or de rt e r m.

Fi n a l l y ,t h ee a r l i e rd i xus s i o nofEq. ( 9 . 2 )y i e l d st h er u l e: ( f )A Gr e e n ' sf un c t i onwi t he qu a lt i mev a r i a b l e smu s tl xi n t e r pr e t e da s

G /X J . X ' t ' / )
X

Xl

/
l
Xl

! :

A ,

x;
.

K1

F i g. 9. 7 A1 l es t or de rFe y nma ndi a ra ms

#
( : )

f orG # ( x, . y ) .

@)

The f or e goi ng ar gument s pr ov i de a uni que pr e s cr i pt i on f or dr awi ng a1 1

Fe y n ma nd i a g r a ms t h a tc o nt r i bu t et o G( x, z )i nc o or di n a t es pa c e . Ea c h
di a gr am cor r es ponds t o an anal y t i ce xpr e s s i on t hatcan now be wr i t t e n down e xpl i ci t l y wi t ht he Fe ynman r ul es . The ca l cul a t i on ofG t husG comesa r e l at i ve l ya ut om at i cpr oce s s . Asan e xampl eoft he Fe ynman r ul e s ,wes hal lnow wr i t eoutt he c ompl et e

s r s t o r d e rc o n t r i b ut i o nt oG. /x, z ) , s h o wni nFi g .9 . 7 , G$( x , y ) =f l fd * x k Jd * x l ( ( -1 ) G2 z ( x , x l ) U( x I , x J ) z z , , p g . Z. #x I , z ) xG 1 ' /x J , x J ) + G z @. x l ) U@l , x1 ) A A ' , p , # ' G0 . /x l , x 1 ) G: ' /x 1 , XJ ( 9 . 6 )
Her eand henc e f or t h. an i mpl i ci ts ummat i on i st o% ca r r i edoutove ral Ir e ma t e d

s pi ni nd i c e s . Th ec or r e s p o n di n gs e c on d or de rc on t r i b u t i on Gt Rx, y)r e qu i r e s
mor ewor k.and we me r e l y as s er tt hatt her e ar e1 0 e ondor de r Fe ynman di a-

g r a ms( Fi g. 9. 0. Ther e a dt ri su r g t dt oc on v i nc eh i ms e l ft ha tt h e s ed i a g r a ms
e xhaus tt hecl as sofe ondor dert opol ogi c al l y di s t i nc tc onne ct e d di agr ams ,and t o wr i t edown t he a nal yt i ce xpr e s s i on as s oc i at e d wi t he ac ht er m.

100

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTEMP ER ATURE )F ORMAL I SM

( J)

4 S 1 ' g l ( p r ) ( # ) ( h4 Fi g.9. 8 Al l s xo nd or de rFe y n ma ndi a va msf orG. # @, y) .


FEYN M A N DI AGRAM S I N M OM ENTU M SPACE

)) ) V)# @)
f b )

( c )

( d)

( e )

( J )

I n pr i nci pl e,t he Fey nman r ul e se nabl e us t o wr i t e down t he exa ct Gr e e n' s f unc t i on t o ar bi t r a r y or de r ,butt he ac t uale val uat i on oft he t e r msc an l e ad t o

f o r mi da bl e pr o b l e ms b e c a u s ee a c h no n i n t e r a c t i n g Gr e e n ' sf u n c t i on G0 ( x, y ) c o n s i s t soft wo di s j o i n tp i e c e s . Th use v e nt h e sr s t o r d e rc o n t r i bu t i o n( Eq. ( 9. 6 ) )mus tbes p l i ti n t oma n ys e p a r a t ep i e c e sa c c or di n gt ot h er e l a t i v ev a l u e so f t het i mev a r i a bl e s .l nc o nt r a s t ,t h eFo u r i e rt r a ns f or m G0 ( x, y , )wi t hr e s p e c t
t ot i m ehasa s i m pl ef or m ,and i ti sconveni entt oi ncor por at et hi si nt ot he c al cul a t i ons . Al t hou gh i ti s pos s i bl e t o cons i de r a mi xe d r e pr es ent at i on t i m ei ndepe nde ntham i l t oni an,we s hal lnow r e s t r i c tt he di s c us s i on t o uni f or m and i s ot r opi cs ys t e ms , w he r et he e xac t Gr e e n' sf unct i on t akes t he f or m r e pr es ent at i on,a nd wewr i t e

G. /x, x' , a 4 ,wh i c h wo u l da pp l yt os p a t i a l l yi n h omo g e n e o uss y s t e mswi t ha


3 . # G( x- y ) . Th es p a t i a la n dt e mpo r a li n v a r i an c et h e na l l o wsaf u l lFou r i e r

Gx b ( x , > ' )- ( 2 *4I#4 ke ' ' ' f > ' ' G, x , ( k) t 4/x , z )- ( 2 *4Jd* ke k k ' x v ' ( 4#k)

( 9 . 7 J ) ( 9 . 7 : )

GqEE N. sF UNCT I ONS AND F I E L D THE OR Y( FE RMI ONS)

1Q 1

whe r et he l i mi t F> .* has al r e ady be en t ake n. Her e a conveni e nt f our di m ens i onalnot at i on ha sbee ni nt r oduce d

d* k- d3 kd

k. x> k. x- t

( 9 . 8 )

I na ddi t i on,we as s um e t hat t he i nt e r a ct i on de pe nds onl y on t he coor di nat e di Fe r e nce

&( x, x' )= F( x- x' ) ( f -t ' )


I tmay t hen bewr i t t e n as

( 9. 9)

&( x, x' ) . a ' , j =( 2 , 44J#4 ke k k x x ' bUl kj ? , , # j , ( 2 r 43J#3 ke d k * f l x ' ' F( k ) ? ?y .j j . 3 ( l-t ' )
whe r e

( 9 . 1 0 )
( 9. l 1 t z )

Ul kj x x v b p ' - F( k ) . . . j , '

= Jd5 xe f k e xF( x) '# j ,

( 9. 1 1 : )

i st hes pat i alFour i ert r ans f or m oft hei nt e r par t i c l epot ent i al . As an ex am pl e oft he t r a ns f or m at i on t o m om e nt um s pac e,cons i de rt he di a gr am s hown i n Fi g.9. 7 b

G2 ' ( x , y )= f -i J#4 x1 dk xL ( 2 , 01 6Jd* kd 4 p#Yj d* q

XG0 a A ( k ) U( ) A z ' . p p ' Gz %( Xf C' /#1 )


X ef k' ( . x -x1 )et q. ( xj -x1 ' )el p' ( xl -x1 ' )el pl ' ( . x1 ' -#)
=

f l ( 2 r 88Jd* k# 4 ##4 #j d* qGj z t k )U( g) z A . , p s , xGj , # ( p) G0 M , /pI )e k k ' xe f p : . ' f 4 ) ( ,+q-kj3 ( 4 ) ( pj -q-p j ( 2 z 44J#4 ke l k ' l x D b ( f 1 GJ A ( k ) ( 2 , 44Jd* p

x&t k-7 9 , , , , . . ' c , r , ( 7 9G: , , ( k ) )


3 f 4 ' 4 7 7 )= ( 2 , 04Jdk xe l p ' x

( 9 . 1 2 )

whe r et hef our di mens i ona lD i r acdel t af unc t i onhast heus ual i nt egr alr epr e s e nt at i on

No t et h a tEq .( 9 . 1 2 )i n d e e d ha st hee x p e c t e df or m,a n dc o mp a r i s on wi t h Eq . ( 9 . 7 c )i de nt i se st h eq ua nt i t yi ns q u a r ebr a c k e t s a st h ec or r e s p on di n gc o nt r i bu t i o n

t oGa j l k )H Gz /ks t s l .

Thi sappr oa ch i sr e #di l yge ner a l i z e d. Cons i dert het ypi c ali nt e r nalv er t ex s how n i n Fi g.9. 9. l n ac cor danc e wi t h our de fni t i onsofFour i ert r ans f or ms

i n Eqs . ( 9. 1 0 )a n d( 9 . 7 *, wec a na l s oa s s i g nac on v e n t i on a ld i r e c t i o n x' > . . xt o t h ei n t e r a c t i o n Ut x- x' ) .( Th i sc o n v e n t i o nc a n no ta l t e rt h epr ob l e ms i n c et h e p o t e n t i a li ss y mme t r i c Ut x- x' ) A A , , v v . = Ul x' - xj v v . . A A . . ) Th ec o or di n a t ex

1 4'
e
-

GROUNDS T ATE ( ZE ROTE MPERATURE )F ORMAL I SM


qq : x 4 0 . e/ 7

e/ 4 p * J :

FI :. 9. 9 Ty p i c a li nt e n v e r t e xi na Fe y n ma n di a gr a m.

now a pm n m onl yi nt he pl ane wa veex pone nt i al ,and t he r ei sa f ac t ore +' 4' xf or ea ch i ncomi ng l i ne and e -t q' xf oreac h out goi ng l i ne . The i nt e gr at i on ove rx t he r e f or eyi e l ds

jd4 xe f ( 4 4 ' + 4 D' x=( 2 .) 43 ( 4 ) ( -q' +q' )

( 9. 1 3 )

whi chc ons e ae se ne r g ya ndmome nt u m ate le / li nt er nalv e r t e x. Theonl yr e mai ni ng que s t i on i st hee nd poi nt s ,whe r et he t ypi c als t r uc t ur ei ss hown i n Fi g.9. 1 .
x e

I qY x

q# # - q#
/ d ; J , , .

. .

Fi q.9. 1 Q Ty p Hl s t r xt l z r eofF

d i -

sf o rG. a @ -y ) .

Thet r a ns l a i i on a li n v a r i a n c ee n s u r e st h a t q' = q' , a ss e e ne x pl i c i t l yi nEq. ( 9. 1 2 ) ; t h er e ma i n i n gf a c t ore *' ' ( x ' t i s j u s tt h a tne e de di nt h ede h ni t i onoft h eFou r i e r t r a n s f o r mo fG. b ( q' ) .
w e can now s t at et he Fey nman ru l e sf or t he at hor dercont r i but i on t o

G. l ( k, )> G. /k) :
1.Dr aw a1 lt opol ogi c al l y di s t i nc tconne c t e d di agt amswi t hni nt er ac t i on l i nes andln + 1di r e c t ed Gr e e n' sf unct i ons . 2.A s s i gn a di r e c t i on t o ea ch i nt er ac t i on l i ne;as s oci a t eadi r e ct e df our m om e nt um wi t h ea ch l i neand c ons e r vef our moment um ate achve rt ex. 3. Eac h Gr e en' sf unct i on c or r e s pondst oaf ac t or

Gy 9 ( l kI k p 8 ( k , . I kI ) 0y . q+ ( j ( Kt s )= 8 . j G0 ( k, t s )= & x L o k+. s o u. -y
.

( 9 . 1 4 )

4 .Ea c hi n t e r a c t i o nc or r e s p on dst o af a c t o r U( ) A A , , v v . = F( q ) A A , , p , s .wh e r et h e


mat r i xi ndi c e sar ea s s oci at e d wi t ht hef er mi on l i nesasi n Fi g.9. 11 . 5.Per f or m as pi ns ummat i on a l ong e ac hc ont i nuouspa r t i cl el i ne i nc l udi ng t he pot ent i alatea ch ve r t e x. 6.I nt e gr at eovert heni ndem ndenti nt er nalf our moment a.

GRE EN' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I EL D THEOR Y( F E RM I ONS)

1 *

7 .Amx a f a c t or( f / P( 2 v) 4 * ( -1 ) F wh e r eF i st h en u merofc l o m M f e r mi o n


l oops .

8 .An ys i n g l e p a r t i c l el i n et h a tf o r msac l o s e dl oo pa si n Fk.9. 1 1 /o rt h a ti s


l i nke d by t he s ame i nt e r ac t i on l i ne a si n Fi g. 9. 11 :i si nt e r pxt ed as

e l e G' . # ( k , ) , wh e r eg ) *0+a tt hee n doft h ee > l c u l a t i on .


k k
! & z ' ( ) > k k
#

k lk l

k-k,

R g.9. 11 M lM t or d e r Fe y nn x di a gr ams

f orG. /k) .

# ( J)

# ( )

Asanexampl eoft he Fe ynman r ul e si n mome nt um s pac e ,wecomput et he

s r s t o r d e r c o n t r i b u t i o nf 4 1 / ( k , ) , s h o wni nF i g . 9 . 1 1 . Al t h o u g ht h e t o p o l o g i c a l
s t r u c t ur ei si d e nt i c a l wi t ht h ec o r r e s p on d i n gdi a g r a msi nc o o r di n a t es p a c e( Fi g . 9. 7 ) , t h el a b e l i n ga ndi n t e r pr e t a t i o na r ena t u r a l l yqu i t edi Fe r e n t .I n Fi g . 9. 1 1 J ,
t he f our ve c t or a s s oci at ed wi t ht he i nt e r ac t i on vani s he s % ux of t he cons er v at i on r equi r e me ntatea ch e nd.A s t r ai ght f or war di dent i sca t i on y i el ds

GL ) ( k ) -f 1 ( -l ) ( 2 / , 4 4 Jd * k b ( 4z ( k ) &( 0 ) A A , . v p . Gl , /k ) f C, s ( kI ) e l u ' t '


+f l ( 2 =) 4J#4 kj Gk z ( k )U( k-kj l z v, g p ,

XGl ' s ( k l ) G: ' # ( k ) e l ' * ' 1 ' l


=

f ll G0 ( k) ( ( 2 =) 4 J#4 kj ( -U( 0 ) a j , s j , G0 ( k1 ) e t t '


+ &( k- k1 ) . 4 , . ! , ,GQ ( kl ) e ' ' ' ' ' ? ! ) & ' *( k ' ) ( 9 . 1 5 )

wher et he s pi ns ummat i on has Y n s i mpl i se d wi t ht he Kr onx ke r de l t af or ea ch f a ct orG* . Her e,and s ubs e que nt l y,weus et he c onve nt i onst hat

U4 0 )= &( k= 0 ) ( 9. 1 *) F( 0 )- F( k= 0 ) ( 9. 1 6 ) To ma k ef ur t h e rp r o g r e s s ,we s h a l lc o ns i d e rs pi n/ p a r t i c l e swi t ht wo di s t i n c t


pos s i bi l i t i esf ort hei nt e r ac t i on pot e nt i al .

1M

GROUNDS T ATE ( ZE ROTEM PE RATU8E )F O RMALI SM

l .I ft he i n t e r a c t i on i ss pi ni n de p e n d e n t ,t h e ni th a st h ef or m1 ( 1 )1 ( 2)i ns p i n
s pac e,namel y,t he uni ts pi n m at r i xwi t hr e s pe ctt o bot h par t i c l e s:

&( t ? ) . j , z p= Ul qj a j3 A p z
The m at r i xe l e m ent st hen be com e
Uub . p ' p z= 26 7 3,j

( 9. 1 7 )
( 9. l 8 )

Ux v , s j= &3 z j

2 .I ft h ei n t e r a c t i o ni ss pi nd e p e n d e n tof t h ef or m l( l ) . c( 2 ) , t h e n Ul qj x b , v= U( ) @( 1 ) z j * c( 2 ) A s
and t he r e l e vantquant i t i e s ar e

lz jw lp s= 0

Gx vl z j= ( ( c) 2 J a j= 3 3 a j

( 9 . 2 0)

Thes er es ul t s have be en obt ai n ed wi t h t he obs e r va t i ons t rl = 0 an d t r1= 2. Fori nt e r ac t i onsoft he f or m

Eq s .( 9. 1 5 )t o( 9 . 2 0 )s ho wt h a tGf l )i si n d e e dd i a g o n a li nt h e ma t r i xi n di c e s :
( y ( 1 )= g y ( l ) x b aj( .
Thee xac tGr e en' sf unc t i on c an al wa ysbewr i t t en i nt hef or m

Gl kj= G ( k )+ G0 ( k) ) 2 ( 1 )G0 ( / ( ) ( 9. 2 2 ) wh i c hd e sn e st h es e l f e n e r g yZ( : ) . Th ehr s tt e r mi s j u s tt h ez e r o o r d e rc on t r i but i on,an dt he s t r uct ur e of t he s ec ond t er m f ol l ows f r om t hat of Fi g. 9. l 0.

Th es a me s t r u c t ur eo c c u r si n Eq.( 9 . l 5 ) . wh i c ht hu si de nt i h e st h ef i r s t or de r
..

s e l f ener gy as k j x

. Zf 1 ) ( / , : ) =1 * ( 2 =) 4fdn kj g -2P %4 0 )v 'l Gt k -kl )


+ 3l z j t k- kl ) ) GQ ( kI ) e i c o t n
Thef r equenc yi nt egr alcan now be pe r f or med e xpl i c i t l ywi t h Eq. ( 9 . l 4 )
* d jj ., q

2 = e

%1 kl 1- k F 4
u) 1- t z l kj +

i ' r l+ ( t ' j- t t l k ' b l- i

# ( / c s- i kl 1 )

g L k =i s j kj , 1 )
-

wher et he c onve r ge ncef a ct orr e qui r esust o cl os et he c ont ouri nt he upper hal f

pl ane. The mome nt um i nt egr ali nt he f i r s tt er m ofEq.( 9. 23)t hen gi ve st he p a r t i c l ed e n s i t yn = N(P ' ( c omp a r e Eq. ( 3 . 2 7 ) j , a n d we5 n d

Xt 1 ' ( / t )MY( 1 ) ( k ) = nF L ( 0 ) -( 2 r r ) 3f dq k' ( I Gt k- k' ) + 3Uj t k - k' ) J b l k y- k' ) ( 9 . 2 4)

GgE E N' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I E L D THE ORY ( F E RMI ONS)

1 QB

Not et hatt hef l r s t or ders e l f ener gy i sf r equenc yi nde pe ndent . The t wo t er ms

a p p e a r i n gi n Eq.( 9 . 2 4 )h a v et h ef o l l owi n g ph y s i c a li n t e r p r e t a t i o n. Thesr s t


t e r mr e pr es ent st heBor nappr oxi mat i onf orf or war ds c at t e r i ngf r om t hepar t i cl es

i nt h eme di u m( Fi g .9 . I 1 J) ,a n dt h es e c on dr e pr e s e n t st hee x c ha ng es c a t t e r i n g wi t ht h epa r t i c l e si nt heme di u m, a g a i ni n Bo r na p pr ox i ma t i on( Fi g. 9 . 1 1 4 8.


ovsoN' s EQUATI ONSi

W es hal lnowcl a s s i f yt hevar i ousc ont r i but i onsi nan ar bi t r ar yFeynmandi agr am . Thi s pr oc e dur e yi e l ds Dys on' s equa t i ons , whi c h s ummar i z et he FeynmanDys on per t ur bat i on t heor yi n a par t i c ul ar l yc ompac tf or m.

l .Se l f e n e r g yi n s e r t i o n: Ou rg r ap h i c a la n a l y s i sma k e sc l e a rt ha tt h ee x a c t
Gr e e n' sf unc t i on c ons i s t soft heunper t ur be dG r e en' sf unc t i on pl usa 1 lconnec t ed
x x x

A' l = +

S e l f e n e l gy X

x;
Fi g.9. 1 2 Ge n e r a ls t r u c t u r eofXx, y j . . p y y

t e r ms wi t h af r ee Gr ee n' sf unct i on atea ch end. Thi ss t r uc t ur ei ss hown i n Fi g.9. 1 2.wher et he heavy l i ne denot esG and t he l i ghtl i ne denot e s G0 . The cor r es pondi ng anal yt i ce xpr e s s i on i sgi v en by

G ' a ; ( . A , A ' ) =G j ( x , O +fd . * x b J # * x J G. 0 A @, xl ) X( x i , x ' l ) z s f cj t x ' t , y )( 9 . 2 5 )


wh i c h de s n e st h es e l f e ne r g y Z@1 , xj ' ) A s . As e l f e n e r g yi n s e r t i oni sd e hn e da s
any par tofadi agr am t hati sc onne ct e dt ot her es toft hedi agr am byt wo par t i cl e

l i n e s( on ei n an d on eou t ) .
W enex ti nt r oduc et hec onc eptofapr o pers e l f ener gy i ns er t i on,whi c hi sa s el f ener gy i ns e r t i on t hatc annotbe s epar at e di nt ot wo pi e ce sby c ut t i nga s i ngl e par t i c l el i ne . Fore xam pl e ,Fi gs .9. 84,9. 8:,9. 8c ,and 9. 8#al lcont ai ni m pr ope r s el f ene r gy i ns er t i ons ,whi l et he r emai ni ng t e r msofFi g.9. 8cont ai nonl ypr ope r s el f ene r gy i ns e r t i ons . By de sni t i on,t he pr ope rs e l f ener g yi st he s um of a I l

p r o pe rs e l f e ne r g yi ns e r t i o n s ,a ndwi l lb ed e not e dX* ( xj , m' ) . # .l t f o l l o wsf r o m


1F. J . Dy s o n, / o c . c t ' t .( Adi s c u s s i o nof t h ev e r t e xp a r t an dt h ec ompl et es e t of Dys on ' se qu a t i on s i sp r e s e n t e di nCh a p.1 2oft hi sb oo k. )

1 x

GR OUNDST ATE ( 'E ROTE MP ERATUHE )F OY ALI SM

t he s edesni t i onst hatt hes el f e ner g y c s i s t sofa s um ofal lx s s i bl er e mt i t i ons oft hepr opers e l f ene r gy.

Z( xI , xl ' )=X* ( xl , x; )+Jd% xz d* xz ' X* ( xl , . n) G0 ( xz , x 1 ) X* ( xJ . xl ' ) + fd* xzdk xz 'j ' d* xsd* xs ' X* ( xl v xz )G' ' l xz q xl )
x X* ( x a ' , x 3 ) f P( x , , x J ) Z* ( x a ' , x; ) + '' ( 9 . 2 6 )
He r ce ac h quant i t y denot esa m a t r i xi nt he s pi nori ndi c es ,and t he i ndi ce sar e

t h e r e f or es u p pr e s s e d . Th es t r u c t u r eofEq . ( 9. 2 6 )i ss h o wni nFi g. 9. 1 3 . Cor r e X1

P r o- rs e l f e ne qy
z*
Al X1

%1 .

Se l f e n e g y tr -

x' l

xf
xf
.

f 1

Fi g. 9. 1: Re l a t i onb et we e ns e l f e ne r g y 1 :a nd p r ope rs e l f e ne r g yE*.

s po nd i n g l y , t hes i n g l e p a r t i c l eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i o n( Eq. ( 9 . 2 5 ) )b e c o me s( Fi g. 9 . 1 4 )

G( . x , y)= G0 ( x, y )+ jJ4 xj dn xj ' G0 ( x, xj ) X* ( xj , xJ ) G0 ( xj ' , y , )


+ f#4 x1 #4 xJfdf xgdh xz ' Go t xs xj jX* ( xj s xj ' ) x G0 ( xj ' , xa ) X* ( xz , x z ' ) G0 ( xz z , . p )+ ... ( 9 . 2 7 )
P r oxrj e l f e ne r gy
Y

Fi g.9. 14 Dys o n' se qu a t i on f o rGa p l x, y) .

whi c hc a nb es u mme df o r ma l l yt oyi e l da ni nt e gr al e q u at i o n( Dy s on ' se qu a t i on )


f ort hee xac tG.

G. x /x, . ; ' )=t 4/x, . $ +. fdk xb #4 xJ t 4z ( A ' . xl ) Z* ( . : ' : , l ' I ) A ' z t 2 . , ( fI . F ) ( 9 . 2 8 )


Th ev a l i di t y ofEq.( 9 . 2 8 )c a nb ev e r i s e d by i t e r a t i ng t her i g h ts i d e ,wh i c hr e p r o du c e sEq . ( 9 . 2 7 )t e r mb yt e r m.

GREE N' SF t l Nc' noNs ANo F I EL ; THEORY ( F E RMI ONS)

1 e7

i nva r i antundert r ans l at i ons a nd t he s ys t e m i ss pat i al l y uni f or m. I nt hi scas e

Dy s on ' se q u a t i on n a t u r a l l y be c ome smu c hs i mj l e ri ft h ei n t e r a c t i on i s

t hequ a nt i t i e sa pp e a r i n gi n Eq. ( 9 . 2 7 )d e p e ndo n l yont h ec oo r di na t ed i se r e n c e s ,


and i ti s pos s i bl et oi nt r oduc ef our di mens i onal Four i e rt r ans f or ms i nt hes e di Fe r enc es . Wi t ht hedesni t i on

Y* ( x, y ) z j=( 2 94Jd% e f k ' x ' ' X* ( k ) . # G. /k )= ( 4#k)+ ( 4a ( k ) X* ( OA ,G/ z #k )

( 9. 2 9 ) ( 9 3 0 )

a n d Eq.( 9 . 7 ) .t h es p a c e t i mei n t e g r a t i on si n Eq.( 9 . 2 8 )a r er e a d i l ye v a l ua t e d, a n d we ;n da na l g e b r a i ce qu a t i on i n mome n t um s p a c e( c omp a r e Eq.( 9. 2 2 ) )


I nt heus ualc as e. G,G0 , andX*ar eaI ldi agonal i nt hemat r i xi ndi c e s ,and Dys on' s e quat i oncan t hen bes ol ve de xpl i c i t l yas

G( k)=

1 ) -j ( Gf ( k) 1 sw ( k ;
-

( 9. 31 ) ( 9 . 3 2 ) ( 9 . 3 3 )

The i nv er s eofG%i sgi ve n by

I G0 ( k ) ) -! -I G0 ( k , o 3) l=( . o- ( z ) kM t t l - -l e k
b e c a u s et hez k i y l i nEq. ( 9. 1 4 ) i sn ow i r r e l e v a nt , a n d we5 n d
G
.

g % /k )> Gz # ( k, t t ) )= - , j 4 - xw j k,o

I nt he g ener alcas e,t hi sex pr es s i on mus tbe r e pl a c td by an i nve r s em a t r i xt hat

s o l v e st h ema t r i xe qu a t i o n( 9 . 3 0 ) . Ass ho wn i nS e c .7 , t hes i ng u l a r i t i e soft he

e x a c tGr e e n ' sf u n c t i o nG( k, t M, c o ns i d e r e da saf u nc t i o no ft , ) , d e t e r mi n eb ot ht h e


ex ci t at i on ener gi e se k oft he s ys t e m and t hei rdampi ng yk . Fur t her mor e ,t he I xhm ann r e pr es ent at i onens ur est hatf orr e alo )

I m X* ( k, t M >0

( . o< p , /

( 9 . 3 4 ) I m X* ( k, o 4< 0 o ) > +l h s ot ha tt h ec h e mi c a lp ot e n t i a lc a nbed e t e r mi n e da st h epo i n twhe r eI mX* ( k, o ) )


c hang ess i gn. Asan e xampl e oft he pr es e ntanal ys i s ,We s hal lc ons i de ral 1t he ir s t -and s e condor de rdi a gr ams ,s howni n Fi gs .9. 7and 9. 8. I ti se vi dentt hatb0t h Er s t or de rt er ms r epr e s e ntpr ope rs e l f ener gy i ns e r t i ons;a sa r e s ul tt he Nr s t or der

ar r owsatt he endss mc i f y how t he Gr een' sf unct i onsa r et o be c onne ct e d,and t he di agr amscan be i nt t r pr et e de i t he ri nc oor di nat es pac e or i n mome nt um s pac e. The s i t ua t i on i s cons i de r abl y m or ec ompl i cat e di ns e cond or der .l n par t i cul a r ,t he di a gr ams i n Fi g.9. 8/ t o dr e pr es ent a 1 lpos s i bl es e condor de r

p r o p e rs e l f e n e r g y E? k )i sg i v e n byt hed i a g r a msi n Fi g .9 . 1 5 . He r et h es ma l l

i t e r a t i on so fX! l )a n dt h e r e f o r ec or r e s po n dt oi mp r omrs e l f e n e r g yi n s e r t i on s .

1e8

GROUNDST ATE ( ZER OTE MP ER ATURE )F ORMAL I SM

1 .
z* ( l ) =

t t
( J) ( b )
r s t * -o r de rp r o pe rs e l f e n e r g y X4 1 , . Fi g. 9. 1 5 Fi

On t h eo t h e rh a nd ,t h er e ma i ni ngt e r ms( Fi g .9 . 8 ,t oj ja 1 lc on t a i np r o p e rs e l f -

e n e r g yi n s e r t i o ns , a n dweno we x h i b i ta l Ic on t r i b u t i on st o) 2 ! z ) i nFi g . 9 . 1 6 . Ap a r t i c u l a r l ys i mp l ea p pr o x i ma t i on i st o wr i t e X* ( k, f t . ) ); k ; Xh) ( k , ( z ' ) )> Xh) ( k )( s e eEq. ( 9 . 2 4 ) ) i nt hes o l ut i o nof Dy s o n' se q u a t i on( 9 . 3 3 ) . Thi sa pp r o x i ma t i o nc o r r e s p on d st os u mmi n ga ni n hni t ec l a s so fd i a gr a msc o nt a i n i n ga r b i t r a r y
t

Zt 2 )-

1
t

'

t( c ) 1

t
t
( e ) ( f)

F i g. 9 . 1 6S e c o n d o r d e . rp r o p e r s e l f e n e r g yE( 1 ) .

i t e r a t i o nso fZ? k )( Fi g.9 . 1 7 ) . Th ep o l e so ft h ea p p r o x i ma t eGr e e n' sf u n c t i on


occ uratt h ee ne r gy

e k l ? =d + xh) ( k)

=2 m + aF( ) ( 0 )- ( 2 = ) 3J#3 k ' l Fn ( k- k' )+ 3Fl ( k- k' ) ) # t ks- k' )


( 9 . 3 5 )

h2k2

whi c hd e t e r mi n e st h ee n e r g ye k'o fas t a t e wi t h mo me nt u m kc on t a i ni n ga n a d di t i o n a lp a r t i c l e . He r et h et e r m nP V0 )i sac o n s t a n te n e r g ys h i f t ;i ta r i s e s


f r om t he ' t t adpol e ' 'di agr am Fi g.9. l 5 a and r epr e s ent st he f or war ds c at t er i ng

GRE EN' SF UNCTI ONS AND F I E L D THE ORY ( F E RMI ONS)

1 Q 9

F i g . 9 . 1 7 Ap p r o x i ma t eGo b t a i n e dwi t ht h es u b s t i t u t i o nX*= X1 ) .


of l -aI lt he ot her par t i c l e s . The i nt e gr alt e r m depends on k and ar i s e sf r om

) ' ) ' ) ' ) ' )


( 9 . 3 6 )

Fi g . 9. 1 3 b .I nt h epr e s e n t( sr s t o r d e r )a p pr ox i ma t i o n, t hep r o p e rs e l f e n e r g yi s
r e c/ ,a ndt hes ys t em pr opagat e sf or e v erwi t houtdam pi ng. Thi se xam pl ec l e ar l y de m ons t r a t e st he power ofD ys on' se quat i on,be caus e an y appr oxi ma t i on f or

X* g e n e r a t e sa ni n hn i t e o r d e ra p pr o x i ma t es e r i e sf or t h e Gr e e n ' sf un c t i on .
Dys on' sequat i on t husenabl e sust os um an i nsni t ec l as sofpe r t ur bat i on t er ms i n acom pa ctf or m.

Thee x p l i c i ts ol u t i o nf o rG ( Eq. ( 9 . 3 3 ) ) a l l owsu st or e wr i t et h eg r o u n ds t a t e e n e r g yo faun i f o r ms y s t e m( Eq s . ( 7 . 2 7 )a n d( 7 . 3 2 ) ) i nap a r t i c u l a r l ys i mp l ef or m. Co ns i d e rEq. ( 7 . 2 7 )f o rs p i nf . e r mi on swi t h Y*a n dGd i a g o n a li nt hema t r i x i n d i c e s . Ac omb i n a t i o nwi t hEq. ( 9 . 3 3 )y i e l d s

s , . p ( c , s 1 ) j j j k ) . , .L , . ) ; + , ) t ( k , j
= = -

f l ' ( 2 x+ 1 ) ( 2 04jd* ke i t a p n t l E . k+ J X* ( k, ) ) G( k , o p )+ ! . ) f F( 2 J+ 1 ) ( 2 04f#4 kc i a ' 9 ( 4 +. RX* ( k, a ) ) ) G( k, ( z > )

wher et hel as tl i nei sobt a i ned wi t ht hel i mi t i ng pr oc edur e . oek . t ) 1 i m * dt . u u ' ' l -l i m l i m * e-E 1 a ' ' ef a ' g#f . + n , o r n y o +: + 9+ -. 2* -x 2r

=0 ( 9. 3 7 ) l ti sr e a d i l yv e r i Ee dt h a tt h i si st h ec or r e c t l i mi t i n gpr o c e s sb ya pp l y i ngEq. ( 9 . 3 6 ) t oano n i nt e r a c t i n gFe r mis y s t e m. I nt h es a mewa y , Eq. ( 7 . 3 2 )c a nb er e wr i t t e n


=

l e l i m 1 i m -Ta+ E a n . e' be . ( ) +n' '

as

E E z ! . f p ' ( 2 , + 1 ) J 0 ' J j A J ( f z , ' , ' k I ' R e ' n h g h o e A k ; 7 t e k * A ( k , ( s ) 1


=! . f F ( 2 J +1 ) ( 2 04 j ' 0 J A A ' J # 4 / t E > i t ' 9 X * A ( k , t g ) G 1 ( k , o a )
( 9. 3 8 )
whe r eb0t h Z*Aand GAmus tbeev al uat ed f oral lAbet we en0 and 1 .

41 :

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPE M T UBE) F ORMAL I SM 2.Pol ar i z at i on i ns e r t i onkA s i mi l ar anal ys i sc an be car r i e d out f or t he

i nt er a ct i on G t we en t wo pa r t i c l es ,whi ch al ways cons i s t s of t ht l owe s t or de r i nt e r ac t i on pl us a s e r i e s ofconne de d di agr amswi t hl owes t or dt ri nt e r ac t i ons

c o mi n gi na n dou t( Fi g . 9 . 1 8 ) . W ec a ne v i d e n t l ywr i t ea ni n t e g r a le qu a t i o nf o r
. p x T ' p . x N +

l z
e

: 1

A
N

:
r

' r

Pol x n ' ut i o nn FI :. 9. 1 8 Ge n e r a ls t r u ct t l r eoft h ee F e i v elt e r a c t i on U. . . p..

t heex ac ti nt e r act i on;t hi sequat i onagai na c ome ss i mpl e rf ora uni f or ms ys t e m,

wh e r ei ti spo s s i bl et o wo r ki n mo me nt u ms p a c e .I fUl qj x b , p .a n d &; ( q) . # , p .


denot et htexa ctandl owes t or deri nt er ac t i ons , t hec or r e s pondi ng e quat i ont ake s t hef or m

Ul qt x p . p .= Ua ( ) . # , p m+ L %( 4) . # , s . l R . v , , ? A ( )t &( ) , ? z , p m

( 9 . 3 9 )

whi ch defne st he pol ar i z at i on i ns e r t i o n1 Rs v , ? z ( ) .I ti sa l s oc o n v e n i e n tt o , i nt r oducet he c onc eptofa pr om rpol ar i z at i on 1 R*,whi c hi sapol ar i z at i on par t t hatc annotbes epar a t e di nt ot wopol ar i z at i on par t sbycut t i ngas i ngl ei nt er act i on

l i n t( Fi g . 9 . 1 9 ) . Eq ua t i on( 9 . 3 9 )c a nt he nb er t wr i t t e na sa ne q ua t i on Gt we t n

I mp m-

Pa w

Fi g. 9. 19 Ty pi c a l i mp r o p e ra ndpr o pe r pol a r i z a t i oni ns e r t i o ns .

t h ee x a c ti h t e r a c t i on a n dt h e pr o mr p ol a r i z a t i o n( Fi g .9 . 2 0 ) . Fo rah omo ge neouss ys t em t hi sequa t i on be come san al ge br a i cequat i on

U q s u p , p .= t &( : ) . # , p m+ Ua ( ) . , . s . 1 Rs 5, , ? A @)U( ) , ? z , p r ( 9 . 4 0 ) I ng e n e r a l ,Eqs .( 9 . 3 9 )a n d( 9 . 4 0 )h a v eac omp l i c a t e d ma t r i xs t r u c t u r e ,


and wes hal lus ual l yc ons i de ronl ys pi ni nde pendentpot e nt i al s

Uqj . p . p . = Ua ( ) 3 . /& p r
. ,p %N
N

( 9 . 41 )
#. P

e #

N + z

m #

Pm- N l a r i z a t i o n n*

FI g. 9. 2 : Ws o n' sm x t i onf o rU. p . p..

GRE EN' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I EL DT HEOR Y( FE RMI ONS)

11 1

I tt he nf ol l owsi mme di at el yt hatt hee xac ti nt e r ac t i on hast hes a m es t ruc t ur e

Ul qj x b , p .= &( ) z # h.
wh e r et h ef u n c t i o n U( q )i sde t e r mi n e db yt h es i mp l e re q ua t i on s &( ) - &( ) ( ) + &o ( ) 1 1 ( )L %( ) U q b- Uq b+ ( &f ) 1 ' 1 * ( ) U qs
He r ewehavei nt r oduc ed t heabbr evi at i ons

( 9 . 4 2 )
( 9 . 4 3 * ( 9 . 4 3 : )

I 1 ( )U l 1a x . A A ( ) l 1 * ( ) O1 1 X. A A ( t ? ) a n dad i r e c ts o l u t i o nofEq. ( 9 . 4 3 : )y i e l d s &t Uo ( ) V1= 1 1 7* ( ) Uu l q)


-

( 9 . 4 4 * ( 9 . 4 4 : )
6 9 * 4 5 1

Th i sr e s ul tc a nbeu s e dt od e sn eag e n e r a l i z e dd i e l e c t r i cf u n c t i o nv ( ) U( q )= Un l q j K l qj

9 4 6 ) ( .

whi ch char ac t er i z es t he modi hcat i on of t he l owe s t or de ri nt e r a ct i on by t he

p o l a r i z a t i o no ft heme di um. Comp a r i s ono fEqs . ( 9 . 45 )a n d( 9 . 4 6 )y i e l ds K l q s= 1- Uz l q j I 1 * ( )


Go kDsr o NE' s THEOREM

Theappl i c at i on ofquant um f i el dt he or yt ot hemanybodypr obl em wasi ni t i at e d byG ol ds t onei n1 957. 1 H epr ove dt hec ance l l a t i onoft hedi s conne ct eddi agr a ms t o al lor de r s ,and de r i ve dt he f ol l owi ng ex pr es s i on f or t he e ne r gy s hi f toft he gr ound s t at e
* z 1 n

E - En- ' : 4 ) 0 ' 1 J f l


a=0

Eo- H o

*-J -1 1 f 4 ) o N z ' c o n n e c t e u

( 9 . 4 8 )

wh e r e/ %a n d. 4:a r et h et i me i n d e p e nd e n to p e r a t o r si nt h eS c hr d i n g e rr e p r e s e nt at i on. Thi sr e s ul tc an bei nt er pr e t ed by i ns er t i nga c om pl e t es e tofe i g en-

s t a t e so fl ob e t we e ne a c hi n t e r a c t i onXj . Th ePoi nt h ed e no mi n a t orc a nt he n


be r epl a ce d by t he cor r es pondi ng ei genval u e. A l 1 m at r i x el ement s of t he

op e r a t ori n Eq.( 9 . 4 8 )t h a ts t a r tf r om t h egr ou n ds t a t e1 *0 )an de nd wi t ht he g r o un ds t a t e1 *a )a r et ob ei n c l u de d. Wec a nv i s u a l i z et h e s ema t r i xe l e me nt si n t h ef ol l o wi n gwa y: t heop e r a t orl ' j a c t i n go nt hes t a t eI *g )c r e a t e st wopa r t i c l e s
an dt wo h ol e s . Thi ss t a t et h e npr o pa ga t e swi t h( . G - Sc ) 1 ,a n dt h en e x tXj
'J . Gol ds t o ne , l o c. c t t .

11 2

GROUNDS TATE ( ZE ROTE MPER ATURE) F ORMAL I SM

c a nt h e nc r e a t emo r ep a r t i c l e san dh o l e so rs c a t t e rt h ee x i s t i n gq a r t i c l e so rho l e s . Th er e s u l t i n gi n t e r me d i a t es t a t ea g a i np r op a g a t e swi t h( f %- Ho ) -t ,a n ds oo n . Thesn a lXjmus tt he nr e t u r nt h es y s t e mt ot h eg r o un ds t a t e1 *c ) . At y pi c a l


proc e s sm aybepi c t ur e d ass hown i n Fi g.9. 21 ,whe r ean ar r ow r unni ng upwar d

l %>
l j 1
1

W! z ? 1
1 *07 .

E o -l h
E o -%
1

HtE o -l h
Fi g.9. 21 Typi calGol ds t one di agram i nt heexpans i on ofE - Eo .

r epr e s e nt st he pr es enc e of a par t i c l e ,an ar r ow r unni ng downwar dr epr e s ent s

t h eg r e s e n c eo fa h o l e , a n d aho r i z o n t a lwa v yl i ner e p r e s e n t st hea p pl i c a t i ono f


an H L . Thus t he s equenc e ofeve nt ss t ar t sa tt he bot t om oft he di agr am and pr oc e eds upwar d. The s e di agr am s ar e known a s Gol ds t one di a gr am s a nd m er el y ke ep t r a ck ofal lt he m at r i xe l e m ent st ha tc ont r i but ei n eval uat i ng Eq.

( 9. 4 8 ) . Th es u b s c r i pt i c o nn e c t e d' 'me a n st h a to n l yt ho s edi a g r a mst ha ta r e


conne c t ed t ot he l i nali nt er act i on ar et o be i nc l uded. I n par t i cul ar ,t he s t at e

*( ) ), whi c h hasno par t i c l e sorhol espr e s ent ,canne ve roc c urasani nt e r me di a t e

s t a t ei n Eq. ( 9 . 4 8 ) ,f o rt h er e s u l t i n gma t r i xe l e me ntwou l dn e c e s s a r i l yc o ns i s to f


di s c onne ct e d par t s .

Go l ds t o n e ' st h e o r e m( 9. 4 8 )i sa ne x a c tr e s t a t e me nt( t oa 1 1or d e r s )o ft h e


f am i l i art i me i nde pe nde ntper t ur bat i on e xpr es s i on f ort he gr ounds t at e ene r gy. Thi se qui va l enc ei sr e adi l yver i se di nt he sr s tf e wt er msby i ns e r t i ng a c om pl et e

s e to fe i g e ns t a t e so fXab e t we e ne a c hi n t e r a c t i o nXj .

E - Ev- , t m0 1 4, 1 mc )+
,#0

t *o l 4l 1 *a *n I #l I *o ) ' E )r +
o- En

( 9 . 4 9 )

Thec o r r e s p on d i ngGo l d s t on edi a g r a msf o raho mo g e ne ou sme di um ( s e ePr ob. 3 . 1 3 )a r es ho wni n Fi g . 9. 2 2 . Thef i r s tt wo d i a g r a msr e pr e s e n tt h eus u a ldi r e c t

a n de x c h a n g ec o n t r i bu t i o nsi n( *: 1 41 t *0 ) .
I n appl yi ng Gol ds t one' st heor e mt o a uni f or ms ys t e m ,we obs e r vet hatt he m ome nt um wi l lbecons er ved atev er yi nt e r ac t i on be c aus et hem at r i xel em e nt si n

/ %i n v o l v ea ni n t e gr a t i o no v e ra l ls p a c e . Fu r t h e r mo r e ,t h ep ar t i c l e si nt h e i nt e r me di a t es t a t e st uv e ph ys i c a l un p e r t u r b e de n e r g i e se zr e l a t e dt ot h e i rmo me nt um q,and t hev i r t ua lnat ur eoft hei nt e r me di at es t at ei ss um m ar i ze di nt heener gy de nom i nat or s . I n cont r as t ,t he Fey nm anD ys on per t ur bat i on t he or yf ort he

GRE E N' S FUNCTI ONS AND F I EL D THE OR Y( F E RMI ONS)

1 13

Gr e e n' sf unct i on,f r om whi c h wecanal s oc om put eE - Eo , cons er vesbot he ner gy a ndmoment um ate ver yv er t e x,butt hei nt e r me di at epar t i c l e scan pr opa ga t ewi t h any f r e quenc yf . t ) ,i ndepe ndent of q. For t hi sr e as on. t he Fe ynm anDy s on appr oach hast he advant a ge ofbe i ng m ani f es t l y covar i ant ,whi c hi ses s ent i ali n any r el at i vi s t i ct heor y. Ne ye r t he l e s s ,t h e/ u' t ?a p pr oac he sme r e l yr e pr e s e nt / wt ?

d te r e n tw ' c y s o fgr o u pi n ga n dl nt ' e r pr e t i n gt h et e r msd ? ?/ / ? ( , pe r l u r b a t i o ne x pa n s i o n ,


a ndaI 1phys i c alr e s ul t smus tbe l de nt i c al .

Fi g.9. 22 AI lsr st -and s e condor derGol ds t onedi agr amsf or E - Eoi n auni f or m s ys t e m.

C M' Q' V' V'


( 9. 5 0 )
0
-.

We n o wp r o v eGo l ds t o n e ' st h e o r e m( Eq .( 9 . 4 8 ) 2 . l ft heg r ou n ds t a t eof


t hei nt er a ct i ng s ys t em i sobt ai ned adi abat i c al l yf r om t hatoft he noni nt er ac t i ng

s y s t e m,t heGe l l Ma n na n d Lo wt h e or e m( Eq.( 6 . 4 5 ) )e x p r e s s e st h ee ne r g ys hi f t


oft hegr ound s t at eas

E Eo= ( t D 0 ! Xl 0( 0, -: r : ) 1 *0 ) ., . x ( *01 t 7 ( 0 , -: f ) l *o )
-

Thenumer a t orcan bee val uat ed by wr i t i ng

' t *n 1 . 41 P( 0 , -' x ) ) l *( ) h-

* -j rj
p =0

h -j r

d t ,

J . t u .

xI T( ) I FE XI . 41 ( / , ) -''Xl ( J v ) ) 1 *0 ) ( 9. 51 ) He r et h ef a c t o rX1 a pp e a r i n go nt hel e f th asb e e ni n c or po r a t e di nt h eF pr o du c t s i n c e X1 - Xj ( 0 )c or r e s p on dst oal a t e rt i me t ha na 1 1t h eo t he rf a c t o r si nt h e


i nt egr and. U s eW i c k' st heor e mt o ev al u at eaI lt hecont r ac t i onst ha tcont r i but e

t ot h ema t r i xe l e me n ti n Eq. ( 9 . 51 ) . Th ef a c t orX1 ( 0 )pr o v i d e saf i x e de x t e r na l


poi nt t hat enabl e s us t o di s t i ngui s h bet we en c onnec t ed and di s conne e t ed

di a g r a ms ;ac on n e c t e ddi a g r a mi son et ha ti sc on t r a c t e di nt o X1 4 0 ) . Th ed i s t i nc t i on i si l l us t r at e di n Fi g. 9 . 23 .S up p os et ha tt h e r ea r enc on n e c t e d 4l ' s #, ( c )

! '

'

Fi g. 9. 23 Ty pi c a lc o nn e c t e da pd di s conne ct ed Gol ds t onedi agr ams.

Conn t e

Di s c on nxt e

1 1 4

GROUNDS TATE ( ZEROTEMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

a n dm d i s c o nn e c t e d Wl ' swh e r ep= n+ m ;t hi sp a r t i t i o nc a n bepe r f o r me di n p l / n! m! wa y s . Th es u mma t i o no v e rvi n Eq.( 9 . 5 1 )c a nt h e r e f o r eb er e wr i t t e n


-

jn + m v! 1 0 dt j

0
-.

n! m! 7.

dt n

-.

x( * ( ) f r E l ? , # l ( r ! )4l ( / n ) 1 $ * n ) c J 0 * d t n . , J 0 d t n . . m
x( *o l rE 4l ( K+l ) ---4l ( f a + , 21 1 *o ) ( 9. 5 2 )
j u s ta si n Eq.( 9 . 4 ) .( Fo rs i mpl i c i t y ,we no wu s eas ub s c r i p tC t oi n d i c a t e c on n e c t e d. ) Th es umma t i o nov e rm r e pr o du c e st hed e no mi n a t orofEq. ( 9 . 5 0 ) ,
and wet husobt a i n
E - f' t l=
* -f & j p t ) - j . dt L .' ' dt . p j n. . -. n=0

x' C : *o I r( 4l P1 4 / 1 )...H ' l ( / , ) 1 I *c l c ( 9 . 5 3 )


whi c h demons t r at es t he canc e l l at i on of t he di s conne c t e d di agr ams i n t hi s e xpr es s i on.

weno w pr o c e e dt oc a r r yo u t/ / 7 :t i mel ht e gr at o n st h Eq . ( 9 . 5 3 )e x pl i c i t l y. Con s i de rt h eat h o r d e rc o nt r i b u t i o na n di n s e r tt h er e l a t i o nb e t we e n4 1 4 / )a n d 41f r o m Eq. ( 6 . 5 )


.

( / E- E( ) ( ' ' ' = h


.

' . '-

.n

0
-

t I

1 . . -,
-.

d t l .
'

dt z --. -.
.

d t n e f t i + f z +' ' ' + ' . '

' * f R( ) t, / h/ x( *: 1 / . f 1 e j , l e f # o t l / ' e f R ( ) t z / h J j l e R( ) f z / h..v g j I e l / l o t a l / : e l R ' n t p l h . J jl e . . t R q % l h j m( ) j c

Her e wehav e obs e r ve dt hatal l n!pos s i bl et i meor der i ngsmakei dent i c alcont r i -

b u t i on s( s e eS e c .6 )a n dt he r e f or ewor k wi t h on ed e h ni t et i meor de r i n go ft h e
oper at or si nt hi sm a t r i x el ement . The adi abat i c dam pi ng f a ct orhasal s o be en e xpl i ci t l yr e s t or e d. Changeva r i abl e st or el at i vet i m es
X j= tl xz= f z- t l ' . :)= t j- t z
,

tj= x j

t z= xc+ xl t j= xa+ xz+ xj

x = t- t I

t n= xs+ xa -l+ '

and us e

/ :1 . ' N )-fo l %)

GREE N' SF UNCTI ONS AND F I EL D THE OR Y( FE RMI ONS)

1 15

Thi st r ans f or mat i on y i e l ds

I . F -. f ' c ) t . ) =J jt * a 1 . / . hJ c o e n ' x , t l i t l l o r o ' x t / A f d x l X1 x J e n i ) e x a e i f / ? ( , z z ) x a l h : x 0 z I ' k j . . . g f x a ei l Rq / :dy J - -rn)xa gj j ( j l j k o


t l
t ,

ia

Thei nt egr at i onscan now al 1bec ar r i e d oute xpl i ci t l y,a nd we5nd 1 1 f ' . ? . ' l W1 i f-. G) t n ' =( *0 1 / . / , .

Eo- Xo+ I e a Ev- Xu+ i e l n- 1 ) h 4i 1 -

Ef t -, / % +i . e h

l j t mo l c

Th i sr e s ul ti mme di a t e l yy i e l ds Go l ds t o n e ' st h e or e m Eq .( 9 . 4 8 )b e c a u s et h e

l i mi t a t i ont oc o nn e c t e dd i a g r a mse ns ur e st ha t1 *0 )c a nn o ta p pe a ra sa ni n t e r me di a t es t a t e , a n dt h es t a t e1 *0 )i sno n d e g e n e r a t e .I t f ol l ows t h a t Ez- Xo+ i e h


cannev e rvani s h,s ot hatt heconv er genc ef act or+i ebec omesi r r e l e vant ,and we

c a nus et h ep r op a g a t o r( . G - Xo 1 1 , a si nEq. ( 9 . 4 8 ) .
Thi sf or malpr oofcan be m ade m or ec onc r e t e by expl i ci t l y cons i der i ng

a 1 la t h o r d e rFe y n ma nd i a g r a mst h a tc on t r i b u t et o Eq.( 9 . 5 3 ) . Ea c h di a g r a m


c ons i s t s of unpe r t ur be d Gr ee n' sf unc t i ons G0 ,whi c he vi de nt l yc ont ai n bot h

p a r t i c l ea n dh ol ep r op a g a t i on ( c o mpa r e Eq.( 7 . 41 ) ) . Th e s ed i a gr a msc a nb e


gr oupedi nt os e t scont a i ni ngn! e qui va l entdi agr a m st ha tdi f l kronl ybype r m ut i ng t het i m evar i abl es . Thes ym m e t r yoft hei nt egr and ag ai nal l owst her e pl ac em e nt t n -I 0 0 t l 1 0 dt n= #/ j dt z' dt n 5 dt l
n . -x
-x

ex

-x

Wi t ht hec hoi ceofadesni t et i meor de r i ng, ea choft hen!di a gr amsnow r e pr e s ent s

ad i s t i n c tp r o c e s s . Th ei n t e g r a lov e rr e l a t i v et i me s( 0> xi > -c c )t h e ny i e l ds


n!di s t i nctGol ds t one di agr amsc or r es pondi ng t ot he n!pos s i bl et i meor de r i ngs oft he or i gi nalFeynm an di agr am . Thus t he s etofal 1pos s i bl et i me or de r e d c onne ct e d Feynman di agr amsgi ve st he compl e t es e t ofconne c t ed Gol ds t one di agr am s . The Fe ynm anD ys on a nd G ol ds t one a ppr oaches ar e cl ear l y equi val e ntt oe ve r yor de ri nper t ur bat i ont heor y,but t heFe ynm anDys o nanal ysi s

F l c . t h ef u n d a me n t a la d v a nt a g eo fc o mb i n i n g ma n yt e r ms o ft i me i n d e pe n d e n t
per t ur bat i on t he or yf r l / o as i n gl eFe ynman di a gr am . W em aynot et hata s i mi l a r anal ys i s appl i e st o an y gr ounds t a t ee xpec t at i on val ue of H e i s e nbe r g fe l d

o pe r a t or s ,f o re x a mpl e ,t h es i n g l e p a r t i c l eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i onG( x, y , ( s ) , whi c hi s t heFo ur i e rt r a n s f o r mo fEq. ( 9. 5 ) .I ft hei nt e g r a t i on o v e ra 1 lt i me si sc a r r i e d


oute xpl i c i t l y,t he r es ul t i ng per t ur bat i on e xpans i on m ay be cl as s i sed a cc or di ng

t ot h ei n t e r me d i a t es t a t e s , j u s ta si n Fi g.9 . 2 1 .I nt h i swa y wec a no bt a i na


uni quec or r e s ponde ncebet we enagi ve n Fe ynm a n di agr am and as e tofGol ds t one

di a g r a ms( o rdi a g r a msoft i me i n d e pe n d e n tp e r t ur ba t i o nt h e or y ) .

11 6

GROUNDS TATE ( ZE ROTEMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

Go l ds t o n e ' st he or e m( 9 . 4 8 ) wa so r i g i na l l ys t i mul a t e d by Br u e c k n e r ' s


t he or y of s t r ongl y i nt er a ct i ng Fer mi s ys t e ms . Thi s Br ue ckne r Gol ds t one appr oac h hasf or me dt heba s i sf orext e ns i vewor k ont hegrounds t at epr ope r t i e s ofnucl ea rm at t er , l1 4 e3 , 2and at om s . 3 PROBLEM S

3. 1. S h ow t ha twh e nt< G t h ei nt e g r a le q ua t i onf o r0l t , t z lc a nbewr i t t e na s L ' / l t , t = 1+ j


* l f ( )

d t ' #j ( f ' )C l ' l t ' , t o j


l q
l e

He nces how t hat * j nj

t 7 ( / , f p-

s o .

d t L'. .
r

d t n /( z ? ' j ( r j )...z ? ' l ( f , ) J

D=( ) ' * ' ' ' - t

wh e r e? d e n o t e st h ea n t i t i me o r d e r i ng( l a t e s tt i me st ot h er i g ht ) . De r i v et hi s r e s ul tf r o m Eq s . ( 6 . 1 6 )a nd( 6 . 2 3 ) .
3. 2. One oft hemos tus ef ulr el at i onsi n quant um sel dt he or yi s

e l %t ' )e i := O + i ( J, J) +j j ( u f , ( x f , d) ) +j j ( , 9 , ( u f , ( J, J) ) ) + ..
Ver i f yt hi sr es ul tt ot he or de ri ndi ca t ed. Eval uat et he commut at or se xpl i c i t l y

f 2

j 3

a n dr e s u mt h es c r i e st ode r i v eEq s . ( 6 . 1 0 )f r o m Eqs . ( 6 . 7 )a n d( 6 . 9 ) .


3. 3. De snet het wopa r t i c l eGr e e n' sf unc t i on by

Ga j i y / t xl t 1 , xa t z ; x; t k ' , x c ' / 1 )
=

( -f ) 2

( H %I FE f k ( x l f 1 ) # j t x a t z 4 ' f kx z ' t z ' j f ' J i t x i f ; ) ) 1 : F( , ) ( : 1 %1 : F


0 )

Pr ovet ha tt heexpe ct at i on val ueoft het wobodyi nt er a ct i on i nt hee xac tgr ound s t at ei sgi ve n by

(P)=-. ! . Jd? xJ#3 x'F( x , x ' ) j zA , , S AGA A , ; s s , ( x' / , x/ i x' t + , x / + )


iK.A.Br u e c k ne r , C. A.Le vi ns o n,a n d H.M .Mah mo ud, Ph ys .#e ? J . ,9 5: 21 7( 1 95 4) ;H . A.

Be t h e ,Ph y s . Re t , . ,1 0 3: 1 3 53( 1 9 5 6 ) ; K. A. Br u e c k n e ra ndJ . L.Ga mme l , Ph ys . Re ! ? . ,1 *: 1 0 23 ( 1 9 5 8 ) ;K.A. Br u e c k n e r , Th e or yo fNu c l e a rS t r u c t u r e , i nC. De Wi t t( e d. ) ,* 1 Th eM a ny Bod y


Pr obl e m, ' 'p. 47 , J oh nWi l e ya n dS ons ,I n c. . Ne w Yo r k,1 9 5 9;H.A.Be t h e ,B.H.Br an do w,

a ndA. G. P e t s c h e k, Ph y s . Re v . . 1 2 9: 2 2 5( 1 9 6 3 ) ; s e ea l s oCha p. 11 . 2K. A. Br ue c kn e ra nd J . L. Ga mme l , Ph y s . . R0 . , 1 *: 1 ( M0( 1 9 5 8 ) ; T. W. Bur kh a r dt , An n . Ph y s . ( #. K) , 47: 51 6( 1 96 8 ) ; E. Os t ga a r d, Ph y s .. Re & . , 1 7 :: 25 7( 1 9 6 8 ) . 3Se e,f or e xampl ey H.P.Ke l l y ,Co r r e l a t i o n St r u c t u r ei n At o ms ,i n K.A.Br u e c k ne r( e d. ) ,
S e Advanc es i n Theor et i calPhys i cs j ' 'vol .2,p.75,Academi c Pr es sl nc. ,Ne w Yor k,1 968. A r e vi e w oft hi st o pi ci sa l s o gi v e ni n Co r r e l at i o n Efe c t si n At o msa nd M ol e c ul e s ,R . Le f e bv r e

a n d C.Mos e r( e ds . ) ,A i Ad v a nc e si n Che mi c a lPh y s i c s , ' 'v o l .XI V,I nt e r s c i e n c e Pub l i s h e r s ,


Ne w Yo r k ,1 9 6 9.

GRE EN' S FUNCTI ONS AND FI EL D THE ORY ( F ERMI ONS)

3. 4. Cons i der a manybody s ys t e m i nt he pr es enc e ofan e xt er nalpot e nt i a l

&( x )wi t has pi n i n d e p e n d e n ti n t e r a c t i o n po t e n t i a lP ' t x- x' ) .S ho wt h a tt h e


exa ctonepar t i c l eG r e en' sf unct i onobe yst hee quat i on ofm ot i on

whe r et heu pp e r( l o we r )s i g nr e f e r st ob os o n s( f e r mi o ns )a n dt het wo p a r t i c l e


Gr e en' sf unc t i oni sde fne di n Pr ob.3. 3 .

3. 5. Us eEq s . ( 3 . 2 9 )a n d( 3 . 3 0 )t ov e r i f yEq. ( 7 . 5 8 )f o ra ni d e a lFe r mig a s , a n d

s ho wt h a tr z= 4.
3. 6. Cons i dert hef unct i on
2 ' ' 1

Fa @)= =x

a=0

n2+ z/ ac

a nd di s cus si t sanal yt i cs t r uc t ur ei nt hec om pl exzpl ane.

( t 8S ho wt h a tt h es e r i e sc a nb es umme dt og i v eFa t z )= z l c o t ht r r z l / / a )+ ( a / = z ) ,
whi ch hast he s am e a nal yt i cs t r uc t ur e.

( : ) Ex ami n et h el i mi tt x. . .0 a n dc omp a r ewi t ht hed i s c u s s i o no fE q. ( 7 . 6 7 ) .

3. 7. ( ( z )I ff x xd x! p ( x ) f <c c, s h o wt h a t /( z )- J x xJ xp t x l ( z- x ) 1i sbo u n de d
and anal y t i cf orl m z# 0. Pr ovet hatf( z)i sdi s cont i nuousacr os st her e ala xi s wh e n e v e rp t a ' l+ 0, a n dt hu s /t z )h a sab r a n c hc u ti nt h i sr e g i o n. ( : )As s u me t h ef o l l owi n gs i mp l ef o r m p ( x) =y ( y 2-. v 2 ) i . Ek a l u a t e/ I J )
.

expl i ci t l yf orl m z > 0 and hnd i t sanal yt i cc ont i nuat l ont ol m z< 0.

( c )Re p e a tp a r t( b )f orl mz< 0 . Co mpa r ea n ddi s c u s s . 3. 8. De r i ve t he Le hmann r e pr es ent at i on f or D( k, ( s) , whi ch i st he Four i e r


t r a ns f or m of

V 1 e ( ) I . Fg : u ( x) l b u ' b p ) ) ' Y 1 ' i l hx. ytE E S Ex ? . yv j s-. s ' '


.
. .

' ' .

a:

( j z

wi t ht h ed e n s i t yfu c t u a t i o no p e r at o rd e hn e db y Y( ) l 1 J ' 1 ( X) ' t ; ( X ) i ' Ff ? i ( xJ H' J ) ( x ) ' J a ( x )- ( Y v y , j ! c . 2 f t o. o'

S h ow t ha tD( k, f . t ) )i same r o mor p hi cf u n c t i o nwi t hp ol e si nt hes e c o n da n df ou r t h


quadr antoft he com pl e x( . v pl ane. l nt r odu ce t he cor r es pon di ng r e t ar de d and a dvanc e df unct i ons ,and c ons t r uc ta Le hm ann r epr e s ent a t i on f ort he i rFour i e r t r ans f or ms . Di s cu s st he anal yt i c pr oper t i e sand der i ve t he di s pe r s i on r e l at i o ns

a n a l o g o u st oEq . ( 7 . 7 0 ) .

11 8 GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EMPE RATURE) FORMALI SM 3. 9. M ake t he c anoni c alt r ans f or mat i on t o par t i cl es a nd hol e sf orf er mi ons

c k z= 0 ( k- ks l c k A+ %k F- k) Xk A . By a pp l y i ng W i c k ' st he or e m,p r o v et he
r el at i on

c l e lc x c 3-yt c lc l c xc z l+e l k r-kz 4 ( 3 z xyt c l c z )-: a : #( e 1 e . ) ! +hkF-k ) ( 81 : 1( c 1c 4 )- 3 l 4 #( c 1 c : ) l


+ %kF-k1 ) %k r- ka ) ( 3 l z a 4- :l 4: z : )
whe r et henor m al or der edpr oduct son t her i ghts i denow r ef ert ot henew par t i c l e

a n dho l eop e r a t or s ,a n dt h es ub s c r i pt si nd i c a t et h eq u a nt u mn umb e r sG. A ) . 3. 10. Ve r i f yt hec a n c e l l a t i ono fdi s c o n ne c t e ddi a g r a ms( Eq s .( 8 . 1 1 ) , ( 9. 3 ) ,a n d ( 9 . 4 ) J e x pl i c i t l yt os e c on dor d e ri nt h ei n t e r a c t i onp o t e n t i a l . 3. 11. Con s i de ras y s t e m ofn o ni nt e r a c t i n gs pi n f e r mi o nsi na ne x t e r n a l s t a t i c

p o t e n t i a l wi t hah a mi l t o ni a nXe x= J#3 xyJ ( x )F. # ( x ) #j ( x) .


( t 8 Us eW i c k ' st h e o r e mt o5 n dt h eF e y n ma nr u l e sf or t h es i ng l e p a r t i c l eGr e e n' s
f unc t i oni nt hepr e s e nc eoft hee xt cr nalpot e nt i al .

( b )S ho wt h a tDy s on ' se qu a t i o nb e c o me s

Ge z qt x, y )-( 4gx-y )+: -' fd5 z( 4A ( x-z )LA , ( z ) c7# ( z , A )


( c ) Ex p r e s s t h egr ou n ds t a t ee n e r g yi naf o r ma n a l o g ou st oEq s . ( 7 . 2 3 ) a n d( 7 . 3 1 ) .
W hathappensi ft hepar t i c l e sa l s oi nt er ac t?

3. 12. Con s i d e ra un i f o r ms y s t e m o fs p i n f e r mi o nswi t hs pi n i n d e p e n d e n t


i nt e r ac t i ons .

( J )Us et h eFe y n ma nr u l e si n mome n t u ms p a c et o wr i t eo u tt hes e c on d o r d e r c o n t r i bu t i o nst ot h epr op e rs e l f e n e r g y; e v a l ua t et h ef r e qu e n c yi n t e g r a l s( s ome o ft h e m wi l l v a n i s h ) . ( b 4 He n c es h ow t h a tt h es e c o n do r d e rc on t r i bu t i o nt ot h eg r o un d s t a t ee n e r g y


can bewr i t t e n
e' t a ) -

2 mh2f...f( 2 z 89 dq kJ3 p#3 / #3 a3 ( 3 ) ( k + p- l -n )


. .

x( 2F4 1 - k) 2- P ' 4 1 -k )Ft p- l ) ) # ( ks-pj # t ks- k) xp ( a- k s ) 0 ( 1- k s ) ( #2+ k2- 1 2- a 2+ j , ? ; l l ( c )S p e c i a l i z et oa ne l e c t r o ng a sa n dr e de r i v et her e s u l t sofPr o b.1 . 4 .
3. 13. D e r i v et he e xpr es si on f or E( 2 3gi ven i n Pr ob.3. 1 2f r om G ol ds t one' s

t h e o r e m( 9. 4 8 ) . Fr om t hi sr e s u l t . gi v et her u l e sf o re v a l u a t i n gt h os eG o l d s t on e
di agr am ss hown i n Fi g.9. 22.

GREE N' S FUNCTI ONS AND FI E LD THE ORY ( F ERMI ONS)

51 9

3. 1 4. Us eEq. ( 9. 3 3 ) t os h o wt ha tt hee ne r g ye :a n dda mpi ng l y k ! ofl o n g l i v e d


s i ngl e par t i c l ee xc i t at i onsar egi ve n by
ek =

d + Reh T* ( k, %! h )
t . o : w,

ReX* k, ) a = 1- d o(

-1 I m X* ( k, q/ )

3. 1B. Co n s i d e raun i f o r ms y s t e mo fs p i n f e r mi o n swi t ht h es p i n de pe n de nt i n t e r a c t i o n po t e n t i a lo fEq.( 9 . 2 1 ) ,a n da s s u met ha tI 1 r * , e , x A ( :)ma yb ea p pr o x i ma t e dby1 H0 ( t ? ) 3 v .8 A y , . ( a )So l v eEq. ( 9 . 4 0 )t of i n d P ' o ( t ? ) a ; 3 p m P ' , @) nx b np . &( *. , , p .- j p ( ) u( ) ( , ? ) + I p , j t t y l uo t ql 0
-

( b jCo mbi n eEqs . ( 9 . 3 9 )a nd ( 9 . 4 0 )t oo b t a i n Dy s on ' se qu a t i onf o rH i nt e r ms


of 1 R* and Uo . Sol ve t hi se quat i on wi t ht he abov ea ppr oxi mat i on f or 1 R*, and pr ovet hat

, ? A ( # )= ! ' I 1 0 ( ) 8 v , ) 3 A s+ . i . f l 0 ( )Ul qj v g , n n I 1 0 ( ) I 1. p ,

wh e r eUf qji st a k e nf r o m( J ) .

4 Fer m iSystem s

l n pr i nc i pl e,t he per t ur bat i on t he or ya nd Fe ynman. di agr am s de ve l ope di n Chap. 3e nabl eust oe val ua t et heG r e en' sf unct i onG t oa1 lor de r si nt hei nt er act i on pot ent i al . Suc h apr oc edur ei si mpr ac t i c al ,howe ve r , andwemus ti ns t e ad r es or t t o appr oxi m at i on s chemes . Fore xam pl e ,t hes i m pl e s tappr oxi ma t i on cons i s t s

i nr e t a i n i n gon l yt hehr s t o r d e rc o nt r i b u t i on sX) k )t ot h ep r op e rs e l f e n e r g y ,a s


di s c u s s e di n Eqs .( 9 . 2 4 )a n d( 9. 3 5 ) . Unf o r t un a t e l y ,t h i sa pp r o x i ma t i o ni s
i nade qua t ef or m os ts ys t em sofi nt er es t ,and i t be com esne c es s ar yt oi nc l ude ce r t ai n cl as s e s of hi ghe r or de rt e r ms . Two appr oac hes ha ve bee ne s pec i al l y. s ucc es s f ul ;bot hi ncl ude i nsni t e or de r si n pe r t ur ba t i on t heor y, but t he y ar e ot her wi s equi t edi s t i nc t . I nt hesr s t ,a s ma l ls etofpr opers e l f ene r gy i ns er t i ons i sr e i nt e r pr et e d,s ot hatt he par t i c l el i nesr e pr es e nt e xactG r ee n' sf unc t i ons G i ns t ead of noni nt e r ac t i ng G r ee n' sf unc t i ons G0 . Thes e appr oxi mat i ons ar e

t h e r e f o r es e fc o n s i s t e nt ,b e c a u s e G bo t h de t e r mi n e sa n di sd e t e r mi n e db yt h e
12c

FERM ISYSTEM S

121

pr ope rs e l f ene r gy X*. I nc ont r as t ,t he s ec ond appr oac hr e t a i ns a s e l e ct e d

( i n sn i t e )c l a s sofp r o p e rs e l f e n e r g yi n s e r t i o ns ,e x p r e s s e di nt e r msofG0 . Th e
de t ai l soft hemanypar t i cl ehami l t oni an de t e r mi ne whi c h pr oc edur ei ss ui t abl e , and we s hal lcons i de rt hr e ee xampl e st ha tf l l us t r at ehow t hi schoi c ec an bemade:

Th e( s e l f c on s i s t e n t )Ha r t r e e Fo c ka p pr o x i ma t i o n( S e c .1 0 ) ,t h es u mma t i o no f l a d d e rd i a g r a ms ,a p p r op r i a t ef o rr e pu l s i v eh ar dc or ep ot e nt i a l s( Se c .1 1 ) ,a nd
t hes um m a t i on ofr i n g di agr am s, appr opr i at ef orl ongr ang ecoul om b pot ent i al s

( S e c .1 2 ) .
IX HARTREEFOCK APPROXI M ATI ON
The s t a r t i ng poi ntf orourdi s cus s i on ofi nt er a c t i ng quant um m e chani ca las s em -

b l i e sha sb e e nt h es t a t e) *a ), whi c hi st h eg r o u nd s t a t eo ft heha mi l t o n i a nXo

I h =J ( h u ) . 4c . k
I n1 *0 2 ) ,e a c h oft h eN p a r t i c l e so c c up i e sad e s n i t es i ng l e p a r t i c l es t a t e ,s ot ha t
i t sm ot i on i si ndepe nde ntoft hepr es enceoft heot herpar t i cl es . Thi ss i t uat i on wi l lbe c l e ar l y m odi se d by t he i nt e r ac t i onsbe t we e nt he par t i cl es;ne ve r t he l e s s , i ti san exper i me nt alf ac tt hata s i ngl epar t i cl e de s cr i pt i on f or m sa s ur pr i s i ngl y good a ppr oxi m at i on i n m any di f l kr ents ys t e ms ,f ore xam pl e,m e t al s ,at oms,and nuc l e i . H enc e a nat ur ala ppr oach i st or e t ai nt he s i ngl epar t i c l e pi c t ur e and

a s s u met h a te ac hp ar t i c l er z l t l l p t z . si nas i n g l e pa r t i c l epo / e n t i a lt h atc o me s f r o mi t s a v e r a g ei nt e r a c t i o n wi t ha I Io ft h eo t h e rp a r t i c l e s . Th es i n g l e p a r t i c l ee ne r g y


s houl dt hen bet he unpe r t ur bed ene r gy pl ust he pot ent i ale ne r g y ofi nt e r ac t i on ave r age d overt hes t at esoc cupi e d by al Ioft heot he rpa r t i c l e s. Thi si st her es ul t

o b t a i n e di n Eq .( 9. 3 5 ) .t , h usa saf i r s ta pp r o x i ma t i o nwec a nk e e pj u s tt h eEr s t -

o r d e rc o nt r i bu t i ont ot h ep r o pe rs e l f e n e r g yY! 1 ) . Th ec o r r e s po n d i n gFe y n ma n


di a gr am s ar es hown i n Fi g. 1 0. 1 . Thi sc al c ul at i on i s not f ul l y cons i s t e nt ,

1 .
t
= j 2 ( 1 J =
*

, t

Fi g.1 0. 1 Lo we s t o r de rpr o pe rs e l f e ne r gy .

h owe v e r , s i n c et h eba c k g r o un dp a r t i c l e sc on t r i bu t i n gt oZh)a r et r e a t e da sn on i nt er ac t i ng, l n r ea l i t y, of c our s e ,t he s e par t i cl es al s o m ove i n an ave r age pot ent i alcom i ng f r om t hepr es enc e ofa1 1t he ot he rpar t i c l e s . Thusi ns t e ad of

j u s tt h et wos e l f e n e r g yt t r mss h owni nFi g . 1 0. 1w ' es ho u l di n c l u dea 1 1 t h eg r a p h s


s hown i n Fi g. 1 0. 2. The s hade dc i r cl es a gai n de not et he pr ope rs e l f ener gy, whi chi st hequant i t ywear et r yi ngt oc om put e . Si nc et heexa ctG r e en' sf unc t i on

c a nb ee x pr e s s e da sas e r i e sc on t a i n i n gt h ep r op e rs e l f e n e r g y( Eq. ( 9 . 2 7 ) )a l l t h e

1 22

GR OUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPE RAT URE )F ORMAL I SM

t 1
=
-

#
+ ' '+

1
+ ...

Y
+ +

' t

$+ + .
Y 1 '

Fi g. 1 0. 2 S e r i e sf or p r op e rs e l f e ne r gy i n Ha r t r e e Fx k appr oxi mat i on.

t er m sofFi g.1 0. 2c an be s umme di nt hepai r ofdi agr amss hown i n Fi g.1 0. 3, whe r et he he avy l i ne de not est he e xa ctG,whi ch i si t s e l fdet e r mi ned f r om t he pr oper s e l f ene r gy as i ndi cat e di n Fi g. 1 0. 4. W e pr oc e ed t o exami ne t hes e equat i onsi n de t ai l .

#t .. y
. .

Fi g.1 Q. 3 S e l f c on s i s t e nt pr o pe rs e l f e n e r g yi n Har t r e e Foc k


appr oxi mat i on.

Fi g. 10. 4 Dy s on' se q ua t i onf orG.

W es hal lcons i dera s ys t e mi n as t at i cs pi ni ndependente xt er nalpot ent i al

&( x ) ,whi c hd e s t r o y st h es p a t i a lu ni f or mi t y -f ore x a mp l e ,e l e c t r o n si n ame t a l


oran a t om . Thet ot alham i l t oni an t henbe com e s

0- I#3 x1 J 1( x )- J wy + U( x) ' f v t x l

: 2 72

( 1 0 . 1 X

I I ' L -! . fJl x#l x' j 4( x ) fj f t x' )P ' t x- x ' ) #j ( x3' ( kt xl


P ' ( x, x' ) A A , , s s . = Ft x- x ' ) 3 z z ' 3 j z s ,

( 1 0 . 1 : )
( 1 0. 2 )

wher ef ors i m pl i ci t yt bei nt er par t i c l epot ent i a lhasbe enas s ume ds pi ni ndt pende nt I nt he pr es entappr oxi ma t i on,Dy s on' se quat i on t ake st he f or m s hown i n Fi g.

1 0. 5 wh e r et hel i g htl i n ed e n ot e sG0( t h en on i n t e r a c t i n g Gr e e n' sf u nc t i on c or r e -

FERM I SYSTEM S

123

s p on d i ngt oI hq , a n dt hehe a v yl i nede no t e st h es e l f c o ns i s t e n tG. Th ec or r e s pondi ngana l yt i ce quat i on i sgi v en by

G( x, y )= G0 ( x , y) + Jd4 xL d4 xj ' G0 ( x, xI ) X* ( xl , x( ) G( xJ , y )
whe r et he K r one cke rdel t ai nt hem at r i xi ndi c eshasbee nf ac t or e d out . Exa ct l y a si n Chap.3,t he Feynman r ul e s yi e l da ne xpl i ci te xpr es s i on f ort he pr oper s e l f e ne r g y

X* ( xI , xJ )=. -i b l t , -t L j( ( xI -xJ ) ( 2 J+ 1 ) Jd3 x2 Gl xz / a , x2 t ( j


x Ft xj - x2 ) - Ft xl - x; ) Gt xl J j , xl t ) ) )( 1 0. 4 )
whi c hi sval i df ors pi nlf er mi ons. Not et hatt hefr s tt e r m hasan ex t r af a ct or

( 2 s+ 1 )r e l a t i v et ot hes e c on dt e r m ;t h i sa r i s e sf r om t h es pi ns u ms ( c o mp a r e Eq. ( 9 . 1 8 ) ) .

= +

Fi g. 5 0. 6 Dys o n' se q ua t i o nf o rG i nHa r t r e e Fo c ka pp r ox i mat i on.

I nt hep r e s e n te x a mpl e ,bo t hP a n d W' oa r et i mei n de p e n d e n t ,a n di ti s


t he r e f or econv eni e ntt o us ea Four i e rr epr e s e nt a t i on

Gl xt , x' / ' )=( 2 . *-1 Jd c oe i a z f l f ' ' G( x, x ' , t o ) ( 1 0 . 5 c ) G9 ( x/ , x' t ' j=( 2 7 4-1 Jd u t c f t t f ' ' G0 ( x9 x' $ ( s ) ( 1 0 . 5 : ) X* ( x f , x' t ' j =I L* ( x, x' ) 3 ( / -t ' j=( 2 r 81Jd e i a ' t t f ' ' t* ( xx ' ) ( 1 0. 5 c )
Asi nt h eEr s t or d e ra pp r o x i ma t i on ( Eq.( 9 . 2 4 ) ) ,t h epr op e rs e l f e n e r g yi she r e i n de p e n d e n toff r e qu e n c y . Th et i me i n t e g r a t i on si n Eq.( 1 0 . 3 )c a nn o w be
per f or me de xpl i ci t l y,and we:nd

G( x, y , )=G0 ( x, y , t z 4+Jd3 xL #3 . x j ' G0 ( x, xj , a 4X* ( xj , xj ' )G( xj ' , y , a 4 ( 1 0 . 6 )


Cor r e s po n di ng l y, Eq. ( 1 0 . 4 )r e du c e st o

E* ( xl , xJ )=- ( 2 J ' +1 ) t xl - xJ )f#3 xzF( xl -xz ) ( 2, 0.Jd e f t ' g x G( xa , x z , t t ) )+ f F( xl - x; ) ( 2 r 81Jd t . oe l ' a ' ' l G( xl , x( , ( z ) )( 1 0 . 7 )
I ti sconveni e ntt oi nt r oduc et hecom pl e t es etofor t honor m al ei genf unc t i ons ofH f t :

Ho g( x )- - 2 m +( 7 ( x )y J ( x )- 4p , 9 ( x)

h2: 7 2

( 1 0. 8 )

1 2 4

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPER ATURE )F ORMALI SM

Th e s es i n g l e pa r t i c l es t a t e sf or m an a t ur a lba s i sf o rt h es e l do p e r a t or s' hl x t j
i nt hei nt e r ac t i onpi ct ur e, and t he noni nt e r ac t i ng G r e en' sf unct i ont he n bec om e s

l Go l x t e o hh t t ' ) ,x ' t ? )= T 5 t ' ' x l t h ' x b ' ( p ' % ' . N x' ' *e x n ' - i -

x( # ( / -t ' ) t l l p f j l mJ J ( *( j )- 0 ( t ' -t j t k ml j l t 4c g I *a ) ) e q l t -t J ) Z 2 ( X ) el ( X' ) *e X p i J 7. h


. -

x( p ( / -t ' )p t e - e ; )-0 ( t ' -t ) p ( e k . - 4) J( 1 0. 9 ) wh e r ee ;i st h ee n e r g y oft h el a s tsl l e ds t a t e . Th e Fou r i e rt r a ns f o r mc a n be


c omp u t e de x a c t l ya si nEq. ( 7 . 4 4 ) , whi c hy i e l ds

Go ( x,x , ? ( x ) , f( x' ) + # ( e --C ' D ' t e y-4) , ( s )- 1 ) g ' , J - s-jsg o . g q+.-s : s , g ., . x ) J

( 1 0 . 1 0 )

Wee a nno we v a l u a t et h ep a r t i c l ede n s i t ya 0 ( x )i nt h eu n p e r t u r b e dg r ou n ds t a t e 1 *0 )

a 0 ( x )=-j ( 2 1 ' +1 ) ( 2 / . 4-1 Jl t se l u ' ' l G0 ( x, x, t s ) = ( 2 J ' +1 )Z l @Xx ) 1 2 # ( 6 . - 4) p


whi l et het ot alnum be rofpar t i c l e si sg i ve n by
.

( 1 0 . 1 1 ) ( 1 0 . 1 2 )

N0=J#3 xn 9 ( x )=( 2 , g+ 1 )j ) ( e . -6 k )

bec aus et hes i ngl e par t i c l ewavef unc t i qnsar eas s ume d nor mal i z ed.

Equ a t i on s( 1 0. 6 )t o( 1 0. 8 )a n dEq. ( 1 0. 1 0 ) de En eas e to fc ou p l e de q ua t i on s


f ort hes el f c ons i s t entGr e en' sf unct i onG. Si nc eX*i si nde pendentoff r e quenc y, i ti snat ur a lt os e ek as ol ut i on f orG i nt he s am ef or m asG0:

G( x e l e y- e s ) p t e . s- e p x' , ,( s )= J ( p /x ) +J ( x ' ) *f J . ' A- h-1 ef y. j . y ) +f n+t , l ,-jc


.

( 1 0 . 1 3 )

wh e r e( +/x ) Jd e n ot e sa c ompl e t es e to fs i n g l e p a r t i c l e wa v ef u n c t i o nswi t h


ener gi ese J ,and e si st heene r gy oft he l as thl l e ds t at e . The a s s oci at ed par t i c l e

d e n s i t yi nt hei n t e r a c t i n gs y s t e mb e c o me sg c o mp a r eEq. ( 1 0. l l ) J

a ( x )- ( 2 J ' +1 )) ( 2l @. f ( x ) 1 2 # ( e , . -e . , ) J
w hi l e

( 1 0 . 1 4 )
( 1 0. 1 5 )

N = NQ= ( 2 , +1 )( j 2 # ( e s- %) J

b e c a u s et hep e r t u r ba t i onXl c o ns e r v e st het ot a l nu mb e rofp a r t i c l e s . Thu st he


i nt er a ct i on mer el ys hi f t st hes i ngl e pa r t i c l el e ve l s ,whi c h ar es t i l lsl l e d ac cor di ng

FERM I SYSTEM S

125

t ot he i rene r gy up t ot he Fer m il e ve lc s . The f r e qu ency i nt e gr ali n Eq. ( 1 0 . 7 ) ca n now be ev al uat e d di r e ct l y,and we 5nd

Zt xl - xl ' )X f p J ( xl ) +j ( xJ ) *d t e s- 6 ' J ) ( 1 0. 1 6 )

No t et h a t 1 : *d e p e nd so n +j , ' ac o mbi n a t i o nof Eq s . ( 1 0. 6 )a n d( 1 0 . 1 6 ) t h e ny i e l ds

an o n l i n e a ri nt e g r a l e qu a t i o nf o r%yi nt e r msof ( t h ea s s u me dk n own )pq .


Thi se quat i on m ay bes i m pl i he d wi t ht hedi p kr ent i aloper at or h2V!

LI =h + 2 - &( xI ) =h t . o- Ho m ' I f Lji sa p p l i e dt oG0 ( xj , xl ' , r . z ? )weo b t a i n

h) ( ( r ) t xl l +T ( xi ' ) *
h b l xl- x; )
. .

whe r et h el a s t l i n ef ol l o wsf r om t h ea s s ume dc o mpl e t e n e s sof t hes e t ( ( J ? , 9 ) Thus 1 f . 1i st h ei n v e r s eo pe r a t o r( G0 ) 1 ,a n da p pl i c a t i o n of Ljt o Eq ( 1 06 4y l e l d s f 1 Gt xj , x! ' , t , ? )= 3 ( xl- xj ' )+ .f#3 x2 Z* ( xl , x2 ) G( x2 , x; , ( s )
I ti sus ef ult oi ns er tt hee xpl i c i tf or m sofG a nd l -j :

t h l V) t ? +' ( xI ) j z ? 7-b

,+ 0 ( E y- e j ) he t i -e j ) ( p , ( xj ) % . y ( xI ) a . j. y . ./ .- ( j f . . j ) e ,v n
. .-

o-

e j. . . q

M ul t i p l yb ywk t x( )a n di n t e g r a t eov e rxj ' . Th eo r t h og on a l i t yo fl ( p y )l e a dst oa s i mpl e Sc hr di nge r l i kee quat i on f or+, ( xl )
-

h 2T 2 . 1

l l xI ) %y t xj )p . (#3 x2 Y* ( xj . x2 ) y# ( xc ) =e 2 m >L j ( / ) . / t xI )
-

whe r et he pr op ers e l f ene r gy hs* ac t s asa s t at i c no l t l oc alpot ent i al . Si ncel 1 *

i s her mi t i an and i ndepende ntof/ -t he us ualpr oofofor t hog onal i t yr e mai ns

1 2 6

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTEMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

u n c h a n g e dst h e r e b yj u s t i f y i n go uri n i t i a la s s u mpt i on . Eq ua t i on( 1 0. 1 6 )s ho ws t h a tX*c on s i s t soft wo t e r ms :al o c a l( di r e c t )t e r mp r o p or t i on a lt ot h ep a r t i c l e de n s i t ya n d an on l o c a l( e x c h a n g e )t e r m. Th e s ee q u a t i on sa r ej u s tt h eHar t r e e Fock e quat i ons lf ami l i arf r om at omi ct he or y. l ti sappar entt ha tt he s ee quat i onscons t i t ut ea v er y com pl i c at e d pr obl em : An i ni t i als e tofs i ngl e par t i cl e wav ef unc t i onsand ene r gi e si sas s um e d known,

a n dt hec o r r e s p on d i n gX*i sc a l c u l a t e df r o m Eq. ( 1 0. 1 6) .E qu a t i on( 1 0. 1 7 ) t he n


be c ome s a one body ei genval ue e quat i on t hatde t er mi ne s a new s etofe i ge nf unc t i onsand e i ge nval ues ,whi c ha r e us ed t or ec omput e X*. Thi spr oc es si s

c o nt i n u e d un t i la s e l f c on s i s t e nts ol ut i on i sob t a i n e df orb 0 t h@ , )an d( e , ) . Th eg r o un ds t a t ee n e r g yc a nt he nb ee v a l u a t e dwi t hEq. ( 7 . 2 3 ) . s u i t a b l yg e n e r a l i z e dt oi n c l u d et hee x t e r n a l p ot e n t i a l&( xl )

E=

! . 1 . ( 2 J+ l )f #3 xI 2, e i z o ' l l i m - 2- + &( x1 ) Gt xj , xj p , ( s l x l z p x, h
'

d o l

h 2Vl

= -f ( 2 &+ l ). f #3 xj j ) p/x1 ) # a, , , ?! . y p, ( xj )+ . ( s , pjxj j y p reu


-

d z

-3 > E* ( x, , xz ) +, ( x a ) ) 0 t E ' -6 Z P t ' ' -' J 1 l . Jd x a . - ,-1, ,+. i y+ . -, , e ,- y


. '

( 2 ,+ 1 )z e , g t e s- e , )-. 1 . ( 2 . , +1 )JJ3 xl J3 xcz e, ( x, ) * J j


x X* ( x, , xa ) pxx a ) 0 ( e F- 0) ( 1 0 . 1 8 )

whe r et h es e c on dI i n eh a sb e e n ob t a i n e d wi t h Eq. ( 1 0 . 1 7 )a n dt h eI a s twi t h Eq. ( 9 . 37 )a n d ac o n t o uri n t e gr a t i o n. Th eh r s tt e r mo ft hi se x pr e s s i o nh asas i mp l e


i nt er pr e t at i on as t he s um of t he ener gi e s ofaI Ioc cupi e ds t at es . Eac hs i ngl epar t i c l es t at ei nc or por at e st hee/ec toft he ot he rpar t i c l e st hr ough t he nonl ocal s el f cons i s t entpot e nt i alY*. I nc om put i ng t h e gr ounds t at eene r gy,howev er ,

t h esr s tt e r mo fEq. ( 1 0 . 1 8 )b yi t s e l fi n c l u de st h ei n t e r a c t i o ne n e r g yt wi c e;t hi s


doubl ecount i ng i st he nc om pens a t ed by t he s e c ond t er m. A c om bi nat i on of

Eq s . ( 1 0 . 1 6 )a n d( 1 0 . 1 8 )y i e l d s f=( 2 J+ 1 )Z e , Se s- e J 4- . ! ( 2 J+ 1 )) 8 ( 6 s- e , ) # ( e s- e k )j ' #3 x1
J J k

x Jd' xzP ' t xl - xa ) ( 4 2 J+ l ) I +/xl ) I 2 I y ( x z ) l 2


-

e. / ( xl ) * u l xl l ek l x a l * ut xz l l( 1 0 . 1 9 )

whi c hi st heus ualH ar t r ee Fock r es ul t .

Th et wo t e r msi nb r a c k e t si n Eq.( 1 0 . 1 9 )y i e l dt h e di r e c ta n de x c h a n g e e n e r gi e s ,r e s p e c t i v e l y . Fo ras h or t r a n g ei n t e r p a r t i c l ep ot e n t i a l( a si nn u c l e a r


phys i c s ) ,t he di r ec t and ex c hange t er ms ar ec ompar abl ei n magni t ude,f or a
'D.R.Ha r t r e e . Pr o c .Ca mb r i d g ePhi l . . 5 b c . . M: 8 9;l l I( 1 9 2 8 ) ; J . C.S l at e r . Ph ys .Re v . . 3 5: 21 0 ( l 9 3 0 ) ; V. Fo ck , Z. Ph ys i k. 61: 1 2 6( l 9 3 0 ) .

FERM f sYs' r Ev s

1a7

l o n g r a n g ei n t e r p a r t i c l ep ot e n t i a l( a si na t omi cp hy s i c s ) ,t hee x c h a n g ec on t r i but i on i sus ual l y muc hs ma l l e rt han t hedi r e ctone. I nde e d,t heex chan ge t e r m i socc as i onal l y ne gl e c t e d ent i r e l yi nde t er mi ni ngt hes e l f cons i s t entene r o l e vel s of at oms ,and t he cor r es pondi ng e qua t i ons ar e known a st he s e l f c ons i s t e nt Har t r ee e quat i ons . The phys i c albas i sf or t he di s t i nct i on G t wee ns hor t -and l ongr ange pot ent i al si st he f ol l owi ng. The e xcl us i on pr i n ci pl e pr eve nt st wo par t i cl esoft he s ames pi nf r om oc cupyi ng t hes ame s i ngl e par t i c l es t a t e. Asa r e s ul t ,t h et wopar t i c l e dens i t y cor r el a t i on f unc t i on f orpar al l els pi ns vani s hes t hr oughouta r e gi on c ompar abl e wi t ht hc i nt e r par t i cl es paci ng. I ft her angeof t he pot e nt i ali sl es st han t he i nt e r par t i c l es paci ng,t hen t hi sexc l us i on hol ei s cr uci al i n de t er mi ni ng t he gr ounds t a t ee ner g y. I nc ont r as t ,a l ongr ang e pot e nt i a lex t ends f ar be yond t he i nt er par t i cl es pa ci ng,and t he ex cl us i on hol e

t he n pl aysonl y a mi nor r ol e( compar e Pr obs .4. 1and 5. 1 0,whi ch e xhi bi tt hi s

di s t i n c t i o ne x pl i c i t l y ) . Fo ra g e n e r a le x t e r n a lp ot e n t i a l&( x) ,t he Har t r e e Fo c ke q u a t i on sa r e

v e r yd i c u l tt os ol v e ,b e c a u s et h es i n gl e pa r t i c l e wa v ef u n c t i o nsexx )a n d
e ner gi ese Jm us tbot h bede t er mi ned s el f c ons i s t ent l y. The s ee quat i onsV ome

mu c hs i mpl e rf ora u ni f or ms y s t e m,wh e r e U( x )v an i s h e sa n dt h epr om rxl f e n e r g yt a k e st h ef or m Z* ( x- x' ) .I ti sr e a di l yv e r i s e dt h a ta p l an e wa v e @k ( x )= F-k t p i k * xs a t i s s e st hes e l f c o ns i s t e n c yr e q u i r e me nt s , s i n i ti sas o l u t i o n o fEq. ( 1 0. 1 7 ) . Th ec o r r e s p o nd i n gs e l f c o n s i s t e n t s i n g l e pa r t i c l ee n e r g y* m>

e k= e 2+ X* ( k )
wher e

( 1 0. 2 0)

X* ( k )=J#3 ( x-x' ) e d k * t x x ' ) X* ( x-x' ) = ( 2 J+ 1 )F( 0 ) ( 2 = ) 3J#3 k' 0 ( kF-k' j ( 2 .) 3Jds k' F( k-k' ) %k p-k' ) = nF( 0 )- ( 2 r 43f#3 k ' F( k- k' ) g t k s- k' ) ( 1 0. 2 1 )
-

Th eg r ou n ds t a t ee n e r g y( 1 0 . 1 8 )r e du c e st ot h es i mpl ef o r m

E-( 2 J+ 1 )P ' ( 2 r r ) 3J#3 #( e k- ! WX* ( k ) ) 0 ( k F- k) ( 2 J+ 1 )P ' ( 2 x) 3f db k( 4 +! 3X* ( k) ) # t ks- k )

( 1 0 . 2 2 )

whi c hs howshow t he s el f e ner g y modi se st he pounds t at e ene r gy oft he noni nt e r ac t i ng s ys t em. I ti si nt e r es t i ng t hatt he s es el f c ons i s t entexpr e s s i onsf ora

u nt f o r m me d i u m a r ei de n t i c a l wi t ht h ec o n t r i bu t i o ns e v a l u a t e di n ir s t o r d e r p e r t u r b at i ont he o r y( Eq s .( 9 . 35 )a nd( 9. 3 6 ) 1 . Th i se qu a l i t ya r i s e so nl yb e c a u s e t heu np e r t ur b e d( p l a n e wa v e )e i g e nf u n c t i on si nau n i f or ms y s t e ma r ea l s ot h e


s e l f cons i s t ent ones; f or a nonuni f or m s y s t em, howe ve r ,t he s e l f cons i s t e nt c al cul at i on c l e ar l ygoesf arbe yond t hesr s t or dere xpr e s s i on.

1 28

GROZNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPER AT URE) FORMAL I SM

IIQI M PERFECT FERM I GA S W es ha l lnow cons i deri ndet ai ladi l ut eFer m igaswi t hs t r ong s hor t r anger epul -

s i v epo t e nt i a l s( t h a r dc o r e s ' ' l . l Th i ss y s t e mi so fc on s i d e r a bl ei n t r i ns i ci n t e r e s t ,


and i tal s of or m st hebas i sf ors t udi esofnucl e arm at t erand H e 3 ,asi ni t i at ed by Br uec kne r . z The f undam ent al obs er v at i on i st he f ol l owi ng. Al t hough t he pot e nt i alm ay be s t r ong and s i ngul ar ,t he s c at t e r i ng ampl i t ude can be s m al lf or s uc h i nt e r ac t i ons . For de sni t ene s s ,t he pot e nt i al wi l l be t ake n as pur el y r epul s i ve wi t h as t r ong s hor t r a nge c or e,t he r e by ne gl ec t i ng any pos s i bi l i t y of a s el f bound l i qui d. A ny r eal i s t i c pot ent i a lm us tc l e ar l y ha ve s uc h ar epul s i v e c or e;ot he r wi s et her e woul d be no e qui l i br i um dens i t y and t he s ys t em woul d

c ol l a p s e .( S e e Pr o b.1 . 2 . ) I n pa r t i c ul a r ,t h en u c l e o n n u c l e o np o t e n t i a lh a sa
r epul s i vecor ear i s i ng f r om t hes t r ongl yi nt e r a ct i ng m e s on cl oud, and t heH e 3 -H e 3 pot e nt i a lhasa r epul s i vecor e ar i s i ng f r om t he i nt e r ac t i on be t we en t he el e ct r ons .
SCAR ERI NG Fno M A HARD SPHERE

To i l l us t r at et he s er e m ar ks ,c ons i dert he s ca t t e r i ng oft wo par t i cl esi nt e r ac t i ng

t h r o ug h as t r o ngr e pu l s i v ep o t e n t i a lo fs t r e n g t h Ut j > 0a n dr a n g ea( Fi g .1 1 . 1 ) . An i nsni t e har dc or ec l e ar l yc or r e s ponds t ot he l i mi tF %. . > .a : . The s pat i a l Fo u r i e rt r a n s f or mo ft h ep ot e n t i a l i s j u s t t heBo r na pp r o x i ma t i o nf o rt hes c a t t e r i ng a mpl i t ude;i ti spr opor t i onalt o Ft and t he r ef or e di v er gesf or a har dc or e.

P ( q )= je f q e xU( x) J3 x. > . : c

( 1 l . 1 )

I nf a ct ,t he t r ue s c at t er i ng am pl i t ude i sgi ve n by t he par t i al waveex pans i on3

Si nc et he Schr di nger e quat i on i st r i vi al l ys ol ubl ei nt he r e gi on out s i de t he pot e nt i al ,e a ch phas es hi f tc an be obt ai ned expl i c i t l y wi t ht heboundar y condi t i on

Fi g.11. 1 Repul s i vesquar ewel lpot e nt i al .

'w ef o l l o wt h ean al y s i so fV.M .Gal i t s k i i ,S ot ' . Ph ys . J ETP, 7: 1 04( 1 9 5 8 ) .


2K . A. Br ue c k ne r , Th e o r yo fNuc l e ar St r u c t ur e , i nC. De Wi t t ( e d. ) , i . r h tM a nyBo dyPr o bl e mv ' ' p.47,John W i l eyand Sons ,I nc. ,New Yor k,1 959. 3Fo rt h eb a s i ce l e me nt so fs c a t t e r i ngt h e or yus e di nt h i ss e c t i on, t her e a d e ri sr e f e r r e dt oa n y

s t a nd a r dt e x t bo ok on qu a nt u m me c h an i c s sf ore x a mpl e ,L. 1 .S c h i f r' % ou a nt u m Me c ha ni c s , ' q


3d e d. ,s ec.1 9.M cGr awl l i l lBook Company,Ne w York,1968.

FERMISYSTEMS

12;

l on g r a n g ei nt e r p a r t i c l ep o t e n t i a l( a si na t omi cp h y s i c s ) ,t h ee x c h a n g ec on t r i but i on i sus ual l y m uch s m al l ert han t he di r ec tone. I nde ed,t he e xc hanget er m i soc cas i onal l y ne gl e c t ed ent i r e l yi n det er mi ni ng t hes e l f cons i s t e nte ner n l e vel s of a t om s , and t he cor r e s pondi ng e quat i ons ar e known as t he s e l f cons i s t e nt Har t r ee e quat i ons . The phys i calbas i sf or t he di s t i nct i on G t we en s hor t -and l ongr ange pot ent i al si st he f ol l owi ng. The e xc l us i on pr i nci pl e pr ev ent st wo par t i c l esoft he s a me s pi nf r om occ upyi ng t he s ames i ngl e par t i cl es t at e . Asa r es ul t ,t he t wopar t i cl e dens i t yc or r el at i on f unct i on f or par al l els pi nsvani s he s t hr oughouta r e gi on c ompar abl ewi t ht he i nt e r par t i cl es paci ng. I ft he r ang e of t h e pot ent i ali sl e s st han t he i nt er par t i cl es paci ng,t he nt hi se xcl us i on hol ei s cr uc i al i n de t er mi ni ng t he gr ounds t at e ener gy. I n cont r as t ,a l ong r ange pot ent i alex t ends f ar be yond t he i nt er par t i c l es pa ci ng,and t he e xcl us i on hol e

t hen pl aysonl y am i norr ol e( c ompar e Pr obs .4. 1and 5 . 1 0,whi ch exhi bi tt hi s

di s t i n c t i o ne x pl i c i t l y ) . Fora g e n e r a le x t e r n a lp o t e n t i a lU( x ) ,t h e Har t r e e Fo c ke qu a t i on sa r e

v e r y di mc ul tt os ol v e ,b e c a u s et h es i n g l e pa r t i c l e wa v ef u n c t i o nsp/x )a n d
e ner gi e se lmus tbot h bede t er mi ne ds el f c ons i s t ent l y. The s ee quat i onsA ome

mu c hs i mpl e rf ora u ni f or ms y s t e m,wh e r e U( x )v a ni s h e sa n dt h epr om rRl f e n e r g yt a k e st h ef o r m E* ( x- x' ) .I ti sr e a di l yv e r i s e dt ha ta pl an e wa v e @k ( x) = F-k t ' d k * xs a t i s s e st hes e l f c on s i s t e n c yr e q ui r e me n t s , s i n i ti saKl u t i o n o fEq. ( 1 0 . 1 7 ) . Thec o r r e s po n di n gs e l f c on s i s t e n t s i n g l e p a r t i c l ee n e r g y% m%

e k= 6 2+ X* ( k )
whe r e

( 1 0. 2 0)

E* ( k) =j#3 ( x-x' ) e k * t x x ' ) X* ( x-x' ) = ( 2 . v+ 1 )P ' ( 0 ) ( 2 , 43Jd' k ' 8 ( #z . -k' ) ( 2 =) 3J#3 k' F( k-k' )%k F-k' ) =aP ' ( 0) -( 2 x) 3J#3 k, F( k-k ' ) p t k s-k' ) ( 1 0. 21 )
-

Theg r ou n ds t a t ee n e r g y( 1 0 . 1 8 )r e du c e st ot hes i mp l ef o r m

E-( 2 &+ 1 )P ' ( 2 =) 3J#3 k( e k-. R X* ( k) ) 0 ( kF-k) - ( 2 J+ 1 )F( 2 =) 3fdb k( 4 +! 3X* ( k ) ) # t ks- k )

( 1 0. 2 2 )

whi c hs howshow t he s el f e ner gy modi se st he gr ounds t at e ene r gy oft he noni nt e r ac t i ng s ys t em. l ti si nt er es t i ng t hatt hes es e l f cons i s t e ntex pr es s i onsf ora

u n o r m me di u ma r ei d e n t i c a lwi t ht he c on t r i b u t i on se v a l u a t e di ns r s t or de r pe r t ur ba t i o nt h e or y( Eq s .( 9 . 3 5 )a n d( 9 . 3 6 ) 1 . Th i se qu a l i t ya r i s e son l yb e c a u s e t h eu n pe r t u r b e d( p l a n e wa v e )e i g e n f u n c t i o n si na un i f o r ms y s t e ma r ea l s ot h e
s el f c ons i s t e nt one s; f or a nonuni f or m s ys t e m, howe ver ,t he s e l f c ons i s t ent ca l cu l at i oncl ear l ygoe sf arbeyond t her s t or derex pr es s i on.

1 28

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EM PE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

IILI M PERFECT FERM I GAS W es hal lnow c ons i de ri nde t ai ladi l ut eFer m igaswi t hs t r ongs hor t r anger e pul -

s i v ep o t e n t i a l s( t t ha r dc o r e s ' ' l . l Th i ss y s t e mi sof c on s i de r a b l ei nt r i n s i ci nt e r e s t ,


and i tal s of or m st hebas i sf ors t udi esofnuc l e arm at t e rand H e3 ,asi ni t i a t ed by Br ue c kne r . z The f undam e nt al obs e r vat i on i st he f ol l owi ng. A l t hough t he pot e nt i alm a y be s t r ong a nd s i ngul ar ,t he s c at t e ri n ga mpl i t u de c an be s ma l lf or s uc h i nt e r ac t i ons . For de sni t e nes s ,t he pot ent i al wi l l be t aken as pur e l y r epul s i v e wi t has t r ong s hor t r ange cor e ,t her eby negl e ct i ng any pos s i bi l i t y ofa s el f bound l i qui d. A ny r e al i s t i c pot ent i alm us tc l e ar l y hav es uch a r e pul s i ve c or e;ot her wi s et he r e woul d be no equi l i br i um de ns i t y and t he s ys t em woul d

c o l l a ps e .( S e e Pr ob .1 . 2 . ) l np a r t i c u l a r ,t h e nu c l e on n uc l e o n po t e n t i a lh a sa
r e pul s i vecor ea ri s i ngf r om t he s t r ongl yi nt er ac t i ngm es on c l oud, and t he He3 -He3 pot ent i alhasar e pul s i vec or ear i s i ng f r om t hei nt e r a ct i on be t wee nt hee l e c t r ons .
SCATTERI NG FRO M A HARD SPHERE

To i l l us t r at et hes er emar ks,cons i dert he s c at t er i ng of t wo par t i c l e si nt e r a ct i ng

t h r ou g h as t r on gr e pu l s i v epo t e n t i a lo fs t r e ng t hJ ' o>0 a n dr a n g ea( Fi g.1 1 . 1 ) .


An i nsni t e har d cor ec l ear l y cor r es ponds t ot he l i mi tP ' owa , : . The s pat i al

Fou r i e rt r a n s f o r mo f t hep o t e n t i a l i sj us tt h eBo r na p pr o x i ma t i onf o rt h es c a t t e r i ng am pl i t ude;i ti spr opor t i onalt oP r t jand t he r e f or e di ve r ge sf ora har d cor e .

F( q )- Jc q xP ' ( x ) #3 . r. + . c o
X

I nf ac t ,t he t r ue s ca t t e r i ng a m pl i t u de i sgi v en by t he par t i a l wave e xpans i on3

/( k# ) - 2 1+ l i s ,k nj p ( c os j ) , l i -. . e s ,, =0
Si nce t he Sc hr di nge re quat i on i st r i vi al l ys ol ubl ei nt he r e gi on out s i de t he pot ent i al , ea ch phas es hi f tcan be obt a i ned ex pl i c i t l y wi t ht he boundar yc ondi t i on

Fi g.11. 1 Re pul s i ves quare wel lpot ent i al .

'Wef ol l ow t h ea na l y s i sofV.M . Ga l i t s ki i , So t ' . Ph y s . JET P, 7: 1 0 4( 1 95 8 ) . 2K. A. Br u e c k ne r . Th e or yofNu c l e a rS t r u ct ur e . i n C. De Wi t t ( e d. ) , l s l h eM a n yBod yPr ob l e m, ' '
p.47,J ohn W i y eyandSons,I nc. .Ne w Yor k,1959. 3Fort he basi cel ement sofs cat t er i ng t heor y us ed i nt hi ss e ct i on,t he r e aderi sr ef er r ed t o any

s t a nda r dt e x t b oo ko n qua n t um me c ha ni c s ,f ore x a mpl e.L.1 .S c hi h ,' s oua n t um Me e h a ni c s , ' '


3ded. ,se c.19,M cci r awl l i l lBook Com pany,New Yor k,1968.

ggaMl SYSTEM S

129

t hatt he wav ef unct i on vani s h atr= a,and we:nd t he we l l known e xpr e s s i on

k a> . 0 , I> 0 1 ) ! ! ( j j . 3 ) 3 a ( k)= - k a ka. + . 0 wh e r e( 2 / +1 ) ! ! =1 ' 3' 5 ''.( 2 / -1 ) ' ( 2 / +1 ) . He n c et hes c a t t e r i n ga mpl i t u de
-

3 ( / f J ) 2 l * 1 1 4 / c )= -( 2 /+ 1 ) ! ! ( 2 l

v ani s hesi nt he l i mi tofvani s hi ng har dcor er ange ,asi sphys i cal l y obvi ous . I n

c o n t r a s t ,t heFou r i e rt r a n s f o r mo ft h ep o t e n t i a l( Eq.( 1 1 . 1 ) )i si nt i n i t ef o ra I l
val uesoft heha r dc or er ange. Thi sc onc l us i on c an beve r i fe di n anot he rway. Cons i dert heSchr di ng er e quat i on f or t wo par t i cl es of m as sm i nt er a ct i ng wi t h a pot ent i al P r . The Sc hr di nge requat i on i nt he ce nt er of ma s scoor di na t es ys t e m i sgi v en by

( V2+ k2 ) 4( x )= y ( x) /( x)
whe r exi st he s e par at i on oft het wo par t i c l e s ,

( 1 1 . 4 )

vr e u P ( x )- &l U ' ( x) ! , ( x )> z z h z a n dz n r e u= . ? r ' li st he r e du c e d ma s s .I ns c a t t e r i ng pr o b l e ms ,i ti sg e n e r a l l y c o nv e n i e n t t or e wr i t eEq. ( 1 1 . 4 ) a sa ni n t e g r a l e q ua t i on , u s i n gt h eo u t g oi n g wa v e


Gr e en' sf unct i on
d. 3 f p @ ( x y ) ! eL k l x y l Gt + ) ( X- y )= ( p e 2 3 c kz y = k j x yj = )p -

( 1 1 . 6 )

Thef unct i on G( +)s at i s sest hedi f er ent i ale quat i on

( V2 X+ k1 ) Gt + ) ( x- y )= -3 ( x- y )
and G r e e n' st heor e m t he n yi e l ds t he f ol l owi ng equat i on f ort he s c at t er i ng wave

f u n c t i o nk J k + ) ( x )r e pr e s e n t i n ga ni n c i d e n tp l a n ewa v ewi t hwa v ev e c t orkpl u sa n


out goi ng s c at t e r e d wav e:

l J k + ) ( x )= e f k * x- j#3 yG( + ) ( x- y ) p ( y ) /; + ) ( y ) Th ea s y mp t o t i cf o r mo f/k + 1 ( x )i se qu a l t o i k x t /k + ' ( x ). . . e f k x+ f( e k, k ) x x. > . . ( z n


.

whi ch desnes t he s c at t er i ng am pl i t ude f or a t r ans i t i on f r om an i nc i dentwav e ve ct ork t o a sna lwa ve vc ct ork'

/( k' , k)= -4 4 z 41.f#3 yc i k ' * y ? p ( y ) 4k + ) ( y ) Eq u a t i on ( 1 1 . 9 )i sc o r r e c tf ora nyf i n i t e r a n g ep ot e n t i a lr ( x ) ,a n d wec a n no w e x a mi n ei t sb e ha v i orf o ra h a r dc or e .I nt h i sl i mi t/k * 'v a ni s h e swhe r e v e rv
be c om e si nsni t e ,s ot ha tt he s ca t t e r i ng am pl i t ude r em ai ns sni t e. Thus t he

l x

GROUNDSTA TE ( ZE ROTE MP ERATURE )F ORMAL I SM

pot e nt i a ldr as t i c al l ya l t er st he wave f unct i on f r om i t s unpe r t ur be df or m ,and

t h i se f l kc ti se n t i r e l ya bs e n ti nt h e Bor na p pr ox i ma t i on ( Eq.( 1 1 . 1 ) ) . Any p e r t u r b a t i on e x pa n s i on ofEq .( 1 l . 9 )f o rs u c hs i n g u l a rp ot e nt i a l swi l la tb e s t


conver ges l owl y,and i ti st her ef or ees s e nt i alt os ol v et h ei nt e gr ale quat i onex act l y i ft he m odi sca t i ons oft he wa ve f unc t i on ar et o be pr oper l yi nc l ude d. Thi s e xac ts ol ut i on e vi dent l ycont a i nsa1 1or de rsi n pe r t ur bat i on t heor y.
SCATTERI NG TH EO RY I N M O M ENTUM SPACE

The pr ec e di ng di s c us s i on hasbe en c onsne dt ot he coor di nat er e pr es ent at i on, buti ti sm or eus e f ul f ort hepr e s entana l ys i st oe xpr e s sa l lquant i t i e si n m om ent um s pac e. Si nc et he r es ul t i ng Sc hr di ngere quat i on i sl e s sf am i l i ar ,wes hal lde r i v e t hee xpr es s i onsi ns om edet ai l . Wi t ht hedesni t i ons

/k ( p )= J#3 xd i P * X /U' ( x) r ( p) = Jd3 xe i p e x! 7 ( x )


t h eS c h r d i n g e re q ua t i o n( 1 1 . 8 )ma yb er e wr i t t e ni nmome n t um s pa c e

( 1 1 . 1 0 X ( 1 1 . 1 0 : )

/ k ( p ) ( 2 = ) 3 3 ( p k ) p , k u l i y J ( 4 2 . ' . ' ) j ! ? ( q ) k z k t p q )
i nt r oduceam odi he ds ca t t e r i ngam pl i t udewr i t t e ni n m om ent um s pac e

( 1 l . 1 1 )
( 1 1 . 1 2 )
( 1 l . 1 3 )

whe r eEq.( 1 1 . 6 )h a sbe e n us e d ont h er i g h ts i de . Fu r t h e r mo r e ,i ti sus e f u lt o

y Rk' , k)- -4 = /( k' , k )= ( 2 z r ) 3Jd3 q& ( q ) hk t k' -q )


a ndEq. ( 1 l . 1 1 )t he nb e c o me s

k Rp , k ) ' k ( P )= ( 2 =) 3 3 ( p- k )+ k2/ a
.
-

y. j j . y p .

( q- p )a n di n t e g f a t e( 2 7 7 1 3j ' #3 / 7 ;a ne l e me n t a r y Mul t i pl y Eq.( 1 1 . 1 3 )b yr


s ubs t i t ut i on t he n yi e l ds
.

/ ' ( P , k ) =r ( P k ) + 1( z g v j ; / c c q c . r , . n .

- d? qt , ( #- q ) /( q . , k )

( 1 1 . 1 4 )

whi c hi sa ni n t e g r a l e qu a t i o nf br /i nt e r msofl . . Asn ot e db e f o r e , t h es c a t t e r i n g a mpl i t u de /i swe l l de f i n e de v e nf o ras i n g u l a rp ot e n t i a l( r> . c c ) .I fEq. ( 1 l . 1 4 )


wer ee xpande di n a per t ur bat i on s er i es ,e ach t er m woul ds e par at e l y di ve r ge; neve r t hel es s .t he s um ot a1 lt he t er m s ne c es s ar i l yr e m ai ns sni t e . N ot et hatt he

s o l u t i on o fEq .( 1 l . 1 4)r e q ui r e st h ef u n c t i on. /( q , k)f ora I l q2 0 ,no tj u s tf o r q2=k2 : t hi si se x p r e s s e db ys a y i n gt h a t /i sn e e d e d s o f l t h ee n e r g ys h e l l ' ' a swe l l
as t t on t he en er gy s hel l . ' ' I ft he pot ent i alhasno bound s t at e s ,as wi l lbeas s um e dt hr oughoutt hi s s ec t i on,t hen t he e xa cts ca t t er i ng s ol ut i onswi t h a gi ve n bounda r y condi t i on f or m acom pl et es e tofs t at esand s at i s f yt he r el at i on

( 2 x) 3j#3 :4k 1 ) ( x ) /k 4 ) ( x' ) *= 3 ( x- x' )

FERM ISYSTEM S

131

Thenum e r i cal f a ct or sher em aybeche cke d bynot i ngt hatt hee xactwa vef unct i on obe ys t he s a me c om pl e t ene s sr e l at i on as t he unper t ur be d wave f unct i on el k * K

( c o mp a r et h e hr s tt e r mi n Eq.( 1 1 . 8 ) ) . Ac o mbi n a t i on o fEqs .( 1 1 . 1 0 c )a n d ( 1 1 . 1 5 )yi e l dst h ec o r r e s p o nd i n gc o mpl e t e n e s sr e l a t i on i n mo me n t u m s p a c e:

( 2 *. 3J:3 k/k ( p ) /k ( F' ) *=( 2 03 , Xp- p ' )


r e l at i on l e adst o

( 1 1 . 1 6 )

Mu l t i pl y Eq.( 1 1 . l 2 )b y /k ( P ' ) *a n di n t e g r a t eo v e rk;t hea b ov ec o mpl e t e n e s s

( 2 *3J#3 k . Ap , k) 4k ( p ' ) *=! ) t p-p ' )


wh i c hme r e l yr e p r e s e n t s ac o mp l i c a t e dwa yof wr i t i n g! ) . Thec o mp l e xc o n j ug a t e o fEq. ( 1 1 . 1 3 )ma yn ow bes u b s t i t u t e di n t ot hi sr e l a t i on:
d3 k x . 1

L ' ( P-P' )=/( P , P' )+ ( 3 J( P, k ) J( p' , k ) * c u 2 =) ka - p,


.

Butt hepot e nt i ali sher mi t i an and t he r e f or es at i s se s

r t p- p ' ) *= ? ? ( p ' -p )
whi c h hnal l yyi el ds

J R p , p ' ) . / R p ' , p ) * J ( d J t ) J ( p , k ) / ( p ' , k ) * ( , c s l a . j . y k z . y ) , z . y j


( 1 l . l 7 )
I ft hem a gni t ude ofpi se qualt ot hem agni t udeofp' ,t hepr i nci palpar t si n

Eq. ( 1 1 . 1 7 )v a n i s h , an dweo bt a i n

J Rp , p' )-y Rp ' . p ) *--2 =f ( 2 z r ) 3J#3 / c . Ap , k ) J Rp ' , k ) *& ( p 2-k2 ) I pl -I p ' l( 1 1 . 1 8 )


wher et her adi alk i nt e gr ali se as i l y ev al uat e d. I f ,i na ddi t i on,t he pot ent i a li s s pher i cal l ys ym m et r i c,t hen t he s ca t t er i ng am pl i t ude./i saf u n c t i o non l yofpl

a n d 9. j ' ,a n dt h el e f ts i d eo ft h i sr e l a t i on b e c o me s2 f I m. / * . Th er e s u l t i ng
e xpr es s i on
' P I m Jt p ,p) =1 6 z
-

JD

z r

RP . k) . / RP ' , k ) * k/
.

' k1 =1 P' = 1 P' ! ( j xI )


t '= ? J

( 1 1 . 1 9 )

i sa ge ner a l i z at i on oft heor di na r y opt i c alt he or em f ort hes c at t er i ng a mpl i t ude.


L A DDER DI AGRA M S AN D THE BETHESA LPETER EQUATI ON

Thepr e vi ousdi s c us s i on hasbee nr e s t ri c t ed t ot he s c at t er i ng oft wo par t i cl esi n f r ees pac e,a nd wenow t ur nt ot he m uc h m or ec om pl i ca t e d pr obl em ofa di l ut e m anypar t i c l e as s em bl yi nt e r ac t i ng wi t hs i n gul ar r e pul s i ve pot ent i al s. The har d cor ec l e ar l y pr e cl udesany s t r ai ght f or wa r d pe r t ur bat i on ex pans i on i nt he s t r e ngt h oft hei nt er par t i cl epot e nt i al . I ns t ea d,i ti ses s ent i alfr s tt oi nc or por at e

13 2

GROUNDSTATE ( ZEROTEMPE RATURE) F ORMAL I SM

t he e f r e ctoft he r e pul s i ve pot ent i alon t he wav ef unc t i on oft wo par t i cl e si nt he me di um ' .onl yt he nc an we c ons i derhow t he m anypar t i c l e backgr ound af l kc t s t he i nt er a ct i ng pai r . Al t hough t he pot e nt i al i ss i ngul ar . a di l ut eFer mi gass t i l lc ont ai nson es m al l par am e t e r ,namel ykpa.whe r ekpi st heFer mi w' avenum ber , and a i st he s cat t e r i ng

l e ng t h( e qu a lt ot h ep a r t i c l e di a me t e rf o rah a r d s p h e r eg a s ) . Wet h e r e f o r e
e xpe ctt he gr ounds t a t e ener gy t o have a s er i e se xpans i on oft he f or m
- F h = ..2 j , g f+ BL . yapC( ky a ) l+ '.' j , , 7

hlk2

( I1 . 20)

whi ch s houl d beme ani ngf ulei t he rf ors mal ls c at t e r i ng l engt h( a. > . 0)orf orl ow dens i t y( ky, .0) . I nt hl ss ec t i on wecal cul at et he t i r s tt hr e ec oemci ent si nt hi s
s er i es . I n addi t i on, t he t ec hni que s deve l ope d her e can be us e d as a bas i sf or r e al i s t i ct he or i esof Fe r m is ys t e m sa tphys i caldens i t i es . A t r t l l yi nGni t er epul s i ve cor ei nt r oduc es ce r t ai n ar t i hci alc om pl i cat i ons , be c aus ee ve r yt er m ofany per t ur bat i on e xpans i on di v er ges . W es hal li ns t ead

c o ns i d e ra s t r o n g bu tf i ni t ep o t e n t i a lj Fi g.l l . 1 .w i t hl z ' :< : c Ja n dp a s st ot h e l i mi tI G> .: x .onl y att he e nd oft he cal cul a t i on. As s hown i nt he f o1 l owi ng
ca l cul at i ons ,t hi s pr oc edur e yi el ds hni t e ans wer st hat ar ei ndependent of U( , .

Fo rs u c ha ni t ep o t e n t i a l , t h et wo p a r t i c l es c a t t e r i n ge qu a t i on s( l 1 . 8 ) a n d( I I . 9 )
i nf r e es pac ecan bee xpande d as

( J k b ) ( x )r s u r ' i k * x- ) ' ( / . 3 ) ' G F ) ( x. -y ) l j y ) ' i k e y + . fd? y#3 zGt + J ( x- y ) ! ' ( y ) Gt * 1 ( y- z ) l . ( z ) f a i k * z + ... ( 1 1 . 21 t z ) /( k' , k )= ( 4 =) ) -l j ' #3 r ' t r z i k ' e r I . , ( y ) /k * ' J ( y )
. -

The t e r m si nt he wav ef unct i on hav e as i m pl ei nt e r pr e t at i on ast he unper t ur be d s ol ut i on pl us pr opagat i on wi t h one or m or er epe at e di nt e r ac t i ons . W e may

e v i de nt l yr e p r e s e nt t he t e r ms i nt h ep e r t u r b a t i on s e r i e s( Bo r ns e r i e s )f o r 4 = /( k ' . k )di a g r a mma t i c a l l ya si n di c a t e di n Fi g . 1 1 . 2( t her u l e sf o rc on s t r u c t i n g t h e s e di a g r a m sf ol l o wb yi ns p e c t i on ) . Th e s ea r en otFe yn ma n di a g r a ms b u t


-

4. r ' .f l k' ,k)

Fi g.11. 2 Pe rt ur bat i on expansi on f ort wobodysc at t er i ngampl i t udei nf r e es pace.

h)

FERM I SYSTEM S

13z

a r ea g a i nj u s ta wa yo fk e e pi ngt r a c ko ft h et e r mst h a tc o n t r i bu t et ot h et i me i nde pende ntpe r t ur bat i on s e r i e sf ort hes cat t er i ng am pl i t ude. A we ak r e pul si ve

P o t e n t i a l c a nb ea d e qu a t e l yd e s c r i b e dwi t ht h esr s tf e wt e r msofEq. ( 1 1 . 21 ) , bu t zs f r o n gr e pu l s i v epo t e n t i a l r e qu i r e s a l l t h et e r ms . Asi se v i de nt f r o m Eq. ( 1 1 . 2 1 c )


t he hi ghe r or dert e r msr epr e s e ntt he m odi sc at i on oft he wave f unc t i on by t he Pot e nt i al ,and t he s um oft hes e r i esgi ve st hee xac twavef unc t i on.

I nas i mi l a rwa y . t h eh r s t or de rp r o pe rs e l f e n e r g yh tt k t ( Fi g . 1 0. 1 ) i st o t a l l y
i nade quat ef oras t r ongr epul s i v epot ent i al ,and wem us tr et ai na s el e ct e d cl as sof hi gher or de r Fe ynman di agr am s . Fr om t he pr es entdi s cus s i on ti squi t ecl ear whi c h di agr am s m us tbe k ept;ev er yt i me t he i nt e r ac t i on appear s .i tm us t be a l l owe dt o ac tr e peat e dl ys o ast oi ncl ude t he ef l kctoft he pot ent i alon t he wa ve

+ ''' +

+ ' ''

w.

>

<-

. >

Lowes to r d e r So nd o r d e r La d de rd i a g r a ms Fi g. 11. 3 Su m ofl a dd e rFe y n ma n di a g r a msf orpr op e rs e l f e ne r g y.

f u nc t i o n. t he r e byy i e l di ngawe l l de f i ne dpr o du c t ' /. l no t h e rwor ds . t her e l e va ntquant i t yi nat wopar t i cl ec ol l i s i on i st he t wobody s cat t e r i ng am pl i t ude i n t he pr es enc e of t he m edi um .whi ch r em ai nswel lde sne de ven f or a s i ngul ar t wobody pot e nt i al . W et he r e f or er et ai n al lt he l adde r di agr ams i ndi c at e di n Fi g.l1. 3. 't hi sehoi cec l e ar l yr e pr es ent sa ge ner al i zat i on oft he abovedi s cus s i on bec aus et het er m si n Fi g.1 1. 3denot eFe ynm an di agr am sandhe ncecont ai n b0t h hol eand par t i c l epr opagat i on. l n par t i cul ar ,we s um onl yt hel adder sbe t we en Gr e e nsf unc t i ons wi t h ar r ows r unni ng i nt he s am e di r e c t i on. Si nc et het wopar t i c l ei nt er a c t i on i si ns t ant ane ous ,t hi ss e tofdi a gr am si ncl udesasa s ubs eta 1 l t hos epr oc e s s e swher e bot hi nt e r me di at ef kr mi onsar epar t i cl e sabov et he Fe r mi s e a ate ve r ys t ep. Suc h par t i cl e par t i c l e cont r i but i ons c ome f r om t he par t i c l e par toft he Fe ynm a n pr opagat or ,whi ch pr opagat e sf or war di nt i me. A ss hown bel ow,t hedi a gr am si n Fi g.ll . 3s u c et o obt ai nt he sr s tt hr ee

t e r ms i n Eq. ( 1 1 . 2 0 ) f or ah a r d s p h e r eFe r mi g a s . Th i sr e s u l t ha s ad i r e c t ph y s i c a l
i nt e r pr e t a t i on:t he f i r s tt er mi nt heexpans i on i st he ene r gy ofa noni nt er ac t i n g Fer m is ys t em . The s ec ond t e r m , whi c h i sl i nea ri nt he s c at t er i ng l engt h.

r e p r e s e nt st h ef o r wa r ds c a t t e r i n g( b ot h di r e c ta n de x c ha ng e )f r om t h eo t h e r
par t i c l e si nt he m e di um . Thi si de nt i sc at i on f ol l ows bec aus et he 1 ow dens i t y '

( / t ' s> . 0 ) a l l o wsust oc o n s i de ron l yl o we n e r g yc o l l i s i on s . wh e r et h ef r e e pa r t i c l e


s c at t er i ng am pl i t ude r e duc est oa c ons t ant
.

f ( k, k' )> . . . a

k= k'>0

( 1 1 . 2 2 )

1%

GROUNDST ATE ( ZEROT EMPE RATURE ) FORMALI SM

Al t ho ug hEq. ( 1 1 . 2 2 )ma yb ede r i v e ddi r e c t l yf r om Eqs . ( 1 1 . 2 )a n d( 1 1 . 3 )i nt h e


cas eofhar ds pher e s ,i tal s os er vesasagene r alde sni t i on oft heJ waves c at t er i ng l e ng t h a. I nt hepr es enc e oft heme di um,howe ver ,t he a ct uals c at t er i ngam pl i -

t u d e di se r sf r o mfY a us et h eo t h e rp a r t i c l e sl i mi tt h ei n t e r me d i a t es t a t e s
avai l abl et ot he i nt e r ac t i ng pai r . The Paul ipr i n ci pl er es t r i ct i on sr s t app ear s when a par t i cl ei sex ci t e d abovet he Fe r mis ea and i st he n de ex ci t ed;i ft he s um

ofl a d de rd i a g r ams i n Fi g .l l . 3i sr e e x p r e s s e di nt e r msoft h ef r e es c a t t e r i n g l e n g t h, t hi se s e c tg i v e sac or r e c t i o no fo r d e r( kr a l lt ot h egr ou n ds t a t ee n e r g y.


Any ot herpr oce s st hatc ont r i but e st ot he gr ounds t at ee ner gy i nv ol v e sat

I e a s tt h r e edi s t i n c tc o l l i s i on sa n dt hu sy i e l d sa c on t r i b u t i on o for de r( # sJ ) 3t o Eq. ( 1 1 . 2 0) .I np a r t i c u l a r , c on s i de rt h eFe y nma ndi a g r a mss h owni nFi g .1 1 . 4 ,


#

+. . . .

Fi q.11. 4 Ac l as so fa d di t i on a lc o nt r i bu t i on st o Z*. n e g l Me di nt h el a d de ra pp r ox i ma t i on.

whe r et he s ha de d box de not e st he s um ofl a dder di ag r ams . The s e pr oc es s es cl ear l yi ncl ude t he s c at t er i ng ofan i nt er medi at e par t i c l eand hol e ,whi ch r e al l y r e pr e s e nt st he t r ans f erofan addi t i onalpar t i cl ei ns i de t he Fer m is e a,sl l i ng t he or i gi nalhol e and l e avi ng a new one i ni t spl ac e. Thusa c ol l i s i on be t wee na par t i c l eandahol eal waysi nvol ve sane xt r apar t i c l eand i nt r odu ce sane xt r apowe r

o fkp a. I ti se v i d e n tf r o m Eq s .( 1 1 . 2 )a n d( 1 1 . 3 )t h att wo bo dyc o l l i s i o n si n r e l a t i v eps t a t e sa l s ol e a dt oc o r r e c t i o n so fo r d e r( kF a j 3 , whi c hi sa g a i nn e g l i g i b l e i no u ra pp r o x i ma t i on . Wes ha l l j u s t i f yo urc h oi c eofdi a g r a msi n mo r ede t a i l
att hee nd oft hi ss e ct i on. Be f or epr oce edi ngwi t ht hedet ai l e d anal ys i soft hes um ofl adde rdi a gr am s , wenow s how t hatt hef or eg oi ngdi s c us s i oni mme di at el yyi e l dst hesr s tt wot er ms

i nt h es e r i e s( 1 1 . 2 0 ) . Con s i de rau ni f o r ms y s t e mo fs pi n f e r mi on si n t e r a c t i n g
t hr ough a s pi ni nde m nde nt nons i ngul ar pot ent i al . Then t he l owes t or de r

g r ou n d s t a t ee n e r g yi so bt a i n e df r o m Eq s . ( 1 0 . 21 )a n d( 1 0 . 2 2 )

E 3 a k /x l k r :3 k k rd' k'

P = Jl m# ' 6 1 2 J( 2 , * 3 J( 2 , 0 3 6 2 Z P ) -Z ( k k ' ) 1 ( l l . 2 3 )

FERM I SYSTEM S

13:

F oran on s i n g u l a rp o t e n t i a l , h owe v e r ,Eq s . ( 1 l . 9 ) an d( 1 1 . 2 2 )s h ow t ha t

F( 0 )> . f#3 xF( x )= -

4 =h2

. &( k, k )*

4*:2

J s

( 1 l . 2 4 )

whe r et he s ubs c r i pt B i ndi c at es t he Bor n appr oxi mat i on obt ai ne d wi t ht he

s u b s t i t ut i o n4k + 1 ( x). > . e i k * x .I ti sc l e a rt ha tou rd e s c r i pt i on o fs c a t t e r i n gf r o m


t hepar t i cl esi nt heme di um can bei mpr ove d byt hes i mpl er epl a ce ment

a s+ . a ( 1 l . 2 5 ) He r ea t ' s? / ? t 2a c t u a ls c a t t e r i n gI e n gt hf o rf r e et wo p a r t i c l es c a t t e r i n g ,wh i c h
r emai ns wel lde sne de ven f or s i ngul ar pot ent i a l s . l nt he l owdens i t yl i mi t whe r ekr-+ . 0.wec anf ur t her mor eappr oxi mat e

F( k- k' ); k ;F( 0)
' # # q p

t,
+

k+ q
k- p
+

k k k- q k- q -p p+ q

k
p

p- q
p -q

Fi g.11 . 5 Fi r s tt wo o r de r si nl a dd e ra p pr o xi ma t i o nt o X* .

un d e rt h ei nt e g r a l , an d Eq. ( 1 1 . 2 3 )t hu sb e c ome s

E = 3h l k; 1N4 , 42 aN Ji Q N + i' P m
Th es t a n da r dr e l a t i o n( 3 . 2 9 )b e t we e nt h ed e n s i t ya n dt h e Fe r miwa v e nu mb e r

NI V= :) / 3 w . 2t h e r e f o r eg i v e s E :2 : . / .3 2 =j y j

t j + gk s a + ' '

( 1 l . 2 6 )

An e qui v al en tr e s ul tw a sde r i ve d by Lenzlf r om t he r el a t i on b et we en t hei nde x ofr e f r act i on and t hef or war ds c at t e r i ngam pl i t ude. Wi t ht he s er e m ar ks i nmi nd.we t ur nt o ourbas i c appr oxi m at i on.whi c h i st or et ai no nl yt he Feynm an di agr am sofFi g. l1 . 3i ne val uat i ng t he pr oper s el f e ner gy E*. To c l ar i f yt hevar i ousf ac t or s ,we s hal li ni t i a l l yc onc ent r at e on t hesr s t -and s ec ondor de rc ont r i but i onss hown i n Fi g.l 1. 5i n moment um s pa c e. 'w .Lenz,z. Phys i k. 5 6: 7 7 8( 1 9 2 9 ) .

1a 6

GROUNDST AT E( ZE ROTE MP ER ATURE )F ORMAL I SM

l ti ss t r ai ght f or war dt o cal cul a t eZ* us i ng t he Fe ynm an r ul esofSec . 9,a nd t he

f r s t or d e rc o n t r i b ut i o ni sg i v e nb y( c o mp a r eEq . ( 9. 2 3 ) )

Y1) ( #)=-2 L %( 0 ) ( 2 r r ) 4Jd* kG0 ( k ) e i k n T +1 * ( ) 2 , r ) 4j#QG0 ( / c )Uc l k-p ) e i k z v l( 1 1 . 2 7 )


whe r eas pi ni ndepe nde nt i nt er ac t i on has be en as s um e d. The s ec ondor de r c ont r i but i on i nt r oduc e st hef ol l owi ngaddi t i onale l e m ent s: 1.Two ext r af ac t or sG0 2. O ne e xt r ai nt er a ct i on l i ne Uo

3 .On ee x t r ai n d e p e n d e n t f o ur mo me nt u m( c o mpa r eFi g. 1 1 . 5 ) 4 .On ee x t r af a c t o r( i ( h ) ( 2 n . . ) 4

J ' t
ht : * 4 J , )=
p

p . j
/ v .+
p

Fi g.11. 6 Pr ope rs el f e ne rgyi nl adderappr oxi mat i on.

The s ef ac t or sc an be c om bi ne d wi t ht he Fe ynm an rul est o yi el dt he s e condor de r cont r i but i on

h X n &j l pl= 2 h 1 4 2 , 7 7 18( d* kG ' 0 ( #)(dn q( z r o t q) G0 ( p-q) GQ ( kyq)Uo q -qj h l ( 2 ' ; r ) Bf d* kG0 ( / f )f dk qU( ) ( t y ) G0 ( p+ . q' ) G0 ( # -q)& / r 0 ( / (-q- p)
-

I ti s cl ear t hat t hi s pr oc e dur e can be c ar r i ed out t o al I or de r s and t he gene r al

f o r m of Y* ( r )wi l l be( s e eFi g .1 1 . 6 )

hY* ( p) = -2 / ( 2 ,) . 4f( / 4 / f G ' 0 ( / c )I t p / f i p k) +j ( 2 r r ) 4f d4 kG0 ( *) L yk pi p k)


( 1 l . 2 8 ) whe r ew' eh a v ed e s n e da ne fe c t i v et wo pa r t i c l ei n t e r a c t i o n r( pi pz , ' p) p 4 )t h a t
m ay be i nt er pr et e d as a gene r al i z e ds c at t e r i ng am pl i t ude i nt he m edi um . l n
J1 pz

z '
#2 +:
#4

F( N :1 #2 , #3 p4 $= . x.

Jl

Z w + /1 -q
#3

#1

r pj- p? N ' pj /4

A; 7 ) - q- p ?

F i g. 11. 7 Se r i e se x pa n s i o n f or e fe c t i v e i nt e r a c t i on i n l a dd e r approxi mat i on.

FERM I SYSTEM S

1a7

t hi spa r t i c u l a re x a mp l e ,F 'i n c l ud e st h es u m ofr e p e a t e d( l a d de r )i nt e r a c t i o ns ( Fi g .1 1 . 7 )an dh a st h ef or m

j n l pb pz i pj p- Upk -pj t+i ' ( 2 , r ) 4fdk q&( , ( f ? ) G0 ( pl -q4


xG * ( pa+)&e ( #, - q-#3 )+ '.' ( 1 1 . 2 9 )
Thi ss um ofl adderdi agr am snow c an ber ewr i t t e n asan i nt e gr alequat i on f or r

t h a ta u t o ma t i c a l l yi n c l u de sa I Io r de r sg Fi g .I l . 8a n dEq. ( 1 l . 3 0 ) j

j pt pz i ps n)- Uo l p, -p3 )+ ml ( 2 ' r r ) 4f d% f . &( )


xGo l pb - qs G ' t ' ( J , c+q4r( :l -q s pz+qi ps p. t ( 1 1 . 3 0 ) I na n a l og ywi t hs i mi l a re qu a t i o nsi nr e l a t i v i s t i cse l dt h e or y , Eq. ( 1 1 . 3 0 )i skn o wn a st h eBe t he sa l pe t e re qu a t i o ni( mor ep r e c i s e l y , t heI a d d e ra p p r o x i mat i o nt ot h e
pj

N
p #2

z '

#z

#1- q #1 72

72+ q

N
:3

A
74

A pj

N #4

p?

N# 4

Fi g.11. 8 Bet hesal pet e requat i on f oref r e ct i ve i nt er act i on.

Be t he sa l p e t e re q u a t i o n) .l ft h i se q u a t i on i se x p a n d e di np e r t u r ba t i o nt h e o r y , a s s u mi n g &ci ss ma l l , weob t a i nt hes u m of a l l l a dd e rdi a g r a ms( Fi g .l 1 . 7 ) . Th e s r s tt wo t e r mspr e c i s e l yr e p r o d u c et h o s eo fEq .( 1 l . 2 9 ) , whi c he n s u r e st ha tt h e s i g n sa nd n u me r i c a lf a c t o r sa r ea l s oc o r r e c t ;i np a r t i c u l a r ,t h ef a c t o ri l hi sj u s t


t hatas s oc i at e d wi t ht he ext r a or de ri nt he per t ur b at i on Uf j . The c al cul at i on ofl 1 *i snow r educe dt ot hatoffndi ng t he s ol u t i on F t o

Eq.( 1 1 . 3 0 ) . Al t ho u g hl 'i sr e l a t e dt o at wop a r t i e l e Gr e e n' sf u n c t i on ,i ti s


m or e us e f ult o expl oi tt he s i mi l ar i t y be t wee n r and t he s c at t er i ng am pl i t ude.?

i nf r e es p a c e .I n d e e d,t ol owe s tor de ri nt h epo t e n t i a i ,P i sj u s te q u a lt ot h e


Four i er t r ans f or m Uv . Wes hal lnow pur s ue t hi s anal ogy and i nt r oduce an

e f l k c t i v ewa v ef u n c t i o nQ f o rt wop a r t i c l e si nt h eme d i u m( c omp a r eEqs . ( 1 l . 1 2 ) a n d( 1 l . 1 3 ) J :


1E.E. S a l p e t e ran d H. A, Bet h e, Ph y s . Re L ' . . 8 4' 1 23 2( 1 951 ) .

1 3g

GROUNDS TATE ( ZE ROTE MP ER ATURE )F ORMALI SM

Th i sr e p r e s e nt a t i o nf o rP a g r e e swi t hEq .( 1 1 . 3 0 )on l yi fQ s a t i s h e st hei n t e g r a l


e quat i on

Q pt pz i pq p. j= ( 2 , 44 t 4 1 ( ,l-#3 )+ i h -, G' 0 ( #j ) c0 ( p a ) ( 2 =) 4 x f d4 q&( , ( ) Ql pj- q n pz+q; p, p. 4( 1 1 . 3 2 )


.

The l abel i ng and or der i ng oft he moment um var i abl e sr e qui r es c ons i de r abl e c ar e ,and t her e aderi sur g ed t o ve r i f yt he s ee qua t i onsi n de t ai l . I ti sconveni entt oi nt r oducet het ot alc ent erofmas swaveve ct or P =/ ) 1+ fz= pq+ p6 wher et hel as tequal i t yf ol l ows f r om t hecons er vat i on oft ot a lf our m om e nt um i n a hom og eneouss ys t e m ,a nd t her e l at i v ewaveve c t or s

# = V:1 -#2 ) p' = V#3-J h) l na d di t i o n . t h ei ns t a nt a n e ou s i n t e r a c t i onme a ns t h a t( 7 0 ( 4)= &c ( q ) i s l h d e p e n d e nt o ff r e q u e n c ye,a n d wec a np e r f o r mt hef r e q u e n c yi n t e g r a li n Eq. ( 1 1 . 3 2 )f ora
hxe dc ent e r of m as sf our m om e nt um hp of t he i nt er act i ng pai r . I nt egr at e

Eq. ( 1 1 . 3 2 )o v e rt h er e l a t i v ef r e qu e n c y( 2 r , 81j ' d poa n dd e fn et h equ a n t i t y


r *

z ( p , p ' , # ) H( 2 = ) 1 j P d p z Q ( 1 ' #+p , I ' . #-p ; ' ' . #+# ' , ' L ' P-p ' 4
-

( 2 = ) 1 ( p # l l o Q l p t J ' 2 . , , 3 , . )
.

As i m pl er ear r ange m entt hen yi e l dsan i nt e gr ale quat i on f ory

y ( p , p' . #)- ( 2 =) 3 ( 5 t p-p ' )+ m1 ( 2 r r ) 1fd pz G0 ( ! . #+p j G0 ( ! # -pj ( 2 . , ) 3 s f d3 q&a ( q ) ' l p- q p ' , #) ( 1 l . 3 4 ) whi c h,a ss h o wn i n Eq. ( 1 l . 3 9 ) , i sv e r ys i mi l a rt ot h es c a t t e r i n ge qu a t i on i nf r e e s p a c e( Eq.( 1 l . l 1 ) ) .l ft hi se qu a t i on i si t e r a t e da sa ne x p a n s i on i n Uo ,e a c h t e r m de p e n dse x p l i c i t l yont h ev a r i a b l e s( p , p ' , #) ,t hu s j u s t i f y i n gou rn o t a t i oni n Eq . ( 1 1 . 3 3 ) . I t i sno wn e c e s s a r yt oe v a l u a t et hec o e mc i e n to f t hel a s tt e r mi n Eq. ( 1 1 . 3 4 ) . S i nc ee a c h G0h a st wo t e r ms( Eq.( 9 . 1 4 ) J ,t h ei n t e g r a n dh asf ou rt e r msi na l l .
Two oft he s et er m sha ve b0t h pol eson t hes ame s i deoft he r eal poaxi s;i nt hi s cas e,wecl os et hecont ouri nt he oppos i t e hal fpl ane,s howi ng t hatt hes et er ms make no cont r i but i on. l n cont r as t ,eac h oft he r em a i ni ng t wo t er m s has one pol e above and one pol ebe l ow t he r e alaxi s . Thes e cont r i but i onsar er e adi l y eval uat e d wi t hac ont ouri nt e gr a l ,an d weEnd

i *o cn ( !
.

j2 , ,, + , ) c e ( ! . , , ) ' f 1 ' P h h + p l e t d ; ' + r p ) # f l e ' # l P p p + p . i l h k


-

# ( l s I J P + p 1 ) 0 L k F I J P -$) t j j y j ; h . p 0 e $ . e ' + p e p p -. i T '


-

FERM I SYSTEM S

4z9

Thi se xpr es s i on ha st he phys i c al i nt e r pr e t a t i on t ha tt he pai r of i nt er ac t i ng par t i c l e si nt he i nt e r me di at es t at esofFi g.11 . 3c an pr opa gat eei t he rasa pai rof

pa r t i c l e sa b ov et h eFe r mis e af t h esr s tt e r mi nEq. ( 1 l . 3 5 ) ) ora sap a i ro fho l e s be l o wt h eFe r mi s e a( t h es e c o n dt e r mi nEq . ( 1 1 . 3 5 ) ) . Si nc eFe y n ma ndi a g r a ms
cont ai n al lpos s i bl et i meor der i ngs ,bot h modesofpr opagat i on ar ei Mcl ude di n t hedi agr am ofFi g.ll . 8.

Th ef or m ofEq .( 1 1 . 3 5 )c a nb es i mpl i s e db yi n t r o du c i n gt h et o t a le n e r g y

E - hpo- 4 m

h2 /2

( 1 I . 3 6 )

oft hei nt e r a c t i ngpai ri nt hec ent erofmas sf r am eandt hef unct i on

X( P, P ) e l-? 1 0 1 p + p-n t p p ( 1 l . 3 7 ) wh e r en k=p t k s-p)i st h eo c c u p a t i onn umb e ri nt heu n pe r t ur b e dg r o un ds t a t e .


Th usS( P, p )= 1i fb0 t hs t a t e sI . P+pa r eo u t s i det heFe r mis e a ,A( P, p )= -1 i fbo t ha r ei n s i de ,a n d A' ( P, p ) = 0 ot h e r wi s e . Wi t ht h i sn o t a t i on ,Eq.( 1 1 . 3 5 )
as s um e st hecom pac tf or m

' * e e+ i ja . c ( #p . b c % ! . # p ) s s c p X Z j m t P . j ' P ' j , x ( p , p ) a ndEq. ( 1 l . 3 4 )r e du c e st o y( p , p ' , #)= ( 2 =) 3 3 t p- p ' )+ s

( 1 1 . 3 8 )

X( P, P )
.

j j z p a y m. j .uxt py p ; X Uo ( q) ZP- q, p' , #) ( 1 l . 3 9 )

J ( ; x ) 3

d%

Cor r e s pondi ng l y,P may ber e expr e s s e di nt e r msofc e nt e rof mas sand r el at i ve

wa v ev e c t o r sus i n gEqs . ( 1 l . 31 )a n d( 1 1 . 3 3 ) : 1 Xp. p ' . #)H f ' ( i ' # +p, i ' -p; ! ' #A p' , ' ' # -#' )
-

( 2 , , ) 3jJ3 t ?r s r gq ) y ( p- q , p ' , #)

( 1 1 . 4 0 )

Weh a v ea l r e a d yn ot e dt h a tEq . ( 1 l . 3 9 )i ss i mi l a rt ot hes c a t t e r i n ge q u a t i onf o r t h ewa v ef u n c t i on/p , ( p ) of t wop a r t i c l e si nf r e es p a c e( Eq. ( 1 1 . 1 1 ) ) . Thepr e s e n t


e quat i on i smor ecom pl i c at e d,howe ve r,be c aus et heex cl us i on pr i nc i pl er es t r i ct s t he avai l abl ei nt e r me di at es t at e st hr oug ht he f ac t or N , and al s o be caus et he

f un c t i on l ' mus tbee v a l u a t e df ora l lv a l u e so ft h ef r e qu e n c yPoE c o mpa r e Eq . ( 1 1 . 2 8 ) ) .


GA LI TSKI I ' S I NTEG RAL EQ UATI ONS

U nt i lt hi spoi nt ,t he e quat i ons have bee n wr i t t e ni nt e r m soft he i nt e r par t i cl e pot e nt i alUo . Such an appr oac hc an ne verde s c r i be an i nsni t er e pul s i v e cor e ,

a n d wen o wf ol l o wGa l i t s k i i b yr e wr i t i n g Eq s . ( 1 l . 3 9) a n d( 1 I . 4 0 )i nt e r mso ft h e

s c a t t e r i n ga mpl i t u de /f o rt wop a r t i c l e si nf r e es p a c e .I n de e d, t hel o we s t a p p r o x i -

1 4 0

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

ma t i on t ol ' i spr opor t i onalL o.?a n dt h eh i g h e r or d e rc or r e c t i o nsa r i s ee x p l i c i t l y f r om t he many par t i cl e ba ckgr ound. I ti s conv eni ent t o de sne t he r e duc ed v ar i abl es

v> m f 7 0 h2 t . J Bm E h2 ( l ) . 41 ) and t oc ons i de ra s i mpl i hed ver s i on of Eq,( 1I . 3 9)obt ai ne d by r e pl aci ng t he


ex cl us i onpr i nci pl ef a ct or N by l . N ot et hat t hi ss ubs t i t ut i on bec omes ex act as ks . 0 and t hus de s c r i be st he l owde ns i t y1 i mi t . l f ' ( )de not e st he cor r e-

s po n di ng s o l u t i on t o Eq. ( l 1 . 3 9) w' i t h h' =I sm u l t i p l i c a t i on b y e- p'- l h


yi e l dst hee quat i ol l

Thi sr epr e s ent at i ol li se as i l yver i ed by s ubs t i t ut i n g Eq.(1l . 44)i 1 ) t o Eq,(1 1. 42) , a n d us i n g Eq.( l ) . 43 )an dt h ec omp l e t e n e s sr e l a t i ol )t Eq.( 1 1 . 1 6 4 ) . Ac o mb i n a t i onwi t ht h ec o mp l e xc on j u g a t eo fEq. ( 1 l . 1 3 )t h e ny i e l d s

and i tf ol l owsi mme di at el yt hatl ' l lhast he i l l t e gr alr epr es ent at i on

wh e r eEq s . ( 1 1 . 1 2 )a nd( 1 1 . 41 )h . a v eb e e nu s e d, Th i se x p r e s s i onh a st h ei mp or t antf e at t l r et hati tcont ai nsonl yt heG' ee par t i cl es c at t er i ng anl pl i t t l de sal l dt hus r em ai ns m e ani n gf ul eve nf ora s i n gl dar r epul s i ve pot ent i al .

FERM I SYSTEMS

1*1

Tbef unct i on l n ade pe ndson t hepar am e t e re . l fwes ete= p' 2 ,t hen

( 1 1 . 4 6 ) wh i c hi sj u s tt h ef r e es c a t t e r i n ga mp l i t u de . Mor eg e n e r a l l y sE q.( 1 1 . 4 5 )de t e r mi nesraf ors cat t er i ng of l t heene r gy s hel l ,nam e l y,f orval ue sofp' 1# k . N ot e t hatwe al s o ne ed t he qua nt i t y./o f l t h ee n e r g ys h e l l ,f o ra l lv a l u e sofi t st wo m om e nt um ar gum e nt s . l na f r e es ca t t e r i ng exper i m ent ,howe ver , t he s cat t er i ng am pl i t ude ./ i s me a s u r e do nl yf o re qu a lma g n i t u d e so ft h et wo mome n t u m

r r l l ' ' l2= . J( p , p ? )

a r gu me n t sj p) =2 p ' !( we h e r ec o n s i d e ro nl ye l a s t i cs c a t t e r i n g ) . Th u st h e s i mp l i c i t y of Eq.( 1 l . 4 5 )i ss l i g ht l yd e c e pt i v e ,f or t h ee v a l u a t i on o f. / ' of l -t he e n e r g ys h e l l r e qu i r e sa de t a i l e d mod e l .s u c ha sa p o t e n t i a lP ' ( x ) . Ne v e r t h e l e s s , Eq . ( 1 1 . 4 5 )i sv e r yu s e f u l .


W e now t r yt os ol ve f or t he f ul ls cat t e r i ng f unct i on z i nt he m e di um.

Wi t ht h er e d u c e dv a r i a bl e so fEq . ( 1 l . 41 ) , t h ee x a c tEq. ( 1 1 . 3 9 )b e c ome s

p ? ' pj - . z . YJ u c y t p ' p . E : p + t , ? x ) t P , p j j( d 2 . 3 y 1 t , ( q ) y ( p q , p , , p ) ( a . ) 3 3 t p p , )
. .

and a s l i ghtr e ar r ange m entyi el ds

x t p . p z , p 4 , 6 p 1 j g p z ? j ( # 2 , 3 r , 3 r ( q ) k ( p q , p , p ) = ( 2 . , ) 3 , ! t p p , ) + ( 6 . . p ) + ( P y x ! ) ? N ) ( p , p ; , y g 1 z + j , y j p D 1 I a ( p , p , . p ) ( j j . 4 , y )
Co mpa r i s o nwi t h Eq. ( 1 1 . 4 2 )di v i de dby6. p2+ i . r )s h owst h a tt heop e r a t o ron t h el e f ts i deofEq .( 1 I . 4 7 )i sj u s tt h ei n v e r s eof; o,whi c h me a n st ha ty c a nb e
e xpr es s e di nt er m sofxoasf ol l ows:

: ( p, p ' , #)= : 0 ( p , #, P1+ ( 2 3 :0 ( #X, P) =) x N( k ) 1 m , +P, y jrt k, p . Pj E- i ' n#( P, k)- e- kz+ i . r lj
Thi se quat i on can beve r i l i e d bycar r yi ng outt heope r at i on i ndi cat e d on t he l ef t

d3 k

s i deo fEq. ( 1 1 . 4 7 ) an db yu s i n gEq. ( 1 1 . 4 2 ) . W en ow t a k et hec o nv ol u t i o nwi t h t 'E s t eEq. ( 1 1 . 4 0 j 3 ,wh i c hy i e l dso u rf i n a le qu a t i o nf o rt h es c a t t e r i n ga mp l i t ud e


i nt hemedi um

I n t p . p ' , # ) r n ( p . p ' , # ) + j( d c = ' k ) a r o ( p , k , # ) x( p, k ) ' l e k z + , ' ? . N ( P , k )e k l z + i y j j m ' i s ( k , p , w )( j j . z s )


-

S i n c e Eq s .( 1 1 . 4 5 )a n d( 1 1 . 4 8 )a r ee x p r e s s e di nt e r ms oft hefr e es c at t e r i n g a mp l i t u d e s , wema yp a s st ot hel i mi t ofa ni n in i t eh a r d c o r ep ot e n t i a l ( # %+( : s ) .

1 4 a

GROUNDST AT E( ZE ROTE MPERATURE )F ORMAL I SM

Asn o t e db e f or e , ho we v e r , /( p . p ' )mu s tb ek n ownf o ra I lv a l u e so fpa n dp '( q # t hee n e r g ys he l l ) ,wh i l ei tc a nb eme a s u r e d on l yo nt h ee n e r g ys he l l . Rou g h l y s ma ki n g .t he q ua n t i t yl n ( )( Eq.( 1 1 . 4 5 ) )c on t a i n st h ee / e c t so fs c a t t e r i n go f f t hee n e r g ys he l l ,whi l e Eq.( 1 l . 4 8 ) ,whi c hi ss t i l la ni n t e g r a le q u at i on f o rI ' ,
i ncor por at es t he e xc l us i on pr i nc i pl ei ni nt er me di at es t at es . Wes hal lr e f er t o

t h e s ee q u a t i on sa s Ga l i t s ki i ' si n t e g r a le q u a t i o n s . 1( Th e s ee qu a t i o ns we r e d e r i v e dj oi nt l y wi t h Be l i a e v q zwh os t u d i e ds i mi l a rp r o bl e msi na ni mp e r f e c t Bos eg a s )


THE P:OPER SELFENEBGY

Fo ra l o wd e n s i t y Fe r mig a s .Eq .( 1 1 . 4 8 )c a n bes o l v e di t e r a t i v e l ya sapo we r


s e r i e si n kFa < t1 . Thi se xpans i on i s pos s i bl e be c aus et he i nt e gr and vani s he s

whe nt h ev e c t o r sI . P +kb o t hl i eo ut s i det heFe r mis e a;s i n c ewea r ei nt e r e s t e d i ne n e r g i e so ft h eor d e re s , t hel a s tt e r m ofEq.( 1 1 . 4 8 )c a nb ee s t i ma t e d( a p a r t f r o mn ume r i c a lf a c t or s )a s ' o k p mvh z . Thu st h to r d e rofma g ni t u d eo ft he

c or r e c t i o n wi l lb eg i v e n by ( r- rp/ r; 4 J kr ml n q l hl; z : kr x f I s t z< : t1 . ,wh e r e


Eq s . ( 1 1 . 4 6 )a n d( 1 1 . 2 2 )h av ebe e nu s e d . Be f or ea t t e mp t i n ga c a r e f u le x pa n s i on o fEq.( 1 1 . 4 8 ) ,we no t i c et h a tt h e f u l l s e tofv a r i a b l e s( p , p' , #)i sn e v e rn e e d e di na n yc a l c u l a t i on .I n de e d, a 1 1 t ha t i sr e q u i r e di st h epr o p e rs e l f e n e r g y( Eq. ( 1 l . 2 8 ) J :

h X* ( p)=-2 f ( 2 z r ) 4Jd* kG0 ( # )Vp ki p k)+ ( 2 z r ) 4Jd* kG0 ( 1) I m l k pi pk j


( 1 1 . 4 9 )
Dehnet her e l at i veand t ot alwaveve c t or sand f r e que nc y

V#- k)= q

P+ k = P

p z+ V c=Pz

( 1 l . 5 0 )

S i n c el ' 'de p e n d son l yon t h ev a r i a bl e ss ho wn i n Eq .( 1 1 . 4 0 ) ,t h ep r o p e rs e l f e ne r gy c an ber e wr i t t en a s

: x* ( ,)--2 f ( 2 .) .Jd. knn l k) r( q q , e)+f ( 2 =) 4Jdn kGz l kt r( -q , q . #)


( 1 l . 5l )
W enow expand 1 ' 't os ec ond or de ri n kra. By t hedesni t i on oft hew wave s ca t t t r i ng l engt h a.t he J wave phas es hi f t has t he l ong wav el engt h expans i on

3 := -ka+ O( ( * w) 3 J
Fur t h e r mo r e , t h eI e a di n gt e r m of t h ef t hp a r t i a l wa v ei sg i v e nb yd , = O( ( k J ) 2 ' + 1 J .
: V. M .Gal i t s ki i ,l o c . c i t .

zS. T. Nl i a e v, So v . Ph y s . J ETP, . 7: 2 9 9( 1 95 8 ) .

FERM ISYSTEM S

143

Thust hes c at t er i ngampl i t udehast hel i mi t i ng val ue

f ( k , k ' ) =F gE ' f ' l l s i n 3 , F l t c o s 0 ) l =0


kh ( 1+ 3 o ) 3 0+ ( 412 a5 ) = -J+ i ka 2+ O( k 2 c 3 ) j k$ =1 k' ! + . 0
=

* 21+ I

I ti sr em ar ka bl et hat t hi sI ong wa vel engt hl i mi t depe nds onl y on t he s ' wa ve

s c a t t e r i n gl e n g t h; f o raha r ds p h e r eg a s . ai s j u s tt h edi a me t e ro ft h es p he r e ,b u t Eq.( 1 1 . 5 2 )i sc l e a r l y mo r eg e n e r a l . l np a r t i c u l a r ,t he s c a t t e r i n ga mp l i t u d e


al ways r e duc es t oac ons t ant as k and k'vani s h.w hi ch e nabl es us t ot ake t he

l e a d i n gc o n t r i b u t i ont o/t ks k' )of l t h ee n e r g ys h e l li nt h el on g wa v e l e n g t hl i mi t . Th es e c on dt e r m i n Eq.( 1 l . 5 2 )i s pu r ei ma g i n a r y ,a n de n s u r e st ha tt h eg e n e r a l i z e d un i t a r i t ye qu a t i o n( 1 l . 1 9 )i ss a t i s s e dt oo r de ra l . To t hi so r d e r ,t he

c o r r e s p o n di n gamp l i t u d e /l E q. ( 1 l . 1 2 ) )b e c o me s
J ' f k f 4 =a- 4 =i a 2 k J kJ =J k' p . + . 0 ( l 1 . 5 3 )
A snot e d att hebe gi nni ng oft hi ss e c t i on.t he e xpans i on par am e t erf oran

i mp e r f e c tFe r mi g a si sk ya , wh i c hi ss ma l l f or e i t h e rI o w de n s i t y( kF'0 ) ors ma l l s c a t t e r i n gl e n g t h( t z>0 ) .I nt h i sI i mi t ,Ga l i t s k i i ' se q u a t i o ns c a nb eu s e dt o e v a l u a t et h es c a t t e r i n ga mp l i t u d ei nt h e me di u m I n ( q , q , #) t o or d e r( kp a 4 2 . Equ a t i o ns( 1 1 . 4 5 )a n d( 1 l . 5 3 )t o g e t h e rg i v e

h iro ( q , q #)
=

4 n a- 4 =i q a 2i -( 4 . ; r u) 2 ( y mi )j . s. .. j s. j mj t . j r y ( ; a. -c j 2u j y ,
y

d3 k'i
l

'
, ,

j +. . .

4 = + ( 4 = w) 2 ( 2 j , j - . +, j . c + .'. r r ) E- k + l n k -q

#3 / c'

, ? /

whe r e. @ de not e st he pr i nci palval ue and t he i m agi nar y par tcanc el st he t e r m


-

4 =i q a 2 . Th i se x p a n s i o nt oo r d e ra 2n ow c a n be c omb i n e d wi t hE q.( 1 1 . 4 8 )

t o obt ai n

, q , #)= 4 =a+ ( 4 = *2 ( )j . . y; skp jygg z t D q 2 =) 6-k, +I T ( y z + ... ,


.

m r(

d? k'

z V( P, k' )

. ' # .

( l l . 5 4 )

s i n c tt h et e r msc on t a i n i n g( E- k' 2+ f , j ) 1i nt hei n t e g r a n dc a n c e li d e n t i c a l l y. No t et h a tEq. ( 1 1 . 5 4 )i sa ne x pl i c i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o nf orF( q, q , #)i nt e r mso fk n own


quant i t i es' ,f ur t her mor e,i ti se as i l ys e en t hat

F ' t q s q s / ' )= F( -qs q , #)

( 1 l . 5 5 )

1 4 4

GnOONDST AT E( Z EROT EMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

t ot h i so r d e r . Th ust hes e c o ndt e r mo fEq. ( 1 1 . 5 1 )c a n c e l so n e ha l foft h ehr s t ,


andweobt ai n

ht* ( p )=-f ( 2 = ) 4jd4 kG0 ( k) l > ( q , q , #)

( 1 1 . 5 6 )

whi ch i s va l i dt hr ough or de r a2 . Thi sc anc e l l a t i on t ypi fest he gene r alr es ul t not ed i n Sec .1 0t hatt hedi r ec tand ex changet e r msar ecompar abl ei n ma gni t ude f oras hor t r a ng epot ent i al .

Thee x p a n s i o no fl ' i nEq .( 1 1 . 5 4 )l e a d st o ac o r r e s po n di n ge x pa n s i onof


t he s e l f e ner gyi n powe r sofa

X* ( ;)- Yh) ( p )+h tt L b l p t+ ''.


wher e

Z ? k ' 3 ( ; ' ) i j( j p ) 4 G o k sm , . ' 0 9 d% k ( ) i , h t t q l p ) = . , i j( z . ) 4 G ( k ) enn'lnralz m 2 j ( d z ' s k ' 3


-

d* k

4=ah2

#( k' ) . @ a , a P, ,> , a e- k + i T N( P, k) k -q

and t he s ubs cr i pt she r e de not e powe r sofa,notor de r si n per t ur bat i on t he or y. Thefr s tt e r mi seas i l ye va l uat ed bycl os i ng t hecont ouri nt he upperhal fpl ane

I t hec o n v e r g e n c ef a c t o rc i k n ' n ' p l a y st bes a mer o l ea si nEq . ( 1 1 . 2 7 ) )

i!

hk- / f s ) p t ks- k j ( # ) = i j ( s ) jmJV ek a o , , + . ' p j + k o g o , i y 4, - 52 #3 k J( 2 , 4 3 o k r O


-

d3 k 4na h2 dk y y oy ; ,

( 1 l . 5 7 ) m 3. ) 7 . Thes e c ond t er mi sc ons i de r abl y m or ecom pl i c at e d.b ec aus et hef r e que nc y


= - . - -

h l k;2 / c sJ

kza p pe a r si nt h e de n omi n a t o rt hr ou g ht h ec omb i n a t i o n e= ml vh- i P2= mp z l h+ mkv l h- . J P2 .I ti s pr e c i s e l yt h i s de p e n d e n c et h a tn e c e s s i t a t e dt he


s ol ut i on f or r os t he ene r gy s hel l . The ev al uat i on oft he ko i nt e gr a li sver y

s i mi l a rt ot h a tofEq. ( 1 1 . 3 5 ) , a n d wehn d

X) 2 ) ( p , P 0 )

= ul 6 . = aj. j s y (- t n g v j y . j y ) z . j . g a . g , z . j . y y
.

:2

z z #3 kdj k' p j s- kj t $j . j P+k ' 1 -k s ) %I J P-k ' ( -k s ) - .


- - - --

+ hk-k ' y y j j k s. SJ P+k ' 1 ) %k F- t . i P-k ' 1 ). @0 ( k F -k . l


t y t g n j s- j g c+ qz- k, c- j , y

- qz - k, 2 ( 1 l . 5 8)

FERM I SYSTEM S
.

145

whi c hha sbe e ns i mp l i h e db ywr i t i n gg c o mp a r eEq. ( 1 l5 0) ) h kl h P2 h C2 h 2 L 2 - k % m r n Equ a t i o n s( 1 l . 5 7 )a n d( 1 l . 5 8 )t o g e t h e re x p r e s sX*a sas e r i e s nc l udi ng al lt e r ms ,i ofor de r( kpal l .
-

The s i ngl epar t i c l e Gr ee nsf unc t i on f or a di l ut e Fe r m i gas now t a ke s t heappr oxi m at ef or m

of

( l1 . 60)

J ' o- 2 ' 1, -Ol ke aq j m (


s ve c an t he r e f or es e tJ p c; 4 : h p2 , ' 2l z ?i nt he l as tt e r m ofEq. ( l l. 601 ,u' hi ch i sal r e ad j ' o for d e r( k y a) 2 : t hi sc on s t i t u t e sa ma j ors i mp l i sc a t i o n . a nd t he c xpl i c i ts ol ut i on t he n be com e s

hpl

=i 2 p 2h 2 k 2 j( !

*t / 3 k#3 i ' g j s . j . . g y 6 j j y k y ( Z ' 1 6 z r 2 ( k y a ) 2j j y x l j .


9( -/ f )4 7 (IP - k' - l ) (' IP - k' '- 1) .1

0 ( k- 1 )0 ( l- i .P - k ')0 ( 1- 1 . P - k')
qc .-- k . @. -t . , y

7$1 k4 y -qj y t r s -( ) ( k ) . a3 ) /
, .
-

P = p- k. q= J ( p- k )( 1 1 . 6 2 )

w he r e: hei nt egr alhasbee nr ende r e d di me ns i onl e s sb) ' e xpr es s i nga1 l u i r aveve ct or s nt er m sofkr . Thi s equat i on r es em bl es a s e condor der ex pans i on obt ai ned wi t ht i i nde pe mende nt per t ur bat i on t he or yf or an i nt e r par t i c l e pot e nt i al 4. : 42 t z' , ? 2i n m om ent um s pac et hat i sc hos e nt o r e pr oduc et he c or r e ct - wav es cat t e r i ng

: *6

GROL J NOS TATE ( Z EROTE MPE RAIURE )F ORMAL I SM

am pl i t ude . The qua nt i t yi n br a c es i s pr opor t i onalt ot he pr ope rs el f e ner g y and ha st hephys i e ali nt e r pr e t at i on s hown s c hem a t i ca l l yi n Fi g.1l.9 .( Th e s e ar e now m ea ntt o be di agr a m s oft i m ei ndepe nde ntper t ur bat i on t heor y, t he anal og of t he Gol ds t one di agr a ms . An ar r ow r unni n g upwar d de not es a

pa r t i c l e , wh i l ea na r r o wr u n ni ngdo wn wa r dd e n ot e sah o l e . ) Th et e r mo fo r de r kya i n Eq .( 1 l . 6 2 )a nd i n Fi g .l l . 9 Jr e pr e s e n t st h ef o r wa r ds c a t t e r i n gf r o mt he o t he rp a r t i c l e si nt h eme d i u m wi t ha ne Fe c t i v epo t e n t i a ln n hl a l m. Thes e c o nd o r d e rc or r e c t i o n si n Eq .( 1 1 . 6 2 )i n c or po r a t et h ee f l kc to ft h eme d i u m on t he


i nt e r me di at es t at e s . Oft he s el at t e rt er ms ,t hef i r s tt wo r e pr e s entt hepr oc es s e s

i n di c a t e di n Fi g .1 1 . 9 :a n dc ,whi l et h el a s tt e r mL t f / hql-#' 2 ) -1 jmu s tb s ub t r a ct e d ex pl i ci t l y be caus et he r e alpar toft he e xacts c at t er i ng ampl i t udew oul d
p.

#m

4n ' h2 a
p

4z r 1a

t
4. 2 #

2 21 : . + k'

l P+k '
k
1pk' ) ' . 4. , r ,?a

y P- k. 1

p )l

)m

4x:2 a m

( c)
Fi g.11. 9 Schemat i cexpans i on opr ope rs el f e ne rgy.

be gi ven by -a t ot hi s or de ri ft he r e wer e no sl l e d Fe r m fs ea asa backgr ound. The t e r m si n Fi g.1 1. 9: and cde not et he f ol l owi ng phys i c alpr oc e s s e s . l nt he f i r s tca s e,t hei nc i de ntpa rt i cl ecol l f dcswi t h a par t i cl ei nt hem e di um ,exc i t i ng i t t os om e s t at eabov et heFer m is e a,t her e by l ea vi ng t he hol ei nt he m e di um ;t he s am e t wo par t i cl es t hen c ol l i de a s e cond t i m e,br i ngi ng t he s ys t em bac kt oi t s i ni t i als t at e ofa Fe r m is ea and t he i nci de nt par t i cl e . The s e cond c as ei s an ex chang e pr oc es s . Tw' o par t i cl esi nt he medi um i nt er act .t ' he y ar e b0t h ex ci t ed above t he Fer mis e a,t he r e by l ea vi ng t wo hol esi nt he m e di um . The i nci dent par t i cl ec ol l i de sw' i t h one oft heex ci t ed par t f cl e s .and t he s et wo par t f el est hen f i l l t he t wo hol es . The s ys t e m t husr e t ur nst oi t si ni t i als t at e,t he onl y al t e r at i on be i ngt hee xchangeoft hei ni t i al i nci de ntpar t i cl ewi t honeoft hee xci t edpar t i c l e s.
PHYSI CA L G UANTI TI ES

W en ow e x a mi n et hei mp l i c a t i on soEq. ( 1 l . 6 2 ) . l .Li f e t i meo fs i n gl e p a r t i c l ee x c i t at i o n s :I ti se v i de ntt ha tt her e a lpa r te p


cont ai nsa s hi f ti nt he s i ngl epar t i cl e ener gi e sf orpar t i c l e s wi t h wave ve ct orp,

FERM I SYSTEM S

147

wh e r e a st hei ma g i n a r y pa r typl e a dst o a sn i t el i f e t i me ( c omp a r eEq .( 7 . 7 9 ) ) . Wh e nt h ei n di c a t e di n t e g r a t i o ni n Eq . ( 1 1 . 6 2 )i sc a r r i e do u t , wel i n dl

y p -z m. ( k r J ) (k ,)S g n ( k F p )

h2 / c /2

zp c s- p l

whi c hi sv a l i df br 1 / -/ t ' s l . , . :kF .l na c c o r da n c e wi t ht h eg e n e r a lLe hma n n r e p r e s e n t a t i on ( Fi g .7 . l )t h ep o l el i e sb e l ow ( a b ov e )t h er e a la x i sf orp > V s ( p< / f s ) .S i n c ey sv a n i s he sl i k e( p - kr ) l ,t he l i f e t i me b e c o me si ns n i t ea s p. > . kr ,a n dt h ec o n di t i o ne p- J . t% > h yp i ss a t i s s e d( c o mp a r et h e di s c u s s i on l e a di n gt o Eq.( 7 . 7 9 ) J . 2 Th e s el o ng l i v e ds i n g l e p a r t i c l ee x c i t a t i o ns a r eo f t e n
ksJ) 2 ,be ca us et he known asqu as i par t i c l e s . Not et hatyv i spr opor t i onalt o(
.

s ni t el i f e t i mer e q e c t s t h ep os s i b i l i t y ' o f r e a l t r a n s i t i o n sa n dt hu s i n v o l v e sI f1 2v :a2 .


2. Si n gl e part i cl ee xc i t at i o nJ pE c/ r u r ? l:The pr e s ent quas i par t i cl ea ppr oxi m at i on

G( p, p( ) ); 4 : ( p0- k ' p h' -i y p ' ) 1

( 1. . 6 4 )

i mp l i e st h a tt h eg r o u n ds t a t er e ma i n sa Fe r mi s e af i l l e du pt owa v e n umb e ks , t
but wi t h a di f l kr e nt di s pe r s i on r e l at i on E p . Si nce yv c hangek s i gn a t ky,t he Le hm ann r e pr es ent at i on s howst hatt he c hem i c alpot ent i ali sgi ve n by y = c s. I ti st he r e f or e ne c es s ar yt oe val uat ee p att he Fer m is ur f a ce. A l engt hy i nt e gr a-

t i onwi t h Eq. (1 1. 62)gi ve s


( 11 . 65 )
whi c h wasr s tobt ai ned by G al i t s ki i . l Cl os et ot he Fer m is ur f ac e. t he e l l e r g ys pec t r um can bc expanded i na Tayl or s er i e s

1V . M .Gal i t s ki i ,l oc.cl ' t.

2Thi sde t a i l e dr e s u l tt y pi s e sag e n e r a lt he or e m of J .M . Lu t t i n g e rL Pl ; ) ' s .Rc l ' . .1 2 1: 9 4 2( 1 96 1 ) ) t h a tI m E* v a ni s he sl i ke( t p- / , . z ) 2n e a rt h e Fe r mis ur f a c e .u' hi c h hol d st oa l lor d e r so fp e r t ur bat i on t heor y.

tA mor ede t a i l e de v a l ua t i o nb a s e do n Eq. ( 1 1 , 5 9 )s ho w' st h at di s t r i bu t i on f un c t i o nn pi ss l i g ht l y al t e r e d.b utt hi sd o e s no ta f r e c tours ubs e qu e ntr e s ul t s( V.A.Be l l ' a ko v ,So t ' .#/ ? y . j , J f F#. 1 3: 8 5 0( 1 96 1 ) ) .

148

GROUNDSTAT E( ZE ROTE MPE 9AT URE) F ORMALI SM whi ch de hnest heeFec t i vem as s

m + n z k , j p D e p p ! j k s ) '
( 1 1 . 6 2 )y i e l d s
m ... 8 -. l+ 15. 7l n2- 1 ) ( / c s J ) 2 m nz(

( 1 1 . 6 , 7 )
( 1 1 . 6 8 )

i nt er m soft hes l opeof6 pa tt he Fe r m is ur f ac e. A de t ai l edcal cul a t i onwi t h Eq.

c o r r e c tt oor de r( k s X7 . No t et hef o l l o wi n gf e a t u r e so fEq. ( 1 1 . 6 8 ) :

( J )m*ha snot e r msl i n e a ri nkp a, whi c hr e qe c t st h ec o n s t a n tv a l u eofE) k ji n


Eq . ( 1 1 . 5 7 ) . ( / 8 m*de t e r mi n e st hehe a tc a p a c i t yo ft h es y s t e mi nt hez e r o t e mp e r a t u r el i mi t
be caus et hehe atc apac i t y de pendson t hede ns i t y ofs t at esne art he Fe r r his ur f ac e and t hus on t he ef l kc t i ve mas s . A si ss hown i n Sec .29,t he pr e ci s er el at i on i s

g i ve nb y( c o mp a r eEq .( 5 . 6 0 ) J

C! (g z r kjT m*k4 ( j j6 P ? h l : ) a n d Eq. ( 1 l . 6 8 )s h o wst ha tt h ei nt e r a c t i o n se n h a n e eCv . Al t h ou ght hep r e s e nt


-

m ode lappl i e s onl yf orkFa: t l1 ,i ti si nt er es t i ng t ha te xper i me nt s lon pur eHe 3

s u g g e s t( m* j mj v v s ; k : 2. 9i n qu a l i t a t i v ea g r e e me n twi t h Eq .( 1 l . 6 8 ) . Un f br t un at e l y,t he l ar ge num er i c alval ue pr ec l ude sasi m pl e pe r t ur ba t i one xpans i on, and a m or es ophi s t i c at ed a ppr oa ch i sr equi r ed. z 3.Gr ou ndst at ee ner gy:The gr ounds t at ee ner gy can be r ea di l y obt a i ned wi t ht he r m odynam i ci dent i t i e s ,as not ed by G al i t s ki i . I tc oul d,ofcour s e , be

c a l c ul a t e dd i r e c t l yf r om Z* ( p , p 0 )wi t h Eq .( 9 . 3 6 ) , b utt h ef o l l o wi n ga p p r o a c hi s
m uc hs i m pl er . By de f i ni t i on,t he c he mi calpot e nt i alatS = 0 i sr e l at e dt ot he

e x a c tg r o un ds t a t ee n e r g yE b yt h ee q u a t i o n( 4 . 3 )

# . =I W
b '

Pf
.

S= 0

l n t e g r a t eEq . ( 1 1 . 7 0 )a tc on s t a n tP ' ( a n dS= 0 )

E-( ,# x' p . ( s-0 , p , x' ) c o n s t p ' , s-( )


S i n c eN a p p e a r si n Eq.( 1 1 . 6 5 )on l yt h r ou g h kr= ( ? =2 N( V) k ,t h ei nt e g r a li s
eas i l ye val uat e d wi t ht he r el at i on

# . ykts j v # A ' , L k F ( N, ) 1 A -3 3
.

lAn ex cel l ents ur ve y maybef ound i n J.W i l ks,% h l he Proper t i esofLi qui d and Sol i d Hel i um q'' chap.1 7,Oxf or d Uni ver si t y Pr es s, Oxf or d,1 967. 2Seef orexampl e, L. D. La nd au ,S ov . Ph ys . J ET P. 3: 9 2 0( 1 95 7 ) .

FERM I SYSTEM S

149

and wef i nd

Th ef i r s tt e r mi st h ef a mi l i a rk i n e t i ce n e r g y ofa f r e e Fe r mig a sg Eq.( 3 . 3 0 ) J , wh e r e a st h es e c o nd t e r m wa sdi s c us s e df ol l o wi n g Eq.( 1 1 . 2 6 ) . Th et hi r dt e r m


ar i s esf r om t he m odi fcat i on oft he i nt e r me di at es t at esby t he e xc l us i on pr i nci pl e and wasf i r s tobt ai ne d by H uang and Y ang. l The fnalt e r m ,whi ch we ha ve not di s cus s ed her e,was obt ai ned by DeD om i ni ci s and M ar t i n. z I tr e qui r e sas t u dy of t hr e e par t i c l ec or r e l at i ons , and al s o de pe nds on t he pr e ci s es hape of t he pot ent i a lt hr ough t he y wave e f l kct i v er ange and pwav es c at t er i ng l e ngt h. A s

wr i t t e nh e r e aEq. ( 1 l . 7 l )d e s c r i b e sa ha r d s p h e r e Fe r mig a swi t ht wo d e g r e e sof f r e e d om ; t h ec or r e s p o n di n ge x pr e s s i on f or n u c l e a r ma t t e r( f ou rd e g r e e so f f r ee dom,ne ut r on and pr ot on,s pi nup and s pi ndown)i s

E
3
+

J i 2 kj .
k,a +. 1 2( 11 s l , r 3 5 , , 2 z , l n a l t k s u l z + . O . J 8 ( k s u ) 3 h . . . j( 1 1 . 7 2 )
. -.

hg m n u a c t ! t e a r r j j j g
2 -

JUSTI FI CATI O N O F TERM S RETAI NED

Wes ha l lno wf ur t he rj u s t i f yo urb a s i ca p pr o x i ma t i ono fr e t ai ni n gon l yt h es e l f e ner g y of Fi g. l1 . 3, i n whi ch t wo par t i cl e s or t wo hol es i nt er a ct r epe at e dl y. One oft he s et er msi ss hown i n Fi g.11 . 1 0J,a l ong wi t h at ypi c alom i t t e d one

F i g . 1 . 1 0 C o m p a r i s o n o f d i a g r a m s ( J ) r e t a i n e d >>
a n d( : )o mi t t e dj nl a dd e rap pr ox i ma t i o n. 1K . Hua n gan d C. N. Ya ng , Ph y s . Re t ' . , 1 05: 7 6 7( 1 9 5 7 ) ; T. D, Le ea ndC. N. Ya ng , Ph y s . Re v . , 1 0 5: 1 1 1 9( 1 95 7 ) . 2St r i ct l yspeaki ng, C. De Do mi ni c i sa ndP. C.M a r t i nL ph ys .Re t ' . ,1 0 5: 1 41 7( 1 9 5 7 ) )ob t a i ne dt h e( / c z . c ) 3c or r e c t i o nf o rnu c l e a rmat t e r( Eq.( 11 . 7 2 ) 1 ,a n dt h eg e ne r a le xp r e s s i o n wa ss ubs e q ue n t l ydt r i v e db yV. N. Es mo va n dM. Ya. Amus y a ,So v . Ph ys . J ET P, 2 0: 3 8 8( 1 9 6 5 ) .

1 B 0

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EM PE RATURE) F ORMAL I SM

( Fi g .l l . 1 0 : ) . Theb a s i cpo i n ti st ha ton l yo n el i n ei n Fi g.l 1 . l 0 Jr un si nt h e


r ev er s e di r e ct i on,whe r e as l w' t ?l i nesi n Fi g.1l . 1 0: r un i nt he r e ve r s edi r ec t i on. To s how pr e ci s el y how t he di r e ct i on oft he l i ne s asec t st he t e r m , we c ons i der t he f ol l owi ng t wo pi e ce soft he r es pe ct i ve gr aphss how n i n Fi g. l 1 . 1 l( c o mp a r e

t h ed i s c u s s i o nf ol l o wi n g Eq.( 1 1 . 2 7 ) ) . Th ec or r e s po n di n gi n t e g r a t i on sov e rq
ar egi ve n,r e s pe ct i v el y,by

f -l ( 2 ? ' r ) 4Jd% U( , 4 4) G0 ( pj +q 4G0 ( pz-q) f 1 ( 2 ' r ) 4Jd% U( ) ( 4 )Ghpt +qjG0 ( p z+qj


# 1 t
#1+ q

( 1 1 . 7 3 / ) ( 1 1 . 7 3 : )

t9 1

# l t
q

4# 2
Fz+ q

pl- q :1+ q

( ) Fi g.11. 11 Pi e c e s ofg r a ph s( t 8r et a i ne da n d( b )
om i t t ed i nl adderappr oxi mat i on.

I nc a s e( / ) , t h et wo Gr e e n ' sf un c t i o n sc o n t a i nq wi t hop p os i t es i g n s , whe r e a si n ( d 8. t h e yh a v et h es a mes i g n . Th i sd i f l kr e n c eh a sac r u c i a l e se c t ont h ef r e qu e n c y


i nt e gr al s ,asi sr e adi l yv er i se d by c ar r yi ng outt heqoi nt egr at i on. I n par t i cul ar ,

Eq.( 1 1 . 7 3 ( Mc o n t a i n st wo t e r ms ,wi t ht h ef a c t o r s( 1- n p 0 , + q ) ( l- n 0 T 2 ' ' a ' nd n0 ( ) p l + q %0 , q , whi l et h ec o r r e s p o nd i n gt e r msi nEq. ( 1 1 . 7 3 : )c o n t a i n( 1- wj + q l np z l . q

a n dn j , + q ( 1- w 9 , + q )( c omp a r et h ec a l c u l a t i on l e a di n gt o Eq .( 1 1 . 3 5 ) ) . Fo rt h e
pr e s e ntl owdens i t ys ys t e m,moment um i nt e gr a t i ons i ns i de t he Fer mis e a have

v e r yr e s t r i c t e d ph a s es p a c eb e c a u s ekF c c( #/ F) 1i ss ma l l ,whi l et ho s eo ut s i de a r ee s s e n t i a l l yu n bo un d e d. Th u st h epr e s e n c eo fa f a c t ora 0( aho l e )r e du c e s


t he t er m r e l at i ve t o one cont ai ni n g onl y par t i cl es . Thi sc al c ul at i on expl i ci t l y i l l us t r at est he di s t i nc t i on m ade be t wee n par t i cl e sand hol esi nt he di s c us s i on of Fi gs .11 . 3and l1 . 4. I ti si nt er es t i n gt o as k how t hepr es entt heor yc anbei m pr ove d. Them os t

o bv i ou sf l a wi st hel a c k ofs e l f c on s i s t e n c y ,b e c a u s e X*i se v a l u a t e d wi t hJ r e e


Gr e e n' sf unct i ons G0 ,whi l e X* de t er mi nes t he f ul l yi nt er act i ng G. The cal -

c u l a t i on c a nb ema des e l f c o n s i s t e n t( i nt h es e n s eofS e c .1 0 )b yc ha ng i n ga l 1 f a c t o r so fG ' 0i n t oG i n Eqs . ( 1 1 . 2 8 )a n d( 1 1 . 3 0 ) ;i ne f l k c t ,t h i sc ha n g e st h ef r e e -

pa r t i c l ee n e r g i e se 2=hl kl ( 2 ma p pe a r i n gi n Eq. ( 1 1 . 5 8 )i n t oi n t e r a c t i n ge n e r g i e s
e kand i nt r oduc e saddi t i onalf r eque nc y dem ndenc e. I nt hi sappr oac h,X* t hus depends on t he e xacts i ngl epar t i c l e ener gi e s ,whi c h,i nt ur n,de pe nd on Z*. Al t houg h di f l kr enti n det ai l ,t hi sm odi f l e dt heor yi sv tr ys i mi l a rt o Br ue ckner ' s

t h e or yo f -n uc l e a rma t t e ra n d He 3 . 1 Th e s equ e s t i o nsa r edi s c u s s e df ur t h e ri n


Chap.l1 . 1 1K. A. Br u e c k ne r , I o c . dt .
.S e ea l s oA. L. Fe t t e r a ndK. M. Wa t s on , n eOp t i c a lM o de l , - . Va ndW , i nK. A. Br u e c k ne r ( e d, ) , ' ' Adv a n c e si n Th e or et i c a lP hy s i c s , ' ' v ol .1 , p.1 1 5, Ac a d e mi cPr e s s , I n c . , Ne w Yor k. 1 965.

FERM I SYSTEM S

151

IZUDEGENERATE ELECTRO N GAS

Fo rt h efn a l e x a mp l ei nt h i sc h a p t e r , wer e t u r nt ot h ed e g e n e r a t e( h i g h de n s i t y )
el e ct r ongast r eat e di n Se c.3. The mos ts t r ai ght f or war d appr oac hi st o anal y ze

t h ehi g h e r o r de rt e r msi nt h epr o p e rs e l f e n e r g y; j u s t a si nSe c . 1 l , t h edo mi n a n t


c ont r i but i on ar i s e sf r om a par t i e ul ar c l as sofdi agr am s t hat m ay be s um m ed e xpl i ci t l y. Thi spr oce dur ei ss t udi ed i n det ai li n Se c.3 0,w' her e we c ons i de rt he e l ec t r on gasatsni t et em p er at ur e . Forvar i et y,we her e des cr i be an al t er nat i v e f or m ul a t i on, i n w' hi c ht he gr ounds t at e ener gy i s expr e s s e di nt er m s of t he pol a r i z at i on i ns er t i ons1 1and gene r al i z ed di e l e c t r i ccons t an t .
GROUN DSTATE ENERGY AND THE DI ELECTRI C CONSTANT

To s i m pl i f y ourt r ea t m ent ,t he pr e s ents ec t i on i sr es t r i ct ed t oas pat i al l yhomogene ouss ys t e m ofpar t i cl eswi t h as pi ni nd e pe nd ents t a t i c pot ent i al

( 1 2 . l J) U( ) ( x, x' ) A A , , / z : - &0 ( x- x' ) 3 A A t s s s ' - I z ' t x - xz ) & ( t -t ? ) 3 a a j s s , ( l 2 . l b )

Th ei nt e r a c t i one n e r g yf orb ot hb o s on sa n df e r n n i o nsg E q. ( 7 . 1 l ) ) t h e nr e du c e st o


,

( f ' )= ! . j #3 xJ3 x' F( x- x' ) ( ' f ) ( x ) fj # ( x' ) l ; j t x ' lf a ( x ) ) = ! . jJ3 xJ3 x'p ' t x-x' ) ( ( ? i ( x) H ( x ' ) )- t i ' t x-x' ) ( ( ? i ( x ) ) 1

( 1 2. 2 )

wher et he s ec ond l i ne has be en r e wr i t t en wi t ht he canoni ca lcommut a t i on or

a n t i c o mmu t a t i o nr e l a t i on sg E q.( 2 . 3 ) ) ,a n dt h ea ng u l arbr a c k e t sde n ot et h e


gr ounds t a t ee xp ec t a t i on val ue. l ti s conv eni e nt t oi nt r oduc et he de v i at i on ope r at or

H ( x) HH ( x)- ( H ( x) )
i nwhi c hc a s eEq. ( 1 2. 2 )b e c o me s

( 1 2 . 3 )

(P)- ! . j ' J3 x#3 x' U( x- x' ) ( ( H ( x ) H ( x' ) )+ ( ? i ( x ) )( ? i ( x' ) ) 3 ( x- x' ) ( ? i ( x ) ) )


-

Thi sequat i on de s c r i besan ar bi t r ar yi nt e r a ct i ng s ys t e m and i st her ef or e qui t e c om pl i cat e d. l t sr eal us e f ul nes s , howev er ,i sf or a uni f or m s ys t em , wher e

( z i ( x ) )i sac o ns t a n t e q ua l t on = N/ F. Th el a s tt wo t e r msofEq. ( 1 2 . 4 )a r et h e n t r i v i a l , a n dwema yc o n c e n t r a t eo nt h ed e n s i t yc o r r e l a t i onf u n c t i o n( J ( x ) J ( x' ) ) ,


whi c h cont ai nsal 1oft hei nt e r e s t i ng phys i c alef l kct s . To m ak e us e of t he di agr am m a t i c anal ys i s of -Chap. 3, we i nt r oduc ea t i me or de r e dc or r e l at i on f unc t i on

l Dl x. x )= . . . ' p C j ( ) j t jo )
.

' C ' P# t ! F( / ' s ( a ' ) F i y ( x' ) 1 . I To ) -

15 2

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EMPE RATURE ) FORMAL I SM

whi ch i sc l e ar l ys y m m et r i ci ni t sa r gum ent s:

D( x, x' ) = D( x' , x)

( 1 2 . 6 )

For r e as ons t hatar e m ade c l e ar i nt he s ubs equentdi s c us s i on,D i sf r e que nt l y c al l e dt hepol ar i zat i o npr o pagat or . l nt he us ualcas eofa uni f or m m edi um wi t h

t i me i n d e p e n d e n tX.D de p e n dson l y on x- x' . Th ei n t e r a c t i o ne n e r g y( Eq. ( 1 2 . 4 ) 1 c a nno wb er e wr i t t e na s

( ' P)= ! . J#3 x#3 x' Ut x- x' )( D( x' t , x; )+ n 2- 3 ( x- x' ) n )


i D$ ? ( x' , x4= ( *o g Fg ? i z ( x' ) ' H z ( x ) J 1 *0 ) ,

( 1 2. 7 )

w' he r et he s y mm e t r y of D enabl es us t os e t /= t 'di r e ct l y. I f D Q denot e st he c or r es pondi ng c or r el at i on f unct i on f ora noni nt e r ac t i ng s ys t em

t he nt he i nt e r ac t i on ene r gy c an be s e par at e di nt o a hr s t or dercont r i but i on and al lt he hi gher or derc ont r i but i ons

(f ' )= ! . f#3 x#3 x' Ut x - x' )g Do t x' / , x/ ) +n l- 3 ( x - x' ) r ? j

+! . fJ3 x#3 x' P ' t x- x' )g Dl x' t , xt )- i DQ ( x ' t , xr ) J( 1 2 . 9 J )


(0)= ( t 1 ) : I Pj mo ' l. c . . f#3 . x#3 x/ P t x- x? )g Dt x' t , x/ ) i D0 ( x' t ,x ? ) ) ( 1 2 . 9 : )
-

Thi ss e pa r at i on i sver y conveni ent ,f orwe haveal r e ady e val uat e dt hefr s tt er m

i nS e c .3 . No t et h a tEq. ( 1 2 . 9 : )a p p l i e so nl yt o ah o mo g e n e o u ss y s t e m,wh e r e t ( H ( x) ) )= a V/ P 'i si n de p e n d e n to ft he i n t e r a c t i o nb e t we e np a r t i c l e s .I na ni n h o mo g e n e o u ss y s t e m ,t h ei n t e r p a r t i c l e po t e n t i a la l t e r st h ed e n s i t y,a n d( H ( x ) )


t her ef or e cont ai ns cont r i but i ons f r om al l or der si n per t ur bat i on t heor y. A s i m pl ee xam pl e ar et he el e ct r ons i n an at om .wher et he coul om b r epul s i on m odi sest he unpe r t ur be d hy dr oge ni c or bi t al s .

Eq u a t i on( 1 2 . 9 : )c a nb ec o mb i n e d wi t h Eq . ( 7 . 3 0 )t oy i e l dt h et o t a l g r ou n d s t at e ene r gy and t he c or r el at i on ener gy de f i ne di n Se c.3

r ma l z 3: *a )+ Fc o r r

wher et he i nt e gr alov er t he v ar i abl e coupl i ng c ons t ant A ha s be en eva l ua t ed expl i c i t l yi nt hesr s t or de rt e r m . Fort he pr e s e ntuni f or ms ys t e m ,t hi se xpr e s s i on bec om e sm uc hs i m pl e ri n m om ent um s pac e,wher e we 5nd

E c o r r -! . p ' ( 2 = ) 4( ' J z A , . f l kz p e t q l g f oz t q , c o ) -f oo t q t s l q 0
.

( 1 2 . 1 1 )
( j ;. j g j

He r eP ' ( q )de n ot e st h eFou r i e rt r a n s f o r mo fP ' ( x) , a n d DA ( x , x' )= DA ( x - x' 5 t -t ' ) z u : z( g nj 4j y4 gg i q . ( x x ' ) g i t z l ( t t ' ) pZ t q x ) ) 5(


.

FERM I SYSTEM S

163

Th es y mme t r yo fD( x, x' )g Eq.( 1 2 . 6 ) ja l l owsu st o wr i t eEq.( 1 2 . 1 1 )wi t ho u ta


c onver genc ef a ct ore l t i o ) ' t whi c ht husdi f l kr sf r om Eq.( 7. 3 2) .
W e have now e xpr es s e dt he gr ounds t a t e ene r gy of an i nt e r ac t i ng s ys t e m i nt er m s oft he t i me or de r e d de ns i t y cor r el at i on f unct i on D ' if or an ar bi t r ar y val u e oft hec oupl i ng c ons t anl . A san i nt r odu ct i on t ot hi sf unct i on,i ti sus e f ul

t oe v a l u a t e D0 ( x, x' )wh i c hde s c r i b e san on i n t e r a c t i n gs y s t e m

f o0 ( x , x ' ) -k z . ( I ) ( , q z ' y, J ( x ) , ; a l x ) , J ) ( x ' ) , t ; , j ( x ' ) q i ( l ) ( ) )


-

t ' .

*( ) l ' ( 7 ' ) ( x) ' ? ; a l A ' l . 1 *0 ' ' , *0 l t ' J Xx' j ) f/ , ( x' ) , : t 1 ) u )

Thi se xpr es s i on i sea s i l ye val uat e d wi t hWi e k' st he or em

i D0 ( x, x' )- i Go = x ( x , x+ ) i Go g ( x' x' + )- i G% ( v x' ) i G? x' x)- r H ( x ) > . ' ? i ( x' ) ) ) b , a, 3 ; , pa( , . , ( 2 s+ 1 , ) G0 ( x , x' ) G0 ( x ' , x)

Fi g.12. 1 Lowes t ordercont ri but i on DQt o dens i t yc or r el a-

t i o nf un c t i o n( J )i nc o or di n at es p a c e , ( b )i n mome n t u ms p a c e .

1 2. l J and i st ypi c al of a pol ar i zat i on i ns er t i on. l nde e d, t he l owe s t or de r

c o nt r i bu t i on st o U( x, x' )a r es ho wn i n Fi g .1 2 . 2 , a n d ma ybewr i t t e na s

Wet he r e f o r ei de n t i f y( c o mp a r e( 9 . 4 4 ) )
.

D0 ( x9 x ' )= -f f 4j ( x , x' ) G0 j a ( x' , x )


=

H0 ( x, x' )

l ti se a s i l yv e r i fe dt h a tt hi ss t r u c t ur ep e r s i s t st oa l 1or d e r s , s ot h a tD( x, x' )i sh


t i m est he t ot alpol ar i z at i on i ns e r t i on

D( x. x' 4= I I ( x, x' )= H( x' , x )

( 1 2. 1 4)

1 : 4

GROUNDS TATE ( ZEROTEMPE RATURE )F ORMALI SM

Fu r t h e r mor e ,Dy s on ' se qu a t i o na l l o wsust or e wr i t eJd 4 xL ( &( x, xj ) H( xl , x' )a s J#4 xl &( x, xI ) l 1* ( xl , x' ) ,Wh e r eI 1 *i st h ep r o p e r po l a r i z a t i on . Th ec o r r e s p on d i n gr e l a t i o ni nmo me n t um s pa c ei sg i v e nb y&( ) 4 t ? ) 1 1 4 )= &( t ? ) H* ( ) , a n d t hec or r e l a t i one n e r g y( Eq. ( 1 2 . 1 l ) J b e c ome s

E C o r -+ ! . f p 4 ( 2 = ) 4 j 0 b J z z l . f d . q ( g A ( ) r I * A ( ) -z t & ( : ) I I o ( ) )( 1 2 . 1 5 )
N ot et ha t

I 1 0 ( )M I 1 A) ( ) wh e r e1 1 $, ( t ? )i st h el o we s t o r d e rp r o p e rp o l a r i z a t i onpr o p a g a t o r .
X1 X

( 1 2 . 1 6 )

A'

X .

= G > ' . X

x'+

X1

Fi g.12. 2 Expansi on ofe Fect i vei nt er act i on.

Equ a t i on( 1 2. 1 5 )c a na l s ob ee x p r e s s e di nt e r mso ft h eg e n t r a l i z e ddi e l e c t r i c c o ns t a n tv ( q , a ? )= K L qj ,d e sn e d byEqs .( 9 . 4 6 )a n d( 9 . 47 ) . Thu st hei n t e g r a n d ofEq. ( 1 2 . 1 5 )ma yb er e wr i t t e nwi t ht h er e l a t i o n Ul Uqb 1 1 * ( :) q) H* ( t ? )- l Uo l q) H. ( q 4 ( q4= 1 - 1 = 1- x K l q) K ( #)
-

w hi c h yi el ds

s , -+ . f r m ( 2 = ) . j 0 ' y z z l j . # k( E s A ( ) ! 1 -l -, j v o l q ) n 0 ( ) )( 1 2 . 1 8 )
RI NG Dl AG RA M S

Equ a t i o n( 1 2 . 1 5 )a pp l i e st oa n yu ni f o r ms ys t e m,a n d we n ow s p e c i a l i z et oa d e g e n e r a t ee l e c t r on g a s , d e s c r i b e db yt h eh a mi l t o n i a ni n Eq. ( 3 . 1 9 ) . Ass ho wn


i n Se c.3,t he uni f or m pos i t i v e ba ckgr ound pr e ci s e l y canc el st he q = 0 t e r m i n

t h e po t e n t i a l ,s ot h a t U( 0 )v a n i s he si d e n t i c a l l y . Thi sr e i e c t st h ep h y s i c a l
obs er v at i on t hatt her ei s no f or war ds c at t er i ng f r om a neut r al medi um . I n

c o n s e qu e nc e , a 1 l t t a d po l e ' ' d i a g r a ms( Fi g s . 9 . 7 a, 9 . 8 /, c , #, e t c . )di s a p pe a rf r o m


t het he or y.whi ch s i m pl i fest hepe r t ur ba t i on anal y s i scons i de r abl y.

FERM I SYSTEM S

155

To un d e r s t a n dt h es t r u c t ur e ofEq.( 1 2 . 1 5 ) ,we s h a l lt e mpo r a r i l ve x p a nd


&H* i na per t ur ba t i on s er i es ,asf ol l ows:
&1 1*= U01 1*+ &01 1*&0H *+ ... = U0 1 7( * 0 )+ &01 1 * ( l )+ U0H* ( 0 )UOf l * ( 0 )+ '' '

wh e r e1 l l c j i sg i v e nb yEq. ( 1 2 . 1 6 ) , a n d1 1 ) t) i st h esr s t o r d e rp r o pe rpo l a r i z a t i o n


wi t ht h ec o n t r i bu t i o n ss h ow ' ni nFi g .l 2 . 3 . Th el i r s ta n dI a s tt e r ms( Fi g .1 2 . 3 /

( JJ

( :)

( c )

( d4

( e )

Fi g.12. 3 Al lhr s t or dercont r i but i onst o pr ope rpol ari z at i on.

a n de )v a n i s hi nt hep r e s e nte x a mpl eg P ' ( 0 )= 0 ) , an dw ' ea r el e f tw ' i t ht hemi dd l e


t hr e e. Cor r es pondi ngl y,t hec or r el at i onene r gyhast heexpans i on

fc o r r = fJ+ f)+ Ef+ ECt ' '''


whe r et he v ar i ouss e c ondor de rcont r i but i onsa r egi v en by

( 1 2 . 1 9 )

E J = J Z / i ( 2 ' z r ) 4 j 0 d h X 1 j d * q g 2 L % ( g ) Z 0 ( t ? ) 1 2
e t . c ' d =. j j p 4 ( 2 = ) 4 j 0 ( . / A A l j d 4 q g A & / ( ) t ( y ) I ' l l j ) j , , c , c j q ) j
1

( 1 2 . 2 0 )
( 1 2 . 2 1 )

He r el l h) t , ,l l l l l c ,a n dl 1 l j l ,de no t et h epr o p e rpo l a r i z a t i o nsi nFi g.1 2 . 3 :t od .


l ti se a s i l ys ho wn t h a tt h ec on t r i bu t i o nsi n( 1 2 . 2 1 )a r el i n i t e( Pr ob .4 . 1 3 ) . I n cont r a s t ,FJ di v er g es l ogar i t hmi ca l l y( w' ee xpl i c i t l ye xhi bi tt hi s di v er genc e l a t e ri nt h e di s c us s i o n;s e ea l s o Pr ob .1 . 5 ) .a n dt hepr e s e n te x p a ns i on t h r o u g h
s e cond or de ri scl ea r l yi ns um c i ent . The s our c e oft hi sdi v er genc ei st he s i ngul ar

b e ha v i o ro ft h ec o ul omb p o t e n t i a l&( ) ( t ? )= U( q )= 4 r r e 2 y ? q 2a tl on g wa v e l e n g t hs ; i np a r t i c u l a r . ELh a st wo f a c t or sofL % ' ( t ? ) , l e a di n gt o a( q ) 4b e h a v i or . As i mi l a r


be hav i or oc cur si n al l or der s .bec aus et he r ei s al wa ys a s i ngl e nt hor de rt e r m

wi t ht h ei n t e g r a nd( 6 7 t ) ( 4 2 ) l 1 0 ( t y ) ) n . For t u n a t e l y , t he s es i n g ul a rt e r msa r er e a d i l y i n c l u d e dt oa ) l o r de r s i np e r t u r ba t i o nt h e o r yb yi nt r o d u c i ngt he e ye c l i t ' ez a/ ' t a r t z t / / t ? a I hl q)( c o mp a r eEq. ( 9 . 4 5 ) ) Ur l q) = b' j l q)i -U( ) ( t ? ) 1 70 ( t ? )b ' z l q)+ '''
.

t . ) ( f j t -1 l 0 ( k j t hl q l
.

( 1 2 . 2 2 )

166

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROTE MPE RATURE) F ORMAL I SM

'*

&r = 6 / 0 + ''' Fi g.12. 4 Ri ng appr oxi mat i onf oreFe ct i vei nt e r act i on.

w hi c hi sa n appr oxi m at i on t ot he t r ue i nt e r ac t ,i on i nt hemedi um Lr ( t ?)obt ai ne d

b yr e t a i n i n g on l yt hez e r o or d e rp r o pe rp ol a r i z a t i o nf l A) > H0 i n Eq .( 9 . 4 5 ) .
Equ a t i o n( 1 2 . 2 2 )c on t a i n st h ed i a g r a mss ho wn i n Fi g .1 2 . 4a n di sk n o wn a st h e
s um ofr ? ' ? 7 g di a gr ams. Forhi s t or i calr eas ons ,i ti sal s o known ast he r an dom ph as ea p pr oxi mat i on,al t hough t hi sname i s notes pe c i al l yi l l um i nat i ng her e. l Thi ss e l e c t e dc l as sofhi ghe r or derr i ngdi agr am sm akest hef ol l owi ngcont r i but i on t ot he gr ounds t at e ene r gy:
X

Er = a=2 ) (Ea r
-

! . / p ' ? j ( 2 = ) 4 j b o # A z l . f d n q , t 4 . a : A r . & ( ( ? ) I . I o ( t ? ) ) -

l#AA ljd4 qI A UO -l j p , / j t @I 7 0 ( ) ) 2 2 . r r l4j ,1 u( ) ( )


.
. .

1- ' j bv l q ) q

- .

j ? ' p ' ( 7 = ) ' * j 0 z ( C A A l * f d 4 q A & o ( ) H 0 ( t ? ) & ) ( t y ) H 0 ( )

( 1 2 . 2 3 )

Thephys i c ali nt e r pr e t at i on ofEri sc l earf r om t hel as tl i ne ,bec aus e one oft he

K # b a r e ' 'i nt e r a c t i on s( , ' z l q)i nEq. ( 1 2 . 2 0 )h a sb e e nr e pl a c e db yt h e( l e s ss i n g ul a r ) e f l kc t i v ei n t e r a e t i o n Ur l qq . Al t h o ug ht h ef i r s tt e r mo fE,i sf o r ma l l yo fs e c o nd


or deri nt he pot ent i al ,we s ee i nt he f ol l owi ng cal cul a t i on t hatt he s um hasa whol l ydi pkr entanal yt i cs t r uc t ur et hatc annotbeobt ai ne di n any hni t e or derof pe r t ur bat i on t heor y.

Th ee f l kc t i v ei n t e r a c t i o n &r ( )g Eq. ( 1 2 . 2 2 ) )c a nb er e wr i t t e ni nt e r msofa d i e l e c t r i cc on s t a n tK r l q)b yt h er e l a t i o ng c omp a r eEqs . ( 9 . 4 6 )a n d( 9 . 47 ) 1 :) x r t )- l- Uo l q b 1 R 0 ( )= &0 &( ( ) ( 1 2 . 2 4 ) r


wh e r eK r l qqma y be c o ns i d e r e dt h er i n g d i a gr a ma p pr o x i ma t i on t ot he e x a c t
di el ec t r i ccons t ant . Thee ner gy Ert hen be c om e s

Er =

i . / F ( 2 = ) 4 j v # A.
.

lfdn qL luo t t ? l Z0 ( t ? ) 1 2

K A t ( y jr

( 1 2 . 2 5 )

'D.Bohm and D.Pi nes . Ph ys .Re t ' . , 9 2: 6 09( 1 95 3 ) ; D. Pi n e s . Ph ys .Re v . , 9 2: 6 2 6( 1 95 3 ) .

FERM I SYSTEM S

157

he c or r e l at i on e ner gy of a de gener at e I n t he pr es ent appr oxi m at i on. t e l e ct r on gasr educe st o'

Ec o r r = Er- E2t E+ Ed 2- .

( l 2 . 2 6 )

I ne a c ht e r mg c o mp a r eE qs . ( 1 2 . 2 0)a n d( 1 2. 21 ) ) .t h et w ' oe nd so fa po l a r i z a t i on i n s e r t i on a r ej o i n e du ' i t hab a r ei n t e r a c t i on L ' ( ) ( t y ) . a n dt h ec on t r i b ut i o n st ot h e


e ne r gy ar e dr awn i nt e r m s of t he e qui val ent Feynm an di agr am s i n Fi g. 1 2 . 5.

Fi g.12. 6 Le adi ngcont r i but i onst o cor re l at i on ener gy ' .

I t m us t be em phas i z ed t ha tt he s e di s conne c t ed di a gr am s c annot be obt ai ne d di r e c t l yf r om t he Fe ynm an r ul esofChap.3,be caus et hecount i ng ofi ndepe ndent c ont r i but i ons di f l kr sf r om t hat of t he c onnec t ed par t sa si se vi denti n Fi g. 1 2. 5

( f' a n d. E ' 4a r et h es a meFe y n ma ndi a g r a m) . Al t ho u g hi t i sp os s i b l et oi nt r odu c e


a di a gr am m at i c anal ys i s of Fc o r r .we pr e f e rt os t udy onl y qua nt i t i e s wi t ht i xe d ex t e r nalpoi nt s .s uc h asf 1 ,Z.G.and s of or t h. s i nc eas i ngl es e tofFeynm anr ul es t hen appl i es t o a1 1c as es . Thi sr es t r i c t i on caus es no di c ul t y, be caus eE i s

r e a di l ye x p r e s s e di nt e r msof : ( S e c .1 1 )o r1 7( S e c . 1 2 ) .
'Thi s cont ri but i on wasf i r s teval uat ed by M .Gel l Nl ann and K .A .Br ue ckner.Phv s.Rc! ' . ,

1 0 6: 3 6 4( 1 9 57 4 . W' e he r ef ol l ow t he a p pr oa c h ofJ .Hub b ar d.Pr o c .Ro y.So c.( Lo n d on q . AM 3: 3 3 6( 1 9 5 7) ' . s e eal s oT. D. Sc h ul t z . ' oua n t um Fl e l dTh e or ya ndt h eMan y Bod yPr ob l e m. * '
s ec s.l I l . Ht oI I I. J .Gor don and Br each.Sci e nctPubl i s her s ,New Yor k,1 96 4.

1s g
EVALUATI O N O F H0

GROUNDS TATE ( ZEROTE MPE RATURE) F ORMAL I SM

Forf ur t her de t ai l e d anal ys i s ,we m us te val uat et he l owes t or der pol ar i zat i on

i n s e r t i o n H0 ,g i v e ni n Eq .( 1 2. 1 3 ) . 1 Thi sq u a nt i t yi si n d e p e nd e n to ft h ei n t e r par t i cl e pot e nt i aland i st he r e f or edet e r mi ne ds ol e l y by t he pr ope r t i e sot -a non-

i n t e r a c t i n g Fe r mis y s t e m. Th es u mo v e ra a n d jy i e l dsa f a c t o r2f o rs p i n !


f e r mi onss ot hat

r I 0 ( x , x' )= -2 I ' l G0 ( x, x' ) G0 ( x' , x ) t r a n s f or m H0 4 t ? )- H0 ( q , : )i sg i v e nb y

( 1 2. 2 7 )

Thi se xpr e s s i on i sm os ts i m pl ye val uat e di n m om e nt um s pa c e,and t he Four i e r

1 1 0 ( )=-2 f l ( 2 =) 4Jd* kG0 ( k ) G0 ( k+q)

( j 2. 2 s )

a sc a nb ev e r i s e de i t he rb ya ne xp l i c i t c a l c u l a t i o nwi t hEq. ( 1 2 . 2 7 )o rb yu s i n gt h e
Fe ynm an rul esofSe c.9 wi t h Fi g.1 2. 1 :. A sa sr s ts t e p,i ti sconve ni entt o per f or m t he f r e que ncy i nt e gr ali n Eq.

( 1 2. 2 8 ) ;t h ei n t e g r a ndc on t a i n sf o urt e r ms , o fwhi c ht woha v et h e i rp ol e sont h e


s am e s i de oft he r ea laxi s . I nt hes et er ms .t he c ont our c an be c l os e di nt he oppos i t ehal fpl a ne ,and t he c ont r i but i on vani s he s . The ot hert wo t e r m shav e pol e sonoppos i t es i desoft her e alaxi s ,anda s t r ai ght f or war dcont ouri nt e gr at i on yi e l ds

nn ( )- z n

(j , , j : 3 ' c 1 ) # ( I c q + k l k F 4 # t k + s f , k ) 0 ( k .+ F l q + k I ) 0 ( k . k s ) 1( 1 2 . 2 9 '
2 d3 k
l 1

wh e r e ,a sb e f o r e ,o , k= 1 e 2= h k z / z m. Th es e c o nd t e r mc a nb er e wr i t t e n
wi t ht hechangeofvar i a bl e sk'= . . k - q;t hi st r ans f br m at i on l ea dst o l ' l n

( q . n ) j J( 2 = ) j P ( I q + k l k , ' ) h k r k s
x * Vf 1 2. 3 0 ) ' O k- f ' O q b kf 'i l l- W 1 -f ' t l q + k- f ' Ok- i ' f l (
'

whe r et hes upe r quouspr i m ehasnow bee n om i t t e d. Byi ns pe ct i on, t hei nt e gr and i saneve nf unc t i on ofq n,and wec onc l udet hat

l 1 0 ( q . ( )' 0( q o 2 )
Thi ss ym m e t r y al l owsust os t udyonl ypos i t i v eqz . I ft hef r eque ncydi f l kr enc ei nt hede nom i nat or si sde not e d

t z a q kH f z a q s k- t z : k= g m Rk+ q ) - k 1= - ( q* k+ ' W)
1J .Li nd ha r d, Kg l .Da n s keVi d e n s ka b. Se l s ka b . Ma t . F ys .M e d d. , 2 8, no. 8( 1 9 5 4 ) .

( 1 2. 31 )

FEBM ISYSTEM S

159

t h e nt h es y mbo l i ci de n t i t y( 7 . 6 9 )i mme di a t e l yy i e l ds
2. 7 ( d3 kn. . , .n. , , 2t t uk

Re r I 0 ( q . : ) = y jt j x ) ; L 1 -V b R ' F -I k+q l l l U b K F -t l g j .4 0 q k l z
( 1 2. 3 2 )
whe r et hesr s ts t ep f unct i on ha sbe en r ewr i t t en wi t ht her el at i on

# ( x )= 1- # ( -x) ( 1 2 . 3 3 ) Th es e c o n dt e r mo fEq . ( 1 2 . 3 2 )v a n i s h e si d e n t i c a l l y, b e c a u s et h ep r o du c tofs t e p


f unc t i ons i se ve n under t he i nt er c hange k m k + q,whi l e q ki s odd;cons e que nt l y,Rel I or educ e st o 2 . , d' . k

R e n e t q . t ? ( ) -,J ( a . ) a # ( k , . k , l ' 2 -q l j p a -l t qk +. pz ) x ( f s J i p , , l t q k + l . ) o + 1( 1 2 . 3 4 )
v= h q o y yF
( 1 2 . 3 5 )

W enow i nt r oduc et hedi mens i onl e s sf r equenc y var i abl e

a nd me as ur eal l waveve ct or si nt e r msofkF . Wi t ht he s edi mens i onl e s svar i abl e s ,

Eq. ( 1 2 . 3 4 )be c ome s

R e H 0 ( q , v ) =h zp j ( : 2 = 3 k ) y y j k ) I l ,- v gcoso.j x ( v q k c o s e l v + q qz )
. .

zmk.,

Thi si nt egr a li se l e m ent ar ya nd yi el ds

Reun t q , v )- l mkF

,, y,

t z ( l + j k l g I ( ; t ! ) 2 j l n t j l + ( f ' v / : ' o i ' t y l p l j k l j , ( k v + ! ) 2 j I n j j l + ( p v y / : + ' j i ) t j( l c . 3 6 )

Th ei ma g i na r ypa r t o fH0 c a na l s ob ee v a l u a t e dwi t hEq s . ( 1 2 . 3 0) a n d( 7 . 6 9 ) I mI 1 0 ( q , p = -l ( 2 x) 2fd3 kp t l q+ kl - kF ) d t k s- k) X( 3 ( #0- q k )+ hh + q k l l( 1 2 . 3 7 )


l ti saga i ns umci e ntt oc ons i deronl yqf t> 0,and t hepai rofs t e pf unct i onsens ur e s

t h a tt s q ki sa l s op o s i t i v e . W en o t et ha tI ml 1 0 ( q. e)ha sadi r e c tp h y s i c a li n t e r pr e t at i on,f or i ti s pr opor t i onalt ot he abs or pt i on pr obabi l i t yf or t r ans f e r r i ng

3 : o

Geok l Nos axr e( zEqor EMF ' E R> ak J qE . )y oquAt l sM

f o u r mo me n t u m( q , f ? c )t oaf r e eFe r mig a s ;t h ep r o c e s smo v e sa p a r t i c l ef r om i n s i det heFe r mis e a( k<k F )t oo ut s i d e( ! k +ql >ks ) , whi l et h ede l t af un c t i o n

guar ant e es t hatene r gy i s cons er v ed. Thi s appl i ca t i on of I 1 0i s di s cus s ed at l e ng t hi n Se c.l 7.

Wi t ht he s a me d i me n s i o n l e s sv a r i a b l e sa si n Eq.( 1 2 . 3 6 ) ,t h ei d e n t i t y

3 ( J x )= ! Ji 1 3 ( x ) ( 1 2. 3 8 ) c a nb eu s e dt or e wr i t et h eo n l yr e l e v a nt de l t af u n c t i o ni nEq. ( 1 2 . 3 7 )a s
3 ( o- Yqk)= h m k ;3 ( 1 z - q@ k- ' Wz )
and wet he r e f or e ne e dt oe val u at e

I ml 70 ( q , c>0 )= -v/ c s ( 2 o W) 2j#3 / c 9 ( ) q+k) -1 ) # ( 1- k)


x3 ( v- q. k- . ! . t ? 2 ) Th ei n t e g r a t i o ni sr e s t r i c t e dt ot h ei nt e r i o rof t h eFe r mi s p he r e( k< 1 ) , whi l et h e
ve ct ork + q m us ts i m ul t ane ous l yl i e out s i de t he Fer m is phe r e. Fur t her m or e, t he c ons er vat i on ofe ner gy r equi r e st hat
'

i t ? + I' k= -

L '

whi c h de f i ne s a pl ane i nt he t hr e edi m ens i onalk s pac e. The i nt e gr al i n Eq.

( 1 2 . 3 9 )r e pr e s e n t st h ea r e a ofi n t e r s e c t i o n oft hi sp l a n ewi t ht h ea l l o we dp o r t i o n


oft heFe r m is pher e, ass howni nFi g.l 2. 6. The r ear et hr e edi s t i nctpos s i bi l i t i es :

l . q> 2

j q2+q> ry . j q2-q

( 1 2 , 4 0 )

l fq > 2,t hen t he t wo Fe r m is phe r e si n Fi g.1 2. 6 do noti nt er s e ct ed , and we ne onl yt hear eaofi nt e r s ec t i onoft hepl aneand t heupp ers pher e. Thi sar eac l e ar l y vani s hesi ft heener gy t r ans f e rwi st oo l ar g e ort oo s m al l ,an dt hecondi t i on t hat

l +' ' % . k = qq
q+ k -- - - q

Fi g.1 2. 6 I n t e g r a t i on r e gi o n f or

I m H0f o rq> 2 . ( Th e Fe r mis p he r e : a r eofu ni tr ad i u s . )

F EgM ,SYSTEM S

1e1

t h e yi n t e r s e c ti sj us tt h es e c on dc on d i t i o ni n Eq .( 1 2 . 4 0 ) . Th ei nt e g r a t i o nc a n
beper f or med wi t ht hes ubs t i t ut i on t= c os0

n ( q . v )- - 4 m I m r l . n . h i 2 , J v ' / 4 l : k z J / c J ' l d t q )& ( q k i l Y k t )


z

kt '

a nd an e l e m ent ar yc al c ul at i on y i el ds

I mI 1 0 ( q, $ = - hz 4 1- q -- jq , a : ,

m kF l

v 1 2

( 1 2 . 41 )

u n de rt h er e s t r i c t i o nsont h ev a r i a b l e ss e ti n Eq .( 1 2 . 4 0 ) .I fvI i e sou t s i det h e r e g i on sde sn e di n Eq. ( 1 2 . 4 0 ) , t hei n t e g r a l i sz e r o . 2 . q< 2 q+ j q2> T z > q- l . 2 ( 1 2 . 4 2 ) I f < 2 , t h e nt hes p he r e sd e sn e db yt h ec o n di t i on sk< la n dI q+ kl> 1i nt e r s e c t ,
wi t ht het ypi calc onf i gur at i on s hown i n Fi g.1 2. 7. Thepl anew i l lnoti nt er s e ct

k
q+ k
'

i q+ ' q. k= v / q

1 !l- aq

Fi g.12. 7 I nt egr at i onr egi onsf orl m 11 9 f orq < 2.

t he uppers pher ei f t heener gy t r ans f e rv i st oo l ar g e,and I m H0vani s hesi nt hi s ca s e. As v de cr eas es ,t he i nt e r s e ct i on i s a ci r c l e unt i ly 'bec om e ss u ci ent l y

s ma l lt h a tt h ep l an eb e g i n st oi nt e r s e c tt t wf o r b i d d e nFe r mi s p h e r ea tt h ebo t t om. Th i sl i mi t e ddo ma i ni nwh i c ht hei n t e r s e c t i o nr e ma i ns c i r c u l a ri s j us tt h a td e sn e d i n Eq.( 1 2 . 4 2 ) , .t h ei n t e g r a t i o ni spe r f or me de x a c t l ya sb e f or e wi t ht h er e s u l t I m no ( q. v )- - m yk :4 . 1 ( l 2 . 4 3 ) q


-

g 1 ( ' # ? j l q ) 2 j

os : vxq- ! . 2

( 1 2. 4 4)

l nt hi scas e.t he i nt er s e ct i ng pl ane pas s est hr ough t he f or bi dden Fe r mis phe r e att he bot t om ,and t he al l owe dr egi on ofi nt er s e ct i on bec omesan a nnul us ,as i ndi ca t e di n Fi g. l 2. 7. The ar e a of t hi s annul us c an be ev al uat ed wi t ht he ge om e t r i cr el at i ons i n Fi g.1 2. 8,whi ch s how t hatt he m i ni m um val ue ofk i s gi v en by

' l i n= ( , 1 . t ? -1 z ' ) 2+ E l- ( ! 4+: / t ? 1 ) 2 ) = l- 2 v

1 6 2

GR OUNDS TATE ( ZEROTEM PE RATURE )F ORMALI SM

@#
.

kmm / # '

' !
q

( l- ( ' iq+ q) 2( ) Fi g.12. 8 Ge o me t r yi n mome nt u ms pa c e u s e di nob t a i ni n gEq. ( 1 2. 45 ) .

wh i l et hema x i mum v a l u ei st h eFe r mi mo me n t um ( / c ma x= 1i nt h ep r e s e n t s y s t e m ofu n i t s ) . Th ei n t e g r a lc a nn o wb ee v a l u a t e dd i r e c t l y:


F ' I m no t q . v ) - -mk z= ,, ,.2
= -

j ( ' 1 2 v ) 1 ' k q t ' ' c J ( ' 1 t , s ( b q v k . 2 1 # k t )


( 1 2 . 45 )

m kF 1

hz 4 ( 1- ( 1- 2 $) =q

= -

r r l ks 1 h zj 2 : , ' n . q

Eq u a t i o ns( 1 2 . 41 ) .( 1 2 . 4 3 ) ,a n d( 1 2. 4 5 )d e t e r mi n eI mF l 0 ( q , v )f ora l lq a n dp . W es k e t c h -( 4 = 2 / v# s ) I mH0 ( q , v )f orf x e dt qk i nt woc a s e sofi n t e r e s ti n Fi g s .


1 2. 9/ a nd 1 2. 9:. Form any appl i c at i onsi ti sus e f ult ol i s ts om el i mi t i ng f or m soft he z er oor derpol ar i z at i on pa r t: Fi xt hem om ent um qand I e tt heener gyt r ans f erp ' appr oachze r o:

I m H0 ( t h0 )= 0

( 1 2 . 4 6 / )

R e r I o ( , o ) m h k , F 2 . 1 c g 1 + q 1 ( 1 t q z l l n 1 j + b j ' q ! j
I ml R 0 ( 0 , v )= 0 2 mkF Re1 R 0 ( , v ); k ; z 2l z2 jya
..

( 1 2 . 4 6 : )
( 1 2 . 4 7 4 )
( 1 2 . 47 : )

2.Fi xt he e ne r gy t r ans f er vand 1 e tt he m ome nt um t r ans f e rq appr oac hz er o:

. n

3 . Fi na l l y ,f i xt h er a t i o ofe n e r g yt r a ns f e rt o mo me n t u mt r a n s f e rv ( qH x,a n d
l e tt he m om e nt um t r ans f e rq appr oach ze r o:

I mI 1 0 ( , : . x ) =
R

mkF x 0

2i h

q> ' 0 , 0< . Y< l


q-> . 0,x > l

( 1 2 . 4 8 J )
( 1 2 . 4 8 : )

e r I 0 ( g , x ) = -y z j . p( 2 x l n ; j . x j )q + 0

mkF 1

r l+ xl

FERMI SYSYEM S

16:

-1

2- q

q t 1 q+ l 4p ' t l q
-

'

i 4 -q

q +q

>$ '

Fi g.12. 9 Sk e t e ho.-( n =h z l mk I m HQ ( q, v )f o rt yp i c a lv a l ue sof q.

Thee x p r e s s i o n sf o rH0 ( , v )c a nn ow b eus e dt o 5n dt h ec o r r e s p o n di n g d i e l e c t r i cc on s t a ntK ' r ( . $ = 1- &o ( ) I 1 0 ( . $i nt h er i n ga p p r o x i ma t i o n. Th e z e r o or d e r po l a r i z a t i on ha sb e e ne x pr e s s e da s? ? 7 ks / zt i me s a di me n s i o n l e s s f un c t i o n;c on s e qu e nt l y ,t h e di me n s i o n l e s squ a n t i t yt %1 10h a st het y pi c a lv a l u e

( -ks / 2 ) ( 4r r e 2 / # / . )=4=( # sJ o ) 1= 4 g r ( 4 / 9 = ) 1 G( c ompa r e Eqs .( 3 . 2 0 )t o( 3 . 2 2 ) a n d( 3 . 2 9 ) 3 .l nf a c t , wes h a l l r t q ui r eo nl yt h tt h r e el i mi t i n gc a s t s j u s t di s c u s s e d,


and we5nd
1 .Fi xq,l e tv-> . 0:

1 ( j , r ( t ? . 0 ) -1 +n . q zq uz ) I n ( I 1 l + j ' q j
-

lar s 1-

( 1 2 . 4 9 )

2.Fi xv ,1 e tq . c , . ( ) :

s , ( 0, p ) = l- 3 c ' r r p 3 .Fi xv / qx x> 0 , 1 e tq. > . 0:


4r . x 1 1+ xl li xrx

$x%

( 1 2 . 5 0 )

G( ( A( B )= l+ n' n( t+ qL # ( l- , x ) q; l- jl ; 1 - xl
wber eq and par ebot h di m ens i onl e s sand xi sa numer i calc ons t ant t

( 1 2. 5 1 )

x> j g j

4 1

( 1 2 . 5 2 )

CORRELATI ON ENERGY

W enow r et ur nt ot heev al uat i onoft hec or r e l at i onene r gyofade gene r at eel e ct r on

g a s . Al t h o ug hi ti sp os s i b l et oe v a l u a t ea l lt het e r ms i n Eq.( 1 2 . 2 6 ) ,s u c ha
ca kul a t i on woul dl ar ge l y dupl i cat et hatofSec.30. Hen ct we her e cons i der onl yEv , whi chcont ai nsapr opert r e at me ntoft hel ogar l m' 'er genc eappe ar tWef ol l ow t hi sh i s t or i c a lb utu nf o r t un a t eno t a t i on;xi sn ott hehh e s t r u c t u r ec o ns t a n 'i nt hi s
pr ob l e m.

:64

GROUNn-

S TAT E( ZE ROTEMPE RATURE )F IRMALI SM


.

i n gi nF 1a n dt h e r e f o r eg i v e st h edo mi n a n tc on t r i b u t i ont ot h ec or r el at i onener gy Thei nt e gr at i on ove rA c an becar r i e d oute xpl i c i t l yi nE Eq. q. ( 1 2 . 2 3 )a n dy i e l d s( s e e ( 1 2 . 2 4 ) )

E -! . f p 4 ( 2 z . ) . f d . q j 0 l ; / z z k t . & ( t ? ) u o ( t ? ) J c i l -A t & ( ) I . I c ( t ? ) ) ! =. j j p ' t z , r r j * j d * q l l o g ( 1 -U q j I 1 0 ( g ) ) +U o l q ) J l 0 ( t y ) ) j i F ( 2 J r ) 4 j d * q f k o g ( x r ( t ? ) J +1 x , ( ( ? ) J ( I 2 . 5 3 ) l ti s agai n he l pf ult oi nt r oduc et he di mens i onl e s s


-

= -

q' v a r i a bl e s p =n qo j i h k; a n d =z l ks . Ther i n ge n e r g yt he nb e c o me s - wi t ht he a i d of Eq s ( 3 ( 3 . 21 ) ,( 3 . 2 2 ) ,
.

2 9 ) , an d( 1 2 . 5 2 ) Er= Nel e r

whe r e

2 J c

( l 2 . 5 4 ) ( 1 2 . 5 5 )

. ( 1 2 . 5 5 ) . I na d di t i o n ,K r i sa ne v e nf u n c t i o no fy ' l i c h al i owsust os i mpl i f yt he , whi mi t so fi n t e g r a t i on( wen ow omi tt h epr i meo nqj : g . 2 d o ( , j q c dv t a nls . ' L1 V .- &a L %az / . 2 v ( ( g, p ) ( 1 2 . 5 6 ) : 0 0 r l ,v ) ,

Theene r gy e rmus tber e al hal lc ons i deronl yt her ea lpar tofEq , and we s

whe r et hedi el ec t r i cf un ct i on hasbe ens e pa r at e di nt oi t sr e alandi m agi nar y par t s


Kr= Kr l+ l ' gr a

and wehaveus e dt her e l at i an

l o gt v r l +I . ' r z ) =ll nt s 2 r k +K h)+ f t a n -j & ' r 2 &' r1


A s not e d pr evi ous l y, t he s i ngul ar behavi or of t he e l e ct r on gas ar s m al lwav i s e s at t w opar t s ,q < qcand q > qc

ev e c t o r s( q. < . :1 ) ,a n d wes h a l lt h e r e f or ed i v i det h eq i nt e g r a t i o ni n t o


.
.

e g 1=

a q c c o s ,) a z qd q f o pt an-k rz( 4 . . . , - - xr 2 z r r x r z f q n v ) a a ( ) x r ) ( t ? , p ) a . 2 ( , d q .d vt a n -' l z v ) -v r f r 2 a z r ac r c x ( t y 2 ( 4 , r ) , : 4 c 0 r l v ) ,


- -

Thi ss e par at i on i s ol at e st he di v er genc e, whi ch oc cur sonl yi nt he f i r s tt e r m e f ort hi sr e as on, e r I ; r zi ssni t eand c an bee xpande di n powe r sofr Fur t her m or e ,. , i fqci schos ent obem u ch l es st han l hen<rmaybtappr oxi ma t e d byi t sl i mi t i ng ,t f o r m( Eq.( l 2 . 5 1 ) Ji nc v a l ua t i n ge , l ,t he r eby gi vi n g at r ac t abl ei nt e gr al . The

FERMISYSTEMS

166

i ma g i n a r ypa r to fx ,i spr op or t i o na lt o -F( ) 1 m1 1 0 ( : ,v ) ,wh i c hi sp os i t i v eo r z e r ot s e eE q.( 1 2 . 3 9 ) 2 . Thu st a n l ( < r 2 J K r 2 jv a r i e sf r o m 0t o =. l n par t i cul ar , t a nl ( x r c / x r j )= 0 i fK r z= 0 a n dK , ,> 0 ,wh i l et a n -' ( n2 / K r j ) == i fx y c= 0a nd n j< : :0. I nt her e gi on0 < q < qc < l ,t hea ppr oxi m at ee xpr es s i on i n Eq. ( 1 2 . 51 ) maybeus e d,and w' et i nd

e r . j . ' r t a v ) . ( q , c q 3 d q ( a ' d x t a n 1 l l r f T % 1 . Y ) 2 % r s . Y # ( 1 . z ' ) j q z p j y y s y j x ) t y z )


.

3 - -

. -4 . 4 . ,

j q ( ) q 3 d q t j 0 ' d xt a n l ( q , . j l y x y t x ) ) j 2 (
+ j = l p . x v r o f q l A y ( x ) y ) ( 1 2
.

whe r e

H1 L+ l z

5 7 )

f( x) 2 '
and

> g j I j x 1 n ( 1 j .. x ,

! l+ xg

( 1 2 . 5 8 )

an d Kr 1= 0,r es pe ct i v el y. l fwe now expand e rs er i esi nt hec oupl i ng c ons t antA x el r asa powe l he ,t

A- 2 = r s ( 1 2 .5 9 ) Th et wo t e r msi n Eq. ( 1 2 . 5 7 )a r i s ef r om t h er e gi on sof t h eq vp l a n ewh e r eK r z> 0


e adi ng t er m mus tr epr oduc et hes e condor dert er m( 2 av; Ne 2 ) EL .I np a r t i c u l a r

t bes i ngul ar i t yf ors mal lq hasbe eni s ol at e di nI k ,and wet i nd

l uc j; k:-6 . a z

l x :2 / ' ( x) x 7 T z sJ l q 3 d q0 d x. a -. S , -+... -A z 0 qq q

=-' 6L q c d . qJ j ' b ' Q ) q ( ) Y *Y V C X I *06 2 1 r J(


The sr s tt er m of t hi s pe r t ur bat i on e xpans i on di v er ge sl g ar i t hm i cal l y at t he o r i gi nb e c a u s eo ft h eq2b e ha v i oro ft h ec ou l ombp ot e nt i a lV( q) . Thuswes e e

e x p l i c i t l yt hel o g a r i t h mi cdi v e r g e n c eo fEJme n t i o n e da tt h eb e g i n ni n g oft h i s


s e ct i on. Theexa cti nt e gr al1 t . howe ver ,cont ai nst er msofaI lor de r si n 2, and i t si nt t gr and i s sni t ea sq> . . M or e pr ec i s e l yst he q* de pendenc e of t he i nt eg r and i sc utof ff orq2< ) s / ' ( x) .I n cons e quenc e,1,can be e val uat e d wi t h I ogar i t hm i cacc ur acb ' asf ol l ows: I 6 q c#t ?' * 1

j; k ; -g
-

j y j . j ( ; d x x f ( x )
.

(l n L q n ' j c ) ( ' ( s x ( l ! . x I n j i + ) )
. ,

=p ( 1-l n2 ) l n O

( 1 260)
.

1ee

GROUNDS TATE ( Z EROT EMPE RATURE) F ORMAL I SM

whi ch means

e c o r r =2 =2 4 1- l n2 ) l nr ,+ c on s t

r s*0

( l 2. 61 )

Thi sr es ul ti sor i gi nal l yduet o M ac ke . i Not et hatt hi sexpr e s s i on i snonanal yt i c i nr 'and ha sno powe rs er i esar oun dr ,= 0. The c ons t antt e r mi nt hecor r el a t i on ener gy r e qui r est he e va l uat i on of -a 1 1

t h er e ma i n i n gt e r msi nEq. ( 1 2 . 2 6 ) . I np a r t i c u l a r , i ti se s s e n t i a l t opr ov et ha tt h e


ar bi t r ar y wav enumb erqcdr opsoutoft he t i nalans we rf orkr . Thi sc al cul at i on i sve r ys i mi l art ot hati nSec .3 0 and wi l lnotber ep eat e d her e . Fur t her mor e ,i t

i se a s yt os e et h a tELa n d E1v a n i s hi d en t i c a l l y , whi l e


Ne2 E2 b= 2Ja e b 2

i s j u s tt h es e c on do r d e re x c h a n g ee n e r g ys t u d i e di nPr ob .l . 4. Th e5n a l e x p r e s s i on can onl y be obt ai ne d numer i cal l y,and t he c or r el at i on ener gy be com e s
E --.

N s F r r =2 -j ( j- I n2 , ) l nr s-( 4 . +) 4+ of r s j nr , ) J0 =
2

e2 2

=j a ( 0 . 0 6 2 2l nr s- 0. 0 9 4+ Ot r , l nr s l ) n

( 1 2. 6 2 )

c o r r e c tt hr ou g ho r d e rl nr :a n d4. 1 Bya ne x t e n s i onof t h ea r g u me n t sp r e s e nt e d


her e,DuBoi s2s howst hatt hes um oft henextmos tdi ve r g entt er msi n eac h or der

i np e r t u r b a t i ont h e or y( t ho s et e r mswi t hon el e s sp owe rofL %( t / ' ) )g i v e sac o r r e c t i ono rOt r s l nr , )t o Eq. ( 1 2 . 6 2 ) .
EFFECTI VE I NTERACTI ON

W ehaveal r eady m e nt i one dt hatt he pe r t ur ba t i on e xpans i onf ai l sbe c aus e oft he

s i n g ul a r( q ) 2b e h a v i o rof&n ( q ) . I nc on t r a s t ,t h er i n g ap p r o x i ma t i o nt ot he e f l k c t i v ei n t e r a c t i on Ur l % s q z jh a sav e r ydi f l k r e n tb e h a v i o ra tl on g wa v e l e n g t h s . Fors i mp l i c i t y ,wes h a l l c on s i d e ron l yt h es t at i cI i mi t( q v= 0 ) , a n dac o mb i n a t i o n ofEqs . ( 1 2 . 2 4 )a n d( 1 2 . 4 9 )y i e l ds


4. n . e 2

&r ( q . 0 )-q u j / +( x r . ) k k yg g j k s ) s

( l 2 . 6 3 )

1W .M acke. Z.Na t u r f or s c h . . 5 a: 1 9 2( I 9 5 0) . 1Th el o g a r i t h mi ct e r m wa ssr s to bt ai n e db yW .Ma c k e, I o c .c i t . ,a n dt h ec ompl e t ee x p r e s s i on

was t hen der i ved by M .Gel l M ann and K.A.Br ueckner ,I oc.c i t . Seeal s o L.Onsager , L.

Mi t t a g aa n dM. J .S t ep h e n. An n. Ph y s i k,1 *: 7l( 1 9 6 6) . 2D.F.DuBoi s .An n.Ph y s .( N. F . ) ,7: 1 7 4,a p pe n di x C,( 1 9 5 9 ) . Du Boi s 'c a l c ul a t i on wa s r epeat e d and corr ect ed byW .J.Car r,Jr . .and A.A.M ar adudi n.Phv s .Re l ' . ,1 33: A37I( 1 9 6 4) ,
whohnd. i 8r sl nr ,ast henextcor r ect i on t oe c o r r .

FERM ISYSTEM S

167

wher e

l 1 z 1l . x . j x g ( x)- j- s ( l- 1 . *) l nI jj I
. .

( 1 2. 6 4 )

Thust heme di um c ompos e doft heel ec t r onsandt hepos i t i vebackgr ound modi fes

Cou l o mb ' sl a w. l ti sc l e a rf r o m Eq. ( 1 2 . 6 3 )t h a tt h i smo di fc a t i oni si mp o r t a n t on l yf o rwa v e l e n g t h s( q / kp j z< r , ;i nt h eh i g hd e n s i t yl i mi twh e r er s+ . 0 , wec an t h e r e f o r ea p pr ox i ma t eg ( Wks )b yg( 0 )= l , s ot ha t Ur ( q . 0 )r ; k ; c+ ( 4 . , . / . ) : . j a , oq ,
4=e2

( l 2 . 1)

He n c et h ee f l k c t i v ep ot e n t i a l i sc u to f l f orql; EGk/a n di s hn i t ea tq=0, wh i c h


c on s r mst h ea s s e r t i o nsb e l o w Eq.( 1 2. 2 3 ) . Thi sb e h a v i orp r o v i de sa p h y s i c a l ba s i sf o rt h ec u t ofus e dt o5n dk c o r ri nEq. ( 1 2 . 6 0 )a n di nPr o b.l . 5 . Al t ho u g h Eq.( 1 2 . 6 5 )i son l yana p pr o x i ma t i ont ot h ee x a c t&r ( q , 0 )g i v e n i nEq. ( 1 2. 6 3 ) , i ti sv e r ye a s yt ot a k et h eFou r i e rt r a ns f o r mo ft h i sa p p r o x i ma t e
expr e s s i on,whi ch gi ve s a Yukawa pot ent i al . W et her eby obt ai n a qual i t at i ve pi c t ur eoft heefec t i vei nt er act i on i nc oor di nat es pac e

P ; ( x )= e 2 e q r r x x1 ( 1 2. 6 6 ) He n c et h es i mp l ee l l x Cou l omb ' sl aw b e t we e nt woc h a r g e si st t s h i e l d e d ' g wi t ht h e

Tho ma s Fe r mi ls c r e e ni n gl e n g t hq v lde hn e dby

q I r=

4ar s
T r

' /= s r s k;= 0 . 6 6 r , * / T r

4 4 1

( 1 2 . 6 7 )

I nf a c t .t h en o na n a l yt i cs t r u c t ur eof( 1 2 . 6 3 )c ompl i c a t e st h ea c t u a le x p r e s s i on f o rFr t x )c o n s i de r a b l y , a si sdi s c u s s e di nd e t a i li nS e c .1 4 . l nt h epr e s e n t s e c t i on ,Ur l q s a ) ha s b e e nu s e do n l yt oe v a l u a t et hec or r e l a t i o n


e ner gy, whi c hi sanequi l i br i um pr oper t y. Ass hown i nt hepr e c e di ngpar a gr aph, howe ver ,Urc ont ai nsm uc ha ddi t i ona lphys i c ali nf or m at i on be caus ei tde t er mi n es . t heesec t i ve s t a t i c and dynami ci nt er par t i cl e pot e nt i al . Thi sbe ha vi ori sr e al l y a par t i cul ar ex ampl e of t he r es pons et o an ex t er nal pe r t ur ba t i on. For t hi s

r e a s on ,we s h a l lhr s td e v e l o pt he g e n e r a lt h e or y ofl i n e a rr e s p on s e( Ch ap .5 )


and t hen r e t ur nt ot he none qui l i br i um pr om r t i e soft hede ge ne r at ee l e c t r onga s . PRO BLEM S 4. 1. A uni f or m s pi n. s Fe r mi s ys t e m has a s pi ni ndem ndent i nt e r ac t i on

P o t e n t i a lF( x )= L xl e x / q ( c )Ev a l u a t et h epr op e rs e l f e n e r g yi nt h eHa r t r e e Fo c ka p pr o x i ma t i on . He n c e


hnd t hee xci t a t i on s pe c t r um e kand t heFer m iener gy e p= y. .
.The Thomas Fermit heor yi sdes cr i - di n Sec.1 4.

1 6 a

GROUNDS TATE ( ZE ROTE MP ER ATURE) F onMAul su

( ! 8S h o wt h a tt h ee x c ha n g ec o n t r i b u t i o nt oE si sne g l i g i b l ef o ra l o ng r a n g e i n t e r a c t i o n( k ya> 1 )b ut t ha tt h ed i r e c ta n de x c h a n g et e r msa r ec o mp a r a b l ef or as ho r t r a n g ei nt e r a c t i o n( kp a. c 41 ) . ( c )I nt h i sa p pr o x i ma t i onpr o v et h a tt h ee se c t i v ema s sm*i sd e t e r mi n e ds o l e l y


b yt he e xc han ge c o nt r i but i o n. Com put e m* , and di s c us st he l i mi t i ng c as e s kFa> 1and kra< 1 .

( d)W h a ti st her e l a t i onb e t we e nt hel i mi t a+ . , x ) of t h i smo de l an dt h ee l e c t r on


gasi n a uni f or m pos i t i vebac kgr ound?

4. 2. Us eEq. ( 1 1 . 7 0 ) t od e t e r mi n et h ef i r s t or de rs h i f t i nt h eg r o un d s t a t ee n e r g y
f owt he s ys t em cons i der ed i n Pr ob.4. 1. Compar et hi sc al c ul at i on wi t h a di r e ct appr oa ch. 4. 3. Us i ng 1 5'coul omb wa ve f unc t i ons as appr ox i mat e Ha r t r e eFoc k wav e f unc t i ons ,com put et he i oni z at i on ene r gi e sofat om i c He,and c om par e wi t ht he

e x p e r i me n t a l v a l u e sHe. >He ' b+ e -( 2 4 . 4 8e V) a n dHe+ . He * *+ 2 c -( 7 8 . 8 8e V) .


Show t hatt hi sappr oa ch i sac t ual l y a var i at i onalc al cul at i onand us et hi s obs e r vat i on t oi m pr ov e your r es ul t s . H ow woul d you f ur t her i m pr ove t he s e c al cul at i ons? 4. 4. Thee quat i onofPr ob.3. 4c anbecons i der e dt hesr s tofani nsni t ehi er ar chy ofe quat i onsi n whi c ht hen par t i c l eG i scoupl ed t ot hen - 1and n + 1par t i cl e G' s . A c om m on cal cul a t i onal s che me i st oK f de coupl e' 't he s ee quat i ons by

a p pr o x i ma t i n gt h en p a r t i c l eG i nt e r mso fl o we r or d e r( i nn )Gr e e n' sf un c t i on s .


Fore xam pl e,us eW i ck' st heor e mt os how t hatt he noni nt er a ct i ng 2 par t i c l eG s at i s he s

Gx b i y s ( xj t 1 , x2 t 2 , xl ' t 1 ' , x 2 ' t 2 ' ) G3 ? ( x1 t 1 , x1 f k ' ) Gj t xc ? z , x a ' ? a ' )+ Gu ( xk t l , x z ' / 2 ' ) Gj y t x at : L , x, ' t ' , )
A ppr oxi mat et he i nt e r act i n g 2 par t i cl e G wi t ht he s am e e xpr e s s i on and ve r i f y t hatt he r es ul t i ng s el f c ons i s t e nta ppr oxi mat i on f ort he lpar t i cl eG r e pr odu c es t heH ar t r e e Fock appr oxi m at i on.

*. 5. Ho wa r et h e Ha r t r e e Fo c ke q u a t i o n sf o rs pi n p a r t i c l e smo d i h e df o r s pi n d e p e n de ntp o t e n t i a l so ft h ef o r mg i v e ni nEq . ( 9. 21 ) ? 4. 6. A un i f o r ms p i n l Fe r mig a si n t e r a c t son l yt h r o u g h arwa v eh a r d c o r e po t e nt i a lo fr a n g eas ot ha t3 1> . -( k J ) 3 / 3f o rk a*0 . ( J )S ho wf r o m Ga l i t s k i i ' se q ua t i o nt ha tt h ep r o p e rs e l f e n e r g yi sg i v e nt oo r d e r ( k z . X3by

, u* ( k )- h l 2 i ' 6' *3 3
,-

j , + ( u ) j

k2

FERM I SYSTEM S

1e9

( b )S ho wt ha tt h e:r s tt wot e r msi nt h ee x p a n s i o no ft h eg r ou n ds t a t ee n e r g ya s ap owe rs e r i e si nG aa r e

E - hl k ;3 3 k l ,c ) 3 m + V ( ( c )S ho wt ha tt h es p e c t r um i ss t r i c t l yqu a d r a t i cwi t ha ne fe c t i v ema s sg i v e nb y ms l m = l- ( 1 yJ ) 3 / r r , c or r e c tt oo r d e r( kr a ) 3 .


4. 7. Gi v en a uni f or m Fe r miga s wi t h a deg ener ac yf ac t or ot -g,s how t hat

( J )t h eg r ou nd s t a t ee n e r g ye x p a n s i o nf o ra h a r d c o r e po t e nt i a lo fr a n g ea
bec om es E=

9h l m k / ( 3 ' ! . y . L g j ) j 2 k 3 s = a . 4 . 3 5 4 = z ( j j z j n o ( k s u l j. j . g g t k s u l 3 j j
W am jj ( g + . ) )s nj
E - h2 k/ 3 ( ks u ) 3

( b )t h er e s u l ti nPr o b. 4. 6be c o me s

4. 8. Ve r i f yEqs . ( 1 1 . 6 3 ) . ( 1 1 . 6 5 ) , a n d( 1 1 . 6 8 ) . 4 9. Fo rade g e n e r a t ee l e c t r ong a ss ho wt h a tY* ( q )i sg i v e nt osr s tor de ri nt h e


i nt e r ac t i on by

) 2 ) l / q ) s e 2 ( / c / q q 2 l n ( t J : f s + q ( j + g g F j
Sket c h t he r e s ul t i ng s i ngl epar t i c l e s pec t r um . D i s c us s t he ef l kct i v e m as s

m* l qjd e h n e db ym* l q )- ( h l ql l D k q j ql -b . 4. 10. Ap p l y Pr o b.1 . 7t oa ni mp e r f e c ts p i n ! Fe r mig a sa n ds ho wt h a tt h e g r o u nd s t a t eb e c o me sp a r t i a l l yma g n e t i z e df o rk F a > */ 2 .


4. 1 1. Ve r i f y Eq .( 1 2 . 3 6 ) .
4. 12. A s ys t em ofs pi nu f er mi onsi nt er a ct st hr ough a s pi ni ndep ende nts t at i c

p ot e nt i a lP ' ( q ) . ( c )An a l y z et h eFe y nma nd i a g r a msf ort h ep r o p e rp o l a r i z a t i on ,a n ds h o wt h a t

ZZ. uU z ( U=I l * g ( # ) ( 2 #+ 1 ) -' s8 a s+( 1 R* ( )- l 1e * W) 1 ( 2 J+ 1 ) -2 3 a , & u( s e e Eq.


( 9 .: ) ) . ( ! 8S ol v eDy s o n' se qu a t i on f o rl I . j , A s ( t ? )( c omp a r eP r o b. 3 . l 5 ) . ( c )S h ow t ha tD( q )( Eq. ( 1 2 . 1 2 ) )i se q ua lt o H. a , A z ( ) ,a n dhe n c er e de r i v et h e e x p r e s s i onD( q)= I 1 * ( ) ( 1- P ' ( q ) 1 1 * ( ) 1 l .
4. 13. Co n s i d e rt h edi a g r a msi n Fi g .1 2 . 3f ora na r b i t r a r yp o t e n t i a lF( q ) , a nd s h o wt h at o nl y1 R* 4 k pc o n t r i bu t e st o Ez i n Eq.( 1 2. 2 1 ) . Us e Eq. ( 1 2. 21 )t o

e v a l u a t ef1 , a n ds ho wt h a ti t a g r e e swi t ht h a ti nPr o b.1 . 4 .

j x

GROUNDS T ATE ( ZE ROTZ MP ERATURE )F ORMAL I SM

4, 14. ( c ) Ev a l u a t ee r ,i nEq . ( 1 2 . 5 7 )b yf i r s tp e r f o r mi n gt h eqi n t e g r a la n dt h e n


.
'

expandi ngi n powe r sofr s .

( 5 ) Ev a l u a t ee r zde hn e db e l ow Eq .( 1 2. 5 6 ) bye x p a n d i n gi np o we r so fr r e ct l y. s di ( c )S ho wt h a te , j + %zi si n d e p e n d e n to fq c ,a n dc o mp a r ey ou re x pr e s s i o nf o r


t hecons t antt er mi ne c o r rwi t ht hatobt ai ne d byK . Sawada,Phys .Ret ' 06: 3 72 ., 1 ( 1 9 5 7 )a n db y K.S a wa da ,K.A.Br u e c k n e r ,N.Fu k u da ,a n d R. Br out ,Phys .

Re t ' . , 1 0 *: 5 0 7( 1 9 5 7 ) .

i I I

I
!

l
l
i

l 1 !

l
l
l t 1 I t l

5 Li near R espo nse and C ol l ecti ve M odes

The pr e c edi ng c hapt e rc onc e nt r at ed on t he e qui l i br i um pr oper t i e s of a Fe r mi s ys t e m atz er ot e m pe r at ur e, al ongwi t ht hes pe c t r um ofs i ngl e par t i cl ee xc i t at i ons f ol l owi ng t he addi t i on or r em ovalofonepar t i c l e. Thes ef e r mi on e xci t a t i ons c an be di r e ct l y obs e r ve dt hr ough s uc h pr oc e s s e sa s pos i t r on a nni hi l a t i on i n me t al s ,nucl ear r ea ct i ons ,e t c . I na ddi t i on,mos tphys i ca ls ys t e m s al s o ha ve l ongl i ve de xc i t e ds t at e st hatdo not c hang et he num ber of par t i c l e s . The s e

e x c i t at i o n s( p hon o n s , s p i n wa v e s , e t c . ) h a v ea b o s onc h a r a c t e ra n da r ef r e qu e nt l y
known asc ol l e ct i vem o de s. Theyc an bedet e c t e d wi t hexpe r i me nt a lpr obest ha t coupl e di r e c t l yt ot hepar t i c l ede ns i t y,s pi n dens i t y,orot he rpar t i c l e cons er vi ng oper at or s . Typi c al e xper i me nt ss c at t e re l e c t r om a gnet i c wave s or e l e c t r ons f r om m et al sa ndnuc l e i ,orneut r onsf r om cr ys t a l sand l i qui d He4 . Thes epr obe s a1 l i nt e r a ctwe akl ywi t ht hes ys t em ofi nt e r e s tand t her e f or ec anbet r eat edi nBor n appr oxi m at i on. To pr ovi de a ge ner a lbac kgr ound,we s hal lsr s t di s c us st he t he or y ofl i ne arr e s pons et o aweak e xt e r nalpe r t ur ba t i on.
171

1 72

GROUND. S TATE ( ZERO. T EM Pf RATURE) F ORMAL C SM

I3LGENERAL THEORY O F LI NEAR RESPONSE TO AN EXTERNA L PERTURBATI ON Cons i de r an i nt er ac t i ng manypar t i c l es ys t e m wi t hat i me i ndepe ndenthami l t on i a nX. Th ee xa q t s t a t ev e c t o ri nt h eSc h r di n g e rpi c t u r e/ k 1 s ( J ) z ,s a t i s sest he Sc hr di ngere quat i on

i hPl ' 1 ' s ( ? ) )= 4 $ . , e % 1 . s ( ; ) ) t


wi t ht hee xpl i c i ts ol ut i on

( : . 1 , -( r ) )= t p f z ? r / n t l ,( 0 ) )
Suppos et hatt he s ys t e mi spe r t ur be d att= t sbyt ur ni ng on an addi t i onalt i me-

de p e n d e n t ha mi l t on i a n Xe x t f ) . Th en e w S c h r d i n g e rs t a t ev e c t o r, t l s t f ) ) s a t i s s e st hemo di he de qu a t i o n( ?> ? 0 )

' Ps ( J ) ) 4. i h8) # . z ' ? . e x ( t l j ; , . ps ( t ) y , ot - (


,

and we s ha l ls e ek a s ol ut i on i nt he f or m

I ' PN ( ? ) )- c f #' ' ' , f ( ? ) 1 ' . I ( 0) ) , $


. ,

wh e r et h eo pe r a t o rz i . ' ( J )ob e y ' st h ec a us a lb ou n d a r yc o n di t i on

X( J )= 1

Ac o mb i n a t i o n ofEqs .( 1 3 . 3 )a nd( 1 3 . 4 )y i e l d st h eop e r a t o re q u a t i onf o rv i j t ) :


o z i l t l f s, / , g , * j j .e . . c a u z j y . , L t ) e j p, / , gt y j t
-

#g( ? ) v j j t l

( 1 3 . 6 )

wh e r eX74 / )i si nt h eu s u a lHe i s e n b e r gpi c t u r et h a tma k e sus eo f t h ef u l li n t e r a c t i n gX. Eq u a t i on( 1 3 . 6 )ma yb es ol v e di t e r a t i v e l yf o r?> t f j


z.

f ( t ) =l -i h l J ' l a d t ' X' 7 ( t ' ) +'


.

wh e r et he c a u s a lb ou n d a r yc on di t i o n( Eq .( 1 3 . 5 ) )i sa u t oma t i c a l l ys a t i s s e d b e c a u s e4e x t r )= ( ) i ft <t o . Th ec o r r e s p o nd i n gs t a t ev e c t o ri sg i v e nb y


f 1 P s ( ? ) ) =e i W ' 7 ' ( k I ' s ( 0 ) ) -i h t e f J ? ' / ' J ' o d t ' P7 ( r ' ) t ' F s ( 0 ) ' ) +' ' .

LI NE AR RESPONSE AND COLLECTI VE M ODES

173

A1 lphys i c al i nf or m at i on ofi nt er es ti scont ai ne di nm at r i xe l e m ent sofSc hr di nger

pi c t u r eop e r a t or ss ( J ) ( wh i c hma yde p e n de x p l i c i t l yo nt i me ) t J( ? ) ) e x >t Tx ' ( ? ) l :.s . ( ? ) l ' Ps ( ? ) )


-

f ' 1 p s ' ( 0 ) l ( 1 +, ' J ' d t 47 ( / 3 +. . 1 e i * t / ' o s l ' t s c i / r / . x ( l -i h 1 j ' f : d t ' Xj x t f ' ) +. . 1 l ' P s ( 0 ) ) ( k l ' s ' ( 0 ) I 0 , ( r ) I ' 1 ' , ( ) ) + ' r k l ' z ' , ( 0 ) I J ' l c d t ' x( z ? 7( ? ' ) , :s ( ? ) ! f ' l . ' s ( 0 ) )+ .. ( 1 3 . 9 )

On l yt hel i ne a rt e r msi nXe 'ha v eb e e nr e t a i n e d , a n dt h es u b s c r i p tH d e n o t e st h e He i s e nb e r gpi e t u r ewi t hr e s p e c t t ot h et i me i n d e p e n de nt h a mi l t o ni a nX ( c omp ar e Eq s . ( 6. 2 8 )a n d( 6 . 3 2 ) ) . Th ef r s t or de rc h a n g ei nama t r i xe l e me n ta r i s i n gf r om


an ex t er nal pe r t ur ba t i on i s her e expr e s s e di nt e r m s of t he exa ct H e i s enber g

op e r a t o r so ft h ei nt e r a c t i n g bu tu n p e r t u r b e ds y s t e m. I np a r t i c n l a r ,i f1 Fs ) a n dI t P' H)b0 t hd e n ot et h en or ma l i z e dgr ou n ds t a t e( 1 1 P 0 ) , h , t h el i n e a rr e s p on s eo f


t he gr ounds t at eexp ec t at i on val u e ofan oper a t ori sgi ve n by

8 r ( ? ) )- t t r l l e x- ( :( ? ) )
=

m l J ' C Q d t ' ( . I . ' ( ) ! g z ? 7 ( ? ' ) . J s ( r ) ) J ' 1 . % )

( 1 3 . 1 0 )

A sa s pe ci scex am pl e,c ons i dera s ys t em wi t h char ge e pe rpar t i cl ei nt he

p r e s e n c e ofa ne x t e r n a ls c a l a rp o t e n t i a l+f ' ( x/ ) ,whi c hi st ur n e do na tt = G.


Thecor r e s pondi ng e xt er nalper t ur bat i on i sequalt o

*b x l t j - J#3 xg s t x/ l t ye z t x/ )

( 1 3 . 1 1 )

whe r egs i st heex actpar t i cl e dens i t y ope r at ori nt he unp er t ur bed s y st em . The l i nearr e s pons em aybechar ac t er i z e d byt hec hang ei nt hedens i t y

b L ' h l x t l ? b =/ l J ! ' : # ? ' . f # 3 x ' t y e x t x ' t ' ) ( Y I %J y s ( x ' t ' ) , H s ( x / ) ) ) Y 1 P a ) =1 4 1 J t ' o # ? ' j i # 3 x ' E ' + * ' ( X ' J ' ) ( V ' 0 l ( H l f ( x ' t ' ) , H z f ( X ? ) 1 l Y % ' )( 1 3 . l 2 )
whe r ewe ha v en o wi n t r o du c e dt h ed e v i a t i onop e r a t o r sl q t j l xt j =? i n ( x J )- I t k t l x t j f ( c o mpa r e Eq.( 1 2 . 3 ) ) .( No t et h a tt h e c nu mb e r sa l wa y sc ommu t e . )I ft h e r e t a r ded dens i t ycor r el at i on f un ct i oni sde f i ne di n anal ogy wi t h Eq.( 1 2. 5) q ) : 1 ' * g ( ( ? 1( x ) , ? 1 z f ( x' ) 1 ( . 1 a , ,(

i D( x, x)=0 ( t-/) . # ( 5 w . , . . -o 1 . Y oj. . .- .. .

..

t h e nEq. ( 1 3 . 1 2 )ma yber e wr i t t e na s

3 ( ? X x / ) ) = t j *d t ' J # 3 x ' D R l x t , x ' t ' j t v e ' t x ' l ' )

( 1 3 . 1 4 )

1 74

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPER AT URE )F ORMAL I SM

wher tt h tcaus a lbe hav i ori se nf or c e d byt he r et ar de d nat ur eofD R,and wthav e

u s e dt h ef a c tt ha t@e xv a n i s h e sf ort ' <? ( ) . Eq u a t i o n( 1 3 . l 4 )t y p i s e sag e n e r a l


r es ul tt hat t he l i nea rr es pons e ofan ope r at or t o an ext e r nalpe r t ur ba t i on i s e xpr e s s i bl east hes pace t i m ei nt e gr alofas ui t abl er e t ar de d cor r e l at i on f unc t i on.

I ft h es y s t e mi ss p a t i a l l yh omo g e n e ou s ,t h e nDR ( x , x' ) = DR ( x- x' ) ,a n di t


i sus e f ult oi nt r oduc eFour i e rt r ans f or ms

+e x t k , a ) ) = J#3 xJd t e i k * x e i c o ' +e x t x / ) 3 ( H ( k. t o ) )xJd5 xfdt E ' i k * x e i z o ' 3 ( H ( x ? ) ) XR ( k, ( z ) )>j#3 xjWe i k e l t z f t u f DR ( x t )


Equ a t i o n( 1 3 . 1 4 )i mme di a t e l yr e du c e st o 3 ( H ( k , t x ) ) )= 1 DR ( k, f . t ) ) e t p e x t k , t s l

( 1 3 . 1 5 ) ( t l 3 . l 6 ) ( 1 3 . 1 7 )

( l 3 . 1 8 )

whi ch s howst hatt hes ys t e mr e s pondsa tt hes a m ewaveve c t orand f r equ enc y as t he per t ur bat i on. Thi sr el at i on i ss om e t i me s us e dt o dehne a g ener al i z e d s us ce pt i bi l i t y

J wa l kr t z a lN

3( ? i ( k, t s ) ) oa t k r xk ( . , )= h ' ( . , ) e t (,

( j ? . j 9 )

Such r e l at i ons ar te s pe ci a l l y us ef ul i ns t udyi ng t r ans por t coe ci ent s , whi c h r epr es entc er t ai nl ongwave l engt h and l owf r e que ncy l i mi t soft h e ge ner al i z e d

s u s c e p t i bi l i t i e s( c o mp a r ePr ob . 9 . 7 ) .
The f or egoi ng anal ys i ss hows t hat t he l i ne ar r e s pons ei s mos ts i mpl y e xpr e s s e di nt er m sor et ar de d cor r e l at i on f unc t i onsofexa ctHe i s e nbe r g oper a t or s . Unf or t unat el y, s uch f unc t i ons c annot be c al cul at e d di r ec t l y wi t ht he Feynm anDy s on pe r t ur bat i on s er i e s be cat l s eW i c kst he or em appl i esonl yt oa t i m eor de r ed pr oduetofope r at or s . Cons equent l y.i ti sge ner al l yeonveni e ntt o de t i ne an as s oci at ed t i me or der e dc or r e l at i on f un ct i on oft he s ame oper a t or s ,

whi c hn e c e s s a r i l yh ast h ef o r mo fEq. ( 8 . 8 ) . Wi c k ' st h e o r e mc a n no wb e us e d


t o ev al uat et het i meor der e d cor r e l at i on f unct i on i n pe r t ur bat i on t heor y. The r e mai ni ng pr obl em ofr el at i ng t he t i me or der e d and r et ar ded f unc t i onsc an be s ol v ed wi t ht he Le hm ann r e pr es ent at i on. A s pe c i f i c exam pl e has be en gi ve n

i nS e c . 7 , whe r eG( k, t e )a n d GR ( k. ( . t p )we r es ho wn t os a t i s f y Eq s . ( 7 . 6 7 )a n d( 7 . 6 8 ) .


Thtm e t hod i scl ea r l yve r yge ne r al ,and wes t a t ehe r et hecor r es pondi ngr e l at i ons

f o rt h ed e n s i t yc or r e l a t i o nf kn c t i on s( Pr ob .3 . 8 )

Rep( q , o 4 = ReDR ( q , f . t ) ) l m D( q , o 4s g nf . t l =I m. DR ( q , o a )

( 1 3 . 2 0 )

whi c ha r ev a l i df o rr e a l( , t ) .( I nt h i se xp r e s s i on .s g nt s> f . u / ' j f . z a l . l Eq u a t i on s


( 1 3 . 2 0 )a r ev e r yi mp o r t a n t , be c a u s ea n s ' a pp r o x i ma t i onf orD( q , ( z ? )i mme d i a t e l y y i e l dsa na p pr o x i mat e DR ( q , u ) )a nd h e n c et hea s s oc i a t e dl i n e arr e s po ns e .l ti s a l s oc l e a rf r om t h e Le h ma n nr e p r e s e n t a t i on f or D( q , t o )t ha tt h ep o l e s oft h i s

LI NEAR RESPO NSE AND COLLECTt VE M ODES

175

f unc t i on occ urat t he ex actex ci t at i on ener gi e s of t hos es t at e s oft h ei nt er a ct i ng as s em bl yt hatar ec oupl e dt ot he gr ound s t at et hr ou gh t l n e dens i t y oper at or .

IK SC REEN I NG I N A N ELECTRO N G A S A s our f i r s te xam pl e,w e c ons i de rt he r es pons e ofa dcge ner at ee l e ct r on gast oa s t at i ci m pur i t y wi t h pos i t i ve char g e Ze,w he r et he ex t e r nalpot e nt l ali s gi ven by

( r e f t xl )= Ze x1
and

( I 4 . l )

t J ' * X ( q, t z ? )- br r l ze q-23( ( z p )
N ot et hat we hav e he r el e tt v. . . +- c c. Thi s poi nt c har ge al t e r st he el e ct r on

di s t r i but i on i ni t s vi ci ni t y,and Eqs .(l 3. l 6)and ( l 3. l SJt og et herde t u r mi ne t ht t i nduc e d par t i cl ede ns i t yt o be ( f ore l e ct r ons .t he i 1t er ac t i on i s. e ( ;e x ) t i r ' ? i ( X ) ) ' = -4 2 =) 3j ' J3 t ? ' f q * XDR ( q. 0 ) 4 n . ze z l h q2 ) ' ' 1 Equat i on ( 1 2. 1 4)s howst hatt he t i meor der ed de ns i t l ' cor r el a t i on f unct i on D i $
e qualt oJ k I ' I swher e1 1i st het i me or der e d pol ar i zat i on par t . I f1 7Ri sdef i ned as t he c or r es pondi ng r et ar de d pol ar i z at i on. t he n Eq. ( l 4. 3) as s um es t he s i m p1 e f or m

3r ' . ? i ( x) , '= -( 27 r ) -3(J3 g ' I Q* Xf l R( q>0)4. c . 2 7 6 : 2 t j2 = . --( 2 7 , 7 . ) 3fJ3 t yv f q * x 1 1 R ( q , 0 ) Z( . ' t ) ( q ) = - ( 2 c' , ) 3 zf Jb q p i q * x g H* ( q, O) f . , . ' ( q. O ) j R = , -( . 2 : 7 . ) 3 Z( dJ t : / c f q ' i t l K . R ( q . 0) 1 ' t- 1 ) ( l 4. 4) wh e r et het hi r dl i n eh as be e no bt a i ne d wi t h Dl ' s o nse qu a t l on ( s e eEqs . ( 9 . 4 3 ) a n d ( 1 4 . 5 ) ) ,a n dt h ef ou r t h wi t ht h er e t a r de dv e r s i onofEq. ( l 2 . 1 ' ; ) . Th epr e N t ou s per t ur bat i on anal ys i s( Se c.l 2)al l owsust oc al c ul at et het i me or de r e df unc t i ons F la n d <,a n dt h eLe h ma n nr e pr e s e n t a t i o nt he nl ' i e l d sg c ompa r e Eq .( 1 3 . . 2 0) f o r o, . , . s/ j I I 1 ) 1 1 R ( q . c o ' ) >( Rec . 1 s g nu ? l m) l 1( q , ( o ) = Re 1 1( q. ( o)+ 1s gnt sl mF 1 ( q. t . z ? ) xR( ' q. a ? )= Rea ' ( q, ( z ? )z . l ' s gnu )l m vt qs ( , ? l Ac om bi nat i on ofEqs .( 1 4. 4)and ( l 4. 6)t hen pr oNi desan e xac lde s cr i pt i o1 )of
.

t he s c r e e ni ng abouta poi ntchar ge.

l nt he appr ox i mat i on of r e t ai ni ng 01 1 1 / .r i ng di agr ams .s, ( q. O)i s pt r r el l '

r e a lg Eq. ( 1 2 . 4 9 ) 1 , a n dt h er e t a r de df u n c t i o nb e c o me s

x r ' ( q , 0 ) -, o ( q . 0 ) -1 +4 a r , F c s z t = f ? 2 ) i g j j . j

1 76

GROUNDST AT E( ZE ROT EMPF RATURE) FORMALI SM

He r et h ef un c t i ong( x )( Eq. ( 1 2 . 6 4 ) )i sg i v e nb y
l aj nI r ( x ) =1 j -j k ( 1 -' $ x ) 1 j - + j x t 1 ,

( . j 4 g )

and hast hef ol l ow i ngl i mi t i ngbehavi or

: ( x ); k ; 1+ O( x 2 ) g ( x ); =! . +. t ( x- 2 ) l nR1 x- 2l )

I x- 21 <1

( 1 4 . 9 c ) ( 1 4 . 9 : )

g ( x)e jx 2
t hen r e duc est o

. x> 1

( 1 4. 9 c )

Eq ua t i o n( 1 4. 7 )ma yb es ub s t i t u t e di n t o Eq. ( 1 4. 4 ) ; t h ei n d u c e dc h a r g ed e n s i t y

3 t ) ( x ) ) r - -p 3 ( ? 1 ( x ) ) r
- -

Z e j ( a . ) 3 e( w k s ) 2 + y x r s = l g l q l k p

dT q i qx

4 a r s =1 gl q l k

( l 4 . 1 0 )

Thi sexpr e s s i on hass e ver ali nt e r es t i ng f e at ur es:

l .Thet ot ali nduc e d char g ei se as i l yde t er mi ned as

bQr = j#3 x( 5 ( ) ( x ) ) , n a r s =-i g ( / / c s ) - zefd? q3 ( q ) ( t ? / k,. z j ) )+4 ar s = . g ' ( t #k F


( 1 4. 1 1 )
whi c hs howst hatt he s cr ee ni ng i sc om pl et eatl ar gedi s t ance s .

2.Th ei n t e g r a n d ofEq. ( 1 4. 1 0 )i sb ou n de df o ra l 11 t ?Ia ndv a n i s h e sl i k eq4a s q> . : ; o( c omp a r eEq.( 1 4. 9 c ) 1 . He n c et h ei n du c e dc h a r g ed e n s i t yi se v e r y wher efni t ei nc l udi ng t heo r i gi n be ca us e

1 ( 3 ? ( x ) ) )< 1 4 3 / ( 0 ) ) r !
-

Ze

J ( 2 0 , 3 ( f p k s ) 2 + 4 a r , , r 1 g t q / k s ) < *
4kF 1

v l s q

z ur s , r -l gt wl s l

( 1 4. 1 2 )

He r et hesr s ti ne qual i t yar i s e sf r om t heos c i l l at or ye xponent i alwhi c hr e duc es t hec har gede ns i t yf orx# 0. 3.Thes i ngul arqldepe nde ncef ors mal lqli scutof l at

mi n=

4ar s1

' r r

kr=

' n ' a t

6=ne2 +

E k

Mq r F

( 1 4 . 1 3 )

( s e eEqs . ( 3 . 2 0t o3. 2 2 ) , ( 3 . 2 9 ) , a n d( 1 2. 6 7 ) ) ,whe r eq 1 . Fi st h eTh o ma s Fe r mi l


IL. H. Th oma s , Pr o c . Ca mb r i d gePh i l . . O c. , 2 3: 5 4 2( 1 92 7 ) ; E. Fe r mi . Z. Ph ys i k, 4 8: 7 3( 1 9 2 8 ) .
An el e ment ar y accountofi t sappl i c at i on t o met al smay bef ound i n J.M .Zi man,k e pri nci pl es oft h eTh e o r yo fS ol i ds . ' ' s e c s . 5 . 1t o5 . 3 ,Ca mbr i dg eUn i v e r s i t yPr e s s , Ca mb r i d g e ,1 9 6 4 .

LI NEAR RESPONSE AN D COLLECTI VE M ODES

wave num be r .

wh e r eb p w s t x )i st ha to bt a i n e di nt h eTh o ma s l l kr mi a p p r o xl ma t i o n.

P= 5 -2 - -( . 3 v : 2 ) ' i n!
z A ?

2 h2

( 1 4. 1 6)

l fweputachar geZei nt oauni f or m el e ct r ongaS( i mpos edonauni f br m.pos i t i v e


sx ed ba ckgr ound of char ge de ns i t y( v ? at hat m ake st he unpe r t ur be d s l ' s t em

ne ut r a l ) .t hen t he c ondi t i on ofl oc alhydr os t at i cc qui l i br i um r e qui r est ha tt he f or c e son a s mal l( uni t )Nol umeel ementmus tbal anc e
7 whe r e& i st her e s ul t i ng e l e c t r i cf l e l d. Poi s s onse quat i on be com e s
whe r e( J -i st he e l e c t r os t a t i c pot ent i a l . W ec an now wr i t e N 'Fj= 0 = -V# - t a / ? t j

n-l l v= n
V? ?= V 3 z ?
2-k2 l --( 3 , ; r 2 ) i. . - vjp := r vv 32 p? n%

( l 4. 2 0)

Si nc et he l e f ts i de i sal r e ady l i ne ari ns m al lquant i t i es ,weca n us e Eq.( 3.2 9)t o m' r i t e


2 l t 2k2 I . - - z 3 2 -- v j ? ?= e vt j -

z ? 7? ? f )

178

GROUNDS TATE ( ZEROTEMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

ore qui val ent l y

( V2-f ? 1 . , . ) 3 p ( x )- ze q l w3 ( x )

( 1 4 . 2 2 )

whe r et heTh o ma s Fe r miwa v e n u mb e ri sd e sn e di n Eq. ( 1 4 . 1 3 ) . Thes o l ut i on t ot h i se q u a t i o ni st h a tq uo t e di nEq . ( 1 4. 1 5 )

Vr s t x )= -Ze q I w( 4 = x4 t e q r r x

( 1 4 . 2 3 )

Th ea p pr o x i ma t er e s u l ti n Eq.( 1 4. 1 5 )i si n c o r r e c t ,h owe v e r ,b e c au s eg l x)
has a s i ngul ar i t y at x = 2, whe r ei t s sr s t der i vat i v e bec om es i nfni t e. The

p r e s e n c eo ft hi ss i n g u l a r i t yi nt h er a n g eo fi n t e g r a t i on( 0< q< c o )g i v e s3 ( ) ( x) ) r


anal ge br ai cas ym pt ot i cdependenc eon x i nc ont r as tt ot heappar e nte xpone nt i al be ha vi or ar i s i ng f r om t he appr oxi m at es i m pl e pol e at q= il ' ( ? rs . W e m ay e xt r ac tt he cor r e c ta s ym pt ot i c be ha vi or of3t . ) ( x ) ) ri nt hef o l l o wi n g ma n ne r :

f i r s tr e wr i t et hel o g a r i t h ma pp e a r i n gi ng( ( #k s )a s( s e eEq. ( 1 4 . 8 ) )

t+ L /2 + y l l n; k. : . -I i m j I n. j u yj . n . + o. ( q+uj s ' n
--

2 / f s ;
-

f q- 2 / :
.. .

Si n c eg i sa ne v e nf u n c t i o no fi t sa r g u me n t ,t hei n t e g r a li n Eq.( 1 4 , 1 4 )c a n be
wr i t t en as

j . ' ; ( x ) . r . j . r . ( . l ; . x j . . q # t ? e k q x q , + q l t ? r g l q . / k v ' l -1

c o

( 1 4 . 2 4 )

Fhe i nt e gr and i s now an anal yt i cf unct i on ofq wi t ht he s i ngul ar i t ys t r uc t ur e s how' ni n Fi g.1 4. 1 ,and t hebr anc h cut soft hel ogar i t hmshavebe en c hos e ns o t hatt he l ogar i t hm i sr e ala l ong t he r ea laxi s . Thecont ourcan bedef or med as

i n d i c a t e d ,a n dt he p o l ea tq; 4 ; i q v yg i v e st h ee o n t r i bu t i o no fEq.( 1 4. 1 5 ) ,whi c h v an i s he se x po n e n t i a l l yf o rI a r g ex. I nc o nt r a s t , t h ec ut se x t e n d do wn t o( wi t h i n n)t her eal axi s . Thei nt e gr al sal ongt het wobr anchcut sde pendont hedi fer e nce
oft he f unc t i on a cr os st he cut 't . hi sdi P kr enc e ar i s e ss ol el yf r om t h e phas e oft he 1 ogar i t hm .and u' i t ht he br anch c ut sass hown w' e have
. .
'

l q-2 k ; . ) 2 . . r ) 2 2 l og( . . . 2 . . 2 . =j
t f y- 2 l s )? ;

o nCj
o nC2

) -=

l a F t i g o . n 1 o 4 f . 1 8 ( / C ( x o ) n r t . o u r f o r a s y m p t o t i c e v a l u -

LI NE AR RESPONSE AND COLLECTI VE M ODES

179

whe r eu ' i ndi c at es t he val ue oft he phas e on t he r i ghts i de of t he cut m i nust he val ue of t he phas e on t he l ef t . Be caus e of t he dec r e as i ng exponent i al i nt he i nt egr and,a l lt he s l owl yv ar yi ng f unct i ons i nt he i nt e gr and can t hen b er epl ac e d by t he i rval uesatt he s t a r toft he br anc h cut . Thus we have

H 2 k j ; r z
..

q2

whi ch was f i r s t de r i : ed by Lange r and N' osko. 1 The e xpr e s s i on ( 1 4.2 64 7 i < qual i t a t i ve l y di f f er entf r om t hatpr e di ct e di nL q. ( l 4. 1 f)and eN hi bi t s1 ongr angc os ci l l at i onsN N . i t har adi alwave l c ngt h =,I k ' y and an e nN ' el ope pr opor t i onait o .v''. I ti s cl e ar t hat 3 .p ' k ( x),i s an i m pr oN ' em( ! 1 1 t oN ' t ? r f . l z . f( x) .s 1 ! 1 c ct 1 1 ef or r r l e 1 'i 1 1 cor por at es t he di s t r i but i on f t l nc t i on of t he i nt e r a ct i ng medi un) i 1 1c om pL l t i 1 1 g t her e s pons et ot heext e r nalt i el d. Fr om a phl ' s i calpoi ntofs ' i e u. t he l ongr al l ge os t ? i l l at i ons i nt he s c r c cl ) i I ) g char g ear i s ef r om t hes har pFer r r i iS ur f a ce . bec aus el ti sI l otpos s i bl et oc ons t r uc t as m oot hf unc t i o1 outo1 -t he r e s t r i ct e ds etot -$ 5a' k e ve t z t 0r sq ' -ky. T hi set l kc t was t i r s ts ugg es t e d by Fr i ede l j zand s u ch Fr i e ( l ( ' Ios c i l l at i ot l s ha ve bee n obs e r :e t l asa br oadeni ng ofnuc l e arm agne t i cr e s onanc el i nesi n di l ut e al l oys . 3 As i nl i l al ef l kc t al s o oc cur si 1 1di l ut e m agne t i c a1 l oj$, 't he conduct i on e l e c t r ons l nduc e: ) .i l wher e xi st he s e par at i on of t he i m pur i t i e s. 4 . Atl ou butf i ni t et e l npcr a t t l 1 ' e s . . li t he Fe r m is ur f ac ei ss me ar e d ove ra t hi ckne s s/ . ' sF i n ene r gy. and i tt ur ns ot l tt l l at

i n di r e c ti nt e r a c t i on be t we e n ma g n e t i ci n ' l p ur i t i e soft h ef o r m xl /c o s ( 7 1 . / . . v j , ) .

iJ,S.Langerand S. H .Vos ko,J.Ph vs .( / ? t ? ? ? ? .Sol i t 1 .12: 1 96(l 960) . 2J.Fr i edel ,Phi l .At f t z g. .43 : 1 5 3( l 9 5 2 ) :N ' l l o t ' oC' I ' ? > ' l ' ? ? / ( ? , 7: 2 8 7, St l p pl . 2( l 9 5 8) . 3N .Bl oem ber gen and T. J.Rowl a n d,Ac t uWt z ? . ,1; 7 31( 1 9 53 ) ;T.J .Rowl a nd. Ph b ' s .Ret ' . . 11 9: 900(I 960) ;% V.Kohnand S. H . Vos k o. #/ l p . .Re k ' . .1 1 9: 91 2( 1 9 6 0 ) : s c ea l s o .J . N . 1 .Zl n p a n. op.ci t . ,s e cs,5. 4 .qnd 5. 5. 4M .A.Rude rmanand C.Ki t t el l , Pl . b ' s . Re t ' . , 9 6: 9 9( 1 95 4) .

18 c

GROUNDST ATE ( Z EROTE MPE RATURE) F ORMAL I SM

Eq.( 1 4 . 2 6 J ) mu s tb e mu l t i p l i e db yt h ef a c t o re x pt -z z r n ? / k s r x, / / j 2 : ' s ) . Th e
i m por t anc e ofa s har p Fer mis ur f ac ei sc onsr me d by t he behavi or i nas upe r -

c on du c t or ,wh e r et h e Fe r mis u r f a c ei ss me ar e do v e ran e n e r g y wi dt h< . . tE ' k .


e v e na tF = 0( s e eCh a p.1 3 ) .l nt h i sc as e , t h ea s y mp t ot i cf o r mo ft h es c r e e l l i n g

d e n s i t yi sp r o po r t i o na lt o x3 c o s l z / c sx l e x pt -/ f s xl/ e y ) ,c o mpl e t e l yan a l og ou s


t ot hatf ora nor m alm e t alatsni t et em per at ur e. l

ISZPLASM A OSCI LLATI ONS I N AN ELECTRON GAS l t hasal r e ady been poi nt ed outt hat1 1( q, c g)has pol esatt he ex ac te xc i t at i on e ner gy oft hos ecol l e c t i ve s t at esoft he i nt er ac t i ng s ys t em t hatar econne ct e dt o

t hegr ound s t at et hr ou ght hedens i t yoper at or . Rec al l i ng Eqs. ( 9. 435)and ( 9. 46) &( y .) -. -l.= j. j -g( ) t q l I I ( q ,( V s )
o

t q ) K l q , f t ) i

..

we ob s e r v et ha tv ( q , ( z ? )v a ni s h e sa tt h e s es a me e n e r g i e s . l nt h er i n ga p pr ox i mat i o n ,Eq .( 1 2 . 5 0)s h o wst ha tt hedi e l e c t r i cc on s t a ntK . rha so n eo bv i ou sz e r o,


occ ur r i ng f orfxe d ene r gy t r ans f er y ' and l ong wa vel engt hsq . + . 0 4ar

K r l q s t z ? l= 1- 1 X 7 . 7 . : , 2
v2

Thi squant i t y vani s he sa t

J ' j= 4= r s ( 3 =) 1

Re wr i t i n gt h i se x p r e s s i on i nd i me n s i on a lu ni t s( s e e Eq s . ( 3 . 2 0 )t o( 3 . 2 2 ) , ( 1 2. 3 5 ) , a n d( 1 2 . 5 2 ) )we hn dac ol l e c t i v ee x c i t a t i on a tt h ec l a s s i c a lp l a s ma f r e q u e n c y z
gi ven by

j )2 #j =

4=ne l

(I 5. 4)

W es hal li nv es t i g at et h es e pl as m a os ci l l at i ons i n m or e det ai lby c ons i de r i ng t he l i ne ar r es pons e of a dege ner at e el e c t r on gas t o an i m pul s i v e per t ur bat i on
I

e x t x f ) =p q x( ) ? a 3 ( : )

whos e Four i ert r ans f or mi sgi v en by

%* ' ( k, f . o )- +0 ( 2 7 r ) 3 3 ( q- k )
The c or r e s pondi ng i nduc e d dens i t y pe r t ur bat i on be c omes

3 ( l i ( xp ) )= -t > ( 2 =) 4j #3 / f d u l c i k * x e i l x ' t I 4R ( k( s l ( ? c e x t k, ( z ? l

- -e +( ) p i q x t z vl -l . ( d o l e i u ' f I I R ( q' ( , , ) = -e ( ; ) c: i q * x ( 2 =) -1. f d c op -i a , ! &0 ( q ) 1 t g x R ( q , ( s . ) j l- j )


tA . L.Fet t er .Phys.Re ' . ,1 40: , *1 921( 1 965) .

2Thecl as si c alt heoryofpl as maos ci l l at i onsi sdi s cus s ed att heend oft hi ss ect i on.

'

LI NEAR RESPONSE AN D COLLECTI VE M ODES

181

whi c hs howst hatt hes i ngul ar i t i esof1 lRi nt h ec on ) pl ex ( . o pl aneal s o det er mi ne t he r e s onantf r e quenc i e s oft he s y s t em .

AI t hough Eq.(I 5 . 7)i sexa ct ,wes hal lcons i deronI yt he appr oxi m at i on or r e t ai ni ng t he r i ng di agr ams . I nt hi scas eK . R( v q. r . sli qgi v en by L ' qs .( l 2. 24)and

( 1 4. 6 )a s
K

& r ( q, t o)= l-k ' t q) 1 ' 1 0 R( q, u, j

wh e r eg c omp a r eEqs . ( 1 2 . 2 9 )a n d Eq s . ( I 4 . f ) j
1 10 R ( q, . r s). .Re1 10 ( q. u , )-. 1s gn( . z )I m 1I C ' t q( . r ? )
2 -c l 5 l ' ( 1-? ? C k 'q) ? ? 0 l l b (1-. n% k k -q k) q h ( 27 7 . ) 3( s. -c o l o k i 1 t ' f . o . f t l k r z p k k q
. . .

l ' b ' ;

. . ,

- -

. )' .t . y 3 ) . ' n' h


--

( ( 2 . , . ) 3c o -t t o k q.u p k)v/ ' ? /


--

y j ( ) y : ( ) ' ' k q. ' ' k -

wher eso k= f ? ( / f s-k) . Thus1 10 Rdi Pkr sf r om l l 2on1 t yi nt he l nt i ni t es i m al s zi x ) .


.

The f r e quen cy and I i f e t i mt lof t he coI l e c t l ve modesar e det er ml ne d by t he pol es

oft he i nt egr and i n Eq.( 1 5. 7 ) . J Thes e occuratt he val ue s! . j q- i yqt ha ts at i S f y


t he e quat i on

1-k ' ( q) 1 1 0 R( q. f . . 1 -i yq ) q.

I n ge ne r al ,t hi s equ at i on c an be s ol l k ed on1 ) .u . i t h1 ) um er ! caI a: 1 a1 j s l s: i t -t he dampi ngi ss mai l( ' y qw ' ktj q ) .houev er . t hent her ealand i magi nar ) , ' par t ss epar at e, and w e l i nd

l= -I z ' k q) R el l 0 R l qs f . 1 q )= l' t q)Rel 1 C 1 ( qf . j q )


. ' =

(i f. l1 )

z:

? R el l O R ( q. t ? . ? ) -i l ml 1O R ( qf . 1 t ). .. . ? J #

PRe1 l 0 ( q. o , ) -l =s gn. t 2 qI ml l 0 ( qt2 # ). . d o t h

Equa t i on (l 5. 1 l )det e r mi ne st he di s per s l on r e l at i on ( 1 # oft he col l ec t i se mode, whi l e Eq.( l5. l 2)t hen yi e l ds an e xpl i c i tf or m ul af or t h e dam pi ng c ons t ant .
Thi s appr oxi m at es e par at i on of r e al and i m agi nar y par t sui l lbe how' nt o be val i d atl ong wa vel engt hs .and we now cons i de rt he e xpans i on ofl I 0 Rf orq -' . 0.

A1 t hough i ti spos s i b1 et o expand Eq.t l 2. 3 6)f ors m a1 l f / .& &e i ns t eadwor k di r e c t l y wi t h Eq.( l 5. 9) . As i m pl e change ofN ' ar i abl esi nt h ef i r s tt er m oft hi s
lln g ener al l&al s o hasacuti nt hecompl ex ( spl aneJ us tbel ow't her ealaxi s. wi ,f t h adi s cont i n ui t yp r op or t i on a lt oI m1 1R ( q. u ? )( s e e ,f ore x an l pl e g.1 2. 9) . As?'c c,how' ever ,t hi scut , Fi ma k e s a ne gl i g i b l ec on t r i b ut i on t o Eq.( l 5 , 7 ) ;h e n c et h ed on l i n an tl o ng t l n l eb e h av i orhr r e ar i s esf rom t hecol l ec t i vem ode,whl ch i sundam ped i nt hepr es entappr oxl nl at i on.

182

GROUNDG TATE ( ZE ROTEMPE RATURC )F ORMAL S SM

ex pr es s i on r e duc est hei nt e gr alt o

n o ' t q , ( s l 2 j Jj j k ) s , , k g o , ( . , 1 . k q ) . , . i , . ( . k + q l . , ) . . j , . j 2 v2 dq k l J t a . p ' ' k t & : q . k / , , + i y l z ( h q / z m ' b z ( 1 5 . l 3 '


-

i ti sc l e art ha tl mH0 R= 0i f1 ( z J 1 >h kr q l m +h ql l z m;i nt h i sr e gi ono ft h eq- ( . o


pl ane,ReI 1o A= Rel 40may beev al uat e d asan as c endi ngs e r i e si nq. To or de r 4 we hav e

Re1 2 y2 o s( 1 q , t s )- sy t , -2 ,
.. .

J( a y j j n l + m ( . o+ 3 ( s ; t s )+ . 3 / s g2 j ' 4 1 m ( s i l + 3 ( m ( , )+ ' ' ' l J t d z , ' r k / N k xp 3 k = ; ' i


k) . y2
..

#3 k

2 k. q

k. q2

( 1 5 . 1 4 ) ( l 5 . l 5 )

s per s i on a n dt h eme a nv a l u eo fklf ort h e Fe r midi s t r i bu t i o ni s. j . # / . The di r e l a t i on( Eq. ( 1 5 . 1 1 ) Jn ow b e c o me s


1 4 , s . 1 1 c2

=y y y j j j y j

l + j j y y j c l ' t y+ ' ' -

3' hk q l

( 1 5 . 1 6 )

whi ch c an be s ol ved i t er at i vel yt o yi el d

j l q =+ : D p l l + j 9 j t t y q s j , j , 2 +. . .
wher e

j j

$ =ne 21

p j = . . ? . ? . 1 . . -

( j 5 . j g )

i st h epl a s ma fr e qu e n c ) , a n dq v r=( 6 =n e 2 ( e ) . ) ki st h eTh oma s Fe r mi wa v e n u mb e r i n t r o du c e di nS e c .l 4. S i n c eI ml l 0 R ( f / , j 1 q )v a ni s h e si fp f l q r ' >h q k p t l m +h ql l z m,


t hes e col l ec t i ve m ode s ar e undam pe d atl ong wave l e ngt hs . Thi sr e s ul tar i s es f ' r om t he appr oxi m at i ons us e di nt he pr e s e ntc al c ul at i ons;when hi gher or der l c or r e ct i onsar ei nc l ude d,t hepl as m aos ci l l a t i onsar edam pedata1 lwav el engt hs . Ther es onantf r e quen cyatz er owavel engt hi st hecl a s s i c alpl a s m af r e quenc y and i st he r e f or ei ndependentofh. To cl ar i f yt he phys i cs ot -t hes ec ol l e ct i v e m odes , wes hal lr evi ew t hecl a s s i c al de r i v at i onofpl as maos ci l l a t i ons . z C ons i der a uni f or m e l e c t r on gas ;t he equi l i br i um par t i cl e dens i t y nnm us tequalt hatof t he pos i t i veba ckgr ound nbt oe ns ur et hatt hes ys t e m i sel e ct r i cal l y ne ut r a l . l f
'D.F. DuBoi s .An n. Ph ys . ( N. F. ) .7: 1 7 4( 1 95 9 ) ;8: 2 4( 1 95 9 ) . 7L. Tonk san d1 . La ng mui r ,Ph ys . Re v . , 3 3: 1 95( 1 92 9 ) .

LI NE ' AR RESPONSE AND COLLECTI VE M ODES

183

t hee l e ct r on de ns i t yi ss l i ght l y per t ur be dt o

n f xt )= n o+ b n l x t )

( 1 5 . l 9 )

t he r e s ul t i ng unc om pens at ed c har gegi ve sr i s et o an e l e c t r i che l dJ*t hats at i s fes Poi s s on' se quat i on

V. d : ( x? )= -4 r r e ( x / )- n , ) =. Ane b n l xt ) ( l 5 . 2 0 ) Ne wt o n' ss e c on d1 a wd e t e r mi n e st h ef o r c e on t he e l e c t r on si n as ma l l( u ni t )
vol um e e l e m ent

m# d l n ? f l m g p t ? n / v ) + . ( y . v ) ( ? y ) j . e n i
pv mno . -e nn b

whi l et hee quat i on ofcont i nui t y may bewr i t t e n as Dn

J + . V. ( r l Y ); 4 : t . t .- ? 7 o V. v. -0

8 3n

( 1 5 . 2 2 )

Bot h Eqs . ( 1 5 . 2 1 )a n d( 1 5 . 2 2 )ha v eb e e nI i n e a r i z e di nt h es ma l l q ua nt i t i e sb na n d v . Thet i mede r i v a t i v eo fEq. ( 1 5 . 2 2 )ma yb ec o mb i n e dwi t h Po i s s on ' se qu a t i o n a nd t hedi v er g enc e ofEq.( 1 5. 21 )t o yi e l d q . : : 2 0 2 3 n ( x ? )= -, V . n ? =n 0 7 f ) y & ' t x? ) =e V. d ' ( x? )= -4 n l x t )
. . . .

t2

or

82b nl x:)= tl
- --

-.

--

j ) 2 g y t x/ ) >'j

Thus t he pe r t ur be dc har ge dens i t y ex ec ut e ss i m pl e har m oni c m ot i on wi t ha

f r e qu e n c y Dp l . Not et h a tEq .( 1 5 . 2 3 )do e sno tc on t a i ns p a t i a lde r i v a t i v e s ,s o


t hat t he r ei s no m as st r ans por t . Thi sr es ul ta gr ee s wi t ht he s peci sc f or m of

Eq.( 1 5 . 1 7 ) ,b e c a u s et h eg r ou pv e l o c i t yo L ' j qt ' ? t . pv a n i s he sa tl on g wa v e l e n g t hs .


16LZERO SO UND I N AN I M PERFECT FERM I GAS Sec t i on 1 5s hows t hata c har ged s ys t e m c an s uppor tdens i t y os ci l l at i ons wi t ht he l ongwave l e ngt h di s pe r s i on r el at i on ( . o; 4 ; f ' l p j . Thi sr e pr es ent sa t r ue c ol l e ct i v e m odebe c aus et her es t or i ngf or c eon t hedi s pl a ce d par t i c l e sar i s esf r om t hes el f c ons i s t entel e ct r i c sel d gene r at e d by t he l oca lex ce s schar ge s . l ti si nt er es t i ng t o as k whe t he ra s i mi l ar c ol l e ct i v e m ode oc cur si n a neut r al Fe r m is ys t em at r = 0. A s s hown i nt he s ubs e que nt di s cus s i on, a r e pul s i ve s hor t r ange i nt er par t i cl e pot e nt i ali ss u c i e ntt o guar ant ee s uc h a m ode ,atl e as ti n as i m pl e m odel . The r e s ul t i ng dens i t y os ci l l at i on t ur ns out t o ha ve a I i ne ar di s per s i on

: 84

GROUNDST AT E( ZE ROTE MPER ATURE) FORMAL I SM

r el at i on ( . o= c o qf orq . > . 0 and i s known as z er os ound. l Neve r t hel es s,z e ro s ound i sphys i c al l y ve r y di f l kr entf r om or di nar y fr s ts ound,des pi t et he s i mi l ar di s per s i on r el at i on ( . o= cj q. The di s t i nct i on be t we en t he t wo dens i t y os c i l l at i ons depends on t he r ol e of col l i s i ons:or di nar ys ound c an pr opagat e onl yi f t he s ys t e m i si nl ocalt her m odynam i ce qui l i br i um ;t hi sc ondi t i on r e qui r es t ha t t hem eani nt er par t i cl ec ol l i s i ont i m e' rbes hor tcom par e dt ot heper i od ofos c i l l a -

t i on2 . 6u ) ( t h a t i s , u ) r< : 4l ) .I nc on t r a s t , z e r os o un di s ac o l l e c t i v emod es us t a i n e d


by t he coher ent s el f c ons i s t enti nt er a ct i on ar i s i ng f r om nei ghbor i ng par t i c l e s; z er os ound t husoc cur sonl yi n acol l i s i onl es sr e gi mewhe r eo o r> l . Thec r uci al obs e r vat i on i st hat t he Paul ipr i nci pl e gr eat l yl i mi t st he pos s i bl ei nt er par t i cl e

c o l l i s i o n sa tl o wt e mp e r a t ur e , a n d , i n de e d, rbe c o me si nh ni t el i k e F2a sF -70. t


Ata sxe df r e que nc y,t he r ei sa cr i t i c alt e m per at ur e be l ow whi c h or di nar ys ound i ss t r ongl y at t e nua t e d,whi l ez er os ound pr opagat e sf r ee l y. At T = 0,or di nar y s ound c eas es t o pr opa gat e at an yf r equenc y, and onl yz e r os ound can oc cur . l n an e l e ct r on gas , t he pl as ma os c i l l at i onsappear e d asa r es onantr es pons e t o an i m pul s i vepe r t ur ba t i on. A ve r ys i mi l aranal ys i sappl i e st o a neut r alFer mi s ys t e m ,whe r et he per t ur bi ng ham i l t oni an m a y be wr i t t e n qui t eg ener al l y as

4e x t r l = jds xt yxt )&e x ( x? )

( 1 6 . 1 )

He r e U' s l x t )i sa ne x t e r na l t i me d e p e nd e n tp o t e n t i a l t h a t c o u pl e st ot h ede n s i t y .
Thes ubs equentanal ys i si si de nt i ca lwi t ht hatofSec.13 ,and t hel i ne arr es pons e i sgi ven by

3 ( t ? i ( xr ) )= ( . 2 *4Jd3 kJ ( oe i k * xF t z : t HR ( k1 ( s l&e x ( k, f . t ) )
Fort he s pe ci alcas e ofan i m pul s i v e pe r t ur ba t i on

( 1 6 . 2 )
( 1 6 . 3 )

Ut x l xt )= &7 ) K e i q xb ( t )
as i m pl eca l cul at i onyi e l ds

: ( r i ( xf ) )- t / 7e i q x l z r r l -lf d c o t ? f c ' a f &a ( q) l ( ( x R ( q , ( , a ) ) -l -1 ) ( 1 6 . 4) i nc omp l e t ea n a l o g y wi t h Eq. ( 1 5 . 7 ) . Th er e s o n an tf r e q u e n c yf o rwa v ev e c t o rq


i sagai nde t er mi ned byt hepol e soft hei nt e gr and,whi c h oc curatt hez e r osoft he

r e t a r d e dg e n e r a l i z e ddi e l e c t r i cf u n c t i o n& R ( q , ( , ? ) . Th es i mp l e s ta p pr ox i ma t i o nt ov t q , ( s lc o ns i s t si nr e t a i n i n go n l yt h ez e r o or der pr oper pol ar i zat i on par tl 10;i nt hi s cas e.t he pol e oc cur sa tt he val ue f . q- i yqde t er mi ned by

l= P ' t q l l I 0 A ( q, f l q- l kq )

( 1 6 . 5 )

Wea s s u met ha tf ke x hi bi t saph on o nd i s p e r s i o nr e l a t i on f k =c v q

( 1 6 . 6 )

lL. D.La nd a u. Sov . Ph y s . 4ET P, 3: 9 2 0( 1 9 57 ) ; 5: 1 01( 1 95 7 ) . 1Thi s r e s u l t d e p e nd so nl yo nt he av a i l a bl eph a s es p a c ea ndwa s f i r s t not e db yl . I a . Po me r a nc h uk, Zh .Ek s p.T e o r . Fl ' z . , 2 0: 9l 9( 1 9 5 0 ) .

UI NEAR RESPONSE AND COLLECTI VE M ODES

185

s ot hatt he r at i oL j ' q / ' qr en l ai nsf i xe d as . + 0. Ther el e vantl i mi tof1 10ha sal r e ady

b e e nc a l c u l a t e di n Eq.( 1 2 . 4 8 ) ,a nd t h ea s s o c i a t e dr e t a r d e df u n c t i o n ma yb e wr i t t e na s( q> . . 0 ) 1 70 R ( t ? , ( s )- =a C j ixl n x-xp ( l- : . x: ) h i - l- ' 1 '


mk l i x> .l q i r ' r

wh e r ex= mt l h k F q . Thef a c t orx= 1 x1 s g nx i nt h ei ma g i n a r ypa r tr e t l e c t st h e


change f r om t he t i meor der ed t ot he r e t a r ded f unct i on. An undam pe d m ode

i spos s i bl e onl yi f' : x. . 1> l . l nt hi scas e,t he l ongwav el engt h di sp er s i on r el at i on i sgi v en by l i m whe r e

q 0 t n k s j ; y ( ( y j = l . x 1 n j x . j 1 , 1 = * ( x )
: + 0 h k Fq # t s t , F

= 2:2

' x+ l

j o >1 x= l i m mL %= mc ?- and L ' si st he Fe r m ivel oci t y. W e s e et hatz e r os ound i spos s i bl e onl yi fc ' o> ' s.

Th ef u nc t i on o nt h er i g h ts i d eo f Eq.( l 6 . 8 )wi l lb ed e n o t e d( 1 . ) ( . v ) 'i , ti s


s ket c hed i n Fi g.1 6. 1 . The mos ti nt e r e s t i ng f e at ur ei st hel ogar i t hm i cs i ngul ar i t y

atx = 1 .l fwe as s ume t hat U( t ? )appr oac he sa sni t econs t ant P , ( 0)a sq . +0, t hen t he s pee d ofze r os ound i sdet e r mi ne d by t he i nt er s e c t i on of*( . v)w i t ht he hor i zont a ll i ne r r 2 2 / p? / t . sP ( 0) ,l ti sc l e ar t ha tt her ei s no i nt er s e c t i on unl es s U( 0 )7 w0,w ' hi c hi mp l i e sa r e p u l s i v ep ot e nt i a lb e c a us eU ' ( 0) = ft / 3 xI z ' ( x) .I n
t hi sca s e,t he e xpl i ci ts ol ut i on i sr eadi l yf ound i nt he we ak- and s t r on gcoupl i ng l i mi t s: We ak coupl i ng:

c ' oQ : t ' y 14 . 2e x p -mk,p ' ( @-2

2=2hl

P ' ( 0 ). , tmV. .

hl

( 1 6. l 0 )

186

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MP E RA TURE )F ORMAL I S M

St r ong c oupl i ng:

c o; k;rs

F( 0 ) 1 k)F4 0 )1 3 =2( ha/ g mk s ) ; k ;j n . 2m


P ' ( 0)> mkF
h2

; 4 J ( nP ' ( 0 ) r n -1 ) 1

Equ a t i on s( 1 6. 1 0)a n d( 1 6 . 1 1 )s ho wt h a tc t li sn o ' n a n a l yt i ci nt h ei n t e r pa r t i c l e


pot e ht i aland t huscannotbe obt ai ne d wi t h pe r t ur ba t i on t heor y. I ndee d,t he pr e s e nt appr oxi mat i on of r e t ai ni ng onl yt he l owe s t or de r pr ope r pol ar i z at i on

c a nn o tb e j u s t i h e dont heb a s i so fp e r t ur b a t i ont he o r yf or as ho r t r a n g epo t e n t i a l . l ns t e ad,weexpe ctt ha tt hel ogar i t hmi cs i ngul ar i t y of*( x)f orx , . > lwoul d al s o
oc curi n mor er e al i s t i ca ppr oxi m at i ons, 'ani nl pr ov edc al cul at i onwoul dt he r e f br e

r e nor mal i z et he numer i c alva l u e ofco / t ' y butnotal t ert he qual i t at i ve phys i c al
phe nom e non i nt he we akc oupl i ng l i mi t . Thi s as s um pt i on i s bor ne out by ' Pr ob. 5. 8. w he r eas e l e ct e dc l as sofhi gher or de rpol ar i zat i on i ns e r t i ol l si si nc l ude d.

l ti si n t e r e s t i n gt or e wr i t e Eq. ( l 6 . l l )a s ( I 6 . l 2 )

whi c hs ho wst h ei mpo r t a n c eo f as h o r t l a n g ep o t e n t i a l .I fj z ' ( 4 2 )we r eu n bo un d e d


asq > .0,t he char act e roft he di s per s i on r e l at i on wou l d bequal i t at i v el y di f l kr ent;

i nt hes p e c i a l c a s eof ac o u l ombp o t e n t i a l ( l . ' ( )= 4 =e 2 / q2 , Eq. ( 1 6 . 1 2 ) r e pr od u c e s


t he pl as maf r equenc yf ound i n Se c.1 5. Fr om t hi s vi e w poi nt ,z er os ound and pl as m a os c i l l at i onsar e phys i cal l y ver ys i mi l ar;t hey di f l kr onl yi nt he det ai l e d f or m oft hel ongwave l e ngt h di s per s i on r e l at i on,whi ch i ssxe d by t he behavi or

ofql1 z ' ( )asq-> . 0.


Forcom pa r i s on, we s hal lbr i eiy r e vi e wt he c l as s i calt heor y ofs ound waves i n a gas ,i n whi ch t he equi l i br i um m as s dens i t y po= m noi ss l i ght l y per t ur bed

Xxt )= P o+ 5 P ( X . ! )

( 1 6 . 1 3 )

Ther e s t or i ng f or cear i s esf r om t hepr es s ur egr adi e nt ,and N e wt on' ss e cond l aw be com e s

d( P 5 ' )=0 )+( v . V) ( p & ) ; k : p Y= -V # V! o0 ot


. .. .

dt

( 1 6 . l 4 )

Co r r e s p o nd i n g l y ,t hee qu a t i o n ofc o n t i n u i t yr e du c e st o( c o mp a r e Eq.( 1 5 . 2 2 ) )


ob e-

' t t

v. ( p v )x . p o v. v

wh e r eb ot h Eqs . ( 1 6. 1 4 )a n d( 1 6. 1 5 )h a v eb e e nl i n e a r i z e di nt h es ma l l qu a n t i t i e s .

LI NEAR RESPONSE AND COLLECTI VE M ODES

187

A com bi nat i on oft hes eequat i onsyi e l ds

:2&f= v2p d/1

( 1 6 . 1 6 )

The s ys t em hasan equa t i on ofs t at e#( p, 5' )r e l at i ng t hepr e s s ur et ot he de ns i t y


a nd e nt r opy. l f t hi se quat i on i se xpande dt o sr s tor deri nt hede ns i t yper t ur bat i onatcons t antent r opy,we5nd

v , p v 2 z ' ( p , , s ) ? ( P j # p j s 3 p . . . ; z' P # p ) s r c a p
Henc e3p obe ysawavee quat i on 82 p, a

( 1 6 . 1 7 )

3 t l, . .( y yv2 j p .
OP
pm s

whe r et hes pe ed ofs ound i sgi v en by

c t= P

and t he s ubs cr i ptm now e xpl i ci t l y de not e st he m as sdens i t y. H e r et he r e s t r i c t i on t o cons t a nte nt r opy m e ans t ha tt he pr oc e s si s adi abat i c and t hatno he ati s t r ans f kr r e d whi l et hecom pr es s i onalwave pr opa gat es t hr ough t he s ys t e m .For

ape r f e c tFe r mig asi ni t sg r ou n ds t a t e( 5 ' =0 ) .Eq.( 1 4 . 1 6 )g i v e s

C j =j (P Pj 1 h k s u v

o p y j j = sj y j =x . z j Z
( 1 6 . 21 )

Ac o mpa r i s o no fEq s . ( 1 6 . 1 0) a n d( 1 6 . 2 0)s ho wst h a t f ' o= v' j c l

i nt hew' eakc oupl i ng l i mi t . A m or egene r alanal ys i sbas e d on Landau' sFer mi

l i qu i dt he or yls h o wst ha tt ol i e sbe t we e nt h es p e e d ofl i r s ts o u n da n d x' 1t i me s


t he s pee d ofsr s ts ound f or a1 Icoupl i ng s t r engt hsand t hatt he t wo s pe edsar e appr oxi m at e l ye qualf or s t r ong coupl i ng. Ther ei snow desni t e evi de nce f or ze r os ound i nl i qui d H e3 ,whi c hi sa s t r ongl yi nt e r ac t i ng s ys t e m . Expe r i me nt s

i nd i c a t et h a t z( c ( ) -t j l y c l ; z0. 0 3 ,i ng o o da g r e e me n t wi t ht he t he o r e t i c a le s t i m at e s . Landau' st heor y al s o al l owsa det ai l e ds t udy oft he at t enuat i on ofze r o s ound and f i r s ts ound, 'e xper i m ent sf ul l yconsr mt hes e pr edi c t i ons .
lL. D .La nd a u,I oc .c i t . ;A.A. Abr i ko s o va nd 1 .M .Kha l a t ni k ov .Re p.Pr o p. Ph y s . , 2 2: 3 2 9

( 1 9 5 9 ) ,J .W i l k s , S ' Th ePr o p e r t i e sofLi qu i da nd So l i d He l i um, ' 'c h a p.1 8, Ox f o r d Uni v e r s i t y


Pr es s.Oxf or d,1 967. 2B.E.Keen,P.W .M at t hews ,and J.W i l ks. Pr o c .Ro y. S oc . ( Lo nd o n ) . A2 &f : 1 2 5( 1 9 6 5 ) ; W .R.

Ab e l , A. C. An de r s on , a nd J . C. Wh e a t l e y. Phv s . #e l . . Le t t e r s .1 7: 7 4( 1 9 6 6 ) .

18 8

GROUNDST ATE ( ZER OTEMPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

I7JI NELASTI C ELECTRO N SCAU ERI NGI W e ne xtcons i de ri nel as t i ce l ec t r on s ca t t e r i ng f r om s ys t e mss uc h asnuc l e iand m et al s . For s i m pl i ci t y we r e t ai n onl yt he c oul om b i nt e r a ct i on be t we en t he el e c t r onsand t hechar ged par t i c l esi nt he t ar ge t

#e x= - p2

l e1 ( X' ) l ( X ) d' Xd3 X' l x- x' j


. . . -.

Thr oughoutt hi ss ec t i on,t he c har ge dens i t y ope r at orf or t he t ar ge ti sde not ed

j( x) ,s i n c e ,i np r i n c i p l e , ) ( x)c a nd i f l krf r o mt h ep a r t i c l ed e n s i t yop e r a t o rH ( x )


( f ore x a mpl e ,i nh e a v ynu c l e iwi t hal a r g en e u t r o ne x c e s s ) . Th es ma l lv a l u eo f t h e 5n es t r u c t ur ec on s t a n t( e z j h c; k '1 / 1 3 7 )a l l o ws u st oa n a l y z et hes c a t t e r i n g
pr oce s si n Bor n appr oxi m at i on. The m at r i xe l e m entf ort he e l e c t r on t os c at t e r

f r om a ni n i t i a lpl a n e wa v es t a t el k ' h( yd e n ot e st h es p i np r o j e c t i o n )t oat i n a i pl a ne wa v es t a t e! k' s ' bi sj u s tt h eov e r l a poft h ei ni t i a la n df i n a l e l e c t r onwa v e


f un ct i ons2

f t k' s ' ' ) e J ( x' )k . s )= : f e . x , u t . s ' l k, ) u , ( k )


whe r et he u' sar eD i r ac wave f unct i ons f ort he e l e c t r ons 1i st henor m al i zat i on ,t vol um e,and we have i nt r oduce dt he t hr e em om e nt um t r ans f er r e df r om t he e l e c t r on

q> t k- k' )
t he( po s i t i v e )e n e r g yl o s s h f . oE B( V- k' ) h c> 0

( 1 7 . 3 )

l n an i ne l as t i ce l e c t r on s cat t e r i ng e xpe r i me nt .t het hr e em om ent um t r ans f erand

( 1 7 . 4 )

m aybevar i e di ndepe ndent l y, t heonl yr e s t r i c t i on bei ngt ha tt hef our m om e nt um t r ans f erbe pos i t i v e

V . 2% ( k- k' ) 2- ( k- k' ) l= 4 k k' s i n2 ( . j 9 ) >0


q2 - ( . , , 2c -2> ( )

wher e we as s ume ul t r ar e l at i vi s t i ce l e ct r ons wi t h f= hkc and b i st he el e ct r on s c at t er i ng angl e . Wi t ht her e l at i ons

f e f q x 1 ) ( x ) ds xds x, = = 4 j x x' ( . q ) 1 qz
,
-

( 1 7 . 6 )

/ ( -t 0K fP C Q * X ) ( x ) #3 x
1Foradet ai l ed accountofel e ct r on s cat t er i ngf r om nucl e i .s eeT.deFor es tand J. D .W al e cka, El e c t r on S c at t e r i nga nd Nu c l e arSt r u c t u r e , i nAd v a n . Ph ys . '1 5: 1( 1 96 6) .

2S e e ,f o re x a mpl e ,L.1 . Sc hi A s oua n t um M e c h a ni c s , ' '3 de d. , c h ap .1 3 ,Mc Gr a wHi l lBo ok


Company,Ne w Yor k,1 968.

LI NEAR RESPONSE AN D COLLECTI VE M O DES

189

t he e l e c t r on s c at t er i ng cr os ss e ct i on f or an unpol ar i z e dt ar g etm ay be wr i t t en as #2

a =j j/,
s

20 -1 q

s'

b g / j t s-( E n -f ' o l j k ' . t . I , , : ; ( q ) : t F ( ) , ) r 2 j y y j j .


s

f 2 )c 1 ? k'

( q ? 1( j 2 )I u 1 ' ( k ' ) ? . , ( k ) 2 t j j )

4 . n .2 c , 22

/c . -l

w hi ch f ol l ou' sf r om Fe r mi ' se ci ol den R ul e -al ong u' i t ht hei nci de ntel ec t r on f l ux

c / L 1 .l n Eq . ( l 7 . 8 ) t h es t a t e s: 1 t )a nd ' 1 ' 1 1 ) ' a r et h ee x a c tHe i s e nb e r ge i g e n s t a t e s


oft he t ar getpar t i cl es . The spi 1 1s um sar ee val uat e di nt he ul t r ar el at i vi s t i c1 1 m1 t w' i t ht he r el a t i onl

l j ' , 1 p ' s ( . . q jt t ' ( ; 2j g h o . y -( E4 y -1 ( ) j j


( ' ' . ,

c) , c )4 k z s l I : t t ? ( , c )q -c e s z ( ? ), (
' . -

g . 2 24) . ' 2

( p : 2 oos 2( ( ' ( 2 )
.

Q ., . , ,, --

t ' 7. ' C ) )

Fort he r em ai nde r oft hi ss e ct i o1 1$ 5 . e . s hal lcons i deronI yi l l c l as t i cs cat t er i ng

( t hati s -( , . ?n .0) :i nt hi sc as et heope r at orp ' hi n Eq.( l 7. 9)may be r epl a ce d by t he


Quc t uat i on dens i t y wi t hout c hangi ng t he r e s ul t .

s i de of Eq.

( 1 7 . 9 )a s
x

V 1 , , ? ( -q) V 1 . ( )2 bg / k f . z p- ( En- 1 ( ) ) j
(l 7. 1 2 t z )

I m .N. xV 1o I ;( -q ) I H ' n . n; q :y = n ( s o. ( u -y j .j l y . ' t j * g;' F ( -q ! ' t j @ ' x t ' j * jl . j a = j)m . ) n ) n ? -q . o 1 . ' . . . .( . . n . N r . o- ( En- Eo ) -1 1 )
= - . ,- .

-. X l ' * ( ? J 5 . ' t t . . q . ) . ' . V l . ' , y . 1 1 X . , # ( q ) V l q . j () j t s ; . ) 2 , c j


--

( En -z ; 0 ) : r s1 3 ) ,

1 90

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MP ER ATURE )F ORMAL I SM

Equ a t i o n( 1 7 . 1 2 c ) i se q ui v a l e n tt o( 1 7 . 1 2 : )s i n c et h el a s tt e r mi nb r a c k e t sha sno i ma g i n a r yp a r ti f( . o> 0 . Th et wo nu me r a t or si nEq .( 1 7 . 1 2 c )a r ee qu a li ft h e


gr ound s t a t ei si nvar i antunderr ot a t i ons ,f ort hen t he s um ove r n atsxe d En

mu s ty i e l dj us taf un c t i ono fq 2 . W es ha l l h e n c e f o r t ha s s u met h i st ob et h ec a s e . No t et ha tt he r i g h ts i d eo fEq.( 1 7 . 1 2 )v a n i s h e sa t( . o= 0 a n dt hu se x pl i c i t l y


ex c l ude st he e l as t i ccont r i but i on. l nt hi sway we obt a i nt he i m por t antr e s ul t l 1 dl a 1 - -

O . M#f 1 z ,d ,=
-

- -

r r I mr l t q , q; ( s l

( l 7 . 1 3 J )

l #2 c = cM dL 1' t &'

- -

1 ml 1 R ( q , q; ( s l =I

( 1 7 . 1 3 : )

wher ewehavede sne dag ener alpol ar i z at i on pr opagat orf ort het ar g et z

I 1 ( . x , > ' )- ( : ' l ' o h rE ?, / ( x ) ? ' s ( . p ) 1 1 % ' o ) ( 1 7 . 1 *) mI 1 ( d% #3 t ? . d t . ve . x' y) - ( 1 q x e f o a f l x f y ) c i q . y f r l t q q ' ; o . ) ) , , ) 3 ( 2 *3 ' . j z r' ' ( 1 7 . 1 4 : ) a p p r o pr i a t et ob o t hu n i f or ma n d no nu n i f o r ms y s t e ms( e . g . ,hn i t enu c l e i ) ,a n d
cor r es pondi ng r e t a r de df unc t i on

f I 1 R ( x, > ' )- b l t x- / J( ' l ' o 1 ( # , z ( x) . J , , ( > ' ) ! ! k F( ) ) ( 1 7 . 1 5 ) Eq ua t i on( 1 7. 1 3 J )i si mme di a t e l yv e r i s e db yi n v e r t i n gt h eFo u r i e rt r a n s f or mi n ( 1 7 . 1 4 : ) an dt h e ns e t t i n gq= q' , whi c hg i v e s

I 1 t q , q ; t z ' ) ) g r k l c o l p f t q l l f ' n l ' ( ' l ' n I # ( q ) I ' l ' o ) ' : ( h t . o ( ' Al f c ) + i . r l f , a + l E n l s c ) i . q ) g( l , . j 6 )


Equ a t i on( 1 7 . 1 3 : )f o l l o wsb e c a us eHR ( q , q; f . t ) )di f l kr sf r o m Eq.( 1 7 . 1 6 )on l yb y
hav i ng a+i yi nt hede nom i nat oroft hel as tt er m . Them om e nt um c ons e r vat i on

i n a un i f o r m s y s t e m s i mpl i he st he s er e s ul t s 'c , omp a r i n g Eq.( 1 7 . 1 2 )a n dt h e e qu i v a l e n tofEq.( 7 . 5 5 ) , wef i ndHt q, q ' ; f . t ) )= V3 q q , I 1 t qs t t ) l ,wh e r ef I ( q , ( s )i st h e


Four i ert r ans f or mi nt hecoor di nat e di f l kr enc e x - y and P' i st he vol um eoft he t ar ge t . Ther ef or e 1 d2 J F , o= -mI l ( q , ( , ? ) cu #f l de =I

un i f o r ms y s t e m
= -

( 1 7 . 1 7 )

F T r

I mH ( q , o

'W . Cz y a n d K. Got t f r i e d, An n. Ph ys .( N. F. ) ,2 1: 4 7( 1 9 63 ) .

2wec o ns i s t e n t l ys u ppr e s st heno r ma l i z a t i onf a c t o r( ( 1 Fc ! H %) , ) ti nt h i ss e di o n.

LI NE AR RESPONSE AND COLLECTI VE M ODES

191

No t et ha ti ti st h ec r o s ss e c t i o n N ru n i tv o l u me( o rN rt a r g e tp a r t i c l e )t h a ti s
t hemeani ngf ulquant i t yf oran e xt e nde ds ys t e m. I nel as t i cel ec t r on s ca t t e r i ng t her e f or e mea s ur e st he i ma gi nar y partoft he

pol ar i zat i on pr opagat ordi r ec t l y;c ompl et e knowl e dg e oft he i ma gi nar y par ti s
s uci ent ,howe ve r ,bec aus et he f unct i on i t s e l ff ol l ows i m medi at e l yf r om Eq.

( 1 7 . 1 6 ) r I ( 1 l i l x t+ ,., ., ( , , -i v :( a , ' ) q , q; o , )- m n( q , q; a , ' ) h , j = oI -y ( a ;


-

( 1 7 . 1 8 )
l ' x , 1 1 l RR ( q . q; )= m HR ( q , q; t z ) ' ) h , , ' ) t s+ j , #( . n . cI - h - i . t t+ f , a +x

l ti sp os s i b l et oc on s t r u c ts um r u l e sd i r e c t l yf r o m Eq s .( 1 7 . 9 )a n d( 1 7 . 1 3 ) .
f orweobs er vet hat

J c h d f x ' l t w l k o # 2 ; c w , ) . h, * I m I 1 ( q , q ; ) A
-' t ' l %I J # ( q ) # ( ' *l Tn ) =( : 1' 0 1 / 1 ( -: ) Xq ) 1 ' 1 %)- l ( T: l ) ( YI ' I %)I 2( 1 7 . 1 9 )
I tf ol l owst hatt het ot ali nt e gr at ed i ne l as t i ccr os ss e c t i on di r e c t l y de t er mi nest he means quar ede ns i t yquc t ua t i onsi nt hegr ound s t at e. W r i t i ngoutt heope r a t or s

o fEq. ( 1 7 . 1 9 )i nde t a i l weh a v e

( 9%l ? 1 ( q ) ? ( -q ) l ' l %)
-

fe l q x ( ' 1 ' o l ' / 1 ( x ) , &( x ) ' g( y ) # j ( y ) I ' l %)e A ' dq xd q y


fe i q x t ' l . %I 4) ( x) 4z ( x ) I ' . l %)( va l 4, 1 ( y ) 4# ( y ) 1a )e ' q ' :3 x:' y ( 1 7 . 2 0 )

Thec anoni ca lcom m ut at i on r el at i onsi mme di at e l ygi v e

# 1 ( x ) ( ' kt x l , g( y ) , i , gy l -& = b ( x-y ) f 4( x ) , / , gy l +4 1 ( x ) 4 ; ( y ) y gy l # z f x l


( 1 7 . 21 )
ahd

Jd' x#1 ( x) #a t x l- Z
Thus we c an wr i t e
-

( 1 7. 2 2 )

wh e r et h ee i g e nv a l u eof ;i st h et ot a ln umb e rof c h a r g e ds c a t t e r e r si nt h et a r g e t .

=
-

h *
o

d I mH( q, q; t M =Z+Je d Q * * g ( x, y ) e ** ' #3 x#3 . v


-

( 1 7 . 2 3 /)

# ( x , y ) -( ' l %l # 1 ( x ) # ; ( y ) f # ( y ) # . ( x ) l ' 1 %) ( ' l %I # 1 ( x ) # . ( x ) i ' l %) ( ' l %i # ( y ) #/y ) l ' l %) ( 1 7 . 2 3 : )


Thef u n c t i o ng( x, y )i same a s u r eo ft wo p a r t i c l ec o r r e l a t i on si nt h eg r o un ds t a t e .

1 92

GROUNDS TATE ( ZE ROTE MPE RATURE ) FORMALI SM

I nt h es p e c i a lc a s eo fa un i f o r m me di u m,wh e r eg ( x , y )= g ( I x- yl ) ,we h a v e
-

P' c o
' / F o

d u l I ml 1 ( q, )=Z + F fe i q ' x g l z j dz

un i f or ms y s t e m

( 1 7 . 2 4 ) Th ema t r i xe l e me n t si n Eq. ( 1 7 . 2 3 : )c a nbee v a l u a t e df or an o ni nt e r a c t i n g Fe r mi g a s( Pr o b. 5 . 1 0 )a n dg i v e

# 0 4 p x y j ) = V J g 5 1 ' k 6 2 F S j x 1 X y Y j . J 1 1 2
X X
- -

b ( h. , -( E n-Ef j ) ) --

--

X
X

( J )I I 0 ( t ? . t o )

Fi g. 17. 1 I mf li n( J)p e r f e c t Fe r mig a s ( d ) )r i nga pp r o x i ma t i on.

Thust hei nt e gr ali n Eq.( 1 7. 23 J) wi l lbe c ome s mal lf orl ar g e q be ca us e oft he


os ci l l a t i ons of t he e xponent i al . Thi ss am e be havi or i st o be e xpe ct e di nt he i nt er a ct i ng s ys t e m ,and we can t he r e f or ew r i t e l i
ec o

m -T r

h x '
0

I mI 1 ( q. q; u ) ) # ( s =Z

( l 7 . 2 6 )

l nt h i sl i mi tt h es c a t t e r i n gp a r t i c l es e e s j u a tt heZ i n di v i du a l c h a r g e s . ' No t et ha t
t hi sl i mi t pr ov i dest heonl yr ea l l y meani ng f ulex pr es s i on be caus e oft he r e s t r i c t i on

i n Eq . ( 1 7 . 5 )( u nl e s sf ors o mer e a s o nl ml ' l l q , q. ' t z ? li ss ma l l f o rc o ' l c> t ? 1 .


W edi s cus st hr eeve r y br i efappl i cat i onsoft he s er es ul t si nt heappr oxi m at i on t hatt het ar ge tcanber epl ac ed byane qui val entuni f or m me di um wi t ht hecor r e ct dens i t yand t ot alnum berofchar ge ds ca t t er e r sde t e r mi ne df r om t her e l at i on

z =P : ) F o= j ;

( 1 7 . 2 7 )

Th es i mpl e s ta p pr ox i ma t i ont o1 1i s j u s tH0s h o wni nFi g. 1 7 . 1 J. Th ei ma g i n a r y


par t of t he di a gr am r et ai ns onl yt he ener gyc ons e r vi ng pr oce s s e si nt he i nt e r -

me d i a t es t a t ef s e e Eq.( 1 7 . l 2 J ) ) . Thu st h ei ne l a s t i cs c a t t e r i n gi nt hi ss i mpl e mo d e li st h ec r e a t i on ofa p a r t i c l e h ol e pa i r ,o re q ui v a l e n t l y ,t h ee j e c t i on o fa


lThr oughoutt hi sdi s cus si onwehaveass umedt hatt het ar ge tpart i cl eshavenoi nt r i ns i cst ruct ur e.

LI NEAR RESPONSE AND COLLFCTI VE M ODES

193

s i ngl e pa r t i c l ef r om t he Fer m is ea. I nt hi sc as e we c an wr i t e 1 d2 J


-

t z s y d e #f )

= - -

) '

. n '
3 2

I ml 7( q, ( z ) )= 4. 1 42

3=Z

/ c )

I m H( q, ( s ) ( 1 7 . 2 8 )

e y mkr wh i c hi sgi v e ni nEqs . ( 1 2 . 4 0 )t o( 1 2 . 4 8 5 )a n ds ho wni n Fi g .1 2. 9 . Th i sf e a t u r e


o ft h es p e c t r u mi sr e f e r r e dt oa st h eq u a s i e l a s t i cpe a k. I fq l kF> 2 ,t h e r ei sn o
Paul ipr i nci pl er es t r i c t i on i nt he Enals t at e , and t he m axi m um of t he cur ve i n Fi g.1 2. 9 occ ur sat

x8 -

I mr I 0 ( q, ( , , )

f r ma x= l * m

32a2

( 1 7 . 2 9 )

( s e eEq. ( 1 2 . 41 ) ) . Equ a t i on ( 1 7 . 2 9 )i ss i mp l yt h ek i n e ma t i c a lr e l a t i on b e t we e n
t heener gy and m om ent um t r ans f er r e dt oas i ngl et ar g etpar t i c l ei ni t i a l l yatr e s t . The s pr e ad of t he quas i el as t i c pe ak i s due t ot he Fe r m i m ot i on of t he t ar get nucl e onsand t he hal f wi dt hi sa di r e ctm e as ur eoft he Fe r m im om ent um . Fi gur e 1 7. 2s hows a c om par i s on oft he t he or y wi t he l e ct r on s cat t e r i ng da t ai n Ca * 0 . Asa s e cond ex am pl e,c ons i dert he pol ar i z at i on pr opagat orc omput ed by s um m i ng t he r i ng di a gr am s a si n Fi g. 1 7. 1 :. I n us i ng t he i m agi nar y par tof

I I r ( q , ( , J ) ,wei n c l u det h e pr op a g a t i on o ft h ep a r t i c l e h ol ep a i rt hr ou g ht h ei n t e r ac t i ng as s em bl y

=m r l t q ( s l . n 1 I m f t l o o t q l q l g s r t q l , r z , l 1 q ) 1I ( ( ( & ( q ) ) l j j . g t l t q l u , ( q , . ) l j ) g ) I m I 1 0 ( q , u ) j ( ( l & c t q l R e H 0 ( q , ( s ) ) 2 i -( ( &( q ) I mI 1 0 ( q , ( s ) ) 2 ) !( 1 7 . 3 0 )


- - -

1I

Thi si m pr oved appr oxi m at i on ke eps t he quas i el as t i c pe ak wi t hi nt he s am e

k i n e ma t i c a lr e g i on swhe r eI mI 7 0 ( q , ( s )# 0 bu tr e di s t r i b u t e st h es t r e n g t h wi t hi n
t he pe ak. I n addi t i on t ot he quas i el as t i c peak,t he r e ar e al s o pe aksatt he di s c r e t e col l e ct i ve e xc i t at i onsoft he s ys t e m . For an i s ol at ed r es onantpe ak ate ner gy ht o= f a a r e s ,t hei nt egr at ed s t r engt h gi vest he a bs ol ut eval ue oft he i ne l as t i cf or m f ac t or

hl d u l jdf d 2 a -! z o v e r j , ( q ) ' 2 .o -r e s e n a n c e O ' M j y e ,


.

( 1 7 . 31 )

wher e

Fa 0 ( qJ Hp a o t -' q ) -1 E ' ' q * ( ' 1 ' I ) ( x ) l ' F0. ' ) #3 x * 1 '


.

1GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPE RATURE )F ORMALI SM Atsx ed e ner g yl os so a r e s .t hei nel as t i cf or mf a ct orc an now bem ea s ur e df ora 1 l

4 2( s t i l lwi t ht her e s t r i c t i o nq 2 >o QJ < 2 ) ,a l l owi n gu st o ma po u tt h e Fou r i e r


t r ans f or m oft he t r ans i t i on c har ge dens i t y. By i nver t i ng t hi sr el at i on,we c an obt ai nt he s pat i aldi s t r i but i on of t he t r ans i t i on c ha r ge dens i t yi t s el f . l For e xam pl e ,t ot heext entt hatt he uni f or m el ec t r on ga si sagood m odel ,t hec r os s
1 . 2 ca 4 0 : j qI =5 % Me v/ Ac

Fi g.17. 2 Qu a s i e l as t i cp e a ki n Ca 4 0 .I P.
Zi mme rman, St anf or d Uni ver s i t y Ph. D.

% o1 . 0
* 0 . 8 E Q t : 0.6
. -

8=O O
z- l NI Z Nz #' NN / z

Th e s i s ,1 9 6 9( unp ub l i s h e dl . ) Thet he or e t i c a l
cur ves ar e cal cul at ed f r om a noni nt e rg ct i ng Fer mi gas m odel usi ng t he expe ri me nt al r el at i vi st i c el ct r omagnet i ci nt er act i on wi t h

Y F g, / q0 .4 z / ' u / Q . 2 z w0 y
0

h II h y yI

t h en uc l e o ns .( E.M o ni z ,Ph y s .. R0. ,1 M: 1 1 5 4( 1 9 6 9 ) . ) Th eda s h e dc ur ' v ei so b t a i ne d


byas sumi ngan a ve rages i ngl epart i cl ebi ndi ng ener gy -35 MeV per nucl eon. The Fer mi

wa v e n umb e r wa st a k e na s kF= 2 3 5 Me V/
3 *
hc= 1. 1 9 x1 01 3 cm-l . The s ol i d cur ve i n t he l ower ri ght i sa t he or et i cales t i mat e of pi onpr oduct i on.

p j . r

2 *

El e c t r o ne n e r g yl o s sAt a ? ( Me V)

s e c t i on f orel e ct r on e xc i t at i onzoft he pl a s m a os c i l l at i onsi name t ali sgi ve n by

( s e eEqs . ( 1 5 . 8 ) , ( 1 5 . 1 0 ) t o( 1 5 . 1 2 ) , a n d( 1 7 . 1 7 ) )

1 1 #2 c=4 $ W) 3 (q . j * h l dRe I 1 0 ( q , ( x p 11 a =3 ( Dp j ) 4 b k e ) -l mk F P f . e ' ko s . yf l ' d e ' 3 p l t t ) -Dq ) 2+y ,


.

( 1 7 . 3 2 )
wher eZ i st he num be r ofconduc t i on e l e c t r ons . The c r os ss e c t i on i ss ha r pl y

ma k e da t a ne n e r g yl o s s h f h, wi t hawi dt hh y s . Su c he f l k c t sh a v eb e e no b s e r v e d

i nt he t r ans mi s s i on of e l e c t r ons t hr ough t hl n me t al l i cf i l ms . 3 A ver ys i mi l ar t r eat me ntde s c r i % si nel a s t i cneut r on s c at t er i ng,ass howni n Pr ob.5. 1 3.

PRO BLEM S 6. 1. Cons i de r a uni f or m noni nt e r ac t i ng s ys t em ofs pi n. f e r mi ons . Re duc e t her e t ar ded de ns i t ycor r e l at i on f unc t i on

i DR ( x , x' )= 0 ( t- t ' ) ( Tc I I : z f ( x ) , ? ' i s( x' ) 1 1 k F ' o ) h / ' ( To 1 T0 )


t o de sni t ei nt e gr al s . Cons i dert hef ol l owi ng l i mi t s' . 'Fo rat un m i t i o nGt we e n di s c r et es t a t e s ,t h e ph a s e ofFa gq lc a nl xd e t e r mi n e df r o mt i me r e v e r s a l i n v a r i a n c e .( % eT. d e Fo r e s ta n dJ .D. W al e c k a. o p. c i t . . ap p e n di x B. )
2Thi sr e sul tnegl e ct st hee xchanges cat t er i ng G t weent he i nci de ntel e ct r on and t heel ct r onsi n t h eme t a l .I t a l s oas s u me sas ma l l d a mpi n go ft h epl a s mao s c i l l a t i on s ;h o we v e r , t h ei nt e gr at e d

3' n ec omp a r i s on wi t he x xr i me nt si sd e s c r i %di n D.Pi n e sa nd P.No z i r e s ,e l ' rh e The o r yo f

: t r e n g t ha J Td t t t , p -t ' I v ) I +y D' Q $ =i nE q . ( 1 7 . 3 2 ) i s i n d e p e n d q n t o f t h ed a mp i n g .
Qua n t um Li qui ds , ' 'v ol . 1 , s e c . 4. 4 , W. A. Be n j a mi n, I nc . , Ne w Yor k.1 9 6 6.

LI NE AR RESPONSE AND COLLECTI VEY MODES

196

( J ) f =t ' ( b 4 x= x' ( c ) x= x'

a l 1 xa n dx' t -t ' < e l t- t ' >. n e F 1

and i nt e r pr e tt hevar i oust er ms .

5. 2. Re t a i nt hesr s tc o r r e c t i o ni nEq. ( 1 4. 2 5 )a n dde r i v et h ea s y mpt o t i ce x p a n s i on( c omp a r eEq. ( 1 4. 2 6 ) )

3 ( ) ( x ) ) ze 2 f k/ c o s2 ksx s i n2 k sx 2 r- .( 4+ . oz x

( ( k s x ) 2-t k s x ) 3 4 + f
x( fl n4 ksx- 3+ ( ( y-j ) )

wher ey = 0. 577 .' . i sEul e r ' sc ons t antand t her e m ai ni ngcont r i but i onsvani s h

f a s t e rt ha nx *a sx + . . 1
5. 3. De r i vet heThomas Fer mie quat i onsf ort hepot e nt i aland e l e c t r on c har ge di s t r i but i on i n aneut r alat om ofa t om i cnum berZ i nt hef ol l owi ngway:

( J ) Us et h ehy dr o d y n a mi ce qu a t i o no fs t a t i ce qu i l i b r i u m( Eq. ( 1 4. 1 7 ) )an dt h e bo un d a r yc on d i t i o na tr. > . ( x ) t os h ow t h a tp( r )= ( l / e ) ( 2 / 2 ? n ) ( 3 >2 n ( r ) ) 1wh e r e @( r )i st h ee l e c t r o s t a t i cpo t e n t i a l . ( ) Fr o m Po i s s on ' se q u a t i on a n dt h e ph y s i c so ft hepr ob l e ms h ow t h a tw ( r ) s a t i s s e sV2 +=K +*wi t ht hebo un d a r yc o nd i t i o n s: 4 0 ); >Ze / ra n dr @t r l. . > . 0a s

r+ . *,wh e r evi sa c o ns t a n td e s n e db yx ' =( 8 V1 / 3 =J ! ) ( e / c n ) 1 .( No t e:


Jt p =h 2 ( me 2i st h eBo hrr a d i u s . )

5. 4. Ve r i f yt h ed i s p e r s i on r e l a t i on f o r pl a s ma o s c i l l a t i o ns ( Eq s .( 1 5 . 1 6 )t o ( 1 5 . 1 8 ) ) di r e c t l yf r o m Eq. ( 1 2 . 3 6 ) .
5. 5. Show t hatt hepl a s ma os ci l l a t i on i sdam p ed above a c r i t i c alwaveve ct or k ' ma s de t er mi ned by t he e quat i on .p 2= ( = r s ( =) ( ( 2+ y l l n( 1+ 2 y1 ) -2 ) .whe r e

y= kn z . x l k F . Sh o wt h a t z e r os ou n di sa l s oda mp e da bo v eac r i t i c a l wa v e n u mb e r , g i v e ni nt h ewe a k c ou p l i n gl i mi tb yy= 2 e i e x pL -l =l hl j mk rP ' 4 0 ) ) .


5. 6. Gene r al i z et he di s c us s i on of Se c.1 6t o a har ds phe r e Fe r mig as atl ow dens i t y,and s how t ha tt hedi s pe r s i onr el at i on f brl ongwavel engt hze r os ound i s

g i v e nb y( c o mp a r e Eq-( 1 6 . 8 ) )*( x) = =l 4 kF a wh e r e x= h/ v r . Wh a ti st h e
r es ul t i ng ve l oci t y ofz er os ound?

1Th ec ont r i b ut i o n pr op or t i on a lt ol nk ex wa sob t ai n e db yJ .S .Lan g e ra n dS .H.Vo s ko, J. Ph y s . Ch e m. S ( # l W. A1 2: 1 96( 1 9 *) , but t h e yd i dno tr e t a i na 1 1 t h ec o ns t a nt t e r ms .

!: 6

GRouxosl wzE ( ZE ROTE MPE RAT ORE )F onMAu i sv

5. 7. ( J) Ge n e r al i z et h et r e a t me n to fS e c .1 2t oe x pr e s sS ' l 1 z j x, . v' )i nt e r ms .pct


ofHei s enber g sel d oper at or s.

( b) Us ePr ob.3. l 5t o pr ov et ha tEq.( l 6. 5)wi t hP ' ( 4 /)r e pl ac e d by l z ' o t ( ?)cor r ec t l y


des cr i be s ze r os ound de ns i t y os ci l l a t i ons f or s pi ndependent i nt e r ac t i ons of t he

f o r m( 9 . 21 ) . ( c ) Con s i d e ra p e r t u r b a t i on X e x t / ). -(J3 v t x/ l . l J e x l x; ) ,a n dp r o v et h att h e s ame s ys t em c an s uppor ts pi n wav es ,des cr i be d by Eq.( 1 6. 5 )wi t hP ' ( )r e pl ac e d b yP ' 1 ( t ? ) .
.
' '
.

5. 8. ( a) For a u n i f or m s p i n . s Fe r mi s y s t e m wi t ha s h or t r a n g ep o t e n t i a l P ' ( t ? ); k ;P ' ( 0)( =c ons t ) , s how t hata1 1pr operpol ar i z at i oni ns e r t i onswi t hr epe at e d
hor i zont al i nt e r ac t i on l l ne s ac r os st he f kr mi on l oop can be s um med t o gi v e

H* ( t ? )= f 1 ) ( ) )a . I ' l t) t , . c -... -1 1 0 ( :) ( 1. t H0 ( t y ) p ' ( O ) , . ' ( 2 . $ . -1 ) 1 1( s e eFi g s .1 2 . 1 b


and 1 2. 3:) . ( b ) Sh ow t h a t z e r os ou n di s no w ' de s c r i b e db yt h ee q u a t i on*( . v ) = nl h l t s t : l q . g . 1 / ( 0 ) wh e r ex = c o / ' t ' y( s e e Eq. ( l 6. 8 ) 1 . ( c ) Fi n dt h ec o r r e s p o n di n ge x pr e s s i o nf or a di l u t e ha r d s p h e r eg a s( c omp a r e Pr o b. 5. 6 ) . 1
5. 9. D ef i nea t i me or de r e d Gr e en' sf unct i on

w ' h e r e& z ( x )= , ( 1t xl t t z z l a y ' #, t xl ,a n dr e l a t e Dg ( . v x' )t o Ha j . a s ( x, x ' ) . Us e


Pr o b.4. 1 2 Jt oo b t a i n Dc l q )= I 1 g( * q )f o ra s p i n ! Fe r mis ys t e m wi t hs pi n i nde pe ndentpot e nt i al s . W hydoesDedi f l krf r om D ?

5. 1 0. De r i v et h ee x p r e s s i o n( l 7 . 25 ) . f ort het wo p a r t i c l ec or r e l a t i onf u n c t i o no f an o ni n t e r a c t i n gs pi n lFe r mi g a s .


5. 11. gas .

5. 12. Ho w i st h e wi dt ha tl ma x i mum of t h eh i g h mo me n t u m t r a n s f e r ( qy . 2 #s )qu a s i e l a s t i cp e a k( s e e Fi g .1 2 . 9 )r e l a t e dt ot h e Fe r mimome n t u m?


5. 13. Cons i deri nel a s t i c neut r on s cat t er i ng f r om an i nt er a ct i ng as s e m bl y of at om s or m ol e cul es .

( J )Th eh u c l e a ri n t e r a c t i o nb e t we e nt h en e u t r ona n daf r e et a r g e tp a r t i c l ec a nb e

d e s c r i b e dwi t ht h ea i dof ap s e u d o po t e n t i a l qP ' ( I xa - x1 )= ( 4 =a h 2 , I 2 m q q ) 3 ( x a- x ) .


1K.Got t f r i e da nd L.Pi 4 ma n,Kgl .Da n s ke V i de n s ka b.S e l s k a b M at . Fy s .M e d d . ,3 2 ,no .1 3 ( 1 9 6 0) . l i E.Fe r mi ,Ri c e r c a5 c ' l ' . ,7: 1 3( 1 9 3 6 ) 'J . .M .Bl a t ta nd V.F.W e i s s k op f ,t i The or e t i c a lNu c l e a r
Phys i c s, ' 'p.71,John W i l e y and Sons .New York,1 952.

LI NEAR REspoNsE AND co uuEcTl vE M o oEs

197

I ft hi s pot ent i ali st r ea t e di n Bor n appr oxi m at i on.i t gi vest he exa ctl owener gy J wav enucl e ars c at t e r i ngoft heneut r onf r om oneoft het ar g etpar t i cl es . l nt hi s

e x pr e s s i onr n r e u a n da l ; k : 1 0 1 3 c m) a r et h ea pp r o pr i a t er e du c e dma s s a n ds c a t t e r i n g I e n g t h . S h ow t h a tt hi sr e s u l tf o l l o wsi mme d i a t e l yf r o m Eq s . ( 1 l . 5 ) , ( 1 l . 9 ) , a n d ( 1 l . 2 2 ) . ( > )He n c es h ow t h a t t h ei nt e r a c t i o no ft h en e u t r o nwi t ht h ema n y b o dya s s e mb l y i sW * X= ( 4= w 2 / 2 / ? ? r e a ) H ( x n ) . Th i s ha mi l t on i anmu s tb et r e a t e di nBor na p p r o x i mat i on.

( c )l ft heat omi ci nt e r a ct i onsamong t het ar ge tpar t i c l e sar et r eat e de xac t l y,how


m us tt hedi s cus s i onofSec .17bem odi se dt odes cr i b ei nel a s t i cneut r ons cat t e r i ng?

6 Bose System s

I nSe c.5wes aw t hedr as t i cef l kc tofs t at i s t i cson t hel owt em per at ur e pr oper t i es ofan i de algas . Fe r mi ons obey t he ex cl us i on pr i nc i pl e,and t he gr ound s t at e cons i s t s ofa 5l l e d Fe r m is e a. I n cont r as t ,t he gr ound s t at e ofan i de alBos e s y s t em ha sa l lt he par t i cl esi nt he one s i ng l e par t i cl e m ode wi t hl owes tene r gy. Si nc et he i de algasf or ms t he bas i sf orcal cul at i ng t hepr oper t i esofi nt er ac t i ng m anypar t i cl e as s em bl i es ,i ti s nat ur alt ha tt he per t ur bat i on t heor yf or bos ons has a ver y di f l kr e nt s t r uc t ur ef r om t ha t pr ev i ous l y di s cus s e df or f er mi ons . I nde ed,t he m ac r os copi c occ upat i on ofone s i ngl e m ode pos e sa f undam ent al di cul t y,and i ti ses s ent i a lt or ef or m ul at et hepr obl e mi n or dert o obt ai na we l l de sne dt he or y.
198

BOSE SYSTEMS

199

IK FORM ULATI O N O F THE PRO BLEM n eus ua lf or m ofm rt ur bat i ont he or yc annotl x appl i edt o bos onsf ort hef ol l owi ngr ea son. Thenoni nt e r ac t i nggr ound s t at eofN bos onsi sgi ven by

1 *21) )= I #, 0 , 0 ,.

( 1 8 . 1 )

whe r ea1 lt hepar t i cl esar ei nt hel owes tene r gy mode. Fordefni t ene s s ,wehe r e c ons i de ral ar geboxofvol ume F wi t hmr i odi cboundar yc ondi t i ons ,whe r et hi s pr e f er r e ds t a t ehasz e r o mome nt um,buts i mi l armac r os copi cocc upa t i on oc cur s

i no t h e r s i t u a t i o n s ( s e eCh a p . 1 4 ) .I f t h ec r e a t i o na n dd e s t r u c t i o no mr a t o r s 4 1
a n dt uf o rt h ez e r o mo me n t u m mo dea r ea p pl i e dt ot h egr ou n ds t a t e , Eq. ( 1 . 2 8 )
i m pl i e st hat

el t h( A) )- N*t +q ( N-1 ) )

( 1 8 . 2 )

c 1 l *n ( #) )-( N+ 1 ) 1 1 *( / 1+ 1 ) ) Th u sn e i t h e ra o n o rJ Ja n n i h i l a t e s t h eg r o u n ds t a t e , a n dt h eu s u a l s e p a r a t i o no f
op e r a t o r si n t oc r e a t i o na nd d e s t r u c t i o n pa r t s( Se c .8 )f a i l sc o mp l e t e l y . Co n s e que nt l y,i ti s notpos s i bl et o de ne nor ma l or de r e d pr oduct s wi t hv ani s hi ng gr ounds t at ee xpec t at i on v al ue,and t heappl i c at i onofW i ck' st heor e m Gc omes m uc h m or ecom pl i c at e d.

I ti si n t e r e s t i n gt oc omp a r eEq. ( 1 8 . 2 )wi t ht h ec o r r e s p on d i n gr e l a t i on sf o r


f e r mi ons ,wher et he oc cupat i on numbe r scannote xr - d1 ,and any s i ngl e mode atmos tcont r i but e sat e r m ofor derN -tt ot het her modynami cpr om r t i esoft he

t o t a l s y s t e m. Ont h eo t h e rh a nd , t h eo pe r a t o r s az a n d/ 1f or aBos es y s t e m mu l t i pl yt heg r o un ds t a t eby N*or( N+1 ) * ,wh i c hi se v i d e nt l yl a r g e .S i n c ei ti s


ge ne r al l y pr ef e r abl et o de al wi t hi nt ens i ve var i abl e s , we s hal li nt r oduc et he ope r a t or s

1 0 - F1 a z I J = F1 ' c 1
wi t ht hef ol l owi ngpr ope rt i e s

( 1 8 . 3 )
( 1 8 . 4 )
( 1 g . 5 )

dQ , 1 1 1 = F1

l : l * c ( x ) ) ( v # ) * I * n ( x l ) ) l # t h I * o ( x ) ) ( X + p ' 1 ) * l * : ( x + 1 ) )

Al t h o u g h1 :a n dl oe % a c h mu l t i p l y1 *n )b ya s n i t ef a c t o r ,t h e i rc o mmu t a t o r
v a n i s he si nt het he r mo d y na mi cl i mi t( N> . *,F -> . *,Nl V> . c on s t ) . He n c e
:N. N. Bog o l i ub ov , J . Ph y s . ( &SSA) .1 1: 2 3( 1 9 4 7) .> a l s oP.A.M . Di r a c ,t e n ePl i nc i p l ofQua n t um Me c ha ni c ' '2 4e d. . = . 6 3 , Ox f o r dUn i v e r s i t yPr e s s , Ox f or d,1 9 3 5.

i t i sNr mi s s i b l et ot t e a tt h eo p e r a t o r sl na n dI Ja scn u mb e r s , la sl o n ga swe

2x

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROT EMPE RATURE )F ORMALI SM

c ons i der onl ys t at eswher e a fni t ef r ac t i on oft he par t i cl es oc c upi e st he k = 0 m ode. Thi sappr oxi m at epr oc e dur ec l e ar l y ne gl e c t siu ct ua t i onsi nt heocc upa t i on num be roft hecondens at e. Thepr e c edi ng di s cus s i on hasi mpl i c i t l yas s ume d a pe r f e ctBos egas ,whe r e a l 1t he pa r t i c l e s ar ei nt he z e r om om e nt um s t a t e. l n an i nt e r ac t i ng s ys t em , howe ver , t hei nt e r par t i cl epot ent i al ene r g yr e duc %t heoc cupat i onof t hepr ef er r ed m ode,s ot ha tt hegr ounds t at ee xpe ct at i on val ue

t ' F0 I A l . # o f A . a 1 ' 1 %)- N.F. . j -nz


i sl e s st ha nt h et o t a ld e ns i t y n= Nj # ' . Ne v e r t h e l e s s ,t h e Bo g o l i ub ov r e p l a c e -

me n to f l ( ) a n da ? : t b ycn u mb e r sc o r r e c t l yd e s c r i b e s , t h ei n t e r a c t i n gg r o u n ds t a t e
i nt he t her m odyna mi cl i mi t whene ve rt he num ber of par t i c l e si nt he z er omoment um s t at er ema i nsafni t ef r a ct i on ofN . W ear et he r e f or el e dt o wr i t e t hebos on f i el d ope r at oras
,

( ? ( x) =# ' ( ) + ;' P ' 1e d k e x c k= ( %+ ( / ( x) =n t+ ( / ( x ) k

( 1 8 . 7 )

whe r et h epr i meme a nst oomi tt h et e r m k= 0. Th eop e r a t o r/( x )h a sn oz e r omo me nt u mc ompon e n t s , a nd( 0i sac o ns t a ntcn u mb e r . Th es e p a r a t i ono f ' ;i l n t ot wopa r t smo d i f i e s t h eha mi l t o ni a ni naf u nd a me nt a l
w ay. Cons i dert hepot ent i ale ne r g y

P= . . Jd? xdb x' ( ) # ( x ) ( /( x' )P ' t x- x' ) #( x' ) f ( x )


s epar a t e si nt oe i ghtdi s t i n ctpar t s

( 1 8 . 8 )

l fEq .( 1 8. 7 )i ss u bs t i t ut e di n t o Eq.( 1 8 . 8 ) ,t h er e s u l t i n gt e r msc a nb ec l a s s i f e d a c c o r d i n gt ot h e nu mb e ro ff a c t or sz ? 4 . Th ei n t e r a c t i o nh a mi l t on i a nt h e n

E= . ! . r l j #3 x#3 x' l z ' t x- x' )


f l = r z t l fJ3 x#3 x' Ft x- x' ) c / ( x' ) ( i ( x)

( 1 8 , 9 )
( l 8. 1 0 )

f ' 2= l . n OJJ3 xJ3 ' v ' ( / A ( x) ( / f t x' )1 . z ' ( . x-x' ) Pa= 2 ( r l f ) )j#3 xJ3 x ' ( / i ( x' )P ' t x- x' ) /( x )
f ' j= 2 ( n j )jJ3 xJ3 x' Q f l x) t / . 1 ( x' )P t x- x' ) f / t x) 3 5 6= 2 ( 1 . n j )Jdb xdb x ' t / A ( x )P ' t x- x' )( / ( x' )# ( x ) f 7= ! . f#3 x#3 x' $# ( x ) ( / ' 1 ( x' )Ut x- x' )Y ( x' ) t / . ( x ) .
.

( 1 8 . 1 4 ) ( 1 8 . 1 5 ) ( 1 8 . 1 6 )

Fi gur e1 8. 1i ndi ca t e st he di f l kr e ntpr oc es s escont ai ne di nt hei nt er a ct i on hami l -

t o n i a n ,whe r eas o l i dl i n ede no t e sa p a r t i c l eno ti nt h ec o n d e n s a t e( f / ) o rt / 1 ' ) , a


wav yl i nede not e st hei nt e r a ct i onpot ent i alF, and adas he dl i nedenot esapar t i cl e

BosE SYSTEMS

201

b e l o ng i ngt ot h ec o n d e ns a t e( f corL #- n ! ) .I nd e r i v i ngEq s . ( 1 8 . 9 )t o( 1 8 . 1 6 ) ,


wehaveus e dt her el a t i on

f#3 x;( x) =P ' +) j ' J kJd3 x: l k * X= U1X' kd k Q=0 k k J

( 1 8 . 1 7 )

s ot h a tP c o nt a i nsn ot e r m swi t ho n l y as i n g l e pa r t i c l eo uto ft h ec on d e n s a t e . Th et e r m Ezi n Eq. ( 1 8. 9 )i sapna mb e r


Eo= . . i . P ' 1 Nl1 z ' ( 0 )=l z ' n F( 0 )

( 1 8 . 1 8 )

t ha tm er el ys hi f t st hez er o ofene r gy buthasno ope r at orc har ac t e r .

I nan o ni n t e r a c t i n ga s s e mb l y , t h eg r o un ds t a t ei sg i v e nbyEq. ( 1 8 . 1 )wi t h

No =N. S i n c et h eB o g o l i u b o vp r e s c r i p t i o ne l i mi n a t e st h eo p e r a t o r sa oa n dJ 1

P j
z

z'

#
N

, e

x '

Y' N

y' N

&

: 5

: 6 -

Fi g. 18. 1 *r o c e s s e sc on t a i n e di nf ' f o rbo s o ns .


e nt i r e l y,a1 1r e ma i ni ng de s t r uc t i on ope r at or sanni hi l at et he gr ound s t at e,whi ch t her eby be eom e st he v acu um

I 0 )H 1 *0 )- I A ' , 0, 0 ,
( 1 8 . 9 ) ( 01 X) 0 )= En= ! . P ' -i NlF( 0 )

( 1 8. l 9 )

The va cuum ex pe c t a t i on va l ue oft he t ot alham i l t oni an a r i s e ss ol e l yf r om Eq.

( 1 8 . 2 0 )

whi chi st hef i r s t or de rs hi f ti nt hegr ounds t at eener gyofan i nt er a ct i ngBos egas .

Th e us eo f Eq.( 1 8 . 7 )r e mo v e st h e pr o b l e m a s s o e i a t e d wi t ht he z e r o m om ent um s t at e, butt hef ol l owi ngdi cul t ys t i l lr e m ai ns . Cons i de rt hcnum be r oper at or

4 -Nz+fd? x4f t x l :( x)=Nz+1, J la k k

( 1 8 . 2 1 )

ti se v i d e n t t h a t. Vn ol on g e rc ommu t e swi t ht h et ot a l whe r e Nzi sacnum be r. I ha mi l t oni an

( T + Eo. + Pl + ...+ P7 , XJ #0

( 1 8 . 2 2 )

z :2

GROUNDST ATE ( ZEROT EMPE RATURE )F ORMALI SM

s i nc et he va r i ous i nt e r ac t i on t er ms al t e rt he number of par t i c l e s out of t he condens at e. Asa r e s ul t ,t he t ot alnum be r ofpa r t i c l e si sno l onge ra cons t a nt oft hemot i on butmus ti ns t e ad l x det e r mi ne dt hr oug ht he s ubs i di ar y condi t i on

N = No+ X't t / k J k )
k

( 1 8 . 2 3 )

whe r et he br ac ke t sdenot et hegr ounds t a t ee xpe ct at i on va l ue i nt he i nt er a c t i ng s ys t em . I n Chap.1 0,we s t udy an e xam pl e oft hi spr oce dur e,buti ti sus ua l l y s i mpl e rt or e f or m ul at et hee nt i r epr obl e mf r om t hebegi nni ng.

We t h e r e f o r er e t u r nt ot h eor i g i n a lha mi l t on i an X = 1 % +P ,i n wh i c hh
and Jc lar es t i l loper at or s. I nt r oducet heher mi t i an ope r at or

k- 4 -J z #
whi c h hasa c om pl e t es e tofe i g enve d or sand' ei genva l ues

( 1 8 . 2 4 )

21 . P, )- A, t ' l %)
c o r r e s p on d st ot hel owe s te i g e n v a l u eo f X

( 1 8 . 2 5 )

Theo p e r a t o rX c o mmu t e swi t h, 9s ot h a tt h ee x a c tpr o bl e ms e p a r a t e si n t os ub s pac es ofgi ven t ot alnum be r N. W i t hi nas ubs pac e,t he gr ound s t at ec l e ar l y

41 : F0 ( 1) )= A( / z , F, N) i ' 1 C n ( N) )- E f( l ' , A)-p , N) l ' l ' : ( A) )


s p a c ei nwhi c ht h et h e r mod y n a mi cr e l a t i o n( 4. 3 )h o l ds D E( V , N) # . =
t henwe wi l lhav ef ound t he a bs ol ut emi ni mum ofK
-

( 1 8 . 2 6 )

The s er e l at i onshol df orany va l ueofy. . I fwenow choos et ol ook f ort ha ts ub-

( 1 8 . 2 7 ) ( 1 8 . 28 )

: A' ( ) t , F. N) 0 E( P ' , N) D N = S' - p , =0

Equ a t i o n( 1 8 . 2 7 )ma yt h ec on s i de r e dar e l a t i on t oe l i mi n a t eN i nt e r msoft h e v a r i a b l e sp ,a nd F. I nt hi ss u b s pa c e ,t h ee x p e c t a t i on v a l u e( k 1 ' 0 6 :1 : 1 ' 0 ) )i st h e mi ni mu mv a l u eo ft het he r mo d y na mi cpo t e n t i a la tz e r ot e mp t r a t u r e( s e eEq . ( 4 . 7 ) )a n df i x e dp . a nd F

r : : 1 0 G) 1 :$ ' F0 G) )- f qT- 0 , F, p )= ( f-p Al l r o ( 1 8 . 2 9 ) I na c c o r d a nc e wi t hg e n e r a lt h e r mod y n a mi c pr i n c i pl e s ,! T% ( / z ) )t h e r e f o r e


r e pr es ent st heequi l i br i um s t at eoft heas s e m bl y atEx e d F = 0,F,a nd y . . Al lof t het he r modynami cr el a t i onsf r om Se c.4 now r e mai n unc ha nge d,f ore xampl e,

d f 1 ( r, F, ! z ) 8 v () ! #) v ? p z r y :, j z ( s ) ) ( v , ( s ) ) . j * ) v , ( s ) ) 0, p , F zr p.
,
-

( ' l %G) l XI ' 1 %G) )- N

( 1 8 . 3 0 )

wh e r eweha v eu s e dt h en or ma l i z a t i o nc o nd i t i o n( X 1 %l N %)= 1 .

BosE svsTEu s

20

Asl on ga sana n d2 ( ) r e pr e s e n top e r a t o r s , b 0t hX a n d* p r o v i d ea c c e pt ab l e


des c r i pt i ons oft he i nt e r ac t i ng as s e mbl y. W hen we us et he Bogol i ubov pr e s c r i pt i on,howeve r ,t het he r modynami c pot e nt i alofe r sa de hni t eadvant age ,f or i tal l owsa c ons i s t e ntt r e at mentoft he noncons er vat i on ofpar t i cl es . l I nde ed, p, ma y be i nt e r pr e t ed asa Lag r ange mul t i pl i ert hati nc or por at e st he s ubs i di ar y

c o n di t i on( 1 8 . 2 3 ) . Wet h e r e f o r ec a r r yo utt h ef ol l owi ngs t e ps :

1 .Re p l a c el ca n dI Jb ycn u mb e r s 1 0*A l I J+n a 1


I nt h i swa y , #a nd# b e c ome

( l 8 . 3 1 )
( 1 8 . 3 2 )
7

#.No +;' 4a u>Nz +X' k #. .E v -y . NZ + ;' ( e 2 -r z l a l l k+J ) (6 k -l


- Ez- gN.+ #' wh i c hd e :n e#' a n d#' .

( 1 8 . 3 3 )

2.Si nc ea1 1 r e ma i ni ngdes t r uc t i onoper a t or sanni hi l at et henoni nt e r ac t i nggr ound

s t a t e1 *: 2 ) . i tma ya g a i nb eo on s i de r e dt h ev a c u u m l P( ) )> ' 1 0 )

( 1 B . 3 4 )

Wi ck' st he or em i snow appl i c abl e,and wem ay us et hepr evi oust heor e m sof quant um se l dt heol ' y.

3.A1 1t henale xpr e s s i onscont a i nt hetxt r apar ame t erNz %whi c h may bede t e r mi ne d asf ol l ows . Si nc et l l e equi l i br i um s t at e ofany a s s e mbl y atcons t ant

( r, F, p . )mi n i mi z e st h et he r mo dy n a mi cp ot e n t i a l ,t h ec o n di t i o no ft h e r modynami ce qui l i br i um be come s

f l t r=D 0 , F, p , , N N
o

s , s

; =(

t j a . a 5 )

wh i c hi sa ni mp l i c i tr e l a t i onf o rNV, y , j .
I9QGREEN' S FUNCTI O NS St e ps1a nd2de s c r i be da bovear equi t edi s t i nct , andi ti sconveni e ntt ot r e a tt he m s epar at e l y. l nt hepr e s e nts ec t i on,wei nt r oducea Hei s enbe r gpi ct ur eba s e d on

X'a n du s et h ee x a c ts i ng l e p a r t i c l e Gr e e n' sf u nc t i o nt od e t e r mi n et h et h e r mo dynami cf unc t i onsoft hegr ound s t at e. I n Se c.20,wei nt r oduc ean i nt e r ac t i on
!N.M . Hu ge nb ol t za n d D.Pi n e s ,Ph ys .Re r . , 1 1 6: 4 8 9( 1 95 9 ) .

2 -

GROUNOST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPE RATURE )F OnMAL I SM

pi ct ur e and de r i ve t he Fe ynman r ul es f or e val uat i ng t h e Gr e tn' sf unc t i on i n per t ur bat i on t heor y. TheBogol i ubovpr e s c r i pt i on hasl ed ust oc ons i dert heoper at or

# = En- J z yf l + X'
wher e
7

( 1 9.1 J )

#' =Jd5 x( / t ( x)( r-l a , ) 4( x)+J=1 . :

( 1 9 . 1 : )

S i n c eX i sh e r mi t i a n ,i th a sac ompl e t es e tofe i g e n f u n c t i on s ,a n d we s ha l ll e t ( O)de n ot et h eg r ou n ds t a t eo ft h eop e r a t orX. l ti se s s e n t i a lt ob e a ri nmi n d t ha tl O)i sn ot a ne i g e n s t a t eo fX a n dt hu sdi f l kr sf r o mt h es t a t e$ ' 1 ' a ) p i n t r od u c e d i nEq . ( 1 8 . 2 6 ) . Th eHe i s e n b e r gpi c t u r ei sd e sn e da sf o l l o ws t ) x ( ? )> e i * ' ' % t ) se l * t ' ' =e f R L ' t 1 ' ( 9 se t k ' f / ! t ( 1 9 . 2 ) wh e r et h ec nu mb e rp a r t o f X do e sn ot a se c tt h et i me de p e n d e n c e .l n par t i cul ar .

t hef e l dop e r a t or#( x) b e c ome s


' / ' ? x ( x J )- e i # ' f l hf oe i k ' t / :+ e i k ' t / h /( ,x ) e i k ' t . ' :
.

( o+ 9 Qt x l- nl+ t / x t xl wh i c hs ho wst ha tt h ec on d e ns a t ep a r tofl i ' Ki si n de p e n d e n to fs p a c ea n dt i me .


-

Thes i ngl e par t i cl eG r ee n' sf unct i on i sdesne de xac t l y asi n Se c.7

f G( x,y OI FI I L +9 Q( x) J ( J 1+/f x ( J ' ) J ) ? O) )= ( 01 0)


t oj /x t xl +; ; f K ( 1 ' ) j O) ( O1 rE # x ( x) / , x( f > ' ) ) 1 O) =? u + a! t y j ! o) . o y o j o j j q. 4 j x , ( whe r et he s i gnat ur ef ac t ori s+ 1f oral lt i m eor der i ngs .

W ef i r s tp r ov et ha tt h es e c o n dt e r mo nt h er i g hto fEq.( 1 9 . 4 )v a n i s he s . Th i sr e s ul tdo e sn o tf ol l o wf r o m nu mbe rc o n s e r v a t i o n, s i n c e! O)i sno ta ne i g e ns t a t eo fX;i n s t e a d,t h ea r g u me n tma k e su s eo ft h et r a ns l a t i o n a li nv a r i a n c eof

t heg r o u nds t a t e . Theq ua n t i t y( Ol /1 x ( x ) l O)i sal i n e a rc o mb i n a t i ono fma t r i x

e l e me n t s( OJ 41 O)f o rk#0 , e a c hmu l t i p l i e db yac n u mb e r f u n c t i o no f x .B y


desni t i on,t hem om ent um ope r at or

= J ( k t / k n =J ( ' k t z l a k k k

( 1 9 . 5 )

h a snoz e r o mo me nt u mc omp on e n t . He nc e c ommu t e swi t h#, wh i c hf o l l o ws e i t h e r by di r e c tc a l c u l a t i o n orb y no t i n gt h a tt h eo r i g i na lo p e r a t o rh i t s e l f commut e swi t h

( f %, I= 0

( 1 9 . 6 )

BOSE SYSTEMS

206

s ot hatt he Bogol i ubov r e pl ac e m entdoe s nota l t ert he t r ans l at i onali nvar i anc e

o rt h ea s s e mb l y . Ea c he i g e ns t a t eo fX c a nt h e r e f o r eb el a b e l e db yad e fn i t e
val ue oft hem om ent um ,and t hegr ound s t at ecor r es pondst oP = 0:

f ' T o)- 0
The r el at i on

( *, a l J = k t / k ( 1 9 . 8 ) i mp l i e st h a t4 i n c r e a s e st hemome n t u m by k,an dt h eor t h o go n a l i t yo ft he


m om e nt um e i ge ns t a t e ss howst hat

( 0l t / k 1 0)= 0 k # 0 t h e r e bypr o v i n gt h ea s s e r t i ont h a tG( . x , y )t a k e st h ef o r m i Gl x, l q- n o+ i G' ( x , y) . f G' ( t ol rE t / ' v t x l 4' x ( y ) ) l o) x, y ) > -- ( 01 , 0) -

( 1 9. 9 )
( 1 9. 1 0 )

( 1 9 . 1 1 )

Asi nEq s . ( 1 8. 3 2 ) a nd( 1 8 . 3 3 ) , t h ep r i me dpa r t r e f e r st ot h en o n c o n de ns a t e . Wi t h t h eus ua ld e l i n i t i o n ofFo ur i e rt r a n s f br ms ,t h ee x p e c t a t i o nv a l ueo fX ma yb e


wr i t t en as

Ar =( 9 b = No+ . P ( 2 =) 4( d4 qi G' ( q) p i q n n ( 1 9 . 1 2 ) wh e r et h el i mi tT > . 0 -i si mp l i c i t .S i n c e G' de p e n d son p . a nd 6 , %t hr o u g ht h e op e r a t or k' i nt h eHe i s e n b e r gp i c t u r e , Eq. ( 1 9 . 1 2 ) ma yb eus e dt of i n d. V( U, p , , Na ) ; al t e r na t i ve l y,t hi sr e l a t i on maybei nve r t ed t of l nd / . z (P r s . Y, Va ) .
Th e gr ounds t a t ee xpec t at i on val ue of any one body ope r at or c an be expr e s s ed i nt er m s of t he s i ngl e par t i cl e Gr e en' sf unct i on. An i nt er e s t i ng ex ampl ei st he ki net i cene r gy
.
.
. .

r=t . j ' y= p 'j t ' . . T 4 ? R -. , c' ( . q) p i q a p ,. ( 2: 7 . ) 2m

1 4

haa z

( 1 9 . 1 3 )

v :hi cb , :s hoN &s t hat t he s t a t i onar yc ondens a t e m ake s no c ont r i but i on t o F. a l s o pos s i bi et o de t er mi ne t he pot e nt l alene r gy.butt he det ai l e d pr oof -i s m or e c i m pl i ca t c dt han i n Se c.n ' . Equat i on ( 1 9. 2)m a y be r e wr i t t en as

i hJ j x ( x )( . , ) ;s ( x) . < j t
. --

( 1 9. 1 4)

I nt h et h e r mo dy n ami cl i mi t . t h ef i e l d s( ' a ndf i % ob e yt hec a no n i c a l c o mmu t a t i on r el at i ons . andt hecommut at ori sr ea di l ye val uat e d wi t h Eqs . (l 8. 1 0)t o( 1 8. l 6)and ( 1 9. 1 ) .Af t e rs omemani pul a t i on.we5nd

' # 3 x 4 x l t x l L i h j 0 / -r s s j ( ! x ( x ) = 2 f ' c . y . f ' q -1 ' 4 . 2 C j -%. v 2 f 7


( 1 9 . 1 5 )

ax

GROUNDS TATE ( ZEROT EMPE RATURE) FORMAL I SM

wh e r e PIc o mmu t e swi t h#a n dt hu sc a n c e l si d e n t i c a l l y . Th ea d j oi n to fEq. ( 1 9 . 1 5 )ma yl x wr i t t e na s

f d , x( , : . j r + r z ) 4 l ( x ) 4 x ( x ) 2Pl + P3 + P4+ f ' 5+ 2P 6+ 2P, ( 1 9


=

1 6 )

whi l et hei rav er a gebe c omes

! . j d z x t ut x l t m j : j w + p ) o ( x ) + g t m j j w + p ) : : ( x ) j : x ( x ) ) ( J ' l ' j+ Pz+ P3+ P4 )+. ! . ( 1 %+P k )+2b h


=
.

gt z
z

2; 7- n oD ' n

( 1 9 .1 7 )

wh e r ef i st h et o t a l i n t e r a c t i o ne ne r g y
7

P= E o +Jw1 ) (b ' L
Th eg r o un ds t a t ee x p e c t a t i o nv a l u eo f( 1 9 . 1 7 )b e e o me s

( 1 9 . 1 8 )

J#3 x1 i m1 i m# P, , , , .i hj j- F( x )+ / . t- i ht - F( x )+ p ,i G, ( x? , x t ) X. xt ' p , +
.

' -

2( P)- a f j P

no

( 1 9 . 1 9 )

t h e r e bye x pr e s s i n g(P)i nt e r msofG' .


Thet her modynami cpot ent i ala tr = 0i st hegr ounds t at eexpe ct at i onval ue

o ft h eo pe r a t o rX f 1 ( T- 0, P ' , / z , No )- ( 01 4, O) ( 1 9. 2 0 ) whe r ei O)i sa s s ume dn o r ma l i z e d. Th ec o nd i t i o n( 1 8 . 3 5 )o ft he r mo dy na mi c


equi l i br i um r ema i nsunal t er e d,a ndwefnd

l a P x f 1 n ) v p e N P , t o l f l o ) r o l a p x o ) o ) 4 o ) d P N P , / z 1 o ) o( 1 9 . 2 1 )
Thi s equat i on t he r e f or e pr ovi de sar e pr e s e nt at i on f or t he che mi c alpot ent i al

p . =t Ol O Nn l O)

( 1 9 . 2 2 )

b uti tmu s tb en ot e dt ha tt h es t a t ev e c t orl O)i t s e l fd e p e n dso n/ . ta n d No .A c omb i n a t i ono fEqs . ( 1 9 . 1 2 ) ,( 1 9 . 1 9 ) , a n d( 1 9 . 2 2 )y i e l d s

E = ; / +P ) = j y . N+ . i f : 3 x x l i ' m x t l j . m , t + q i h ( 1a 0 t , j + F ( x ) j G ' ( x , x ' )


( 1 9 . 2 3 )

BosE SYSTEM S

207

whi ch may ber e wr i t t en wi t ha Four i e rt r ans f or m

E 6N + . i P J( d a o , * q 4 j u , . j . h z l m q 2 j j o y f g ) n j v a v l
Thet her m odynam i cpot ent i al

( 1 9. 2 4 )

o t r n ) E s x ! . s N + k v j ( d 2 , * 4 q . j o + z 2 m q 2 ) i o ' l q l e t q z , ( 1 9 . 2 5 )
f ol l ow s i mme di at e l y. Si nc e Eq. ( 1 8 . 3 5 )( or Eq.( 1 9 . 2 2 ) )de t e r mi ne s Nf j ( m) ,

wh e r e a sEq. ( 1 9 . 1 2 )d e t e r mi n e sN( y , , Nn ) ,wea r en ow a b l et o 5n dt het h e r mody n a mi cp o t e n t i a l f r o m( 1 9. 2 5 )a n dt h uso b t a i nt hep hy s i c a l q ua n t i t i e so fi n t e r e s t . Th er e ma i n i n g pr ob l e m,o f c ou r s e ,i st h ee v a l u a t i on o fG' ( x, y) ,wh i c hi sc on s i der e di nSec .2 0.

ZOQPERTURBATI O N THEORY AND FEYNM AN RU LES W e now us et he t e chni que s ofquant um 5el dt he or yt os t udy t he per t ur bat i on ex pans i on oft hebos on G r e e n' sf unct i on de sne di n Eq. ( 1 9 . 1 1 ) .
I NTERACTI O N PI CTURE

W et i r s ti nt r oduc et he oper at or

Xl l = En- J z Ao+ XJ
whe r e

( 2 0 . 1 ) ( 2 0 . 2 )

kLa t-p , 4' =fd5 xt / 1 ( x ) ( r-P , J /( x)


and acor r e s pondi ng i nt e r ac t i on pi c t ur e

( 2 0. 3 ) J u s ta si nS e c . 6 ,t h eHe i s e nb e r gp i c t u r ei n( 1 9 . 2 )a ndt h ei nt e r a c t i o npi c t u r ea r e


r el at ed by an oper at or

1 . ( f ) Mt ' i X p ' 7 9 0se ' X 0 t / ' =e f X ' f ) ' h OSe t k 0 ' f , ' A

gq t > / 0 )i ; : z z e i k o ' t j h g f : ' ( l t ( ) ) / A e L k o e t o l h


whi c h obe yst hef ol l owi ngequa t i on ofmot i on

( g g 4 ) *

P t ' ) ' ( / , ? ( ) ) s x f / i ? t = =e ( , , / , ( v, . . ,g ) e f p o t a f sgq t , t o )


--

=e t x ( , ' , / , pj : y : . c , / ,p4 / , t ( ) ) j cj t f )1 ) ( t , t . 4

( 2 0.5 )

208

GROUNDS TATE ( ZEROTEM PE RATURE ) FORMALI SM


7

wi t h

41 -j )f ' J
J=1

# - 40+ 41

( 2 0. 6 )

N ot et hat

E Xf ) , X)- 0 ( 2 0 . 7 ) Th u st h eg r o u nds t a t e1 0)o ft h eo pe r a t o r#nc a nb ec o ns i d e r e das t a t eo fd e s ni t e n u mbe ro fpa r t i c l e s .I ti se v i de n tt h a tI 0 )i sj u s tt h es t a t ei n t r od uc e di n Eq. ( 1 8 . 1 9 )wh e r et h en umb e rN i sd e t e r mi n e df r o m Eq.( 1 9 . 1 2 ) . Fur t h e r mor e , J k l 0 )=0 ( 2 0 . 8 )
f or a 1 lk,whi c h means t hatal loft he pe r t ur bat i on a na l ys i sofSe c.9 r e mai ns

c o r r e c twi t h1 0 )a st h en on i n t e r a c t i n gv a c uu m. I np a r t i c u l a r .wei mme d i a t e l y


concl udet ha t l

I ' G' ( x, p )=
'

x )
m=0

d t m T m ! -* -* x' t 0f F( #l ( / I )''-#I ( / m ) %( x) ( J 1 * ( : ' ) 1 l o l c o n n e c t e d ( 2 0 . 9)

jm 1

# / l.'-

c o

Si n c et h eo p e r a t o rt / ' ; ( x ) #) ( y)a l s oc ommu t e swi t hX.t h edi c u l t ya s s o c i a t e d


wi t ht h en on c on s e r v a t i o no fp a r t i c l e si si s o l a t e di nt hef a c t o r sXj ( / f ) i nEq. ( 2 0. 9 ) .
The ze r oor de rt e r m be com e s

( 2 0 . i 0 )

FEYN M A N R U LFS f N C O O R DI N A TE 6 PA C E

Th e r ei sa f a c t orn tf o re a c hd a s h e dl i n ce nt e r i n go rl e a v i n ga v e r t e x . Th e
t ot a l nu mbe ro fl i ne s( s o l i da n d da s h e d)g o i n gi n t o a Fe y n ma n di a g r a m mu s t
equalt he num be rcom i ng out .
'The pr ooft hat

7 O V ox l -k ' ( ) l t ; ( ( ) I , u s x) l ( ) .
i sa ne i g e n s t a t eo fk f ol l o wsj u s ta si nt h eGel l Ma nnan dLow t h e or e m.

L o

( 7j . 0 . , : i u . ) ( 0 )
.

BosE svsr EM s

2Q9

2.l nr nt h or der .t her n oper at or skLc an beehos en i n/ ? 1!ways . Thi sf ac t orm !


c or r e s ponds t ot he pos s i bl e wa ys ofr e l abel i ng t he di pkr enti nt er a ct i on l i nes .

and i tcanc el st heexpl i ci t( , 1 7 ! ) ' li n Eq.( 20. 9) . Asi nSe c .9.t hi sc an cel l at i on
oc cur sonl yf ort he conne ct e d di a gr am s .

3.The t e r ms f ' : , P2 .and f' , ar es y ' mme t r i c under t he i nt e r chan ge ofdummy P ' *

' r var i a bl es x + yx . wher C ' A z ea st he ot he rt c r m.s l y .1 , 4 .. l j .a nd I . ' 6 ha Ne no s uch J . . s ym m e t r y. l nc ons e que nce .e ac ht i me I z ' 1 .l ' 2 .or 1 , 7 appear si n a Feynm an di agr am .t he r ei s al waysanot he rcon t r i but i on t hatpr ec i s e l yc ance l st hef a ct or , x -

, ! i nf r o n tof t h e s et e r ms . Si n c el z 3 -k4 -kj .a n dk ' f , a l r e a d yha v eaf a c t o r1 .

wec onc l ude t hate :e r ydi s? i nt ' :FeJnmandi agr am nee d becount edonl yonc e. a nd t he pot ent i alent er s wi t h af a ct oruni t y.e xac t l y asi n Se t ? .9. 4.Eachn? t hor derdi agr am i 1 :t heper t t t r bat i onex pans i onofG ' ( . v. ) ' )hasa f a ct or

( i ; I h) m( -i ) Csw' he r eC i st he numbe r ofconde ns at ef act or sl l o appe ar i ng i n


t he di agr am . 5. The abs enc e of bac kwar d pr opaga t i on i 1t i n n e-or hol e pr opagat i on- al I ou s us t oe l i mi nat el ar ge c l as s es of di agr am s att h e out s e t . For eNam pl e.t ht t r e

ar eno cont r act i onsS Ni t hi nt he fIs i ncet he)ar ca1 r e ad) ' nor malor dor e d:t hus
t her ea r e no c ont r i but i ons i n whi c ht he h amc par t i cl e1 i nt t G' 0ei t he rc l os e s on

i t s e l for h a si t se n dsj o i n e db ) , ' t h es a me i 1 t e r a c t l on . l 1 1a d di t i o n .ue n ot e


t hat t he Feq ' nm an di agr a m i si nt e gr at e d over al li ! 1 t er nal Nar i abl eh . whi ch m eans t hatal lpos s i bl et i m e or der i 1 ) g q oft he i nt er a ct i ons ar ei n cl uded. N o di a gr ar nc an cont r i but e unl es st he r ei t s . q t ? ? ? ? t a : 1 1 1 1 ( t ? , ' Jt . ' r ' / ) ? q z? t ' / ? b ' l ? i ( ' hal l/ / q ' ! : ar : i ( . l L . ' / / ? ? t : s -G0r l l l :t i ? r 3 x ' t 7 r J1 1 1J l ' ? ? 7 ( n . Forex ar r ' l pl e-Fi g.9. 8/ai l d jy ' ani q hi de! 1 t i c al l ) . be c aus et her e ar epai r sofpar t i cl el i ne sr unni ng i n oppoh i t e di r e ct i on> . N ot e t hat t he s er e s t r i c t i ons e l i mi nat ee veo'one of -t he t i r s t - and s e condor de r di agr am si n Fi gs .9. 7and 9. 8t hateont r i but et ot hef er mi on pr opaga t or .
FEYNM AN RU LES I N M O M ENTUM SPACE

Ther ul e sf orG' ( 4 / )i 1 )n l ome nt t l r ns pac ear et hes an ' l easb ef or e.wi t h af act or/ 7 ( 1 , f orev er ydag hed 1 i neanover al lf ac t orof ( 1 ' h) ' n( -? ' ) t ( 2. 7 7 . J 4 t C '' n1i nF / p t h or der .and t he ze r oor de r Gr e ensf t l ne t i on gi ven by Eq.( 20. l l) . The bas i cN ' er t i ce sar e
S how' ni n Fi g.20. l and f our m oment un ni s cons er ve d atea ch ve r t e x. Si nt ? ea c ondens at el i n ec ar r i es N ' ani s hi ng f our m om en t t l m .u hcr e as a par t i c! el i ne n l us t

h a v ek' h z u 0 -u' ea g a i nc o n c l u d et h a tn oi n t e r a c t i onl i n ec a nj oi 1 )on ep a r t i c l el i n e


and t hr e ec ondens a t el i nes . A s an exam pl e ,cons i der t he t i r s t or der cor r e ct i on G ' f ' ' The t er nl st '

P2 % % , ! k tr ' 6mZkenocont r i but i on t o( ; 'i nt ir s tor derbe caus et he ydo notc ons er v ' e

*w
Fi g.20. 1 Bas i cv ert i ces f or bos ons.
,
,

Z /-

2 1n

GROUNDS T AT E( ZE ROTE MPER ATURE )F ORMAL I SM

t henumberofpar t i cl es . Thet e r mc ont ai ni ng 97a l s ovani s hesbe caus et heonl y

p o s s i b l ed i a g r a ms wo u l di n v o l v eh o l e s . Wea r el e f t wi t h/ 4a n d6, wh i c hl e a d
l

k
l

A
l

l
1 1 I l

I l Y
l 1

( b 4

Fi g. 20. 2 Al l hr s t o r d e rc o nt r i bu t i on sG' t l '

t ot hedi agr am ss hown i n Fi g.2 0. 2 / and b,r es pe ct i ve l y,and t he Feynm an r ul e s i m m edi at e l ygi ve

G' ( l ) ( t ? )= n o / j l G0 ( )( p ( 0 )+ p ' ( q ) ) G0 ( t ? )

( 2 0 . 1 2 )

Thec or r es pondi ng anal ys i si ns e cond or de ri ss ubs t ant i al l yl onger .and we s ha l l

on l ye x hi bi tt h e di a g r a ms( Fi g .2 0 . 3 ) . No t et ha tFi g .2 0. 3 :a nd e r e pr e s e n t

t '
l l A x
'

1 Y
-

f
k A k

f 6
.

6 6
, &

k f) *v >.
/ ' Y

A%

( : )

7, %l A
( g' )

Fi g-20. 3 A1 1s econdor derc ont r i but i onsG' f 2' .

di f r er entcont r ac t i ons be caus et he di r e ct i on ofpr opagat i on,or m om ent um f l ow , i sdi f l kr e nti nt he t w o cas es . The di a gr am s ofFi g.20. 3 Jt hr ough e ar e of or de r

n ,wh e r e a s2 0. 3 /a n dga r eo fo r d e rn f j . Asno t e dp r e v i o u s l y,t h ea b s e n c eo f


hol esm eanst hatno s e condor de r di agr am s i nvol v e onl y noncondens at el i n es .

BosE SYSTEM S Dvso N' s EQ UATI ONS

211

The noncons e r vat i on of pa r t i c l e s ar i s e sf r om t he Bos ec ondens a t i on, whi ch pr ovi des a s our ce and s i nk f orpar t i cl esoutoft he c ondens at e . A sa r e s ul t ,t he pa r t i c l el i nes ne e d notr un cont i nuous l yt hr ough a di agr am ,as oppos e dt ot he s i t uat i on f or f e r mi ons. Nev er t he l e s s ,i fa pr ope rs e l f ene r gy i sde f i ne d asa par t ofa Fe ynm an di agr am conne c t ed t ot he r es toft hedi agr am byt wo nonc ondens a t e par t i cl el i nes ,t he ni ti ss t i l lpos s i bl et o anal y ze t he c ont r i but i ons t ot he G r e e n' s f unc t i on i n af or m s i mi l ar t o Dys on' sequat i onsf or f e r mi ons . The s t r uc t ur ei s m or e com pl i c at e dt ha ni ndi c at ed i n Sec . 9. howev er ,be c aus et he r e ar et hr e e

d i s t i nc tp r o pe rs e l f e n e r g i e s .a si n di c a t e di n Fi g .2 0. 4 . Th eh r s to n e1 2 ' ) ' 1 ( p)
p p
/ Z

-#
z

z '

Fi g. 20. 4 Pr oper s el f ener gi e s bosons.

z z

-p'

z z.

. ' '

) J, * ( ! r)

) :l * . 2 L r)

1 :2 * l ( r)

ha s one par t i cl el i ne goi ng i n and one c om i ng out ,F i mi l ar t ot hatf orf er mi ons . Theot herone shavet wo par t i c1 el i nesei t he rc omi ng out( Z' ! ' a ) o r g o i n g i n ( Z % . . j) a nd r e ie ctt he ne wf e at ur esas s oc i at e d wi t h Bos ec ondens a t l on. ' t he l ou' e s t or de r c ont r i but i ons t ot hes e new s e l f ener gi e s m ay be s e en expl l ci t l yi n Fi g. 2 0. 3: . .

( Thec h oi c eo fs u b s c r i p t swi l l be c o mec l e a ri nEq. ( 2 0 . 21 ) . q


Cor r es pondi ngl y.A' z m us ti nt r oduc et wo ne w exactG r ee n' sf unc t i on GI ' 2 and Gc ' j .r epr es ent i ng t he appea r ance and di s appear ance oft wo par t i cl es f r om t he c onde ns at e. They ar es hown i n Fl g.20. 5 .al ong N Ki t h G' .wher et he a r r ows i ndi cat ee i t her t he di r e ct i on ofpr opag at i en i n coor di na t es pac e ort he di r e c t i on ofm om e nt um l l ow i n m om e nt um s pac e. The Dys on' sequat i onsf ort hi ss ys t e m
p
-

Fi g.20. 5 Noncondens at e Gre en' sf unct i ons

f orbo s on s .

G' ( J ) )

G! ' 2 ( pj

G2 ' 1 ( p)

2 1 2

GR OUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPE RATURE )F ORMAL I SM

we r e hr s tder i ve d by Be l i aev. l They ar es how n i n Fi g.2 0. 6 and m a y be wr i t t en i n m om ent um s pac e asf ol l ows:

( 2 0. 1 3 t 7 )
( 2 0. l 3>)

1 q t # p z ' Z J p 7 Z d e z
, P
Z

p
Z
z '

Z
-

p -p -/ )

p p

p
z

W -p

z p

-p p

Fi g.20. 6 Dl ' s on' sequat i onsf orbos ons.

N ot et hatover al lf our nl oment un lc ons er v at i on de t er mi nest he di r e ct i on oft he

mome nt um t l ow i n Fi g. 2 0, 6. An equi val ent e qua t i on f or G' ( p) i s cl e ar l y

'S.T,Bel i aev.Sol ' .#/ l > u. . / f' ' F#,7: 289(l 958) .

BosE SYSTEM S

213

W he nt he s e equa t i ons ar ei t e r a t e d cons i s t e nt l y,we obt a i n al lt he i m pr oper s el f e ner gi e s and G r e en' sf unc t i onst o ar bi t r ar y or der i n per t ur bat i on t heor y, Theanomal ousG r e en' sf unct i onsi nt r oduc ed abov ehav ea pr e ci s ede hni t i on i nt e r m sofHe i s e nbe r gf i e l d oper at or s:
C ' i G, . I F( / y ( x) t / ' y T ' ) jO l 2( x) )- O .. -r , z . k: . a.(
.
. . ---. -

, k u , :65 . 1 :' x5

( 2 0. 1 4 t 7 ) ( 2 0. 1 4 :)
The
'

' G '( v; ' )- 0 r l 7 ) . ( . v ) r / ) . ( ' ' ) ! ' o 21- ' ( x1 '


- .

b, p

whe r et he nonc ons er va t i on of par t i c l e def i ni t i onsi m p1 yt hat ( J 7 j ( . ' t ' , 1 ' j. -( J ' j ' 2 ( ' . . v.) . 2 . s ot ha tt hei r Fot l r i e r

G2 ' i ( v. ' k ' ). -&,: ( ' . ' t ) 2 l .;

C ; ' 1 c ( / ? )-t J ' ( ' 2 ( J ? )

G2 , t ( p) . -C ; ' c ' k ( -. / ? )

The s t r uc t ur e of Dys on' se quat i ons c an be c l ar i f i cc l by i nt r oduci ng a mat r i x not at i on i 1 )U hi ch


t ' L
' Y)' ' Rt .

r / s( x) ' t , y s( x v)

( 20. l 7 )

( ) Tf ' t 1 ) f ' ' ) f 1 . ' ' ( ' ' 1 1( ) F . . . . s . k 1


0 0

. z * (v T ' ) N *( r) . ' ) E* ' ( A . , ) . )= ) 1 . l 2' ' . p1'' x. ' ) , . a c, ( x. k . , . a . ) ) ' ) -j I (1


'

( 2 0. 21 )

and

G0 ( x,

) ) 0 ) . , ) g( ; g ( ) ( . ) , x )
.

G0 ( x.

( 2 0. 22)

2 1 4

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE RQTE MP ERATURE )F ORMAL I SM

Wes h a l lg e n e r a l l yc o ns i d e ra u n i f or m me d i u m,wh e r eEq. ( 2 0 . 2 0 )ma ybe


s i m pl i ie dt o

G' ( p )- G0 ( #)+ G0 ( , ) Z* ( , ) G' ( #)

G , ( sj G 1 ' l ( p ; t )G , J ( 2 ( p , ) j c( G0 ( #) 0 p ) g( )c o t s l j E * ( p ) ( X Y ' 1 h l ' I ( X # )X 2 h ' t 2 ( * , ) j


( )

( 2 0 . 2 3 )

I ti se a s i l yv e r i se dt h a tt hi sma t r i xe qu a t i o nr e p r o du c e sEq. ( 2 0. 1 3 ) . A ma t r i x
i nve r s i on t hen y i e l ds

G,( 7 8- pz+ ( , ? ,- l x l h+ S( p 4- Al pt Dl p j

( 2 0 . 2 4 )
' Gl : ) 2 ( J ' ) c ( p)- - 1

D( ,)

o ' j ( s,

X! 1 ( :) pl
g j

whe r e

D( #) -E po- z 4 ( p ) 2 2- E a v -v h,' -. S ' ( p) 1 2+ Eh( p ) Et( J , )


and

( 2 0 . 2 5 )

' l p) -. 1 . ( 1 2 ) . 1 ( J , ) + E' r( -; ) 1

A( p 4- . i E Y' h( , )- E' r( -p ) )

( 2 0 . 2 6 )

Thes eequat i onse xpr e s st hevar i ousG r ee n' sf unc t i onsi nt er m soft heexa ctpr oper s el f e ner gi esand ar et her e f or eent i r el y ge ne r al .
LEHM ANN REPRESENTATI ON

Bef or e we s t udy s pe ci sc appr oxi mat i onsf orZ*,i ti si nt er e s t i ng t o der i ve t he Le hmann s pe c t r a lr e pr es ent at i on f orG ' . Thepr oofpr oc e edse xac t l yasi n Se c.

7 ,a ndwef i n d( c omp a r eEq. ( 7 . 5 5 ) )

c, ( , ) -

( P1 4 ' ( 0 ) l ' ' p ) f n p 1 :1 ( 0 ) I o) p ' rg , , , , ( a u x , o . , . i ,


-

( 0I *1 ( 0 ) I n, -p )( n , -pI ;( 0 ) I O) p n+ h -b Kn . -p - A 0 0 )- ' ' T wh e r et h ec o mpl e t es e to fs t a t e s1 n p )s a t i s se st h er e l a t i on s r z ' p)- pt n p ) Xr n p ) h -A ' a p l n p ) ( 2 0 . 2 8 )


and eac hr es i due i sa 2 x 2 m at r i x. l ti sevi de ntt ha tal lt heG r e en' sf unc t i ons have t he s am e s i ngul ar i t i e si nt hecom pl expzpl ane,occ ur r i ng att he r es onant

1( 2 0 . 2 7 )

a0sE SYSTEM S

215

f r e q u e n c i e s +l ( Aky p- A %0 ) . The r e s i du e so f G' ( r)a r er e a l ,whi l et ho s e of GL ' 2 ( pja n dGL j ( p)a r ec o mpl e xc on j u g a t e sof e a c ho t he r .
ZILW EAKLY I NTERACTI NG BOSE GAS A sourf i r s tappl i c at i onoft hi sf or ma l i s m ,wecons i deraweakl yi nt er a e t i ngBos e

ga s who s ep ot e nt i a lP ' ( x) ha s a we l l d e sn e d Fou r i e rt r a n s f or m U( p) . Th e


p -p
I I

A
'

t l p

( J)
-

p -#

' h .p l

, # '-# I

*' ' -#

p -#

. . . -

j ! 1 # ' . J I l 1 I .. L . I 1 I I 1

k m ' 1 . '
( d )
+ l eh 1

k 1 1 ' t
( d ) ( e )

k k
( fb

f c )

p -p

( # ) ' t ' 1 $ - 1 I I 4 1
,( G2 2 :+ 1 !

+ + + p + $ l 1
+ 1. l . , + I

+ $ + l

A ' p -p
( h' )

( i )

k #

( j )

k -# P

( k)

k -p # -#

( l )

Fi g.21. 1 A1 1sr s t -and s econdor dercont r i but i onst oG3 ' 1andGa ' l .

pr op e rs e l f l e n e r g i e sn e e d on l yb ee v a l u a t e dt ol o we s to r d e r ,a nd Eq.( 2 0. 1 2 )
s howst hat

Xt l ( X -N n E 1 z ' ( 0 )+ P ' ( p ) )

l o we s to r d e r

whi c hi si nde pendentofpv . The Fe ynm an r ul esofSe c.20 al s oa ppl yt o Gl ' z and Gc ' I ,and we e xhi bi ta 1 lnonvani s hi ng sr s t -and s ec ondor de rcont r i but i ons i n Fi g.21 . 1 . W es e e by i ns pe c t i on t hatt he sr s t er de rpr opers el f e ne r g i esa r e

1 2 ' ) c ( p)= E!l ( J ? ) =n vF( p ) l o we s to r d e r ( 2 l . 2 ) a g a i ni n de p e n d e n toff r e qu e n c y . Th i se qu a l i t yo f Xt 2 ( p )an d Y1 l ( p )f o ra


uni f or m Bos e gasatr es tcan be pr ov ed t o a1 lor der sby ex ami ni ng t he di agr am s . Si ncet hear r owsde not et hedi r e ct i on ofm om ent um f l ow,r e ve r s i ngt hedi r e ct i on

o fa l 1 t h ea r r owsi se qu i v a l e n tt ot a ki n gp+ +-p. Th usYt c ( p)= Y1 ' 1 ( p) . The s y mme t r yo ft hed i a gr a ms , ho we v e r .s h o wst h a tbo t h) Z t 2a n d1 2 l jmu s tbee v e n
f u n c t i on sof p, whi c ha l s of o l l o wsf r om Eq s . ( 2 0 . 1 6 )a n d( 2 0. 2 4 ) .

21 6

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MPE RATURE) F ORMAL I SM

Be f or et he s ol ut i on of Dys on' s equat i on can be us e d, i ti se s s e nt i al t o

de t e r mi n et h ec he mi c a lp ot e nt i a l ,wh i c hc a nb ed on ewi t hEq .( 1 9 . 2 2 ) .l ft h i s


equat i oni sr ewr i t t en i nt hei nt er ac t i on r epr e s e nt a t i on,weobt ai n
*
. - -

h m!

jm j

x )

8=

m=0

. x ) *-

dt j.. .
c o

r m

-c o

u aj p . #; m( . 0t F #j L t j )... xj ( / m ) . . = .( 0 ) c ' Ao
c c . , .

? -f m 1

h -m y. a ) d t j . . .r d t g t ( : t 0 j T ( A ' j ( t j j . . . . K j ( u ) j j ( ) ) , m=0 $
( 2l . 3 ) wh e r et h eo p e r a t or0f / f o A %i sa s s i g n e dt h et i mef= 0 . Th ed e n omi na t o rs e r v e s
t ocanc elt he di s conne c t ed di agr ams ,exa ct l y asi n ourdi s c us s i on oft hepr oofof G ol ds t one' st heor em i n Se c.9. Thuswef i nd
* m x

y , =
m =0

i . h
-

1 dt j.. m ! -x

The l owes t or de rcont r i but i on i s

:f ' p t -' 0 U NL 1 0 N p ,
-

l Eo Aa l +: v ( ) l ( 0 p P I +P 2 +I h +6 J 0 )+( 2 z V c ) 1 ( 0 p P 5+ % 1 0 )
( 2 1 . 5 )

=a t j p ' ( 0 )
s at i s f yt her e l a t i on

whe r et he m at r i xe l em e nt s vani s h be caus et hey ar ea l r e ady nor ma l or de r e d.

Co mp a r i s ono f Eqs . ( 21 . 1 ) , ( 2 1 . 2 ) , a n d( 2l . 5 ) s ho ws t ha t t h e s eh r s t o r d e r qu a n t i t i e s

p , =/ i ) 2 t l ( 0 )- E' t 2 ( 0 )
Thi se quat i on i si nf ac tcor r e c tt o al lor der si npe r t ur bat i on t heor yand washr s t de ri ve d by H ugenhol t zand Pi nes . ;

Th es i n g l e p ar t i c l eGr e e n' sf u n c t i oni sno wr e a di l yf o un df r o m Eq. ( 2 0. 2 4 ) . W eno t et ha tz ' 1 ( p)v a n i s h e si d e n t i c a l l y , a n das t r a i g h t f br wa r dc a l c ul a t i on y i e l d s G' ( po+ h1 g E p+ n 0 oF( p ) ) p )= z

J ' J- ( f ' p / )
-

G ' ' : 1 n op ' ( p ) 1 2 ( :)- GL 1 ( J ' ) =p c l- ( F p / )


whe r e

Ev= ( ( e 0+ n p gp ' ( p) ) 2- ( n ( ) p ' ( p ) j 2 j + 2 ( ) 1 = ( : 0 +2 p , 6 ,n op ' t p l j


:N .M .Hugenhol t zand D.Pi ne s,l o c.c i t .

( 2 l . 8 )

BOSE SYSTEM S

217

( 2l . 9J)
GI ' , -N ' t l 2 ( p) - Gz 1 ( J ' )- - P . pF +. ) : PP , p.
.

p l j kp 4 +l , r lp e p / h-f j

( 2l. 9 b)

whe r e

u v=( 4 . F-1 ( e 0+ n p vp ' ( p ) ) +J j l


( 2l . 1 0 )

l ' p= ( JFp -l g 6 p+ n 0 ( ) U( p ) )- ! . ) 1
and t hei nsni t e s i mal sz t z t hhavebe endet e r mi ne df r om t heLehmannr epr e s e nt at i on.
The m os ts t r i ki ng f eat ur e oft he s e ex pr es s i ons i st he f or m oft he e xc i t at i on

s pec t r um Ep. l nt he l ong wav el engt hl i mi t ,Ep r e du ce st oa I i near ( phononl i k e )d i s p e r s i on r e l a t i on

; 4 : h : p ! g -t y tj
-- .

n.( ? . l z ' ( 0 )+

wi t ht h ec h a r a c t e r i s t i cv e l o c i t y( c o mp a r e Eq . ( l 6. 1 1 ) 1 nvP' (

C = gm ? ) j 1

Thi s ex pr es s i on s hows t hat t he t he or yi s we l ldesne d onl yi fl ' ( 0)> 0. The


pr e s e ntca l cul a t i on does not al l ow us i mme di a t e l yt oi de nt i f yc -as t he s pee d of c om pr e s s i onalwave s ,s i nc e fp i s he r e der i ve df r om t he s i ngl epar t i c l eGr ee n' s f unc t i on r at he rt han t he de ns i t y cor r el at i on f unct i on. N e ve r t hel es s ,a det ai l e d

c al c ul at i on oft he gr ounds t at ee ne r g y( Sec .22)s how' st hatc 'i si nde ed t he t r ue


s pe ed ofs ound. Thi sques t i on i sdi s c us s e d att heend ofSe c.22. The be ha vi or of Ep f or l ar ge mome nt a depe nds on t he pot e nt i al l ' ( p) .

and weas s ume t hat P ' ( x)i sr e pul s i ve wi t h ar ange r v .I tf ol l owst hat l ' ( p)i s
appr oxi m at e l y cons t antf or p . < ro -l ,and we a l s o as s um e t hat

? ? ( ) P ' ( 0 ) < : . t2 q n1 66

hl

( 21 . 1 3 )

whi c hl i mi t st he al l owe dr ange ofdens i t y ' . The di s per s i on r el at i on f' pt hen

c h a n g e sf r o m l i n e a rt o qu a dr a t i ci nt h ev i c i n i t yo fp; 4 : l z ? ' n n aP ' ( 0 ) , ' 2 J 1a n d


be com es Ep; k ; e 0 f j P ' ( p ) p+n

p ly > 2 mnoP r ( 0 ) 2

( 21 . l 4 )

f or l a r ge wav e ve ct or s . The l as tt er mr epr es ent s an addi t i ona l pot ent i alener gy ar i s i ng f r om t hei nt e r a ct i on wi t ht he par t i cl esi nt he condens at e.

2! 8

GROUNDST ATE ( ZE ROTE MP ERATURE )F ORMAL I SM

I ti si n t e r e s t i n gt oe v a l u a t et h et o t a ln umb e rofp a r t i c l e sf r om Eq. ( 1 9. 1 2 ) . On l yt h ep ol ea t pv= -E, / h+ i ' r l c on t r i bu t e s . a n d weob t a i n 1 3 =? ? o+ ( 2 =) 31 d3 p: . 2 ( 21 . 1 5 )


Thusl . 2m a p y bei nt er pr et e d ast hegr ounds t at em om ent um di s t r i but i on f unc t i on f or par t i cl esoutoft he c onde ns at e. The m os tnot abl ef e at ur ei st he be ha vi or

of . 2atl p ong wave l e ng t hs ,whe r ei tv ar i esas I pl -i . l n addi t i on,noi sdesni t el y l es st han? tbe caus et hei nt e gr and ofEq. ( 2l . 1 5)i spos i t i vede hni t e. W es eet hat
t he i nt e r a ct i on al t e r st he gr ound s t at e by r e m ov i ng s om e par t i c l e sf r om t he c ondens at e,e xci t i ng t he m t os t at es of f i ni t e m oment um . Fr om t hi s poi nt of

vi e w,t he i ncr eas e oft . pa 2 sI p). +0 r e iec t st he mac r os c opi c oc eupat i on oft he ze r omome nt um s t at e. I nt he l i mi tP ' ( p). > . 0,t heener gy s pe ct r um f' pr educe s
t o eo whi l e ' p 2vani s he s ,pr ope r l yr epr oduc i ng t hebehavi orofa pe r f e ctgas . An p,

e qui val e ntobs er v at i on i st ha tt hes e cond pol ei n Eq.( 21. 9 J)ar i s e ss ol e l yf r om t h ei n t e r a c t i o ns b e t we e np a r t i c l e s ,a n d G' ( p)r e du c e st o G0 ( p) a s F( p )+ . 0.
22Z1 DI LUTE BO SE GA S W I TH R EPU LSI V E C O RES W e now c ons i de ra di l ut e Bos egas ,i n whi ch t he pot e nt i al sar er epul s i v e butm ay b: ar bi t r ar i l ys t r ong. l Jus t as i n Se c. l l,t he onl ys mal lpar a m et e ri st he r a t i o oft hes c at t er i ngl engt hat ot he i nt e r par t i c l es pac i ng r l 1, and wet he r e f or e as s um e
na . c sl .

The pot ent i al P ' ( x)no l onge r has a w' e l l de fne d Four i ert r ans f or m,
t /
+
'

* f t l ) I tp)= #

+ ! *

t .

! '

t ' '
:

! '
' t '

! '

t .
'

' t . !
+
t # .

+
k

! .

'

t '

t '

1
#

ZI 2 ( ,)=
/ *

+
/ 4

+
l * . 4 ! K .

! '

f $ '
!

'

Z* 2 1 ( / 7 )=

+
1 f .

+
f ' t

Fi g.22. 1 Ladders um mat i on f orproper s el f ener gi es.

1S. T. Be l i a e v, So t ' . Ph y s . J ETP, 7: 2 9 9( 1 9 5 8 ) .

BosE SYSTEM S

219

and i tbec om ese s s e nt i alt os um as el ec t e d cl as sofdi agr am st o obt ai nt hepr oper

s e l f e n e r g y .l np a r t i c u l a r ,no t et ha tHg .2 0 . 3 /a n dg a n d Fi g .21 . 1 . fa n dl r e pr e s e n tt hes e c o n dt e r m si na s um of l a d d e rd i a g r a msf o rY* ( Fi g . 2 2 . 1 ) . Th i s


s um m a t i on m a y be ev al uat e d wi t h a Be t he sal pe t er e quat i on,ex act l y as i na

di l ut eFe r mi g a s( S e c . l 1 ) ,whi c hy i e l ds x ( p, p ' , #) -( 2 , , ) 3 3 ( p- p ' )+ ( e+ 2 my . h 2-,2+ f n ) l ( 2 , 7 . ) 3 s fd' qr ( q ) x t p- q, p' , #) ( 2 2. 1 ) mh2F' t p, pz a ' )= ( 2. 7 7 . ) -3fd ql . ( qj y( p- q, pz , p) ( J J. 2) Th e/ . t i nt h el as tt e r mo fEq. ( 2 2 . 1 )a r i s e sf r o mt h ef o r mo fG0 ( p ) , wh i c h de p e n ds
e xpl i ci t l y on t hechem i ca lpot ent i al . The s ee quat i onsar es i m pl ert han t hos ef or f er mi ons be caus et he t he or y has no hol e pr opaga t i on;f ort hi sr e as on,t he y ar e

j u s tt h o s es o l v e da s ' la n d1 M ( )i nS e c .1 1 , a n dt he i rs ol u t i o n ma yb ewr i t t e na s ( s e eEq. ( 1 l . 45 ) J

1 > ( p , p' , #), . 4 =a h l ? z ? l

j pj t z< t1 , ,p p ' . ! Jx1 ,

( 2 2 . 4)

whe r ea i st he Jwav es c at t er i ng l engt h. H e nce t he c or r e s pondi ng pr oper s el f -

e ne r gi e sb e c o meg c o mpa r eEq s . ( 1 l . 3 0) a n d( 1 l . 4 0 . ) / i Zt l ( P )= N ( ) F ' ( 1 P , 1 P . #)v n f l F( -1 ' p , p . #); k r 8 ' z r ? ? o a hl ? A ? l :Zt 2 ( J ' )= n oF( p , 0 , 0 ); k ; 4 = . n o a hl r n -i / i Y1 l ( C) = K0 F( 0 , P , 0 )Q : 4 nn z a hl r n1

w ea g a i ns e et h a tYt c t p )= E! l ( p ) .

l ti si nt e r e s t i ng t o com par et hes e expr es s i ons wi t ht hos ef or a we akl y i nt er ac t i ng Bos e gas . For a s hor t r ange pot e nt i al ,t he r e s ul t s of t he pr e vi ous s e c t i on can be wr i t t e n

1 2 t l ( J ' ) -2 / 7 0F( 0 ) Yh( J ' ) - Y! I ( J ' )- n zL ' ( 0 )


l n Bor n appr oxi ma t i on, t he Be t hesa l pe t e rs c at t er i ng am pl i t ude r e duc e st o

Fs ( p , P ' , #); k 0 2 X( 0, 0 ) / z , p l = F( 0 )=4 r r a ah 2 ml


and t hes um m at i on ofl adde rdi a gr am st he r e f or er epl ac e st he Bor n appr oxi ma t i on

c sb yt h et r u es c a t t e r i n gl e n g t ha .( Comp a r eEq s . ( 1 1 . 2 4 )a nd( 1 1 . 2 5 ) . 1

2 2c

GROUNDS TAJ ' E( Z EROTE MPE RATURE) FORMAU I SM

The c or r e s pondi ng c hemi calpot ent i ali sde t er mi ned f r om Eq.( 2l . 4) .l n


t hepr e s entappr oxi m at i on,t hedom i nantt er m sar i s ef r om t hee xc i t at i on oft wo par t i cl es out oft he condens at e , whe r et he yi nt e r ac tr e peat e dl y and t hen dr op bac ki nt ot he c ondens a t e . Thi spr oc es si ss hown i n Fi g.22. 2,wher et he hr s t

t e r mi sj u s tt h a ts t u di e di nS e c .2 1 . Th er n t h or de rc o n t r i bu t i on mu s tc o n t a i n one f ac t or 6 2t oe xci t et he par t i cl es ,m - 1f a c t or s$ 7 7t o al l ow t he mt os c at t er , a n daf a c t o r P1 t or e t u r nt h e m t ot h ec o nd e n s a t e .S i n c et h eo p e r a t o r PP / J AOd o e sn ot c on t a i nP c , i t mu s t f u r n i s he i t h e rt he f ' 1 ort h e Pz . Th ep r e c i s e


'

k '
&

# /

T $

' # J

+
/ . < N * .
' %

1 M

Fi g.22. 2 Ladderappr oxi mat i on f orchem i calpot e nt i al .

num e r i c alf ac t or scanbedet e r mi ne d bynot i ng t hatt hec ont r i but i onsi nFi g.22. 2 ar eas ubs etoft hef ol l owi ngt er m s:

wh e r eEq s . ( 1 8 . 1 0 ) , ( 1 8 . 1 l ) , a n d( 2 0 . l 4 )h a v ebe e nu s e d. Ap p l yi n go u rFe y nman


r ul est oeom put et hec ont r i but i onoft hegr aphsi n Fi g.22. 2,we obt a i nt he s ame l adde rs um m at i on asi nt hepr opers e l f ene r gy, 'hencet heappr oxi m at eche mi c al pot ent i albe c omes

J z= n vr( 0 , 0 , 0) ; k J n =n o a h l , , n 1 whi c ha gai ns a t i s sest heHug enhol t z pi nesr e l at i on ( 21 . 6) .


I ti snow pos s i bl et oe va l ua t et he s i ngl e par t i cl e Gr ee n' sf unct i on i nt he

r e g i o ni pl l< : t1; t h ec a l c u l a t i oni si de nt i c a lwi t ht h a tof Se c . 2 1i fwea g a i nma k e t h er e pl a c e me n tP ' ( 0 )= 4 n . a . hl j m> . 4 n a hl j ma nd y i e l ds

G' ( p )=
wher e

u i
-

7 7 0 Ev / h+ i x pa+ E. % -i j x

r ;--

( 2 2 . 1 0 )

t / j=! . t Fp -' ( e 0+ 4 p = n o a hl mi )+ 1 )
( 2 2 . 1 1 )

t h 2 p= J ( Fp 1 ( 6 0+ $ p . n no a h 2 m1 )- 1 )
and

Ep= ( 6 0 p 2+ 8 / a0 a y2 e om-l p ) 1

( 2 2 . 1 2 )

BOSE SYSTEM S

221

Th et o t a l de ns i t yni sr e a d i l yf ou n df r o m Eq. ( 1 9 . 1 2 ) :

( 22. l3)

? ?- n

. y . ? =y j . y .

8 na? 1

whi ch i ss mal li nt hepr es entl i mi t . Not et ha twehaveus e d Eq. ( 22. l 0)f oral 1p, i nc l udi ngt her angeI pi t z% -1:i ti seas i l yver i e dt hatt hi sappr oxi ma t i oni nt r oduc es ' =( q a ) , ' ( S n J l o ab ) ' 1 ' ne gl i gi b1 e er r ori nt he l i mi t/ 7 4 7 3< : t 1 be caus et he i nt e gr alover ) i n Eq. ( 22. l 3)c onv er g es . I nas i mi l arway,t heener gy i sde t er n l i ne df r om Eq.(l 9. 24) :
-

E Zi= j y m+ . ( 3 2 =3 ) 1f J3 g( 6 0- Eq) ( Fq -l ( c 0 y4 = . n v a h1 m1 ) -l j q Q.
.

=j y n. . h z f b r r l l v ( 7 . ) Y ( l 6 = 2 p ? ) l( X y ) 2 4 y . , ( ( . 2 . 4 , 3 ; 3 . . y 7 j ( . ) . , 2 j 2 . ) 1 0. 4 . , 2
.
-

2 , ,

- .

j j

q g) 1 ' h l 6 4 ; ' r 1 ( > 7 f z ) 1 ' h l 6 4=1( , 7 j yn- - . l . 5 . u u -- ; 4 :i u a- - u -? 7 J = ' l j ? z 7


.

( 2 2 . 1 5 )

I nbo t hEq s . ( 2 2 . 1 3 ) a n d( 2 2 . 1 5 ) , t h ei n t e g r a l r e pr e s e n t sas ma l l c o r r e c t i ono f or de r ( ? 7 ( ) t z 3 ) 1r e l a t i v et ot hel e a d i n gt e r m. an dweh a v et h e r e f br es e tn f j ; 4 C n. Thefn a l


de t er mi nat i on ofE and p.i s m os ts i m pl y pe r f or med wi t ht her m odyna mi c s . l As s um e t ha t

p . =t Wn a hl z nl g l+ a ( n J 3 ) 1 )
whe r ea i s a numer i ca lc ons t antt hatwi l lbe det er mi ne d be l ow. Subs t i t ut i on

i n t o Eq. ( 2 2 . l 5 ) y i e l ds
E

y , -s yI .( x q n a 3 ) 4 . -j j ( # . j
,

27 z /2ah2

. 3 2 n a3 ' i '

Thede r i v at i vewi t hr e s pe ctt o nde sne st heche mi c alpot ent i al


/ 2=

( j ( j , ' 1 v , = p j j =s ?1 + A 4 x l n a ' ) ' i ' -jn ,

'E '

l' E

4, 7 7 7 7 5:2

8 na? 1

( 2 2 . l 8 )

!N.M .Huge nhol t zand D .Pi nes,l oc.c i t .

a2 a

GROUNDS T ATE ( ZE ROTE MP ERATURE )F ORMAL I SM

a n dc o mpa r i s o n wi t h Eq.( 2 2 . 1 6 )s h owst h a t== 3 2 / 3 =+ .I nt h i swa y we5n d

# ( ) 1 +1 5 ( ) 1 Mn n m a h l j j . j . s 3 2 j a T l r 3 j l ' j
m
=

E - l=n2ah2

1 28 n a? +

( 2 2 . 1 9 ) ( x . x ;

Equ a t i o n( 2 2 . 1 9 ) ,whi c hd e t e r mi nt st h el t a d i n g o r r e c t i o nt ot heg r o un d s t a t e


ene r gy,was fr s tobt ai ned by Le e and Yang. l N ot et ha tt he cor r e c t i on i sof

o r de r ( n c 3 l la n di s t hu sn o na n a l y t i ci nt h ei n t e r a c t i o n . Th en e x t o r d e r c o r r e c t i o n
t ot hegr ounds t at eene r gyhasbee ne val uat e d byW u, 2whoEnds
Em 2 . n . n2uj j 2

P mg l +j 5 ( . )+ s t j = v ' j ' j ( n a , ) l n ( n a , ) + u j j m y j j s r o r j j
butt hecoe ci entoft hel as tt e r m hasne ve rbe en de t er mi ne d.

j 28 na3 1

Th ep r e s s u r eP a n dc o mpr e s s i b i l i t yc l( s e e Eq.( 1 6 . 1 9 ) )a r ee a s i l yf ou n d f r o m Eq. ( 2 2 . 1 9 )

p = ( 0 e f v l s = 2 = n m 2 a h l r L j * u ' . 6 j 4 / h n = J 3 j , / + j D P 1O P C8 p mm i k4 y r m n a l h l g L j * u ' . j * x u / h = J 3 j + j
2.
. .
n

( 2 2. 2 2 )
( 2 2. 2 3 )

I ti sc l e a rt h at wemus t h a v ear e pu l s i v epo t e n t i a l ( J>0 )t oe n s u r et ha t t h es y s t e m


i ss t abl e agai ns tcol l aps e. To l ea di n g or der ,t he s pe ed ofs ound agr e e s wi t h

t h es l o p eo fE.i nEq .( 2 2 . 1 2 )a sI p1 . > . . 0;i na d d i t i o n,Eq. ( 2 2 . 2 3 )al s og i v e st h e r s t or de rc or r e c t i on t oc . Bel i ae v ha s eva l ua t ed Epj hi p)t on e x t or de ri n ( n J3 ) +f o rs ma l lI pIa n dv e r i h e dt h a ti ta g r e e swi t ht h a tf o u nd a b ov e ,bu thi s
cal cul a t i oni sve r yl e ng t hy. I nde e d,i thasbe e n pr ove dt o al lor de r si n pe r t ur bat i on t he or yt hat t he s i ngl epar t i de e xci t a t i on s pe ct r um vani s hes l i ne ar l y as

l pI > . 0 ,wi t h as l o p ee qu a lt ot h ema c r os c o p i cs p e e d ofs o u nd. 3 Th i sl i n e ar d e p e n d e n c ec a nb eo b t a i n e dd i r e c t l yf r o m Eq s . ( 2 0. 2 4 ) t o( 2 0. 2 6 ) , t hesr s t e q ua l i t y i nEq. ( 21 . 2 ) a ndt h eHu g e n ho l t z p i n e sr e l a t i o nEq. ( 21 . 6 )

D( #)*#I- 2 % Xt 2 ( 0 ) p+0 wh e r ewea s s u meXt 2 ( p)i swe l l b e h a v e da s p> . 0 .

( 2 2. 2 4 )

1T.D .Lee and C.N . Ya n g, Ph y s .Re v . ,1 0 5: 11 1 9( 1 9 5 7 ) ;s e ea l s o K.A.Br ue c kn e ra nd K.

S a wa d a, Ph y s . Re n . ,1 0 6: 11 1 7( 1 95 7 ) . 2T.T.W u, Ph ys . Re t ' . s1 1 5: 1 3 9 0( 1 9 5 9 ) . Thi sv a l u eh asb e en v e r i h e db y N.M .Hu g e nh ol t z a nd D.P i ne s ,l o c .c l . ywho i n t r odu c e dt h et e c h ni qu eus e di n Eq.( 2 2 . 1 6 ) ,a nd b y K.S a wad a , Ph ys .Ae r . .1 1 6; 1 3 44( 1 9 5 9 ) . 7J .Ga v or e ta nd P.No z i r e s ,An n. Ph ys .( N. F. ) ,M : 3 4 9( 1 9 6 4 ) ;P.C.Ho h e nY r ga nd P.C. Ma r t i n,Ann . Ph y s . ( N. F. ) , M: 2 91( 1 9 65 ) .

BosE SYSTEM S

223

Th el a dd e ra pp r o x i ma t i o n( Fi g .2 2 . 1 )i n c l u d e sa 1 l r s t -a n ds e c o n do r d e r
c ont r i but i onst ot hepr ope rs e l f ene r gy. Asar es ul t ,t hecor r es pondi ngs ol ut i on

o fDy s on ' se q u a t i on ( 2 0 . 1 3 )c o n t a i n sa 1 lt hesr s t -a n ds e c on d or d e rdi a ra ms f ort h es i ng l e p a r t i c l eGr e e n ' sf un c t i o n( Fi g s .2 0. 2, 2 0 . 3 , a n d 21 . 1 ) . Wh e nt he


r e mai ni ngt hi r dor de rc or r e ct i onst oX*ar er e expr es s edi nt e r msofa,t hel ea di ng

c o n t r i bu t i o nsc on t a i nt h ef a c t o r sn 4 / 3a n dd ono ta fe c tEqs . ( 2 2 . 1 4 ) , ( 2 2 . 1 9 ) ,o r


( 2 2 . 2 0 ) . He n c ewes e et h a to ur me t h o dc o r r e c t l yt r e a t sadi l u t eBo s eg a st oor de r ( a J 3 ) 1 .
PRO BLEM S

6. 1. Us eW i c k ' st he or e mt oe v a l u a t eG' l pj , G' l c ( J ) , a n dG1 1 4 #)t os e c o ndo r de r


i nt he i nt e r ac t i on pot e nt i al . He nce v er i f yt he nume r i ca lf ac t or ss t at td i nt he Fe ynman r ul e s ,and obt ai nt hedi agr amsi n Fi gs .20. 2,2 0. 3,and 21 . 1 .

6. 2. I t e r a t et h eDy s onEq s . ( 2 0. 1 3 )c o n s i s t e n t l yt os e c o ndo r d e ri n F, a n dt hu s


r e pr oduc et he r es ul t sofPr ob.6. 1 .

6. 3. ( J ) Us et h e Bo g o l i u bo vpr e s c r i p t i ont oe x p r e s st heI e a di n gc on t r i b u t i o n t ot h ede n s i t yc or r e l a t i onf u n c t i on D( k, ( s )i nt e r msofG' ,Gl ' a ,a n dG1 1 .S ho w t h a tt h er e s u l t i n gD( k, u ) )h a st hes a mes p e c t r u ma st h ee xa c tG' ( Kf z ) ) . ( ! 8 Ev a l u a t eD( k, t Me x p l i c i t l yf o radi l u t eBo s eg a swi t hr e p u l s i v ec or e s . 6. 4. Pr o v et h e Hu g e n ho l t z pi n e sr e l a t i o n( Eq .( 2 1 . 6 ) )t os e c o n do r de ri nK
6. 5. Cons i de ra de ns ec har ge ds pi nl e s sBos eg asi n a uni f or mi nc ompr es s i bl e

b a c k g r o un d( f orc ha r g en e u t r a l i t y ) .

( J)S h ow t ha tt h ee x c i t a t i ons p e c t r u mi sg i v e nbyEk= ( ( Dp I ) 2+ ( d) 2 ) *wh e r e


Dp l i st h epl a s maf r e q u e n c y( E q. ( 1 5 . 4 ) ) ; c omp a r ei twi t ht h a t de r i v e di nS e c. 2 2 . ( :)S h ow t ha tt h ed e p l e t i ona n dg r ou n ds t a t ee n e r g yE a r eg i v e nt ol e a d i n gor d r

b y 1( a-n p/ n=0. 21 l r 1a n d El N =. 0 . 8 03 r , 1 ' e 2 / 2 e, r e s mc t i v e l y , wh e r e r 2= q l 4 n na , J ( ) = 2 / -s e 2 , a n dmpi st h ema s so ft h eb os on .


( r )De du c et hec he mi c a lp o t e n t i a la n dt h ep r e s s ur ei nt h eg r ou n ds t a t e .I n t e r pr etyour r es ul t s .

6. 6. Suppos e Bos econde ns at i on occ ur si na s t a t e wi t h moment um q,whi c h

d e s c r i b e sac on d e n s a t ei nun i f or m mo t i onwi t hv e l o c i t yv= h q l m. Sh o wt h a t


t he c ondens a t el i ne s now i nc l ude a f ac t oret ' Q * K . De r i ve t he ana l og s of Eqs .

( 21 . 9 )a n d( 2 1 . 1 0 ) . Fi n da ne x pr e s s i o nf o rt h ed e pl e t i o ni nadi l u t eh a r ds p h e r e g a sa sa f un c t i on ofv ,a n dc o mpa r e wi t h Eq.( 2 2 . 1 4 ) .S h ow t ha tt h et o t a l


moment um de ns i t yi snmMand notno my. Expl ai nt hi sr es ul t .

tL.L. Fol d y, Ph y s . Re v . , 1 M: 6 4 9( 1 9 61 ) ;1 2 5: 2 2 0 8( 1 9 6 2 ) .

par : three

Fi ni tetennperature Form al i sm

7 Fi el d T heor y al Fi ni te Tem per alur e

Z3W EM PERATU RE G REEN' S FU NCTI ONS Ourt he or yofmanypar t i c l es ys t e msatz er ot empe r at ur e made e xt e ns i veus e of t he s i ngl e par t i cl e Gr e en' sf unct i on. Knowl e dge ofG pr ovi de d 80t ht hecompl et ee qui l i br i um pr oper t i es of t he s ys t em and t he exc i t at i on ene r gi e s oft he s ys t e m cont ai ni ng one mor e orone l es s par t i cl e. Fur t her m or e ,G wasr eadi l y e xpr es s ed as a per t ur bat i on ex pans i on i nt he i nt e r ac t i on pi ct ur e. At sni t e t emper at ur e s ,howeve r ,t he anal ogouss i ngl e par t i cl e Gr e en' sf unc t i on i se s s e nt i al l y mor ec ompl i ca t e d,and i ti snec e s s ar yt os e par at et hecal cul a t i on i nt ot wo par t s . Thef i r s ts t ep,whi chi st r ea t e di nChaps .7 and 8,i st hei nt r oduct i on ofa t e mper at ur e Gr e en' sf unc t i on @. Thi sf unc t i on has a si mpl e per t ur bat i on e xpans i on s i mi l art ot hatf or G at F = 0 and al s o enabl e s us t o ev al uat et he

e q u i l i b r i u mt h e r mo dy n a mi cp r omr t i e sof t h es y s t e m. Th es e c o n ds t e p( Ch a p . 9 )
227

az8

FI NI TETEMPERATURE FORMALI SM

t hen r el at es @ t oa t i me de pe nde ntG r e en' sf unc t i on t hatde s c r i be st he l i near r e s pons e oft he s ys t em t o an e xt er nalper t ur bat i on;t hi sl as tf unc t i on pr ovi des t he e xc i t at i on ener gi e s oft he s ys t e m c ont ai ni ng one m or e or one l e s s par t i c l e .
DEFI NI TI ON

I nt r e at i ng s ys t e m satsni t et em per at ur e s ,i twi l lbe m os tconveni e ntt o us et he gr and c anoni cale ns em bl e,whi c h al l owsf ort he pos s i bi l i t y ofa var i abl enum ber ofpar t i cl es . Wi t ht hede sni t i on

k4 -J z # 4 t h eg r a ndpa r t i t i o nf un c t i ona n ds t a t i s t i c a l op e r a t o r ( s e eSe c . 4 ) ma yb ewr i t t e na s zG= e b i = Tre l A ( 2 32 ) I G= zo1 e j #= e l ( f 1 A ) ( ;? . 3 )


.

whe r ewea g a i nu s et h es h or t h a nd n o t a t i o n #= l / / c s F. Th eop e r a t orX ma y


be i nt er pr e t ed as a gr and c an oni c alham i l t oni an;f orany Sc hr di ng erope r at or

s ( x) , wet h e ni nt r o d u c et h e( mo di h e d )He i s e n b e r gp i c t u r e dK ( xm ) -e k r / h 0S ( x) e k r l h
I n par t i cul ar ,t hef i e l d oper a t or sas s um et hef or m

( 234 )
.

' ( 4. I XT I= e k x k h , j a ( x) e k r l h I J 1( X T ) =e k r l h #1 ( x ) e * ' / h

No t et ha tf 4a ( xr )i sn o t t head j o i n to fQx z t xm )a sl o nga smi sr e a l . lI fri si n t e r pr e t ed asa com pl e x var i abl e,howe ve r ,i tm ay be anal y t i ca l l yc ont i nue dt oa

p ur ei ma g i n a r yv a l u e' r= i t . Th er e s u l t i n ge x p r e s s i o nX . ( x, f / )t h e nb e c o me s
t h et r u ea d j o i n to f #x a ( x , ; ' / ) a n di s f o r ma l l yi d e n t i c a l wi t ht h eor i g i n a l He i s e nb e r g p i c t u r ed e s n e di nEq. ( 6 . 2 8 ) ,a p a r tf r o mt h es ub s t i t u t i ono fX f o r. J Zt Fort h i s r e a s o n, Eq . ( 2 3 . 5 )i ss o me t i me sc a l l e da ni ma g i n a r yt i meop e r a t or .
The s i ngl e par t i c l et e mper a t ur eGr e en' sf unc t i on i sde sne da s

Mx b l xr , x' T ' )H-Tr ( )cFv ( #x . ( xT ) 4x 'j t x' ' r ' ) ) ) ( 2 3 . 6 ) wh e r el oi sg i v e ni nEq. ( 2 3. 3 ) . He r et h es y mb ol Fzo r de r st heop e r a t or sa c c o r d i ngt ot he i rval ueofm,wi t ht hes m al l es tatt her i ght ;T.al s oi ncl udest hes i gna t ur e

f a c t or ( -1 ) P , wh e r e' i st h enu mb e ro fp e r mu t a t i o nso f f e r mi ono p e r a t o r sn e e d e d t or e s t o r et h eor i g i n a lo r d e r i ng . W ee mph a s i z et ha tt h et r a c e( Tr )i mp l i e st h a t


t hi sGr e en' sf unc t i on @ i nvol vesas um overacompl e t es e tofs t a t esi nt heHi l be r t

s pa c e , e a c hc on t r i b ut i o nb e i ngwe i g h t e dwi t ht h eo pe r a t o rl o( s e eS e c . 4) .
t Toa v oi dc on f us i on, t h ea d j oi nt ofa no -r a t ort )i se xp l i c i t l yd e n ot e dby( J ti nt hi sc ha pt e r . 1Thi sc or mKt i onwa sf t r s tpo i n t e doutb yF.Bl h . Z. Ph ys i k, 7 4: 2 9 5( 1 9 3 2 ) .

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURF RELATI O N TO OBSERVABLES

229

The t e m pe r at ur eG r e en' sf unct i on i sus e f ulbe caus ei te nabl e sust oc al c ul at et he

t h e r mo d y na mi cb e h a v i oro ft h es y s t e m. I ft h eha mi l t on i a nP i st i mei n d e p e nde nt ,asi sus ual l yt hec as e,t hen @ de pendsonl yon t hec om bi nat i on m- ' v 'and noton rand r's epar at e l y. Thepr oofoft hi ss t at em e nti si dent i c alwi t ht hatat

F =0 ( Eq. ( 7 . 6 ) Ja n dwi l l no tb er e pe a t e dh e r e .
Cons i dert hequant i t y

j j F. z ( x ' r , x' r + )= t r F( x m , x' r + )


whe r e r' bdenot e st he I i mi t i ng val ue r+ T as T appr oache sz e r of r om pos i t i v e v al ues .and t rr epr es ent st het r ac eoft hem at r i xi ndi c es . Bydesni t i on,

t rF( x m , x m+ )=: ! L XTr( / cf 4z ( xm ) #x . ( xr ) J - me / ' f z) ( TrL e n *e # T ? 1 ( . 1( x) 1 J z ( x ) e k r / ' j


=

q z e b f . 7j g Tr( e I #1 / 1( x ) f k( x) )
: F ( H ( x ) ) ( 2 3 . 8 )

wh e r et h ec y c l i cpr op e r t y oft h et r a c eha sb e e nu s e d( Tr ( , 4 #C) = Wr L BCA)= Tr ( Cz 4#) J ,a l o n g wi t ht h ec ommu t a t i v i t yo fa n yt wo f u n c t i on so ft h es a me oper at or . Asbe f or e.ourconvent i oni st hatuppe r( l owe r )s i gnsr ef e rt o bos ons ( f e r mi o ns ) . Th eme annu mb e rofp a r t i c l e si nt h es y s t e mi sgi v e nb y NI T, F, p . )= : 2 1 : . f#3 xt r F( xm , xm + ) ( 2 3 . 9 )
and i s an e xpl i ci tf unc t i on oft he va r i abl e ss p ec i sed. Si mi l ar l y,t he e ns em bl e ave r ageofanyone bodyope r at ori sexpr es s i bl ei nt er m sof@ . W i t ht henot at i on

o fEq. ( 7 . 7 ) , we h a v e

# 7)- Tr ( c7)
=

) : f # 3 xI i m / j z t x ) Tr ( ) ( ; y ' ) ( x ' ) y ' x ( x ) ) x p' x ' , xv


: F) ) . fd? xl i ml i m Jj . ( x )Fz j t xm , x' T ' )
x j x ' ex' r ' or +

: Ff#3 xl i m l i m t r( J ( x) Ft x m . x' r ' ) ) x' ex' r' +T+

( 2 3 . l 0 )

Par t i cul arex am pl esofi nt er es tar e

( *)=mfJ3 xt r ( cF( xr , xm + ) )
-

( 2 3 . 1 1 J) ( 2 3 . 1 1 : )

( 1 )=+Jd? xX I i m +x
' -

2/2 rF( x ' r , x' ' r + ) lm t

zx

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FoaM Aul su

Twobody oper at or sar eal s oi mpor t ant ,butt heens e mbl eave r ageofs uc h a n om r at orus ual l yr e qui r esa t wopar t i cl et e m per a t ur eGr ee n' sf unct i on. I n t he s l xc i alcas et hatt hehami l t oni an c ons i s t sofa s um ofki ne t i cand t wobody

p ot e n t i a le n t r g i e s( Eq .( 7 . 1 2 ) 1 ,h o we v e r ,t h e me a n po t e n t i a le n e r g yc a nb e e x p r e s s e ds o l e l yi nt e r mso f@,e x a c t l ya si nEq. ( 7 . 2 2 ) . Th ec a l c u l a t i o ns t a r t s


f r om t heHe i s e nbe r ge quat i on ofmot i on 0 s
-

h 1 Xz ( X T )= ht iE e X T /W ( X ) ex . / A ) T
=

( X, #x a ( X T ) !

( 23 . 1 2 )

Fo rs i mpl i c i t y ,wes h a l l a s s u met h a tt h ep o t e n t i a li ss pi ni n de p e n d e n t( c ompa r e Eq . ( 1 0 . 2 ) ) , a si su s ua l l yt hec a s ei na p p l i c a t i on so ft h ei n i t e t e mp e r a t u r et he o r y . I ti ss t r a i g ht f or wa r dt oe v a l u a t et h ec o mmut a t o ri n Eq.( 2 3 . 1 2 ) ,wh i c hy i e l ds ( c o mp a r eEq. ( 7 . 1 9 ) )


h?

y ;#x z t x ' r l- z m -#x . ( xm ) +r z # x a t x m )


-

h2: 7 2

Jd3 x' Cx y t x' m ) #x y t x' ' r )F( x- x # ) y x z t x' r )( 2 3 . 1 3 )

Thust hes i ngl e par t i cl eG r e e n' sf unct i on s at i s f i e st her el at i on l i ? ,, # , y:


TP -T' F
,

m hj . . j Fa j t x' r , x r) =7 : Tr) ( ; f k/xm )y Q xz t x m )


-

. F ' r r ( ( ; f 4 , ( x , ) g ( > a 2 m : 7 2 + , ) 4 x t x l
--

J#3 xe Yl x y l x 'm ) ' hy t l x' , r )F( x- x' ' ) ' f x a t x' r )

The l as tt er m i ses s e nt i al l yt he quant i t y ofi nt e r e s t ,and wef i nd

(P)-JJdn xdq xnP ' t x-x# ) Trg l ( ; ( ' 1( x) ' G # ( x* ) ' / p y t x l 1 J a ( x ) J


=

U F J Jd3 xX l i m l i m -hV + l ,t rFt xm , x' m ' ) m-+ p ' , x r' -, m+


-

h2V2

( 2 3 . 1 4 )

wher et he c yc l i c pr ope r t i es oft he t r a ce have be en us e dt o change f r om t he

He i s e nb e r gt ot h eS c h r di n g e rpi c t u r e . Eq u a t i on s( 2 3 . 11 : )a n d( 2 3 . 1 4 )ma yb e c omb i n e dt op r o v i det h ee ns e mb l ea v e r a g eo ft h eha mi l t on i a n , whi c hi s j us tt h e i n t e r n a le ne r g yE ( s e eS e c . 4 ) . E-t z ? )= t /+ P)

=E F I . Jd3 xA l i m l i m .t rF( x m , x' r ' ) .x .' , . .. + -h X- l m +p


' -

hlV2

( 2 3 . 1 5 )

Them e ani nt er act i onener gyc anal s o beus e dt o obt ai nt het her m odynam i c pot ent i alf 1 ,by m ea nsofan i nt e gr at i on ov era var i abl ec oupl i ng cons t ant . I f

23I

u. Q.k # . s. .R , s wv g - w s z H( xx ) =jv +xl z s d , z s mo +yk, kxok z x

# 6 . -' l @ = #. yv ' az%= Q, a 4e rw v w uex= a e a mk ? eueA d # 1 2 3 . 1 6 )

e. c J M %,

*1 e s m vp t v e s k e ,- 4>+ @ v
4.r- p * v >

. I V >e V ' c aa ot . g o> & w

: w -v. vw yf ww o w-

. f w n -

. j > #t > )' V x = eM K=7 ke /At &,t ,1 . l 7 )


-

j -ll u, k l. <'< k v ' ww m e eo. hf w

%a e sv az z w< .N e . a wx l x 4. .j t -N 3 a J x 1 >=&' r z t x? a Gx x' ( x ? . 3 t )


T *z hw e ' A*jmi l ' wL skwv < c ac a a .> Ay g v ew e . .e y t g . uw:
J: V# qe s G
- .

n 1 > > n e l / , x -hd #>*A% E 1 . t t t l q lzl h .C ( ' )L f )T .( k. +x Rl


.

:7 + .x x x? )( j)?ss x o+ xA; xx (
.

>a.

3 = 1m

1 . 4e m: +- dW
z x A

' e y z w l ) <i wx v p kv i- 1 V + . 4** . 2. f

V.nf w a- k. w ykl% < .Y c , lj w u,m/- :ww u ew: t h

J G - l% a > 4 4y r v & m w s . I Q qc s ' cj y y wq 4ue<u.u l o p t k


< w A 4 4 >Aws aA L ev e p z p we x Jz -o v a ju . 4J y a J ,- o p.
e 1. c ,oe: 1 .<' *u ,41 G vm v
: :@s
.

3% .

= ( m ? ) ' i ( j ) h nT v ( / : 0 + z %, ) * I I V w ) 1
.

=f * + s o( ( n s ) ? 2 ' f pb q T .( ( Aq + y , ) m H $, . ) =fT x( efyt go j 1 ) = -; e F l szx / j,y w x


-

t . ; . I , )
.

w l - 4 . . . 1 e vz e lhe-

;e . - M4 u ) W 4* e j e y e & y( : ) #

x-kx wv a 4E l s . ( z 3 . l )%/E jt z 1 , h )j x w t a ;s x : 1zyn kj 3 1 yN=x ' d4x vx


Iae j y m . v . , x=p % x=$

( x yz p )
( a 3 . <)

u n m.= J.x 1 j xz s $, y x
-

ue4 .w . g . Mku #e 4 . > 1 e a #e o ai ; j. ( z 3 . x ) Ve r * #v V oe za ev t r . J w lw W -ww o' g- w S- Jd 4.w w > om ' j <w


J l W *& <: x2 4% o wl a ' c m.

w . x: d t .u +. 4wwss l h ; cj v o sa y

+ .j - l ;xu & y e wsx .

a3I

w' ,Jw x az - IX J . wW E ! . ( u. ) )w S o . xd ueB 'e , . AJ , We


:
J 7
.

w? . 4- < . >o at x )

. z ( 1 v , , ) = 4 , t T , v , l . ) y j o x d J I N z K * . x * 1 1 . z 0 . 1 + t t ' a z 4 . a Y yy 1 . ! > ( 4 a . , v , z , ) , q , . . . )

4w-<h w ut !4 e m<s ao tw s ( &t . . ' * 4. u k < > w kw!4:.


T > u oz i t4. E v. ( z 3 . )yk( > 3 . a z )x 'r e - 19 -- I / sc w t et ' e ,d f a uj eAe v h t e s > u,% o e w / wG ' A , 2 ** a

z - p v y. ( 7 . . , ) uz( 7 3 , ). l uu- , ueup - jn w -t rG ' J >f z w t k eAw j wo ' < a 'o e ew ak -j


w4 . > % Ef . ( z yz a ) .

EX AM/ I . E: yg yzvT g k c Tlyj .& &D M

k :w' A V .-+ 4 , >a a G w-c '#o r ehet v et


G >' :
.

. #* #( 4x z : , = 9f ' Ae . ' -<


.

e ' e - .1.4* G <


.

4o/ w: dj W '& ,W ew // *? e40 m P ew- ,x 4 < L / ' , y. 4+ . t %( . ) x 7 . 4 4q a 0 1 + ( . 0 kzl @e q s: . 7 . 3 J ) . ) ' k l t 4 ? =? ke s k x;


=

>

f zxas )

*- w 4w oa z e ' a < e w- f - - m
G & . :we> c - G *W

je 4wz v a e- w ! - vm e y4 % ! , , .)

*Ae > ' u re , , <.c - uc . t m- * t w ig e ,w , J A k& . .> ' - 4- %*Q v * , W W Y v t o i% E j . ( R . %

> % . W< = .; ' r* ' . a. 9 . / /. QeH <%


Ve ' w > ' .

>m 4. , - ,T v
t a a a l l
.

z x z x . ze A 4 ' ' 4 r . o *% . q e % * y a 1 ) 1 4 +' k x . / 1i ,t f, t ) = ?. y s ,> % t ' t z l =k zi kxe $ s


x

1 < / uer aw a. . w w/1 c - k* : +' f . 7 1M L ' v u c ac w a- ,


y4 +e ww A - A + . * * - 4 %* ** / N. %c % l % (o k / a k-x -( -<' / * =-c : e k y) ay x t o ) x 3= e v yg e
.

' -'

37 ,D ' M '

k s wx)
.

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

233

wh e r e4 =hl kl j l m. Th i sd i f r e r e n t i a l e qu a t i o ni se a s i l yi nt e g r a t e d: ( 4 -r z ) . v ( 2 3 . 2 6 / ) J k A ( T )= J k z e X P y
-

and s i mi l ar l y

4. ) r u# k A ( , r )- t z k f z e x p( hp
No t ea g a i nt h a tEq. ( 2 3 . 2 6 : )i sn o tt hea d j o i n to fEq. ( 2 3 . 2 6 *.
Thenoni nt er a ct i ngt empe r at ur eGr e en' sf un ct i on i sde hned as

( 2 3 . 2 6 : )

Fy j t xm , x? m ' ) =. e b x Tr ( e l X c Fr ( #x ' a ( x m ) Q l/x' ' r ' ) ) )


and,f orde hni t ene s s ,wesr s tcons i de rt heca s ey .> ' r ' :

( 2 3 . 2 7 )

F0 x b ( xr , x' r ' )=-Flkk ) j j l e l t k * x k ' e x ' l t y y j l a j x j j , j j ' Az 1 '


4t ) , . e 2 , ). v '' f xe xp ( hr . +( hp t : lk zck ' A , )a
-

m . a .

6 k- p 0 . ) ( , r- , r / )v a j j z-j jxbN gj k. ( xx ? ) :xg ( x . . k Au. -k A1 0 v h


-

whi c hf ol l ows f r om t he t r ans l at i onal and r ot at i onal i nvar i anc e of t he noni nt er act i ng s y s t em . l n addi t i on,t he ens e m bl ea ve r age m ay be r e wr i t t en as

t J k A J k f z l g= l: h : t J 1 k l& k > ) 0= 1: i 2 A l k ( 2 3 . 2 8 ) wh e r et h eu pp e r( l owe r )s i gnr e f e r st ob os on s( f e r mi o ns )a n dn 2i skn o wn f r o m


s t a t i s t i c a l me c h a n i c sg Eqs . ( 5 . 9 )a n d( 5 . 1 2 ) ) t obe

n 2-l e x pE jt e f-p , ) 1 : : F :1 J '


Thes eequat i onsm aybecom bi ne dt o yi el d
-

( 2 3 . 2 9 )

f # ' 1 ( 6 2- p , ) ( ' r- m ' )( ( ) b x ' r , x' ' r ' )= -3 a jU1j t ? k * f X X ' 1 e x p ( 1: i : n k )


k

( 2 3 . 3 0 4 )
Ani dent i c alc al c ul at i on f or ' r< r'gi v es

@L )( ' e 0 . ) ( r- m / )? XT , X' T )= U F : J a jp r -lN f k w t x x ' ) e x p ( k- p J 7 0 j ' te j k


-

r< r '( 2 3 . 3 0 : )
Asex pec t ed,f #' 0i sdi agonali nt hemat r i xi ndi c esand depe ndsonl yon t he c om -

bi n a t i on s( x - x' , r- m' ) .I ti si n t e r e s t i n gt oe v a l u a t et h e me a nn umb e r of

za4

FI NI TETEMPERATURE FORMALI SM

pa r t i c l e sNga n dme a ne n e r g yEnwi t hEq s . ( 2 3 . 9 )a n d( 2 3 . 1 5 ) ; as t r a i g h t f or wa r d


cal cul a t i on r e pr oduce st her e s ul t si n Sec .5 .

Xn ( F, U , / z )= Z F l k= Z I C X PE l( 4 -J t ) 1 E : F1 1 1 k k

( 2 3 . 3 1 J )

f: ( r, F, / z )= Z f z D = Z E z f e x p( j( e - p , ) 1 : Y :1 ) 1 k k

( 23 . 31 : )

ZK PERTURBATI ON THEORY AND W I CK' S THEOREM FOR FI NI TE TEM PERATURES Thet em pe r at ur eG r ee n' sf unct i on i sus e f ulonl yt ot hee xt e ntt hati ti sc al cul abl e f r om t he m i cr os c opi c ham i l t oni an. Jus tasi nt hez er ot emper at ur ef or m al i s m, i ti sc onve ni entt oi nt r oduc ean i nt e r a ct i on pi c t ur e .whi ch t hen s er ve sasaus ef ul bas i sf orper t ur bat i on cal c ul a t i ons .
I NTERACTI O N PI CTURE

Fo ra n yo p e r a t o rOsi nt h eSc h r di n g e rp i c t ur e . wef or ma l l yde sn et h ei nt e r a c t i on p i c t u r edz @)a ndHe i s e nb e r gp i c t ur ex ( ' r )b yt h ee qu a t i o ns t ) I ( ' r ) He e n r l h0S e ' e T / ' t ) x ( m ) Ne e r / h ( ) s e k r / h ( 2 4 . 1 )

Th et wo p i c t u r e sa r es i mp l yr e l a t e dg c o mp a r eEq. ( 6 . 3 l ) J ; OK ( z )= e e w ' , h t , # 0 m 7 ' Oz ( z ) e k u r ' ' t a ' , ' / ' - ' #( ( ) , c )J ( . r ) . p #( m , 0 ) wh e r et h eo p e r a t o ro i sd e sn e db y


Not et ha t# i sn otu n i t a r y, b u ti ts t i l l s a t i s h e st h eg r o up p r o p e r t y

( 2 4 . 2 )

#( T l . ' r 2 ) #( T 2 , T 3 )= & ( T ' l , T 3 )


and t heboundar ycondi t i on

( 2 4 . 4 ) ( 2 4 . 5 )

: h #( ' r l , ' r l )- 1

I na dd i t i on , t hee t t i me ' ' d e r i v a t i v eofo i se a s i l yc a l c u l a t t d: hp T( m, , r)- e o r / 1 ( k( ) - kj e A ' ( z z . z ) / h c k o r z / h m =e w c z / , ( #0- k) e x o m / , #( z , v , , ) - - 4, 4 , r ) . p #( v . , z )


0 , x

( 2 4 . 6 )

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEMPERATURE

23e

wher e

Xl ( ' r )= e X 0 T / ' #l e hr / h

( 2 4. 7 )

I t f ol l ows t ha t t h eop e r a t o r#( ' r , ' r ' ) o b e y s e s s e n t i a l l yt h es a med i le r e nt i a le q ua t i on a st h eun i t a r yop e r a t ori n t r o du c e di nEq. ( 6. 1 1 ) ,a n d wema yi mme di a t e l ywr i t e
down t hes ol ut i on

( r , r ' )=

C D
n=0

1 a1 m -j g j ,
--

d r k . j . , # , r n F z ( X j ( , r I ). . . X j ( m J )( 2 4 . 8 ) r
g4 , p

Fi n a l l y , E q . ( 2 4 . 3 ) ma yb er e wr i t t e na st A h z x m@( ' Z Y . DQ Y$ :
ek p ! h= e x a r / . Qq y ( j ) ,
-

l fri ss e te qu a l t oj , Eq. ( 2 4. 9 )pr o v i de sap e r t ur ba t i o ne x p a ns i onf o rt heg r a n d


par t i t i on f unc t i on
ve jj a= a rej A

Tr( e i ' c #( , . 0 ) )
' ' '

n z = 0 ( 1 j * 1 i j b o h t s , . . . j b c h # z a T r ( e f f o r r : 4 1 ( , r , ) . . . # , ( a ) ) J
( 2 4. 1 0 )
wher ea 1 1oft hei nt eg r al se xt e nd ove rasni t edomai n. I n pr ac t i c e. t hi se quat i on

i sl e s sus e f u lf o rdi a g r a mma t i ca na l y s i st h a n Eq.( 2 3 . 2 2 )b e c a u s eo fdi c u l t i e s


as s oci at ed wi t hc ount i ng t hedi s c onnec t e d di agr am s . The e x act t em pe r at ur e Gr e en' sf unct i on now m ay be r ewr i t t e ni nt he i nt er ac t i on pi c t ur e . I fm > m ' ,wehave

Fa j t xz . , x' . r ? ) =. e b i Tr( e # #Qx . ( x , r ) ! 4/x' m. ) )


=. e b i Tr t c i f n J #( # , 0 ) ( #( 0, , r ) . # z a t x , r l T( . r , 0 ) !
-

x( J #( p, , . . ) #l /x z g z l #( r , ' , 0 ) j ) Tr( e / f c #( j , m ) ' # ; z . t x. r l #( m . , r ' ) f l /x ' m ' ) ' :( ' r / . 0 ) ) Tr ( e / x o #( j , 0) )


( 2 4. 1 1 )

( 2 4. 9 )h a sbe e n us e d wi t h m=$h . whe r e Eq. yi el ds

As i mi l a rc a l c ul a t i o nf o r' r< r'

@( z / t x z , x' , r ' )=

: ! : TrE c f ' n J #( j , ' r ' ) fl j t x' m ' ) J #@' , m ) f ' z z t x ' r )#( ' r , 0 ) )
Tr y. j x ; wt j p j oj ,
( 2 4. 1 2 )

236

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

Equ a t i o n s( 2 4. 1 1 )a n d( 2 4 . 1 2 )ha v ep r e c i s e l yt h es t r u c t u r ea n a l y z e di nEq. ( 8 . 8) ,


and i ti se vi dentt hatt heym a y bec om bi ne di nt hef or m

As n o t e di n Eq.( 2 4 . 1 0 ) .t h ede n omi n a t o ri sj u s tt h ep e r t u r ba t i on e x p a n s i o n


ofe-lt 33 .i nt he pr e s e nt f or m , howev er ,i ts e r v es t oe l i mi na t ea 1 l di s c onnec t e d

d i a g r a ms ,e x a c t l y asi nt h ez e r o t e mp e r a t u r ef or ma l i s mg c omp a r e Eq s .( 9. 3 )t o ( 9 . 5 ) J .
pEnl ool cl ' r v oF g

Eq u at i o n( 2 4 . 1 3 )s ho ws t h att h ei nt e g r a t i o n so v e rt he du m my v a r i a b l e sT ia 1 1

e x t e n df r o m 0t o# . W es h a l l s e et ha ti ti sa l s os u mc i e ntt or e s t r i c tJ ' a n dr ' t o t h i s i n t e r v al , s ot h a t t h ed i se r e n c e' v- T ' s a t i s e st h ec o nd i t i o n-jc :r- r ' c t ) h.


l nt hi sl i mi t e d dom ai n.t het em per at ur eGr ee n' sf unc t i on di s pl a ysa r em ar kabl e per i odi ci t y whi ch i sf undam ent alt o al 1oft he s ubs e quentwor k. Fork l el i ni t e-

n e s s , s u pp os er' f i x e d( 0< v ' < j) . As i mpl ec a l c ul a t i ons ho wst h at @a j t x o , x' m ' )= z b k e bf t Tr f e b p; ' % K j t x' r ' ) ' ? J x z ( x 0 ) ) = z b z e b OTr ( f %a ( x 0 ) e b k' f l x p ( x' r ' ) ) = 7 z c / ' t ' l Tr l e g ' t / x a t x) h ) #l j t x' ' r ' ) ) -c i u ga j t xj , x ' r ' ) ( 2 4. 1 4 / )
whe r et hecyc l i cpr ope r t yoft het r acehasbe enus e di nt hes e cond l i ne. A s i mi l a r. anal ys i syi e l ds

Fa j t x' r , x' 0 ) = +gz j t x' r , x' #/ j )

( 2 4 . 1 4 : )

s ot ha tt h es i n g l e pa r t i c l et e mpe r a t u r eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i o nf o rb o s o n st / p r r z ? / t p a xli s pe r i o d i c( a n t i pe r i o d i c )i ne a c ht i me l ' J r t z : / e wi t hp e r i o dl hi nt h er a n g e 0< m , r ' <j . Th i sr e l a t i o ni sv e r yi mpo r t a n tf o rt h ef o l l o wi n ga n a l y s i s sa n di t i n c or po r a t e st h ep r e c i s ef o r mo ft h es t a t i s t i c a lo p e r a t o r )ai nt heg r a n dc a n on i c a l
ens e mbl e.

I nt h eu s u a ls i t t l a t i o n,4 i st i me i n d e p e n d e n t , a nd @ de p e n dson l y ont h e c omb i n a t i o n' r. r ' . Eq u a t i on( 2 4 . 1 4 )ma yt he n ber e wr i t t e na s

Fa # ( x, x' , ' r- r' <0 )= +Fx # ( x, x' . T- m' + nh )

( 2 4 . 1 5 )

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

237

Thec on d i t i on' r- r' < 0n e c e s s a r i l yi mp l i e sr- ' r '+j>0i nt h er e s t r i c t e dr a ng e 0< r ,. v ' <j . I ti si n t e r e s t i n gt os e eh ow Eq. ( 2 4. 1 5 )i ss a t i s s e df o rt h en on i n t e r a c t i n g Gr e e n' sf un c t i on F0 . Co mp a r i s o no fEqs .( 2 3 . 3 0 / )a n d( 2 3 . 3 0 : )
yi e l dst he r el at i on

a k e j ( , k 0 B )= 1c sz z k
wh i c hm a ya l s ob ev e r i fe d di r e e t l y wi t hE q. ( 2 3 , 2 9 ) .
PROO F OF W I CK' S THEOREM

( 2 4 . 1 6 )

or t he t e e n' s I ti s appar e nt t hat t he per t ur bat i on e xpans i on f em per at ur e Gr

f un c t i on @ ( Eq. ( 2 4. l 3 ) )i sv e r ys i mi l a rt ot h a tf ort h ez e r ot e mp e r a t ur e Gr e e n ' s f u n c t i o nG ( Eq .( 8 . 9 ) J . l nt h a tc a s e ,t h ee x p a n s i o nc ou l db eg r e a t l ys i mp l i s e d


wi t hW i ck' st heor e m ,w' hi c h pr ovi de d a pr e s c r i pt i on f orr e l at i nga F pr odu ctof i nt er act i onpi ct ur e oper at or st ot he nor m al or der ed pr oductoft hes am eope r at or s. The gr ounds t at e expe ct at i on v al ue of t he nor m al pr oduc t s vani s he d i dent i c al l y.s ot hatG c ont ai ne d onl vf ul l ycont r ac t ed t e rms . U nf br t unat el y,no s uch s i m pl i sc at i on oc cur satsni t et em pe r at ur e.be caus et he e ns e m bl e av er age oft he nor m alpr oducti sze r o onl y atz er ot e m per at ur e . Neve r t he l es s ,ast i r s t pr ov ed by Nla t s ubar a, t he r e ex i s t s a ge ne r al i z e dWi c k' st he or em t ha t al i ows a di agr am m at i ce xpa ns i on of @ . Thi s ge ne r a l i z e dWi ck' st he or em de al s onl y wi t ht he e ns e m bl e aver age ofope r at or sa nd r el i e s on t he det ai i e df or m oft he l tt her ef or edi pkr sf r om t heor i gi nalW i ckg st he or em . s t at i s t i calope r at ore' kz . 1 . v ' a l i d f or ar bi t r ar y ' m at r i x el emel l t s . whi ch i san o pe r al o r/ s / t ' / ? / 3 k . Bef or e5 , : e cons i dert he ge ner a lt heor em .i ti she l pf ult o ex am i ne t he sr s t f e ut er msofEq.( 24. 1 F) , Thenume r a t ormal ' beB r i t t enas

He r et h et i r s tt e r mi scS : l o t < ' 0 xc . x' c ' $a n dl se x a c ti fX ' i = 0, l nt h eu s u a l xs( s i t u a t , : t 7 n. . X ' ' l c o n t a i nsa s p a t i a li 1 3 t e g r a 1o ff ou rt i e l d op e r a t or si nt h ei n t e r a c t i o n
pl c t ur e.a nd t he s e cond t e r m ofEq.( 24. 1 7)i nN ' ol Ne st heens e m bl ea q ' er ageofs i x t i e l d oper at or s . eNal uat ed wi t h t he s t at l s l i cal oper at or esi n Thf s ge ne r al . s t r uct ur e oc cur si n al 1or de r s .and t he gene r al i z e d B' i ck' st heor em i sde s i gned pr e ci s e l yl o handl es uch pr obl em s . Al t hough t he unper t ur be d s ys t em i sf r e quent l y hom ogene ous . m any e xam pl e s ofi nt er e s t ar ei nhom og eneous ,and we s hal lt he r ef or e us e a ge ner a l

s i ng l e p a r t i c l eb a s i s( 7 C p ? ( x) )f o rt h ei n t e r a c t i on p i c t u r eop e r a t or s , Asi nS e c .2 .
:T.M a t s u ba r a, Pr o g. r/ l e t p r e r . Ph y s .( Kyo t o) . 1 4: 35l( 1 9 5 5) ;t h err e s e n trr oo ff ol l oB ' st h at of M. Ga ud i n,Nu c l . Phv s . .1 5: 8 9( 1 9 6 0) ,

2::

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORMALi SM

t hese l d om r at or sar ewr i t t en as

?x l- g( x) J , J #t t x )= ) L W( x) ' $ J
wher et hee i g enf unct i onss at i s f yt heei genval uee qua t i on

( 2 4. 1 8 )

Kz W( x) =( e ,-p 0 , ) O( x)
conve ni entabbr e vi a t i on
0- M e lX K J

( 2 4 . 1 9 )

a n dt h ei nd e xji n c l u de sb ot hs p i na nd s p a t i a lq u a nt u m nu mb e r s . Wi t ht he

( 2 4 . 2 0 )

t h ei n t e r a c t i onp i c t ur eo fEq. ( 2 4 . 1 8 )b e c o me s

#z ( XT )=Z %l ( X ) J J e e l ' ' h J

#1 ( xT ) =Z t / J t xl t t / l e e J T / 9 J
F0 ( x' l n n n r > x ' , r ' ) = -: f /( Jx ) +0 # ( x' ) e e / ( m r ' ' ) / Ax 1c 0 J
J +& wher e

( 2 4 . 2 1 )

Thtcor r e s pondi ng s i ngl t par t i cl eG r een' sf unc t i oni sr ta di l yeva l ua t ed as

( 2 4. 2 2 )

cont a i nst hef a ct or

( 2 4 . 2 3 ) The gene r alt er m i nt he per t ur bat i on ex pans i on ( Eq.( 2 4. 1 7 ) )t y p i c a l l y

n o= e J b i ' t o Tr ( e l A n a % /a J) = ( e # e ? : F1 ) l
.

Tr l l o : T. L . L AC .../) J- ( T. b . i hC .'
i t sown rvar i abl e ,and

( 2 4 . 2 4 )

wh e r e. ' f , A C ...,/ a r eEe l do pe r a t o r si nt h ei nt e r a c t i onp i c t ur e , e a c hwi t h


) G 0= v p l i hnb
De sneaco nt r ac t i on

( 2 4 . 2 5 )
( 2 4 . 2 6 )
( 2 4 . 27 )

J' h' -( r. ( , i W! )o- Tr l c nrz l y i Wl )


For e xam pl e,

' J z a t x' r )' l / l l j t x' m ' ) ' =-F0 j ( x , r , x' m ' )

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

239

Th eg e ne r a l i z e dW i c k ' st h e or e mt he na s s e r t st h a tEq. ( 2 4 . 2 4 )i se qu a lt ot h es um
ov eral 1pos s i bl ef ul l ycont r ac t e dt e r ms

( rv E z i /c -../( ' 1 2 h ( , -( . z f' . ' C-.../. ' ) +E . , i ' . . ( ! ' -.../. ' ' )+ .-. ( 2 4 . 2 8 ) whe r e( z i ' . :' C'.../' )i si nt e r p r e t e da s: i c i ? f C. J' '-../' ) .I ti sc l e a r l y s uc i e n tt op r o v eEq .( 2 4 . 2 8 )f ort h ec a s et h a tt h eo p e r a t or sar ea l r e a dyi nt he pr o p e rt i me@)o r d e r ,b e c a us et h eo pe r a t o r sma yber e o r de r e donbo t hs i d e sof
.

t hee quat i on wi t houti nt r oduc i ng anyaddi t i onalc hange sofs i gn. W et he r e f or e wantt o pr ovet heal ge br ai ci de nt i t y

l . i c ..-/) . ( ) -( , f . C-.../. ' ' ) +E v i ' . ' ' -.../. ' )+ .. ( 2 4 . 2 9 ) s ub j e c tt ot h er e s t r i c t i on ' r x>' r s>r c> '''>' r s ,wh i c ha l l o wsu st or e mov e t h eT.s i gno nt h el e f ts i d eofEq . ( 2 4. 2 8 ) .
.

I ti sc onve ni e ntt oi nt r oduc e a ge ner a lnot at i on f or a n oper a t or i nt he

i n t e r a c t i o np i c t u r e , a n d Eq . ( 2 4. 2 1 )wi l l b ewr i t t e na s

' ; zo rW -7) y, ( xm ) x , J

( 2 4 . 3 0 )

whe r ex )de no t e sa jorJ ' y ta n dx J ( x ' r )d e n o t e st p o l t x l e e g , ' / 'or+0 J ( x ) # e e l r l h * wi t h t h i ss i mp l i sc a t i o n, t h el e f ts i deo fEq. ( 2 4 . 2 9 )b e c o me s

t Z k YC .../) :- ) g) 2 ) (...I y a z , y c
J b c . f

.u

xTr ( ) s ( ) na oa . c' ( 2 4. 3 1 ) S i n c eXa c o mmu t e s wi t hX, t h et r a c ev a n i s h e su n l e s st h es e t ( % '''( v) c on t a i n s


an e qualnum be rofcr ea t i on a nd a nni hi l at i on ope r at or s;asacor ol l ar y, t he t ot al number of om r a t or s mus t be eve n. Commut en s ucc e s s i ve l yt ot he r i ght

Tr ( p c c x a x ,x c ...ar) = Tr t A p c o l t u, t vl va c...c z l + Tr l p o nt x N l a a , c l v '.'a z . l+ ''' + Tr l m p c :x t a c '.'l ( u, t x y . l v l z j z Tr t p c cx b x c'.'ar a . )( 2 4 . 3 2 ) whe r e , a su s u a l , t heu pp e r( l o we r ) s i gn sr e f e rt obo s o ns ( f e r mi o n s ) . Th ec o mmu t a t or s( a n t i c ommu t a t o r s )a r ee i t h e r1 , 0, o r-1( c o mpa r eEq s . ( 1 . 2 7 )a n d( 1 . 4 8 ) ) ,
. .

depe ndi ngont hepr e c i s eope r at or si nvol ve d, and m ayt he r e f or ebet akenout s i de

t h et r a c e .I na d di t i o n, as i mpl eg e ne r a l i z a t i o no fEq . ( 23 . 2 6 )s ho wst ha t j A ; ( x e b h =a le . ( 2 43 e a ae 3 ) whe r e .= 1i f ni s ac r e a t i o no p e r a t or a n dY = -1i fa a i sade s t r u c t i o no p e r a t or .


.

Thi sr e l at i on i se qui v al e ntt ot hee quat i on

a . , p . . t ; 0= p . c ox . e h/ e .

( 2 4 . 3 4 )

240

FI NI TETEMPERATURE FORMALC SM

a n dt h el a s tt e r mo fEq.( 2 4 . 3 2 )ma yb er e wr i t t e n wi t ht h ec y c l i cp r op e r t ya s

+Tr ( a , ) ( ; ( ) x b a c'''x p = +e l . l e , Tr ( ) ( ; ( ) na . , x c '.'a . r )


I nt h i swa y , Eqs . ( 2 4. 3 2 )a n d( 2 4. 3 5 )l e a dt ot h ei mp or t a n tr e s u l t %, a , ) v t Tr t p s , na ,t x c'-' y ) - ( A j evr p c , x c... p)
1+ e , .
.

( 2 4 . 3 5 )

1: Fe A , je a

( %, ( v1 v vr t ( t x a , r z c l v vr t xst p j yv . . . a, x s ,a , a c... ) . )+ ... + 1: Fez ; e . p , ( 2 4. 3 6 )

Equ a t i o n( 2 4 . 3 6 ) a s s ume s amo r ec o mp a c t f o r m wi t ht h ef o l l o wi n gd e f ni t i o n


ofa c ont r act i on
Xa ' Gj= 1: : F ne n a b e a

l ( x 4 , s x , ( l v

( 2 4. 3 7 )

and we5nd

Tr( ) G 0 x a t x , c

( 2 4. 3 8 )
whi c h de ine st he t r a ee of an ope r at or e xpr e s s i on cont ai ni ng a c ont r a ct i on. l n pr a ct i ce, m os toft het er m sv ani s h.and t heol l )nonz e r oc ont r a ct i onsbe t wee n

t het i me or de r e d ope r at or si n Eq. ( 2 4. . 7 8)ar e

L a t a ) . p . j 1' := . j . j c = --a . at . . . -.= . . -. .= ) . ? . j aJ 1u uc e ; e, n t ' z. c -1 J . :. -v , be ? .

( 2 4 . 3 9 )
>, , t / , 1 v l - = 1+ nj ( ) t 7 . ut .= i .= a J 1u cebe J 1 m ebe j
Bot h oft hes e cont r ac t i onsar e al s oe qualt ot he ens em bl e av er a ge oft he s am e ope r at or s ,and wec oncl udequi t ege ner al l yt hat

K' t x = l x a t x p . 0= t t fr l t x a a p l l ' o

( 2 4 . 4 0 )

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

241

bec aus e rx > ' r s> T c > ' ' '> ' T F . yi e l ds

Ac omb i n a t i o n ofEqs .( 2 4 . 3 1 )a nd ( 2 4 . 3 8 )

t XWC . ../) 0
-

i N ) X '''. 5 Xa x , x c'''X , . t f ' r E ' p c ( ) x a ' ( x ' , t x c'


a b c , .

+ Tr( ' p ' c ox a ' t x , x c ' '' 'a y 1 +.


.

/' . )v ( 2 4. 41 )

The c ont r ac t i on i sa c num be rand m ay bet ake n outoft he t r ac e,l eavi ng a s t r uc t ur es i mi l a rt ot hator i gi nal l ycons i de r e d. Thes am eanal ys i sagai nappl i e s ,and wet her ef or ec onc l ude
. .

#. . 'u ( ) +. qX' h' 'C ' ... f % ' ' ) ) ( ) + . .. ( 24. 42 )


.

whe r e' r x> ' r s> r c > ' . '7 ' .ry . By as s um pt i on,t he l e f ts i de i st i m e or der ed a nd m aybewr i t t enasL ' rz g z i ' d . . . /1 . ' a , whi c h p r o v e s Eq. ( 2 4 . 2 8 ) . . Thepr e s entpr oofs howst hatt hef i ni t e t em pe r at ur ef or m ofW' i c k' st he or em i s ve r yg ene r al ,i ' tde s cr i be saf i ni t es ys t e m i na n ex t er nalpot ent i alaswel las an i nhni t et r ans l at i onal l yi nvar i ants ys t e m . The onl y as s um pt i on i st he e xi s t ence

o f at i me i n d e p e n d e n t s i n g l e p a r t i e l eha mi l t o n i a n Xo t h a t de t e r mi n e s t h es t a t i s t i c a l
or cl s c f l e -xo ' ni t ene s s oper at . For de ve c ons i de r e da s el f c oupl e df i e l d , we ha

i n wh i c hX r e f e r st o as i n g l es p e c i e s . As i mi l a rpr o o fc a nb ec o n s t r u c t e df or e oupl e df i el ds , howeve r , asl ongasX( ) i sas um ofquadr at i ut e r msr e f er r i ngt ot he


s e par at e e l ds . I nt hi scas e,t het r ac ef ac t or si nt o pr oduc t s .onef ore ac h se l d, a nd t he c ont r a ct i ons be t we e n oper at or sr ef e r r i ng t o di l l kr e nt l i e l ds v ani s h i de nt i cal l y ' . The ge ner a l i z e d Wi ckst heor e m t he r e f or e al l ow' s us t o s t udy ar bi t r ar yi nt e r a ct i ng s ys t e m si gt he r m odynam i ce qui l i br i um . 25JD I AG RA M M ATI C A NA LYSI S The pr e ce di ng anal ys i ss howst ha tt he pe r t ur ba t i on s e r i e sf or t he t empe r a t ur e

Gr e en' sf unct i on Fa j l xc s x' z' )i si dent i c alwi t ht hata tz er ot empe r at ur e,t heonl y
di f f er enc e be i ng t he s ubs t i t ut i on of$%f orG0and t hel i ni t edomai n oft het i me

i n t e g r a l so v e rr f r o m 0t oj . Asa c o nc r e t ee x a mpl e ,c o n s i d e rt h equ a n t i t y


'

) ' F g ( ? J a ( l ) 1 J j ( 2 ) ? J j , ( 2 ' ) 1 / 1 # , ( 1 ' ) ) = ' , :wh e r et h en u mb e r1d e n o t e st h ev a r i a b l e s


( xI , ' r l ) .a n dt hes u bs c r i p tlha sbe e n omi t t e d be c a u s ea l 1s ub s e qu e n two r ki si n

t hei nt e r ac t i on pi c t ur e . The f i e l d ope r at or sc an becont r a ct e di nt wo di pkr ent

ways .and Eq.( 24. 27 )t he n gi v es

' : t r z l ' l a t l ) f , ( 2 ) ; , ) . ( 2 ' ) 1 J a f , ( 1 / ) ) ) 0


= '

f a t l ) ' 1 J j ( 2 ) ' ' , ( 7 ' j f , ( 2' ) ' ' t ' / ' t ' ( l ' ) ' ) ( ) +x ' i f a t l ) ' ' t / ' j ( 2 ) ' ' ( ' j f , ( 2 ' ) ' ( ' A , ( 1 ' ) * ' ) ( j

f # j z t l , l ' ) Ft / j , ( 2 , 2 ' ) +f # ' j : j ; ( 1 , 2 ' ) F0 j a ( 2 , l ' )

( 2 5 . 1 )

z *z

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

Ea c ht e r mi nt h en ume r a t o rof Eq. ( 2 4. 1 3 ) c a nl y ea n a l y z e di nas i mi l a rwa y . Si n c et h ea l g e b r a i cs t r u c t ur eo ft h e En i t e t e mp e r a t u r eW i c k' st h e o r e m ( Eq. ( 2 4. 2 8 ) ) i s i d e n t i c a l wi t ht ha t o ft h ef u l l yc o n t r a c t e dt t r msi nt h ez e r ot e mpe r a t u r e f o r m( Eq.( 8 . 3 2 ) J ,t het e mpc r a t u r eGr e e n' sf u nc t i o nF h a st h es a mes e to fa l l
Feynm an di agr a ms t ha t G ha d at z er ot e m pe r at ur e. I n par t i c ul a r , a gi ve n

di a g r a mi se i t h e rc on n e c t e dord i s c on n e c t e d, a n dt h ed e n o mi n a t oro fEq. ( 2 4 . 1 3 )


pr ec i s el yc ance l st hecont r i but i on oft hedi s c onne ct e dt er ms ,exa c t l y asi n Se c.9. Asa r e s ul t ,t he t empe r at ur e Gr ee n' sf unc t i on hast hes amef or mals t r uc t ur e as

Eq. ( 9 . 5 )
*

@u /1 . 2 )=a.0

-y ? pj vd r l ' J cd r n '
.

1nl j : ,

# .

xTr f l s orv ( #, ( m, ' )..-#l ( r k ' ) , / /1 ) #, f ( 2 ) ! J c o . . . c t . a ( 25 . 2 )


whe r e onl y conne c t ed di agr am s ar er e t ai ne d. For a ny par t i cul a r choi c e of

#j a #l , t h ed e t a i l e dde r i v a t i o no ft heFe y n ma nr u l e si sa l s oun c ha n g e d, a n dwe


s hal lmer el ys t at et heEna lr es ul t s .
FEYNM AN RutEs I N COO RDI NATE spAce

ThCmo s tC o mmon S i t t l a t i o ni sa S e l f c ou p l e ds e l d,i n wh i c h P1r e p r e s e n t sa


t Wopar t i cl ei nt er a ct i on

#l M 4, -! . J Jd ' xj d 3 x a ' k l z xx l l y xx j c )p ' t xl -x z ) 4/x z ) 4 . ( xl )


ope r at ori se as i l yobt ai ne d

( 2 5 . 3 )

whe r eF( x )i s t a k e na s s pi ni nd e pe n de n t . Thec or r e s po n di n gi n t e r a c t i o np i c t ur e

XI @l )-! ' J J#l . t l #3 . * 2 #l t xl ' r 1 ) M j f t xz ' r 1 )P ' t xl -xc ) Qj t xa r, ) f kt x, , r l )


3 x, dq xz ( -! . J f d p 0 ' t sc f c t x , z . i l 4 j # l x a v a l y z . ( , t x , ' r l x z m c )
o

x#/x2 ' r z ) # a t xl ml )( 2 5 . 4 )
wher et hes ubs cr i pt1hasagai n be e n om i t t e d and t hege ner a lpot e nt i al

Ae t xl ' r l , xc ' r c )= F( xI - xc ) 3 ( ' r 1 - n) ( 2 5 . 5 ) h a sb e e ni nt r o du c e d. Th ep e r t u r b a t i o ne x p an s i ono f Eq. ( 2 5 . 2 ) i n c l u de sp r e c i s e l y


t hes am eFeynm andi agr a m sasi nSe c. 9, andt heonl ym odi fca t i oni st heFe ynm a n

r u l e su s e dt oe v a l ua t et h ea t h o r d e rc o nt r i bu t i ont oFz j ( 1 , 2 ) .
1 .D r aw a1 lt opol ogi cal l y di s t i nc tdi agr amsc ont ai ni ng n i nt e r ac t i on l i ne sa nd ln+ 1di r e c t e d par t i c l el i nes .

2.As s o c i a t ea f a c t orf qj ( l , 2 )wi t he a c hd i r e c t e dp a r t i c l el i n er un n i n gf r om 2


t o1 .

3.As s o c i a t eaf a c t o r, F' c ( 1 , 2 )wi t he a c hi nt e r a c t i o nl i n ej o i n i n gpo i n t s1a nd2 .


4. l d' I n t e g r a t ea 1 1 i nt e r n a lv a r i a b l e s : Jd3 xf f t l r j .

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

243

5.The i ndi ce sf or m a m at r i x pr oduc t al ong any cont i nuous par t i c l el i ne . Eva l ua t e a1 1s pi ns um s .

6 .Mu l t i p l ye a c ha t h o r d e rdi a g r a mb y( -1 / P( -1 ) F ,wh e r eF i st henu mb e ro f


c l os e df e r mi on l oops . 7. I nt e r pr e tany t e m pe r at ur eG r ee n' sf unct i on ate qua lva l uesof' ras

Fo t xj g j , xi ' r j l= . l i m Fo t xj ' r j , xi r J. r J . + . r 3 +
. .

As a s pec i fc exa m pl e,c ons i de rt he s e tofa1 lz e r o-and r s t or dert er ms

( Fi g.2 5 . 1 ) . Th es p e c i f i cc ho i c eo fl a b e l sf o rt h ei nt e r n a ll i ne si si r r e l e v a nt
1x lx 1x 3 ; $ A + + '' ' 4#

' X #( 1 . 2 )=
Fi g.25. 1 Zer o-and f i r s t or dercont r i bu-

h p, r z 4

t i o nst oC #a # t l , 2 )i nc o or di na t es p a c e .
Fi g.25. 1i m pl i est he f ol l owi ng t e r m s:

2#

2#

2#

b e c a u s et h e yr e pr e s e n tdu mmy v a r i a b l e s . Ac c o r d i n gt ot h er u l e sj u s ts t a t e d ,

wh e r et h eu i c i nt h es e c on dt e r ma r i s e sf r om t h ec l o s e dl oo p. l ff q ji sdi a g o n a l
i nt h es pi ni n di c e s( = @Q 3 a j ) ,t h e n@ i sa l s o di a g on a l .a n dt hes pi ns umsa r e
r e adi l y ev al uat ed

F( 1 , 2 ) =F0 ( l , 2 )-h 1f db x j # 3 x 4 ; h d v j # , ug u k t a z ' y u +1 ) F0 ( 1 , 3 ) J0


' G.

x0 7 0 ( 3 , 2 ) t f 0 ( 4 , 4 ) y z c ( 3 , 4 )A -@ 7 0 ( 1 , 3 )q 7 0 ( 3 , 4 )q $ 0 ( 4 , 2 ) 4 r0 ( 3 , 4 ) )A -... ( 2 5 . 7 ) He r et hef a c t o r( 2 J+ 1 )r e p r e s e n t st hed e g e n e r a c ya s s o c i a t e d wi t hp a r t i c l e sof s pi nJ . Asn ot e di nr u l e7 ,F0 ( 4 , 4 )i si nt e r p r e t e da sF0 ( 4 , 4 + ) .l tma ya l s ob e


i de nt i hed asa ge ner al i z e d par t i c l edens i t y

( 2 5 . 8 )
t hatdependsont hepar amet e rp ; i tt her ef or edi f l e r sf r om t heunper t ur be d par t i cl e de ns i t y unl es sJ ti , sas s i gne dt he va l ue appr opr i a t et ot henoni nt e r a ct i ng s ys t em .

2*4

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORMALI SM

FEYN M A N RULES I N M OM ENTU M SPACE

Th e r ei sn odi c u l t yi nwr i t i n gou tEq. ( 2 5 . 7 )i nd e t a i l , bu tt h ed i f l kr e n tf o r mo f @0 ( i , j)f orr t ;V Js oo nl e a dst o ap r o l i f e r a t i o no ft e r ms . Fort h i sr e a s on , i ti s


advant age ous t oi nt r oduce a Four i er r e pr e s e nt at i on i nt he var i abl e' r ,whi c h aut om at i cal l yi nc l ude st he di Fe r e ntor der i ngs . Thi ss t ep ha s be e nc ent r a lt o t hede vel opm entofm anybody t heor ya tfni t et em pe r at ur eand wasi nt r oduc ed i nde pendent l yby Abr i kos ov,G or kov,and D z ya l os hi ns ki i s lby Fr a dki n, zand by M ar t i na nd Schwi nge r . 3 I tl ea ds t ot he s am e s i m pl i hcat i on as i nt he ze r ot e m per a t ur ef or m al i s m.

Thec r u c i a l p oi nt i st h ep e r i o di c i t y( a n t i p e r i o di c i t y )o f@ i ne a c h' rv a r l a b l e

wi t hp e r i o dj ( Eqs .( 2 4 . 1 4 )a n d( 2 4. 1 5 ) 1 . Fo rs i mpl i c i t y ,we a s s umet h a t@


de pe nds onl y on t he di f l kr enc e' r j- mc ,whi c hr epr es ent st he mos tc om mon s i t uat i on :

Ft xl ' r 1 , xa ' r 2 )- ' . #( xl , xz , ' r l -, r a )


i n a Four i e rs er i e s

( 2 5 . 9 )

Fo r b 0 t hs t a t i s t i c s , @i s p e r i o d i cov e r t h er a n g e2 ja n dma yt h e r e f o r eb ee x pa n d e d F( xj , xz , ' r )= ( j ) 1) (e c o n rf f t xj , xc , ( s a l a


( 2 5 . 1 0 )
T H T I- T2

wher e

t t ) s= j
at ed Four i ercoe l ci enti sgi ve n by l d

n=

( 25 . 1 1 )

Th i sr e pr e s e n t a t i o ne ns ur e st h a tFt xI , x2 , ' r+ 2 # ) = F( xI s x 2 , r )a n dt h ea s s o c i -

F ( x , , x z , ( w ) =. i . j l s' v e ' f t z a r ' F ( x l , x 2 , m )


' ,

( 2 5 . 1 2 )

l t i sc o n v e n i e n tt os e pa r a t eE q. ( 2 5 . 1 2 )i n t ot wo p a r t s

v t x j x z t , ? n l -. ! , . J 0 b h d r e i . g t x l x c ' r ) +! . j b ( ) ' l r e i t ' r g ( x , ' , x c , . r ) -+ ! . j . j , J , r e ' n r g t x 1 , x z . r +# , ) +. . j b , ' t se i u ' a r . g ( x l , x c , v )


0 i

-. 1 ( 1 + , e . , a , , ) ( / ' v ge i c o . gt x j x z . o 0
-

( 2 5 . 1 3 )

wh e r et h es e c on da n dt h i r dl i n e sa r co b t a i n e dr e s p e c t i v e l ywi t hEqs .( 2 4 . 1 5 )a n d an e l e ment ar yc hange of v ar i abl es . Equat i on ( 25. 11 )s hows t hat ei on e hi s


1A.A.Abr i ko s o v ,L.P.Gor ko v ,an d1 .E.Dz y a l o s hi ns k i i ,S o v .Ph y s . J ET P.9: 63 6( 1 9 5 9 ) . 2E. S. Fr a d kf n, So v . Ph ys . JET P, 92 9 1 2( 1 9 5 9 ) . 3P. C.Ma r t i na n dJ . Sc h wi ng e r , Ph ys . Ae L ' . , 1 1 5: 1 3 4 2( 1 9 5 9) .

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PEHATURE

245

n ev en bos on n odd n ev en f er mi on n odd

( 25 . l 4)
wher e

( 25. l f)
f e r mi on

$ ' y 1 . v w . u. . . . . . . . y . j 4 ) j .u . : h ( r f ,.s, j q . .1 . t ! ) ( pg ; u u , u . ) j t c u u J ix ( q . ,. -, . j (
.

%0 ( X1 % 0 ( X' ) ' f (1 - / : S 1 . .
,

z '0 -

x
'

% 9 '( N. X. t . c p n)u c ',.-

' i , . ) . + , r . x j r ' . . ( x. q . ''

' j .) c. l t su. -t . ( t r -. . )

( 2 f. l 8)

a46

FI NI TETEMPERATURE FORMALI SM

a n d Eq .( 2 5 . l 7 )i ss e e nt ob ec o r r e c t f o rb 0 t hs t a t i s t i c s nt h eo n l yd i s t i n c t i o nb e i n g t h er e s t r i c t i o nt oe v e no ro d di n t e g e r si nEq. ( 2 5 . 1 5 ) .
Todeve l op t heFe ynmanr ul esi nmoment um s pac e, wec ons i de ranar bi t r ar y

v e r t e xi naFe y n ma ndi a g r a mc on t r i b u t i n gt o Eq. ( 2 5 . 2 ) . Th es t a t i ct wo b od y


pot ent i alha st het r i vi alFour i e rr epr es ent at i on
'

Fo t xj m, , xz ' r z )= ( j ) -! ) ) e f t * n t T t m z l <; ( xl , xz , f w) , 1'Y' en

( 2 5 . 1 9 )
( 2 5 . 2 0 )

wher e

<o t xl , xc , ( s n l= Ft xl - xa )
n z b t t ' , z ' ei j z
. .. e j wa p y

e- / w&/ r

Fi g.25 . 2 Ba s i cv e r t e xi nt e mxr a t u r ef or ma l i s m.

and wehaveus e dt he i dent i t y

3 ( T )= ( # ) ' Z e ' l f * ' * * ? ttV:n

( 2 5 . 21 )

v a l i di nt h er a n g e-j < ' r< j . Ea c hi n t e r n a lv e r t e xj o i n sas i n g l ei n t e r a c t i o n


I i n ea n dt wop a r t i c l el i n e s( on ee n t e r i n ga n don el e a v i n g ) , a si n Fi g .2 5 . 2 . Th e
1 9# e nt i r er jdependenc ei sc ont ai ne di nt heexpone nt i alf ac t or ss hown i n Fi g.25. 2, and t hei nt e gr aloverh be com e s

J c, r , e x p t f ( ( s +t s , . -( , ) a ) . r / ! -j a , . + , . .

( 2 s . 2 2 )

Equ a t i o n( 2 5 . 2 2 )s ho wst h a tt h ed i s c r e t ef r e q u e n c yi sc o n s e r v e da te a c hv e r t e x, e x a c t l yl i k et h ec on t i n uo u sf r e qu e n c yi nEq. ( 9 . 1 3 ) . No t et ha tt h i sc on di t i oni s


i ndepe nde ntofs t at i s t i cs , bt caus ebot h par t i cl eI i ne scar r yeve norodd f r e que nci es , wher e ast hei nt e r ac t i on l i neal wa ysc ar r i e sa n ev en f r e que ncy. I ti s now s t r ai ght f or wa r dt o de r i v et he Fe ynman r ul esf ort he at hor der

c o n t r i bu t i ont oFa /xl , xz . ( s n l , whi c hwo u l da pp l yt oa ni n ho mo g e n e ou ss y s t e m

s uc h as a ne l e ct r on gas i n a pe r i odi cc r ys t al pot ent i al . For m os t pur pos e s , howe ve r .i ti s pe r mi s s i bl et or es t r i c t our s e l v es t os y s t em s wi t ht r ans l at i onal i nva r i anc e,whe r e @ depends onl y on t he di f l kr enc e of t he s pat i al v ar i abl e s xl- xz . l nt hi sc as e ,t he Fe ynm an di agr am scan be e val uat e di n m oment um spa ce , whi c h gr ea t l ys i mpl i se st he ca l cul at i ons . The t r ans f or ma t i on of t he Fe ynman r ul esf ol l owsi mme di a t el yf r om t heanal ys i si n Se c.9,al ongwi t h Eqs .

( 2 3 . 3 0 ) . Fors i mp l i c i t y ,on l yt h el i mi tofa ni n sn i t ev o l u me( F+ . ( : c)i sc o n s i der ed,and t het empe r at ur eGr e en' sf unc t i onscant he n beexpande d asf ol l ows:

@j ( x, x' , m )= ( j ) i ( 2 *, 3f#3 ke f k e t x x ' )j g e f t z u T @ ( k( s a l


a

( 2 5 . 2 3 )

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

247

( 2 5 . 2 4 )

Th ep hy s i c a l q u a n t i t i e sN, E, a n df l( s e eEq s . ( 2 3 . 9 ) , ( 2 3. 1 5 ) , a nd( 2 3 . 2 2 ) )b e c o me

N =: ! : P ( 2 *) 3 ( # ) -l Jd k l e i o v n ' l t rF( k, f . z J a )

( 2 5 . 2 5 )
( 2 5 . 2 6 )

E= ( 4)=u pP ' ( 2 = ) 3 ( j ) ljd? k e i k o n ' . j t j f . t ) .+ e 2+ p t rF( k, f . t ) a l &

f l =f l c : +P ' j 0 ' A 1 # A ( 2 = ) 3 ( j ) l f d 3 kX n e i u n T
xJ t / i r x p n- 6 2+ p , ) t r F3 ( k, ( s a )( 25 . 2 7 )
and wes hal lnow s t a t et heFeynm an r ul esf ore val uat i ngt hent hor dercont r i bu-

t i ont oF( k, f x %) .
1.D r a w al 1t opol ogi cal l y di s t i nc tc onne c t ed gr aphswi t hni nt er ac t i on l i ne sand 2 n + ldi r e c t ed par t i c l el i nes . 2.A s s i gn a di r e c t i on t oe ac hi nt er a ct i on l i ne. A s s oci at e a wa ve ve c t or and di s c r e t ef r e que ncy wi t he ac hl i neand cons e r v ee ac h quant i t ya teve r yver t ex. 3.W i t h ea ch par t i c l el i neas s oc i at eaf a ct or

/ j . , ( , k-s) @l j t k, o a r n l-j *m
-

bx p

( 2 5 . 2 8 )

wh e r ef t p mc o n t a i n se v e n( od d )i n t e g e r sf o rbo s o ns( f e r mi o n s ) . 4 .As s o c i a t eaf a c t or' # ' o t k, f . t %lY P r ( k)wi t he a c hi nt e r a c t i o nl i n e .


5.lnt e gr a t e ov er al ln i nde pendenti nt e r nalwav e ve c t or s and s um ove r al ln i ndepende nti nt e r nalf r eque nci es . 6.Thei ndi ce sf or m am at r i xpr oduc tal onganycont i nuouspar t i c l el i ne. at ea 1 lmat r i xs um s .

Mu l t i p l y by ( -j 2 ( 2 = ) 3 ) n ( -1 ) F .whe r eF i st h e nu mb e ro fc l o s e df e r mi o n
l oops .

Wh e n e v e rap a r t i c l el i n ee i t h e rc l o s e so ni t s e l fori sj oi ne dbyt h es a mei n t e r ac t i on l i ne,i ns e r ta conve r ge nce f ac t orcf m n .

Asan ex am pl e,we onceagai nc ons i dert heze r o-and sr s t or de rdi agr am s

( Fi g . 2 5 . 3 ) . Af t e rt h es pi ns u msh a v ebe e ne v a l ua t e d .we;n d

248

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

k& t t ln k: Ln + 0
k, ( . o i n m om ent t l n ls pace.

k5 u , n k' a' o a , <,+ k' & n. k- k' t s , & a-a n,

'k( o .

Fi g. 25. 3 Zer o -a n df i r s t or d e rc o nt r i bu t i on st o F( k, t s ) a )

Th i se x p r e s s i onh a st hee x p e c t e df o r mg c omp a r e/q . ( 9 . 2 2 ) ) f # t k, t wl= F0 ( k, ( w )+ F0 ( k , Ya ) E( k, ( s . )F0 ( k, ( s a )

( 2 5 . 3 0 ) wh e r e E( k, r . , ) a )i st h es e l f e n e r g y .l n pa r t i c u l a r ,t h e sr s t or de rs e l f e n e r g yi s g i v e nbyg c o mp a r eEq . ( 9 . 2 3 ) ) X( l ) ( k , f . t G )K X( j ) ( k)
=

( -2 j) 1( j j e i u l n ' ' l ( 2 . / 43jdq k' F0 ( k' , ( z ) a . ) n'


x( +4 2 . :+ 1 )P ' 4 0 )+ P ' t k- k' ) )
l

=j

J( 2 , 4 3 E V 1 2 ' ' > ' 1 ) Z ( 0 ) Z ( k k ' l l j j


t ' f u 3 n ' ' t l
x 2 5 . 31 ) ( ) a 'i n , - h j( e k , -/ . t )(
-

#3 k'

I ti sc l e a rt h a tY( 1 )i si n d e p e nd e n to f u ) na n dma yt h e r e f o r eb ewr i t t e na sY( j ) ( k) .


EVA LUATI ON O F FREQU ENCY SU M S

Th ef r e q u e n c ys um i n Eq.( 2 5 . 3 1 )i st y p i c a lo ft h o s e oc c u r r i n gi n ma n y b o d y
phys i cs ,and we t he r e f or es t udy i ti n det ai l . For dehni t ene s s ,cons i dert he ca s e
zpl a ne r

C
C' c#

C
7= A ' C, * 7= l . t t l n C#

Fi g. 26. 4 Cont our f or eval uat i on of f r e quenc ys ums.

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

249

ofbosons ,whe r et hesum i soft hef or m

Xe u ' n TU t t ) a- x) -l

( 2 5 . 3 2 )

wi t ht z ) a- 2 n r r / # . Equ a t i o n( 2 5 . 3 2 )i sn ota b s ol ut e l yc on v e r g e n t , f ori two ul d

di ve r gel ogar i t hm i ca l l ywi t houtt heconver ge ncef ac t or;x )m us tt her ef or er em ai n pos i t i ve unt i laf t ert he s um i seval uat e d. The m os t di r e ct a ppr oac hi st o us ec ont our i nt egr at i on,whi ch r e qui r e sa m er om or phi cf unc t i on wi t h pol es at t he e ven i nt eg er s . One pos s i b l ec hoi ce i s

l h l e b h z- 1 ) 1 ,wh o s epo l e so c c ura tz= l n ni l qh= i a l n ,e a c h wi t hu n i tr e s i du e .


I fC i sa cont ourenci r c l i ng t he i ma gi nar y axi si nt hepos i t f ve s ens e( Fi g.25. 4) ,
t he nt hecont ouri nt egr al

Bh d z p 4 = - - . lni c ' ' 9 z- 1 z - .x


? --

( 2 5 . 3 3)

e x a c t l yr e p r od u c e st h es u mi n Eq .( 2 5 . 3 2 ) ,b e c a u s et hei n t e g r a nd h a sa ni n hn i t e

s e qu e n c eo fs i mp l epo l e sa ti t n nwi t hr e s i du e( j ) 1 e i c o n ' l t / ' f x > n-x ) 1 . De f o r m


t hec ont ourt oC ' and l Ms howni n Fi g. 25. 4. I fI z'. > .v zal ongar aywi t hRez > 0,

t he nt h ei n t e g r a n di sofo r d e rI z( 1 e x p( -( j - z ) ) Re z ) 'i , f' ; z+x a l on ga r a y wi t h R ez < 0. t hen t he i nt egr a nd i sofor derh zl 1 e x pt p Rez ) . S i n c e n h > ' ? ) > 0 , ,
Jor dan' sI emmas howst hatt he c ont r i bt i onsoft hel ar gear c sf 'v ani s h and we
ar el e f twi t ht he i nt e gr al sal ong C '

e i t z l x n
n

l h

d z

: n z

i u l ? t- x

2 =1 c ,e / l z- l z - x

( 2 5 . 3 4 )

The onl ys i ngul ar i t yi nc l uded i n C'i sa s i m pl e pol e atz= . , ' t .and Cauc hy' s t he or em yi e l ds

l i m

)h = i s x- l 5 * Qn r c o x e b ! Ve ! J 1 n
-

gi u a an

( 2 5 . 3 5 )

wher et he m i nus s i gn ar i s e sf r om t he ne gat i v es ens e of C ' , and i ti s now pe r mi s s i bl et ol e tT> . 0. Thi s der i va t i on exhi bi t st he e s s e nt i a!r ol e oft he con-

v e r g e n c ef a c t o r . Al t h ou g ht hef u n c t i on-J ' ? ( p l $ 9 z- 1 ) 1a l s oha ss i mp l epo l e s


atz= i nwi t h uni tr es i due ,t he c ont r i but i onsf r om l >woul d di ve r ge i nt hi sc as e , t huspr e vent i ng t he def or mat i on f r om C t o C' .

As i mi l a ra n a l y s i sma yb eg i v e nf o rf e r mi o ns ,wh e r e n= ( 2 n+ l l =/ j . Th ef u n c t i on. ph l e b h z+ 1 ) -1ha ss i mp l ep o l e sa tt heod di n t e g e r sz= i u l nwi t h


uni tr es i due ,a nd t hes e r i e scan ber e wr i t t enas
f , f ( z a o q '
-

) h

y z

e T z

f . sK- x F l 0 dd

l =i c e b ' z+ 1z - x

( 25 . 3 6 )

2*

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORMALI SM

whe r eC i st hes amecont ourasi n Fi g.25.4. Jor dan' sl emma ag ai n al l owst he


z= x yi el ds

c on t ou rd e f or ma t i onf r om C t o C'b e c a u s e# > T> 0 ,a n dt hes i mp l epo l ea t

l i m

: *0at i - x e' h x+ 1 x , d n

e l a u , l=

pk

( 2 5 . 3 7 )

Tl wt wocas esca n btcombi ntd i nt hes i ngl eexpr e s s i on

l i m

=: ! : : 1 *: a i t a t e ' ' x: ! :1 a- x

e l t t h '

p h

( 2 5 . 3 8 )

whi chwi l lbeus e dr e pe at e dl yi nt hes ubs equentc hapt e r s .

Thefr s t o r d e rs e l f e n e r g y( Eq.( 2 5 . 31 ) )c a n no w bes i mpl i se d wi t h Eq. ( 2 5 . 3 8 ) , a n dwe5n d X ds k'( 4 2 . :+ 1 )F4 0 )+ F( k- k' ) )

( l ) ( k ) = J g s je x p ( g 4 . s l j : j u j
=

U( 0 ) ( 2 J+ 1 ) ( 2 *. 3Jds k' a 2 , +( 2 *3Jd3 k'I qk-k' ) a k .


( 2 5 . 3 9 )

Thi se xpr es s i onappl i est of e r mi onsata 1 1t emper a t ur e sandt obos onsats uci e nt l y hi gh t e mper a t ur e st ha tt he unpe r t ur bed s ys t e m hasno Bos e Ei ns t e i n condens a-

t i o n. I ti si mp o r t a ntt or e me mbe rt h a tn2d e p e n d se x pl i c i t l yo nt h ec h e mi c a l p ot e n t i a ly . . Fort hi sr e as on ,( 2 J+ 1 ) ( 2 r 45fdt kn Li sa l s oaf un c t i on of/ . :


and c annot be i dent i sed wi t ht he pa r t i c l e de ns i t y. Apar tf r om t hi sone di f -

f e r e n c e , ho we v e r , Eq. ( 2 5 . 3 9 ) i sad i r e c t g e ne r a l i z a t i o no f t h a t a t z e r ot e mp e r a t u r e ( Eq. ( 9. 2 4 ) ) .


26LDYSO N' S EQ UATI O NS The s t r uc t ur eofDys on' sequa t i onsatz er ot empe r at ur e wasde t er mi ne d by t he s etofa1 lFeynmandi agr ams . Ass howni nt hepr evi ouss e c t i on, t het em per at ur e Gr ee n' sf unct i on l e adst o an i de nt i cals e tofdi agr a ms ,and i ti st he r e f or e not s ur pr i s i ngt hatDys on' se quat i onsr e mai n una l t er ed. I nde e d,t hi sr epr e s e nt st he pr i mar yr eas on f ori nt r oduci ng t he t e mper at ur ef unct i on,e ven t hough @ i sl e s s di r e ct l yr e l at e dt o phys i cal qua nt i t i es t han t he anal ogous z er ot em per at ur e f unct i on G. I nc oor di nat es pac e,t het em pe r at ur eGr ee n' sf unc t i on al wa yshas

t h ef or m( c o mpa r eS e c . 9 )

q f ( 1 , 2 ) = =q f 0 ( l , 2 )+J#3#46 / 0 4 1 , 3 ) 14 3 , 4 ) f 0 ( 4, 2 )

( 2 6. 1 )

whe r et hei nt e gr al sc ont ai nan i mpl i ci ts pi ns ummat i on and t het i mei nt egr at i ons

r u nov e rr kf r o m 0t o# . Eq u a t i on( 2 6. 1 )de sn e st het ot a ls e l f e n e r g y X( 3 , 4 ) ;


i ti sa l s oc on v e n i e n tt oi nt r o du c et h ep r o pe rs e l f e n e r g yX* ( 3 , 4 ) ,wh i c hc o n s i s t s
ofal ls e l f ener gy di agr ams t hatc annotbe s epar at e di nt ot wo par t s by cut t i ng

FI ELD THEORY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

251

on epa r t i c l el i n ef # 0 . - Asi nt hez e r o t e mp e r a t u r ef or ma l i s m( Eq .( 9 . 2 6 ) ) ,t h e


s e l f ene r gy i sobt ai ne d byi t er at i ng t hepr opers e l f ener gy

Y( 1 , 2 )= X* 4 1 , 2 )+J#3#4E* ( 1 , 3 )F0 ( 3 , 4 ) Y* j 4 , 2 )+ .
equat i on

( 2 6. 2 )

a ndt hec o r r e s p on d i n gt e mp e r a t u r eGr e e n' sf u n c t i on o b e y st h ei n t e g r a l ( Dy s o n' s )

F( 1 , 2 )= f # ' 0 ( 1 , 2 )+ .f #3#4F0 ( 1 , 3 ) Y* ( 3 , 4 ) F( 4, 2 ) I t e r a t i o nofEq. ( 2 6 . 3 )c l e a r l yr e p r o du c e sEq s . ( 2 6 . 1 )a nd( 2 6 . 2 ) .


Dyson' se quat i on be con n e s m uch s i m pl e ri ft he hami l t oni an i st i me i ndepe ndentand i t -t hes ys t e mi suni f or m. Al t hough i ti se as yt o wr i t edown t he

e x pr e s s i o nsf ors p a t i a l l yv a r y i ngs y s t e ms( c or r e s p o n di n gt ot h eGr e e n' sf u n c t i on f # t xl , xc , o p n l l ,we s ha l lc on c e n t r a t eo nt h em o r eu s u a ls i t u a t i on wh e r et h ef kl l Fo ur i e rr e p r e s e n t a t i on i sp o s s i b l e( s e e Eq s . ( 2 5 . 2 3 )a n d( 2 5. 2 4) 1 . Th es u msa n d i n t e g r a l si n Eq. ( 2 6 . 3 )a r et he nr e a d i l ye v a l u a t e d, l e a v i n ga na l ge b r a i ce qu a t i on Fl k, f . t ? a l= F0 ( k, ( s a )+ F0 ( k, ( s n )X* ( k, t z ) Jf # ' t k, f , e n l ( 2 6 . 4 )
whe r e al 1 quant i t i e s ar e as s um e d di agonal i n t he m at r i xi ndi c es . Equat i on

( 2 6 . 4 )ha st h ee x p l i c i ts o l u t i on Ft k , ( 5 n l- ( F0 ( k, f . z ) n ) -l - Y* ( k, ( s a ) ) -l

Fa j t k, t z y n l =b u f l i u ) n- -1 ( e 2- p , )- Y* ( k , t s n ) ) 1

( 2 6 . 5 )

wh e r et h el a s tf or mh a sb e e no b t a i n e d wi t h Eq.( 2 5 . 2 8 ) . Thi se x pr e s s i o nf o r F( k, ( s a )i sf o r ma l l yv e r ys i mi l a rt o Eq. ( 9 . 3 3 )f o rG( k ) . Th e r ei son ei mp or t a n t


di ser enc e,howe ve r ,bec aus eu) ni sadi s c t et eva r i abl e ,i ns t ea d ofat r uef r equency or ene r gy. For t hi sr eas on,t he det er mi nat i on of t he e xci t at i on s pec t r um c k f ora s ys t e m cont ai ni ng onem or e oronel e s spar t i c l ei sm or ecom pl i c at e dt han atF = 0s 'wes hal lr e t ur nt ot hi si m por t antpr obl e mi n Chap.9.

Th epr e v i o u se x pr e s s i o nsf orN,E, a n df l( Eqs . ( 2 5 . 2 5 )t o( 2 5 . 2 7 ) 1c a nb e


s i mpl i sed wi t h Dys on' sequat i on: J3 # 1

N ( F , F , p , ) = : T E l z ' ( 2 . 8 i l ) j( z z p ; yF s l u . a . j u o ( y k . s j ' j ; w ( k , c o j j
( 2 6 . 6 )

e k k ' n ' l

f ( F , U , J z ) = E F P ' ( 2 J + 1 ) j( a , a . ) a j j F . ) c w a . , y
xj h .
d3 k 1 i

J3 -1

i t p + 1 ( 6 2+sw r z ) 1 t k l o l n-h ( e 2- / z ), .a )

u r p , ( a , +1 ) j( a . ) , sy e . . , ? c +. p x* ( k, o a . ) x j + j . . y , ( , k s ) z . ( k , . x ) j
. .

262

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

f 1 ( F ,

l d A g d: k j. y k o s y p P ' , r z ) = f c ( F , F , J z ) E F P ' ( 2 J + 1 ) j o j j ( z s ) jm u .o
s

s' ! + i 1e k s) o l . sw A ( k, ( s a ) ( 2 6 . 8 ) n- h (
-

! 4E* A ( k, J

Theconver g enc ef ac t oragai n pl a ysani m por t antr ol es f ori tal l owsust oe l i mi nat e t hec ons t antt er mi nt hel as tt woexpr e s s i ons . Fordefni t e nes s ,cons i de rbos ons whe r e

( 2 6 . 9 )
The s e cond l i ne i sm e r e l yt he s um ofa geom et r i cs e r i eswhi l et he l as tI i ne f ol l ows

f or0< ' r )<)h. ( Co mp a r et h edi s c u s s i onf bl l owi n gEq.( 9. 3 6 ) . ) Th ef kr mi on


s um m at i on di f l kr sonl y by a f a ct orer f 4 7 / h and Eqs . ( 2 6 . 7 )a n d( 2 6. 8 )t h e r e f or e be c om e

E=: ! L P r ( 2 J+ 1 ) ( 2 =) 3 ( j ) 1(db kJ( e i n Tg e 2+j X* ( k, ( s a ) ) g( k, t t ) a ) n


( 2 6 . 1 0 )

f l = t ' ) o : ! : P r ( 2 J + 1 ) j o u j j j p( ) h ) j ( e j a s y j j j u w z j k y t s z s A y k y s a ;
( 2 6 . 1 1 )
whe r e b0t h1 : *2 and GA m us t be e xal uat e df orva r i a bl e coupl i ng c ons t ant . I ti sa l s o us e f ult oi nt r oduce t he pol ar i z at i on A and e f l kct i v ei nt er ac t i on

ldv j

#3 k

F, e x a c t l ya si nEq. ( 9 . 3 9 ) .I nt h ep r e s e nt c a s e , whe r et hei n t e r p a r t i c l ep o t e nt i a l i ss p i ni n d e p e n d e n t ,' Ft q , ( s a lf ora u n i f or ms y s t e ms a t i s s e st hea l g e b r a i ce x pr e s s i on


'

# ? ' t qs t t G l= ' / ' 0 ( q , t , a n ) +' / ' 0 ( q , f . ' QR( q , n ) ' f / o t q , t z / a l

( 2 6. 1 2 )

I ft hepr o perpol ar i z at i onJ 1*i sde Ene d ast hes um ofal lpol ar i z at i on i ns er t i ons

t h a tc a n n o tb es e pa r a t e di n t ot wop a r t sb yc u t t i n gas i n g l ei n t e r a c t i onl i n e' # %, Eq. ( 2 6 . 1 2 )c a nt he nb er e wr i t t e na s( c omp a r eEq. ( 9 . 4 3 *) <( q , f . t Gl =Ao t q, t z ) n l+ A o t q, t z ? 2Z* ( q, t z G ) At q , f . ' : a l ( 2 6 . 1 3 )
wi t ht hee xpl i c i ts ol ut i on
'

# ' ' t q , u Q =' # ' 0 ( q, ( , ) 2E 1- ' / ' ( ) ( q, ( t ? 2. 1 ' 1 * ( q , t z a n ) l 1

( 2 6 . l 4 )

Al t h ou g ht h i se q ua t i o ni ss i mi l a rt ot h a ta tF= 0 ( Eq .( 9. 4 5 ) ) ,t h edi s c r e t ef r e qu e n c y np r e c l u d e sa d i r e c ti nt e r pr e t a t i o no f' #' t q , ( z ula st h ee fe c t i v eph y s i c a l

FI ELD THEO RY AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

253

i nt e r ac t i on f ora gi v en m om ent um and e ner g yt r ans f e r . Thust he det e r mi nat i on oft hecol l ec t i vem odesas s oc i at e d wi t h dens i t yos ci l l at i onsatf i ni t et em per at ur e r equi r esa m or ec ar e f ulana l ys i s ,whi c hi sgi ve ni n Chap.9.

PR O BLEM S 7. 1. D e hne t he t wopar t i cl et empe r at ur eGr e en' sf unc t i on by

Fx j; y : ( xl rl s x2r2 ' s xi ' r1 ' , x2 ' r2 ' )


-

Tr l ' p s Fr ( t ' / l s a t xl rl ) fx j t x z r2 ) 7 i ' l l x c ' ' r 2 ' ) ; ' l y ( x1 ' J 1 ' ) 1 )

Pr ove t hatt he e ns em bl e aver age oft he t wobody i nt e r a ct i on ener gy i s


' , x . ' . ' N P> - . fJ3 xf #3 x' ) ' t x5x ' ) , a r #z z . ; s s , t x' m , xm; x' r x r ) y, ,s
. .

7. 2. Cons i der a m anybody s ys t em i nt he pr es ence of an e xt e r nal pot ent i al

U( x)wi t has pi ni ndepe nde nt i nt e r ac t i on pot e nt i a lL ' ( x - x' ) . Show t hatt he


ex act one par t i cl et e m pe r a t ur eGr e en' sf unet i on obe ys t he f ol l owi ng equa t i on ofm ot i on
-

t ' g lVf h& . +h -- / . t- & ' ( xj ) $= f j ( xj rI , xj ' ' r J ) u c. f d? . v cl z ( xj - xa ) j s ? l xf f a y ; j y ( xI r1 , x zr ) ; x1 ' r j ' , x2T 1 )= h b l xI- xL ' ) b ( rl -r / ) b x ;

whe r et he t wopar t i c l eG r e en' sf unc t i on i sdesned i n Pr ob.7. 1.

7. 3. As s umi n g a un i f o r ms y s t e m o fs p i n !f e r mi o n sa tt e mp e r a t u r e F,a nd
us i ng t he Fe ynman r ul e si n m om e nt um s pac e.

( J )wr i t eo u tt h es e c o n dor d e rc o n t r i b ut i o nst ot h ep r o pe rs e l f e n e r g yi nt h ec a s e


ofa s pi ni nde pende nti nt e r a et i on ;

( : )e v a l ua t et h ef r e q ue n c ys u ms .
7. 4. Cons i dera s ys t em ofnoni nt e r ac t i ng par t i c l esi n an e xt er nal s t at i cpot ent i al

wi t haha mi l t o n i a n#e x= j#3 x. ? J ) ( x )P r a # t xl ' t ; j t xl .


( J ) Us eW i c k ' st h e or e mt oe v a l u a t et het e mpe r a t u r eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i ont os e c o n d o r d e ri n Pe x . He n c ed e d uc et heFe y n ma nr ul e sf brFe a x j ( x r s x? r ' )t oa I Io r d e r s . ( b ) De f net h eFou r i e rt r a ns f o r m

Fe x /xmx ' , r ' )=( j ) 1j . f ( 2 x) 6#3 / cJ3 k/ e l ( k * x k ' * x ' )


x
,

j ( c t u l n ; r r ' ) Fe a x j / l u b a . ' a l s z . , wn , = . . ? n

Fi n d@' x x j ( k, k' ' ( , ) n l t os e c o n do r d e r , a n dhe n c eo b t a i nt h ec o r r e s p o nd i n gFe y n ma n


r ul e si n m om e nt um s pac e.

( c )S h o wt ha tDy s o n' se qu a t i o nb e c o me s Fe z x p t k, k' ; t o z j= Fk j t k, f z l n l ( 2 03 3 ( k- k' )

+( 2 , 03 1fJ3 pF; A ( k, ( s a )P r A A , ( k- p )Fq l j t p . k' . ' ( . , a n l

asl

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

( #) Ex p r e s s t h ei n t e r n a l e n e r g yan dt h e r mo dy n a mi cp o t e n t i a l i naf o r ma n a l o g ou s t oEq s . ( 2 3 . 1 5 )a n d( 2 3 . 2 2 ) . 7. 6. App l yt het h e o r yo fPr o b. 7 . 4t oas y s t e mo fs p i n !f e r mi on si nau ni f or m

ma g n e t i ch e l d, wh e r eP k/x )=-J z ; . e' ' la j .


( u ) Ex p r e s st hema g n e t i z a t i o nM ( ma gn e t i cmome n tp e ru n i tv ol u me )i nt e r ms ofG* *( f o rF= 0)a n dFe x( f o rF> 0 ) . ( b jSo l v eDy s on ' se qu a t i oni ne a c hc a s ea n df i n dM ; h e n c eob t a i nt hef o l l o wi n g

l i mi t sy p= 3 p . ! n / 2 e sa s F+ . 0( Pa u l ip a r a ma g n e t i s m) a n dy c= J z l n / ksr a s
T. > . c c( Cu r i e ' sl a w) , wh e r eni st h epa r t i c l ed e ns i t y . ( c )H z ' / l yd o e st h ez e r o t e mpe r a t u r e fo r ma l i s mg f p pt h ewz wz ? ga n s we r?
7. 6. Pr ove

2 . p ' fc

y( z ) t a nhzJ z= *
... .

/ (a i n j

2 n+ 1

1 /( z ) c o t hzJ z= * l n 2 ) ( j i = =i c a .( of wher eC i st hec ont ours howni n Fi g.25. 4. St at ec l e ar l y anyas s um pt i onsabout

t h ea na l y t i cs t r u c t u r eo f /t z ) . 7. 7. Us e Eqs .( 2 6 . 1 0 )a n d( 2 6 . 1 1 )t oc o mpu t et h ehr s t o r d e rc o r r e c t i o nt oE


and ( 1f orbot h bosonsa nd f e r mi ons .

8 Physi calSyst em s at Fi ni te T em per atur e

Z7LHA RTREEFOCK APPROXI M ATI ON A sdi s cus s e di n Se c.1 0,t her e ar e m any phys i c als ys t em swhe r ei ti sm e ani ngf ul t ot a l k aboutt he mot i on ofs i ngl e par t i c l e si nt he av er ag es el f c ons i s t enthel d gene r at e d bya 1 1 t heot herpar t i c l es . Thes i m pl es toft hes es e l f cons i s t entappr oxi -

ma t i o n si ss ho wn i n Fi g .2 7 . 1( c omp a r e Fi g .1 0 . 3 ) , whe r et h ehe a v yl i n e sd e n ot e @i t s e l f a n dn o t j u s t F0 . Th i s a pp r o x i ma t es e l f e n e r g yy i e l d sasn i t e t e mp e r a t u r e 1


Fi g.27. 1 Sel f cons i st entHar t r e eFockappr oxi mat i on t ot hepr oper s el f ener gy atf i ni t et emper at ur e.

t 1
2B6

zs6

FI NI TETEMPERATURE FORMALI SM

gene r al i za t i on oft he Har t r e eFoc k equat i onst ha ti sval i df orbot h bos onsand f e r mi ons . W ea gai nc ons i de ras ys t e mi n as t at i cs pi ni ndepe nde ntext e r nalpot ent i al

&( x) . Th eg r a n dc a no n i c a lh a mi l l o n i a ni st h e ng i v e nbyE c ompa r eEqs . ( 1 0. 1 z 8 a n d( 1 0 . 1 ! 8) # hlV2

4 ) -J#3 x#) ( x)- a m + &( x )-/ . t' # a t xl

#1= ! . JJ3 x#3 x' . C( x ) ij f t x' )Ft x- x ' )? / j ( x' ) ( ' kt x l

( 2 7 . 2 )
.

whe r et he i nt er par t i c l e pot e nt i ali sagai n as s um ed t o be s pi ni nde pendent . .l n t hepr es entappr oxi m at i on,D ys on' sequat i ont ake st hef or ms how ni n Fi g.2 7. 2,

t ) + .* $ ) 0

Fi g. 27. 2 Dys on' s equat i on f or ( q . # i . n Har t r e eFock

appr oxi m at i on.

wh i c hi sf or ma l l yi d e n t i c a lwi t ht h a ta tz e r ot e mp e r a t ur e( Fi g.1 0. 5 ) . Si n c eX
i st i me i n depen dent ,i ti sper mi s s i bl et oi nt r oducea Four i e rs er i e s wi t hr e s pe gt t ot he' rv ar i abl e s:

( 2 7 . 4 )

xa' j ) e i c o n ' n@( xj , x ' j , o , a , )( 2 7 . 5 ) g( x, y , ( w)= C #0 ( x, y , ( s , )+ . f#3 xI #3 x ' l F0 ( x. xl . ( , ) , , ) Y* ( xl , x' l ) F( x ' l , y , ( . n) ( 2 7 . 6 )


whe r et h es e l f e n e r g y X* ( xl , x' l )i si n d e p e nd e n to ft h ef r e q u e n c y( s a .
The unper t ur be dt em per at ur e Gr e en' sf unc t i on f #0 can be expr e s s e di n

t e r mso ft h eo r t h on o r ma l e i g e n f u n c t i o n sof Hf j ( Eq . ( 1 0. 8 ) 1 , a n d wef i n d( c o mp a r e Eqs . ( 1 0. l 0 )an d( 2 5 . l 7 ) 2

F0 ( x, x' ,

q +l ( X ) ? ( X' ) * -jI ( r y . s ) ( s a ) -/. j t s J


a.

( 2 7 . 7 )

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

257

I na s i mi l arway,t hei nt e r a ct i ng t empe r at ur e Gr e en' sf unct i on @ i sas s ume dt o have t he expans i on

F( x @k ( x ) n ( x' ) * ,x' , f w) - Ji : n- h ( 0 -p , )

( 2 7 . 8 )

wh e r e( y b )d e n o t e sac omp l e t eo r t ho n or ma ls e to fs i ng l e p a r t i c l ewa vef u n c t i o ns wi t he n e r g yE J . Th e me a nn u mb e rde ns i t yc a n bee v a l u a t e d wi t h Eqs .( 2 3 . 8 ) a n d( 2 5 . 3 8 ) :

( H ( x ) )= : ! u ( 2 5 , +l ) ( j ) 1j ) e t u , n ' l r #t x , x, f . s a l
-

( 2 ,+ 1 )z ! ( s( x ) 1 2 , , , J
( 2 7 . 1 0 )

wher e

n J= l e b l E l l a t : J :l ) l
mean num be rofpar t i c l e si sgi ve n by

r es pondi ngl y,t he i st hee qui l i br i um di s t r i but i on f unc t i on f ort heyt hs t at e. Cor

N( F, # ' , / . t ) =( 2 . +1 )X n i
J

( 2 7 . 1 1 )

wh i c hc a n( i np r i n c i p l e )bei nv e r t e dt o *n dp , ( F, V, Nji fN i sc on s i d e r e ds x e d. Th ef r e qu e nc ys u msi n Eq.( 2 7 . 5 )c a nn ow b ee v a l u a t e di mme di a t e l y,wi t ht he


r es ul t

E* ( xj , xl ' ) =( 2 J+ 1 ) 3 ( xj - xl ' )J#3 xaUt xj -xz )X I g b ( x 2 ) 1 2 n l #


: i :P ' t xl - xl ' )2 ) +, . ( xl ) m. J x; ) *n . i J
-

5 ( xl- x; ). f y3 xz p r t xj - xc ) ( H ( xz ) ) : t :P ' ( XI - Xl ' )Z 9 b ( X1 ) b ( Xi ' ) *n . i( 2 7 . 1 2 ) J

Ac omb i n a t i o no fEqs . ( 2 7 . 6 )a n d( 2 7 . 1 2 )y i e l d sa no nl i n e a re q ua t i on f o rJ ; Ji n

t e r mso f( /. J
I ti sc onve ni entt oi nt r oduc ea di f l kr e nt i alope r at or
, ,

F j= i t hu ) n+ 2 '+ p, - U( xl )= i hu ) n- Kn
m

h2V2

whi ch i st he i nver s e ofh-3 @% . The s ubs e quentanal ys i si si dent i c alw' i t ht hat ofSec.1 0,and wes hal lonl ys t at et hesnale quat i onf or%y:
-

hl 7 ' ( , 2 m 1 -U( xl )+y ( xI )+f#3 x' , X* ( xI , x' l ) +J ( xl )= j o( xl )


-

( 2 7 . 1 3 )

asg

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

whe r ehX*now de pendse xpl i c i t l y on F and y , . Thi ss e tofs e l f cons i s t e nte quat i onsi sa ge ner al i zat i on oft he Har t r ee Fock t he or yt o hni t et e mper a t ur e s;t he t em pe r at ur e af l kc t st he di s t r i but i on f unc t i on nl di r e c t l y and al s o m odi he se l and J' Jt hr ough t he s e l f cons i s t e nt pot e nt i al . Al t hough t he t heor yl os es i t s phys i c alcont e ntf or bos ons bel ow t he c ondens at i on t e mpe r at ur e,i tr e mai ns val i df orf e r mi onsatal lt emper at ur es . I n par t i c ul ar ,t heFer mi Di r acf unc t i on

n lr e du c e st oas t e pf u nc t i on%y . -e J ja tr= 0 , s ot h a ta 1 1 s t a t e swi t he n e r g yl e s s


t han p, ar eEl l e d. A sexpe ct e d,t hi sH a r t r e eFoc kt he or yf orf e r mi onsf i x est he

t o t a l n u mbe rof p a r t i c l e sa tF= 0b yt h en u mbe rof o c c u pi e ds t a t e sE Eq. ( 2 7. 1 1 ) 1 .


The i nt e r nalene r gy i nt he Har t r e eFoc k appr oxi m at i on c an be e va l uat e d

wi t hag e n e r a l i z a t i o no fEq . ( 2 3 . 1 5 )

E( F, P ' , p , )= : F ( 2 J+ 1 )J#3 %l i m ( j ) 1j l e l O n ' l x' -y x n


xJt f / j f x u- j y x)+P . J F( x , x' , ( w) , u + &(
=

hlV2

( 2 J+ 1 ). ' j ) e J n p- ! . ( 2 J+ 1 )Jdb x#3 x' #


> :Z +. / ( x ) * Z* ( x, x' ) +, ( x' ) r , ,( 2 7 . 1 4 ) J

wh e r et h efn a lf o r m ha sb e e nob t a i n e d wi t h Eqs .( 2 7 . 1 3 ) ,( 2 5 . 3 8 ) ,a n d( 2 6. 9 ) .


Thi sexpr e s s i on c an b ei nt e r pr e t ed ast hee ns em bl eav er ageoft hes el f cons i s t e nt

s i n g l e p a r t i c l ee n e r g i e se Jd e t e r mi n e df r o m Eq.( 2 7 . 1 3 ) ,whi l et he s e c o n dt e r m e x p l i c i t l yr e mov e st hee f f e c tof do u bl ec o u nt i n g( s e et h ed i s c u s s i o nf ol l o wi n gEq. ( 1 0 . 1 8 ) j . Ac omb i n a t i ono fEqs . ( 2 7 . l 2 )a n d( 2 7 . 1 4) y i e l d s

X( ( 2 . + 1 ) l t / 1 J ( X . ) 1 2 i ) k ( X' )2+ : y ) J ( x ) * +k ( X ) Tk ( X' ) * ) y ( . X / ) j


wh i c h( f or f e r mi on s )r e du c e st ot h eu s u a l Ha r t r e e Fo c ke x p r e s s i o na tz e r o
t e m per at ur e ,apar tf r om t hedependenc eon/ , Li ns t ea d ofN. I ti si nt er es t i ngt ocons i de rt hef or m oft he s ee quat i onsf orauni f or ms ys t em ,

whe r e &( x )= 0 a n d E* ( x . x' )= Y* ( x - x' ) . Th es e l f c on s i s t e n c yc o n di t i on s t hen bec ome m u ch s i mpl e r ,s i nc e@, ( x)may bet ake na sa pl ane wav e U-it ? k e l
and onl ye kr e m ai ns t o be de t er mi ned. D i r ec ts ubs t i t ut i on s hows t hat p f k * l t

i nde ed r e pr es ent sa s ol ut i on of Eq.( 27. 13 );f ur t he r mor e,t he s e l f cons i s t e nt


s i ngl epar t i c l e ene r gy bec omes

e g= 4 + Y* ( k)

( 2 7 . 1 6 )

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

2B9

Thes e l f cons i s t enc ycondi t i on r e duc est o 1 nk = ( : r ' : -#) / k a : ! :j

( 2 7 . l 8 )

i n whi ch e kbot h det e r mi ne s ,and i sde t e r mi ne d bynk . N ot et hatnka nd n kbot h depe nd on p. , whi ch maybeExe d byt her equi r e ment

NI T, P ' , p , ) =( 2 J+ 1 )F( 2 =) 3Jd' kn k


Fi nal l y,t he i nt e r na le ner gy be comes

( 2 7 . 1 9 )

E=( 2 J+ 1 )F( 2 z r ) 3Jd? k( q-1 Z* ( k) ) n k = ( 2 J+ 1 )F( 2 z r ) 3fd3 k( 4 +! 4E* ( k) J n k

( 2 7 . 2 0 )

W ee mp h a s i z et ha te k , n k , a n dZ* ( k)i nt h e s ee x p r e s s i o nsa l l de p e n do nF a n dp , t hr o ug hEq. ( 2 7 . 1 8 ) .


Z8LI M PERFECT BOSE GAS NEAR Fr A san exa m pl eoft hes e l f cons i s t e ntH ar t r e e Foc k appr oxi m at i on,we c ons i de r as pi nze r oi m per f e c t Bos e gas ne ar i t sc ondens at i on t em per at ur e Fc . l ti s he l pf ulfr s tt or e c al lt he s i t ua t i on i n a per f e ctgas ,wher et her e ar e onl yt wo char ac t er i s t i ce ne r g i es: t he t her mal e ner gy ksF and t he z e r opoi nt ene r gy

hl n k j ma r i s i ngf r om t h el o c a t i z a t i on wi t h i nav o l u men1 . Thec on de n s a t i o n t e mp e r a t ur eFoi na ni d e a l Bos eg a i i s d e t e r mi n e d b y t he c on di t i on ks Fc h l n k l m 1 ( s e eEq . ( 5 . 3 0 ) ) , wh i c hi se v i d e n tf t o md i me ns i on a l c on s i de r a t i o n s .I nc o n t r a s t ,

t h ei n t r o du c t i on o fi n t e r a c t i o n s omp l i c a t e st h ep r o bl e mc o ns i d e r a bl y ,s i n c e
t h epo t e n t i a lU( x )h a sb ot has t r e n g t ha n dar a n g ea. Ass h o wn b e l o w,t h e
pr e s entca l cul at i on i sval i d whe n hlnk h2 ksrc= ksTo ; k : < < z
m MJ

( 2 8 . 1 )

nF( 0 ) x tmaz : whe r eP ' ( 0 )H P ' t k= 0 ) . Thesr s tc on di t i on s ho wst ha tt h i si sa l o wd e ns i t y a pp r o x i ma t i o n( n a 3< 1 ) ,whi l et hes e c on dc o n di t i on l i mi t st h es t r e n g t h oft h e
pot ent i a l . N ot e,howe ve r ,t hatwe do notr equi r et he us ualcondi t i on f ort he

h2

Bo r na pp r o x i ma t i o n( 1 z ' ( 0 )c 4h z a l mj , wh i c hi smo r es t r i n g e n tb yaf a c t o rn a 3< t1 .


The mean par t i c l e de ns i t y and s el f c ons i s t ent e xc i t at i on s pec t r um ar e gi ve n by #3 k 1 ( 2 8 . 3 ) n l ' Z' X= ( 2 ) 3e l e : p p / t a r- 1 =

l m + e k= -

:2 k2

#3 k' F( 0 ) + F( k - k' ) ( 2 =) ) e ( r : , pj y k s r j
. .

( 2 8 . 4 )

a6c

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

Equ a t i on ( 2 8 . 3 )s p e c i t i e st h ed e n s i t ya sa f u n c t i on o fF a n d/ . z ,bu ti ti smo r e c o n v e n i e n tt ol i xaa n dt h e ni nv e r tt of i ndp , ( F , F, 1) .I nt hi sc a s e , t h ec h e mi c a l p o t e n t i a l i sl a r g ea n dn e g a t i v ea t h i g ht e mp e r a t u r e s( s e eEq. ( 5 . 2 6 ) J , b ut i t i n c r e a s e s t o wa r dp o s i t i v ev a l u e sa sF i sl o we r e d. Ex a c t l ya sf o rape r f e c tBo s eg a s ,t h e


t e m per at ur e Tc f or t he ons e t ofconde ns at i on i sde t er mi ned by t he c ondi t i on e k- p, =0a tk = 0,when a hni t ef r ac t i on oft he par t i c l e ss t a r t st o occ upy t he

l o we s te n e r g ys t a t ee o( s e et h edi s c u s s i on f o l l owi ng Eq.( 5 . 3 0) 1 . Th ep r e s e nt


c al c ul at i on i sm or ecom pl i c at e d,howev er ,be ca us e bot he kand J zdepe nd on F.

Wea s s u met ha tP ' ( x )ha saFo ur i e rt r a n s f or m

F( k )= J#3 xF( x) p i k' x


whos esni t er angeal l owsanex pans i on oft hef or m

( 2 8 . 5 )
( 2 8 . 6 )

U( k)= 1 d? xP ' ( x )( 1- km x- J ( k. x) 2+ ... )

For a s phe r i c al l ys ym m e t r i c pot ent i al ,t he l i ne ar t e r m vani s hes . l ft he mean s quar er adi us ali sdefne d by t he r el at i on

f #3 xP ( x ) . x 2 a2 = - - . --

J#3 xP r ( x )

( 2 g . J )
( 2 8 . 8 )

Eq .( 2 8 . 6 )c a nt h e nb ewr i t t e na s P ( k)= F( 0 )( 1- ( k w) 2+ ... )


ener gy s pe c t r um c an al s o beexpande di n powe r sofkl:

wh e r e F( 0 )a n da la r e bo t hp o s i t i v ei f U( x )i se v e r y whe r er e pu l s i v e . Th e

( 2 8. 9 )
wh e r e , f r o m Eqs . ( 2 8 . 3 )a nd( 2 8 . 4 ) ,

e t l = l n F ( 0 ) . . U ( 0 ) a l j j j s , z g f r : , j t w s z j = 2 n F ( 0 ) g l + O ( m a 2 y k z s F j j
a n d 1 1g j.n F( 0 ) ma 2

t / 3 k/

k' l

( 2 8. 1 0 ) ( 2 8 . 1 1 )

Thes ec ondt er mi nbot hoft hes eexpr es s i onsr epr e s e nt sas m al lc or r e ct i onbec aus e

o fc on d i t i on s( 2 8 . 1 )a n d( 2 8 . 2 ) ,r e s p e c t i v e l y .S i nc et h ee f l k c t i v e ma s sa r i s e s e nt i r e l yf r om t he e x c h a n g ei nt e r a c t i o ni n Eq. ( 2 8 . 4 ) ,i tc l e a r l yr e p r e s e n t sa
quant um m ec hani ca le f l kct .

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

261

The t r ans i t i on t e m per a t ur e and c or r e s pondi ng c he mi cal pot ent i al ar e de t er mi ned by t hepai rofequa t i ons
n-

J( 2 , 4 3 e x p ( 2 k 2 / 2 * k s r c ) l
lnhl n 1

dq k

( 2 8. 1 2 )

p rc )- e t l ( 2 8 . 1 3 ) Equ a t i o n( 2 8 . 1 2 )i si d e n t i c a lwi t ht h a tf o ra p e r f e c tg a swi t h ma s sm* ,a n d we 5n d( s e cEq. ( 5 . 3 0 ) )

k sFc= v

r n ( ( 1 )

( 2 8 . 1 4 )

l fTv de not e st he t r a ns i t i on t emper a t ur ef or a noni nt e r ac t i ng gasoft he s am e dens i t y and m as sm,t hei nt er par t i cl e pot e nt i als hi f t st he t r ans i t i on t em pe r at ur e byan am ount l

LTc r c- To m 1 ma l nF( 0 ) Tz = Fo = m.- 1= -j h a

( 2 8 . 1 5 )

N ot et hat a pur el yr e pul s i ve pot ent i all owe r st he t r ans i t i on t empe r at ur e. The

c o n s t a n t sa la n d F( 0 )a r er e a d i l ye v a l u a t e df ora n ys p e c i f i cc h oi c eo fF( x ) ;i n p a r t i c ul a r ,LT C= 0f o rap o i nt po t e n t i a lF( x )= L 3 ( x) .


Z9LSPECI FI C HEAT OF AN I M PERFECT FERM I GAS AT LO W TEM PERATU RE The H ar t r e e Fock a ppr oxi m at i on al s or e pr es ent sa us e f ulm ode lf orf er mi ons; asa s pe ci fcand nont r i vi a lex am pl e,wes hal le val uat et he e nt r opy and s pe c i sc he ati nt he l ow t e m pe r a t ur el i mi t . 2 O ne pos s i bl e appr oa ch i st o com put et he

t h e r mo d yn a mi cp o t e n t i a l f 2 ( F , P , p , )f r om Eq. ( 2 6 . 1 1 )b u ti ti s e a s i e rt owor kwi t h Eqs . ( 2 5 . 2 5 )a n d( 2 5 . 2 6 ) :

K =E-P . N = JF( 2 z r ) 3 ( j ) 1j#3 k) (e l u l n l g j t x ) a+e k-j z ) t r F( k, f w)


( 2 9 . 1 ) Thef u nd a me nt a l r e l a t i o ni st hei de n t i t yK = f l+ TS ( Eq. ( 4 . 7 ) ) , s ot ha t

( : J w ) ( z % f ' ) F M + s + r ( % ) S ) F p
lThi sr e s ul t wa sob t a i ne d by M . Lu ba n,Ph ys . Ae n . ,1 M: 9 6 5( 1 9 62 )a ndb yV.K. W on g, Ph. D. Th e s i s ,Uni v e r s i t y ofCa l i f o mi a,Be r k e l e y ,1 9 6 6( u np ub l i s h e d) .
'Someoft het e chni quesus ed her e wer ei nt r oduced by A . A.Abr i kos ov,L.P.Gor kov,and

1 .E.Dz y a l o s hi ns ki i , e Me t ho dso fQu a nt u m Fi e l d The o r yi n St at i s t i c alPh y s i c s , ' 's e c .1 9 ,


Pr e n t i c e Ha l l ,I n c . ,En g l e wo od Cl i f l i ,N. J . ,1 9 6 3 ,b utou rc a l c u l a t i o n di f l kr sf r o m t he i r si n se ver ali m por t antways.

z62

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

Thel i r s tt wot e r mso nt h er i g h tc a nc e l( Eq. ( 4. 9 ) ) ,l e a v i n g


D K

D T

zs

FC Yp . s

9 5 -

( 2 9 . 3 )

Thi se xpr es s i on di f l kr sf r om t he us ua ls pec i sc hea tbec aus ep,i she l d sxe d.but i ta l l owsust oc om put et heent r opybyi nt egr at i ngatc ons t ant# 'and y , .

L OWTEM PERATURE EXP ANSI ON OF F

Equ a t i o n( 2 9. 1 )i sc o mp l e t e l yg e ne r a l , b utt h ep r e s e n tc a l c u l a t i o nc a nb es i mpl i 5ed c ons i de r abl y by s t udx p i ng onl yt he l eadi ng sni t et em pe r at ur e cor r e c t i on. Theex ac tG r e en' sf unct i on @ depe ndson F b0t ht hr ough t hedi s c r e t ef r e que ncy

z o n= ( 2 n+ l l r r / j a n dt h r ou g ht h es e l f e n e r g y E* ( k, ( s a , F) ( s e e ,f o re x a mp l e ,
Eq.( 2 7 . 1 7 ) ) . Th i sf u nc t i o na ld e p e n d e n c e ma y be ma d ee x p l i c i tb y wr i t i n g
D ys on' sequat i on as

F( k. a ) n , F)= F0 ( k. ( s n )+ F0 ( k, t t ? a ) Y* ( k, ( o a , r) F( k, ( , p a , F) Th ei n v e r s ef un c t i on sF( k , t w, F) 1 a ndF( k , t w, 0 ) i s a t i s f yt h ee qu a t i on s F( k, a ) a , F) 1= F0 ( k, ( z ) a ) !- E* ( k, ( s , , r)

( 2 9. 4 )

whe r e @Qdependson F onl yt hr ough u ) na nd t hemat r i xi ndi c esar es uppr e s s e d.

( 2 9. 5 ) F( k, . , 0 ) l= F0 ( k, ( s a ) l- X* ( k, ( s a , 0 )
whos edi se r e nceyi el ds

F( k, ( s a , r) l- F( k, u , 0 ) 1 = -X* ( k, *n , F) + X* ( k, ( , ) n , 0 ) ( 2 9. 6 ) Mu l t i pl yb yF( k, a > n , 0 )o nt h el e f ta n dF( k, f w, F)ont h er i g h t ; F( k, t , ) a , F) = F( k. u ) n , 0 ) + F( k, t t ) n , 0 ) ( X* ( k, ( x ) n , F)- X* ( k, u ) a , 0 ) ) F( k, f w, F) ( 2 9 . 7 )


He r et he l as tt e r m e xpl i c i t l y vani s he sa s r> . 0, and t hi se xac te quat i on ca n t he r e f or ebeappr oxi m at ed at1 ow t em pe r at ur e by

F( k, ( z ) n . F) F( k, ( z ) a , 0 )+ F( k. f . , a a , 0 ) E X* ( k, ( . t ) n , F)- Y* ( k . ( s a , 0) ) F( k, ( , ) n , 0 ) ( 2 9 . 8 )
HARTREE-FOCK A PPROXI M ATI ON

Theon l ya s s umpt i o nu s e di nd e r i v i n gEq . ( 2 9 . 8 )i st h a t of 1 o wt e mp e r a t u r e . Th e


s ubs e quent anal ys i si sl e s s ge ne r a l .howev er ,bec aus e we s hal l now r e s t r i c t

o ur s e l v e st ot h eHa r t r e e Fo c k mo de l ,i n wh i c h E*i si n d e p e n d e nto ff r e q u e n c y a n di sd e t e r mi n e df r o mt h ed i a g r a msi n Fi g .2 7 . 1 . As s umi ngs p i n !f e r mi o n s


and s pi ni ndependenti nt er act i ons ,wehav ef r om t heFeynm an r ul e s

E* ( k, r)= ( j ) l ( 2 *) 3J#3 g( j ( e i a : a ' n ( 2F( 0 )- P ' t k- q ) ) F( qs ( z ? a , , F) n'

( 2 9 . 9 )

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

263

wh e r e we n ow wr i t e @u g= 3 . j @. Equ a t i o n( 2 9. 8 ) ma yb eu s e dt or e wr i t e
t hi sexpr e s s i on as

Y* ( k, F)=( j ) -1 ( 2 , 43Jd3 q) ge t u G ' 9 ( 2F( 0 ) - F( k-q ) ) n'


xl f # ( q, o a n , , 0 )+ ( f # ( q, o a a ' . 0 ) ) 2 ( E* ( q . r)- Y* ( q , 0 ) ) J( 2 9 . 1 0 )
He r et he s ec ond t e r mi n br a ce sappar ent l y bec omesnegl i gi bl easr -. > . 0,and i t

i st e mp t i n gt or e p l a c et hed i s c r e t es u mma t i onov e rn ' b ya ni n t e g r a lE s e eEq. ( 2 5. 1 5 ) ) :

( # ) 1 j ) > . ( 2 . v ) 1 ( * n , a# J *X d

( 2 9 . 1 1 )

Suc h a pr oce dur ei sper mi s s i bl e onl yi ft he s um and t hei nt e gr albot hc onve r g e t ot he s am e l i mi t . I nt he pr es entc as e,howe ver ,t he r es ul t i ng i nt e gr ali st oo s i ngul art o per mi tt hes ubs t i t ut i on. l To de m ons t r at et hi sr at hers ubt l e di s t i nct i on,we s hal leva l uat et he s um e xpl i c i t l y and t hen compar ei t wi t ht he appr oxi mat ei nt egr a l . Cons i der t he

qu a n t i t yo c c ur r i n gi n Eq. ( 2 9 . 1 0 ) :

( j ) 'Z d f * a ' 9 ( F( q , ( z ) n ' s 0 ) ) 2= ( j# ) 1j ) e ' L n ' Y l L i l o n , - -1 ( e :- j z ) ) 2 n' a' - ho ( ( j ) I) 2e j . a . , ? t j ( s n , .,j ( r g- sl j l j


a '
=

% wher e wehav ei nt r oduc ed t he e xc i t at i on s pec t r um atz er ot em per at ur e


tq = e 0 +J l E* ( q , 0 )
q

a /F) h? 0

( 2 9 . 1 2 ) ( 2 9 . 1 3 )

and

n q ( F)= ( e b ' q H b +1 ) 1 ( 2 9. 1 4 ) d e pe n dsonFo nl yt h r ou g ht h ee x pl i c i ta p p e a r a n c eo f j. Eq ua t i o n( 2 9 . 1 2 )d oe s ur nt ot he n o tv a n i s ha tF= 0;i n s t e a d ,i tr e d u c e st o - 3 G -e J. W e now t


c or r es pondi ng ze r ot e m pe r at ur ei nt eg r al * d ed f i ' x

v x2 =l f ( . & ) - 1 ( e :- p , ) ) 2

( 2 9 . 1 5 )

The d ou bl ep o l ea t( . o- , 41 ( / ,- e) wi t hr e s i du e -f , ? e n ' ' t ' . ' z 'a p pa r e n t l y


ens ur e st hat t he i nt e gr alvani s he s as T . > . . 0. Cl os e r exa mi nat i on s hows t hat t he i nt e gr a ldi ve r ge s at q= y. .A l i mi t i ng pr oc e dur ei st her ef or er equi r e dt o de fnei t sval ueatt hatpoi nt ,andt hedi s c r et es ummat i on oft heni t e t e mper at ur e

t h e or ye x a mi n e di nEq . ( 2 9. 1 2 )s e r v e sj u s t t h i sp u r po s e . z
'Th i sp oi n twm s f i r s t e mph a s i z e dbyJ . M. Lu t t i n g e ra ndJ . C. Wa r d, Ph y s . Ae r . , 1 1 8: 1 41 7( 1 9 K) .
2Not et hatt he adi abat i c dampi ng t er ms ii zi z .t he denomi nat or s oft he c or r es pondi ng r e e al f r e qu e n c yi n t e g r a l si nt h ez e r o t e mm r a t ur et h e or ys e l ' v ee x a c t l yt h i ss a mef u n c t i o n.

264
- ' --

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

: ee x p l i c i tf o r mo ft hes e l f e n e r g y Y* ( k , r)a tl o wt e mp e r a t u r ec a nno w

bef ound

E* ( k , r)= ( 2 =) 3f d3 q( 2F4 0) - U( k- q ) ) n a l l ' j +( 2 =) 3f d? q

x( 2 P ' ( 0 ) -P r t k-q ) ) UY * ( q & 7 # j 0 ) ,F) - E* ( q , 0 ) ) j q

whe r ei ti sp e r mi s s i b l et or e pl a c en q ( T)b yz ? q ( 0 )i nt h es e c o nd( c o r r e c t i on )t e r m. Atz e r ot e mp e r a t ur e ,Eq.( 2 9 . 1 6 )r e d u c e st ot he f a mi l i a rf or m ( c omp a r e Eq. ( 2 7 . 1 7 ) )

b e c a u s en /0 )- 0 ( y . -e ) .I nt hep r e s e nta pp r o x i ma t i o n ofr e t a i ni n gon l yt h e


l e a d i n gl o wt e mp e r a t u r ec o r r e c t i o ns , Eq s .( 2 9 . 1 6 )a n d( 2 9 . 1 7 )t og e t h e ry i e l d

( 2 9 . l 8 )
whi c hma ybec on s i de r e da ni n t e g r a le q ua t i o nf orX* ( q . F)- Y* ( q , 0 ) . Thef undament a lt her m odynami cf unct i on KI T,1 , ' , J . t )can now ber ewr i t t en b yc o mbi n i n gEq s . ( 2 9 . 1 )a n d( 2 9. 8 )

x( Y* ( k, F)- X* ( k, 0 ) ) ( 2 9 . 1 9 ) He r et h es u mma t i o ni nt h es r s t t e r mi se a s i l ye v a l u a t e dwi t h Eq s . ( 2 5 . 3 8 ) , ( 2 6 . 9 ) , a n d( 2 9. l 3 ) :

( j ) 1( j ) e l c o n T l i h u ) n+ e k- p , )g l ua- l ( E ' 2- p , )- Y* ( k, 0 ) ) 1
=

( 2 ( e :- p . )- E* ( k, 0 ) ) n k t r) ( 2 9 . 2 0 )

Th es e c o ndt e r mi n Eq. ( 2 9. 1 9 )f or ma l l yv a n i s h e sa sF> . . 0 ,b utt h es u mma t i o n


i sagai nt oo s i ngul art or e pl ac eby an i nt e gr al ;a di r ec te val uat i on yi e l ds

( j ) lj ) e l n T l i h u ; n+ e - y , )( F( k, t s a , 0 ) ) 2
=

n k ( T) ( h n k l l ' )+ ( 2 ( e :- J z )- E* ( k, 0 ) ) h8 t 2 9. 21 ) e k

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

26s

and wem aynow t a ket hel i mi tr + 0. A c omb i n a t i o no fEq s . ( 2 9 . 1 9 )t o( 2 9 . 2 1 ) gi v es

#( F, l ' ' , r z )-* ( 0 , F, r z ) - F( 2 =) 3Jdb k2 ( E ' k-J z )L n k l Tj -a : ( 0 ) ) n k l b . j xw t k, + 7( 2 =) 3f#3 k2 ( 6 : -p )B g C ( E ( k, r) -j ( j l j k


+P ' ( 2 =) 3f #3 :n k ( 0 )( Y* ( k, F)- Y* ( k, 0 ) ) F( 2 =) 3f #3 : E* ( k, 0 ) ( r l k ( r) -r l : ( 0 ) Dn q ( 0 )pxwk r) , + 0 (, x. ( k , o ) ) ) ( 2 9 . 2 2 ) Ek
--

The s e cond t er m v ani s he s owi ng t ot he f act or 6 k- J z ,t hatmul t i pl i e st he de l t a

f u n c t i o no n k ( Q l l o k= -3 ( 6 k- p . ) . Th i sc a n c e l l a t i ono c c u r sb e c a us ea l l q ua n t i t i e s
hav e bee ne xpr e s s e di nt er msoft he e xac ts pe c t r um e k ,s howi n gt he ne ce s s i t y of r et ai ni ng t hef ul ls el f c ons i s t e nc yi nt he H ar t r ee Fock t heor y. I n addi t i on,t he

l a s tt wot e r mso fEq .( 2 9 . 2 2 )a l s oc a n c e l , wh i c hc a nb es e e nb ys ub s t i t u t i ngEq . ( 2 9 . 1 8 )i n t ot h et h i r dt e r m ofEq. ( 2 9 . 2 2 )a n dt h e nu s i n gE q. ( 2 9. 1 7 ) . Eq u a t i on ( 2 9 . 2 2 )t h usr e du c e st ot h ee x t r e me l ys i mp l er e s u l t A( F, F, / z )- #4 0 , V, y . )= P ( 2 7 43(#3 #2 ( s :- y) L n g ( T)-z 4( 0 ) J ( 2 9 . 2 3 )


whi c hi s ourhnalf or m . Thi sr e s ul ti ndi c at es t hatt he onl yl owt e m per a t ur e cor r ec t i ons t oL ' - r z xl aa r i s ef r o m as t a t i s t i c a lr e d i s t r i b u t i o no ft h ep a r t i c l e s .I am ong t he z er ot em pe r at ur e ene r gy l eve l se k de t er mi ne df r om t he i nt er act i ons i nt hegr ou nd s t at e.
EVALUATI ON oF TH E ENTqo py

Thee n t r op yc a nno w bec o mp ut e df r o mt h et h e r mo d y na mi ci de nt i t yg Eq . ( 2 9 . 3 ) )

w ( 8 J . S ? u ' ) F p -v l v j ( / 2 8 , 3 0 1 ' 3 2 ( , . s l n k t r ) -r j : . y j( # a . 3 / ) c ) ( . . k s ) ( j t a n j a e z k . v # j , p ' dj k z j j ze k- p. 2 ksv nJ ( 2 , r ) 3 t e k ? * ' S e C 1 k . r


,
-

( 2 9 . 2 4 ) ( 2 9 . 2 5 )

ar i nt egr at i ons ar ee as i l y wh i c hi sa ne x pl i c i tf u n c t i on o f( F, F, p , ) . The angul


pe r f or m ed :

W ( ) a s / j p , s . . i r l k p ' . r 2( * ) k z v t k l c , s ) 2 s e c h z e 2 k . T M

whi c hl eav es a s i ngl ei nt e gr a lov er k. A tl ow t e m per at ur e s ,t he i nt e gr and i s pe ake d att he poi nte k= p, ,wi t h a wi dt ht hatvani s he sasF -. > . 0. I fwec ha nge

aee

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FoqM Auj sM

v a r i a b l e st o tH ( l / 2 ksF) ( e :- / z ) ,t h el o we rl i mi tma yb ee x t e n d e dt o J= -c c
wi t h ne gl i gi bl ee r r or:

r ( j P ) ) F J Z p ' k w g L k z w d * ' k % ' < 1 J e k = J z . ' 2 # J ( c o t q f z s e c h c J = p . / c i w g k z k tj f = / z


Thei nt eg r at i on atcons t antP and p, i st r i vi al ,and we 5nd

( 2 9 . 2 6 )

whe r et h es l o wl yv a r y i n gf a c t o rk l d k j d q kh a sb e e nt a k e n ou t s i de t he i n t e g r a l .

SI T , P , / z )= . jl z ' / c jF k2 k !

dz -1
rk -p

( 2 9. 2 7 )

The e nt r opy i sa t he r m odynam i cf unct i on oft he s t at e oft he s ys t em ,and i ti snow pe r mi s s i bl et oc hange var i abl esf r om fxe d p,t of i xed N . To obt ai n t he l e adi ng or de ri nt he l owt em per at ur e cor r e ct i ons ,we m a y us et he z e r ot em pe r at ur ee quat i on

N = 21 / ( 2 7 . 43Jd3 kt ? ( p . -E k ) = 2F ' ( 2 r ) 3jd kj t k s- k) =; Q) ( 3 , r r 2 ) 1 2 / c /+ p , =e k s= h j -X* ( Vs , 0 )


2 k;+ t . -h j u( 2 =) 3. f #3 t ? L 2P ' ( 0 )- P ( k-q ) ) p t k s-t ? ) ) ) : . k s
#E # '
,

( 2 9. 2 8 )

wh e r et h eFe r mi e ne r g yi s no wd e f i n e db yt h er e l a t i o n( s e eEq s . ( 2 9 . 1 3 ) a n d( 2 9. 1 7 ) )

( 2 9 . 2 9 )

Th ed e r i v a t i v e( J 6 k / # / f ) t k sa tt h e Fe r mis u r f a c ede sn e st hee f l k c t i v ema s s


= i i ' ii k

blk

r n*F

( 2 9 . 3 0)
i Ds j . 2m * =2

and t he l owt em per at ur e ent r opy and hea tca pac i t y be com e

S ( T s V s Nj , =C k=Tj j y / v y =N k L F j j y j' j
As i m pl ec al c ul at i on yi e l ds

( 2 9 . 3 1 )

The s ee xpr es s i ons ar ef or m al l yi dent i c alwi t ht hos ef or a per f e c t Fe r m i gas ,

a pa r tf r o mt hea p pe a r a n c eo ft h ee f e c t i v ema s sm*( s e eEq s . ( 5 . 5 8 )a n d( 5 . 5 9 ) J .

mw -z=m - +n z a s. sj y . a v ' a r k s

lP E* ( k, 0) !

( 2 9 . 3 2 )

I ti snot abl et ha tt hel owt empe r at ur et her modynami cf unc t i onsar e det er mi ne d s ol e l y by t heze r ot e m per at ur ee xc i t at i on s pec t r um . Thi ss i m pl er es ul t ,whi c h

pHysl cAu svsr EM s AT FI NI TE YEM PERATURE

267

i si nf ae tqui t egener al y lar i s e s he r ef r om t he s pe c i alf or m oft he Ha r t r e eFock

s e l f e n e r g y . S i n c e X* ( k, F) i si n de p e n d e n to ff r e qu e n c y ,t h es p e c t r um e k
me r e l ys hi f t st he e ne r g y ofe ac hs i ng l epar t i c l el e ve l ,and t he i nt e r ac t i ng' g r ound s t at es t i l lcons i s t s ofa sl l e d Fer mis ea. The l owt e mper at ur e he atc apa ci t yi s de t er mi ne d by t hos epar t i c l e swi t hi n an e ner g ys hel loft hi cknes s; a J ksr ar ound t heFer miene r gy e rE se k s . Ata t emper at ur e r.t hei nc r e as ei nt het ot alene r or LE i spr oport i onalt ot heener gy chang e perpar t i c l e ksT t i me st he numbe r of ex c i t e d pa r t i cl es

h Ec( k s r ) p ' ( 2 , r r ) 3 j s : 3 k
ksF < : <: s ,weobt ai n
' '

( 2 9 . 3 3 )

nc e whe r et he s u bs c r i pts d e n o t e st h ei n t e g r a t i o nr e g i on I e k -e Fl f ks F. Si

hE c c( k sr) 2a r rj
Thuswes e et hat

j z k # t j k r ( ur ) 2 ( a 3 ) j ' ) * ) F )

( 2 9. 3 4 )

wh e r em*i si d e nt i s e dwi t ht hehe l po fEq. ( 2 9 . 3 0 )a n dEq. ( 2 9 . 2 8 )ha sb e e nus e d.

C #( F) Nk kTm* v= d T C c h z k

( 2 9 . 3 5 )

and t he cons t ant ofpr opor t i onal i t y m us tc l e ar l y be t he s ame asf or a per f e c t Fer m igaswi t h m as sm *.

3OLELECTRON GAS I nt he pr e vi ouss e ct i ons ,we s t udi e dt he H ar t r e eFock appr oxi m at i on a tf mi t e t e m per a t ur e ,whi c h appl i e st os ys t e m s wi t hs i m pl et wobody pot ent i a l s . For

e x a mp l e , t heFo ur i e rt r a ns f o r m F( q )mu s tbewe l lde f l ne da n dbo un d e df o ra l l q; t he s er e s t r i c t i o n sp r e c l ud eb ot hah a r dc o r e( U( x)> . c of orx< J )a n dal on g r a ng ec o u l o mb t a i lg U( q )> . . a za sq> . 0) . Mo s tph y s i c a ls y s t e msha v e mo r e
c om pl i c at e di nt er a ct i ons ,howe ve r ,whi c h m us tbet r ea t e d by s um m i ng s e l e ct e d

c l a s s e so fd i a gr a ms ,e x a c t l ya si nt hez e r o t e mpe r a t ur ef or ma l i s m( S e c s .1 1a n d 1 2 ) . Fo rd e f i n i t e n e s s ,we s t u dyt h et he r mo dy n a mi cp r o pe r t i e so fa ne l e c t r o n


gas i n a uni f or m pos i t i ve ba ckgr ound;t hi ss ys t em i s par t i c ul ar l yi nt e r e s t i ng, be caus et he hna le xpr es s i onsdes cr i be bot ht hehi ght e mpe r at ur ecl as s i ca ll i mi t and t hez er ot e m pe r at ur equant um 1 i mi t . 2
'J . M. Lut t i ng e r , Ph y s . Re v . , 11 9: 1 l 5 3( 1 9* )h a sc on s t r uc t e dag e n e r al p r o of v al i dt oa 1 1 or d e r s
i n m rt ur bat i on t heor y.

2Th i sp oi ntwa sf i r s tnot e db y E. W. M ont r ol la n dJ .C. Wa r d. Ph ys . F/ U I W. 1 . 1: 5 5( 1 9 5 8 ) , who


de ri ved t her es ul t spr es ent ed i nt hi ss e ct i on. Ourt r eat mentdi f l er si n det ai l .butnoti ns pi r i t .

268
A PPROXI M ATE PROPER SELFENERGY

FI NI TETEMPERATURE FORMALI SM

TheAami l t oni an i st hats t udi edpr e vi ous l yi nSe c s .3and 1 2,i nwhi c ht heuni f or m

p os i t i v eba c k g r o un dc a n c e l st h eq= 0c o mpo ne n to fF( q ) . Thu st h ed i a g r a m-

ma t i ce x p a n s i o no fF h a sn ot e r ms c o n t a i n i n g' # %t q=0, ( s a )= U( 0 ) . Th e
e qui l i br i um be havi ori sm os teas i l yc al cul at e df r om t het her modynam i cpot ent i a l

( s e eEq. ( 2 6 . 1 1 ) )

( 1 ( F , P ' , p , ) = D c ( F , P ' , J z ) + P ' j o j j ( , a , . ) ; y( e . v v y j u w z t k j o a ) r y z ( k , ( s . )


( 3 0 . 1 )
wher e E*2 and F2ar et he appr opr i at ef unc t i ons f or a ni nt er act i on pot ent i al

!d, j

dq k 1

AF( x )a ndt h es pi ns u mg i v e sr i s et oa na d de df a c t o ro f2 . W ewo ul dn o r ma l l y


e val uat ef 2a s a powe rs e r i e si nt he c oupl i ng cons t a ntc2 ,butt he s e condor der

t e r m d i v e r g e s ,j u s ta sa tF= 0 ( s e eP r ob .8 . 4 ) .l ti st h e r e f or en e c e s s a r yt o
'

tk' a ' n
k-q, ( s .-o l n ,
Fi g.30. 1 Fi r s t or dercont ri but i on t ot hepropers ei f ener g yf oranel ect r on gas.

j ; ( * l ) ( k& o , n )= q , t s a ,
'

tk. o , a

i nc l ude a s e l e ct e dc l as s of hi gher or der di agr a ms , whos es um yi e l ds a l i ni t e c ont r i but i on. Thechoi c e ofdi agr am scan bem adebyex am i ni ng t he pe r t ur bat i on e xpans i on,and we now t ur nt ot he Fe ynm an s er i e sf or Z* and @ . I ti s conve ni entt oi s ol a t et he e f l kctoft he i nt er ac t i on i nt he pr opers el f e ne r gy;we

s h a l l wr i t e@ = F0+ @0 X% . @0+ . ..., a n dt hei n t e g r a n do fEq .( 3 0. 1 )b e c o me s


X*F0+ X*F0E*r #0+ .. ..

Th ec o nd i t i o n F( 0 )= 0 me an st h a ta l lt a d po l ed i a g r a ms v a n i s h. l n p a r t i c ul a r ,t he r ei son l yo n e sr s t o r d e rpr op e rs e l f e ne r g y( Fi g .3 0 . 1 ) . Th i s
c ont r i but i on i se as i l ye val uat e d wi t ht heFe ynm an r ul e sofChap.7:

XC) ( k, t , & )
= =

1 ( 2 r r ) 3jd3 q( # ) 1j l e t o n ' T' Ft l t k-q, ( z ) a-t t ) a , )F0 ( q , t t ) s , ) n' - 1 ( 2 r r ) 3Jd% P ' t k-q ) n ( 3 0. 2 )

whe r e Eq.( 2 5 . 3 8 )h a sb e e nu s e dt oe v a l u a t et hes u m an d1 0= ( e n n q ' l a t +1 ) 1 i sa f u nc t i o n oft h ec he mi c a lpo t e n t i a ly . . Equ a t i on ( 3 0. 2 )di f l k r sf r om Eq. ( 2 5 . 3 9 )be c a us et heu n i f or mp os i t i v eb a c k g r ou n dc a n c e l st hed i r e c t c on t r i b u t i on .
The cor r e s pondi ng fr s t or de rt e r m i nt he t he r m odyna mi c pot e nt i al i s gi ve n by

t ' l j t r, F, p)= 1 , ' ( 2 , *3jd3 k( # ) 1j g e i c o n T l z l k j t k , ( z ) a l F0 ( k, f x ) a ) n

( 3 0 . 3 u )

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

269

f 1 j ( F, F, / z )= -F( 2 7 r ) 6Jd? kd? qF( k- q ) n 2n 0 q

( 3 0 . 3 : )

wher et he A i nt e gr a t i on has a l r e ady be en pe r f or m ed. A par tf r om t he e xpl i ci t

d e p e n d e n c eo nr zi ns t e a d ofN = Vk ( ( =2 ,wh i c hi sdi s c us s e di nd e t a i li nt h i s


s e ct i on, t hi se xpr e s s i on i s a di r ec t ge ner al i zat i on oft he hr s t or de re xc hange

c o n t r i bu t i o nt ot h eg r o un d s t a t ee n e r g y! Eq. ( 3 . 3 4 ) 4 .l f( 1i sa pp r o x i ma t e dby j l t l + Dj ,a d i r e c tc a l c u l a t i o n( s e ePr o b.8 . 1 )p r e di c t st h a tt h el o wt e mp e r a t ur e s p e c i s ch e a t b e h a v e sl i k e. rl l nFJ -l , whi c hde h ni t e l yd i s a g r e e swi t he x p e r i me n t s


on t he e l ec t r oni cs pe ci fc he at i n me t a l s . l The s am e di ve r ge nc e ha sa l r e ady

tk. t t l n
R> P k - q. p+ q k- q- p
t A ) Al n* V - ( 1

tk , t l
p+ q, t sj +v p, t t l l
k - q, f x l a-v

tks / w
Qy -j

q-p
p, 2

k- q
.- l

u t &- v o ) ) +v
q,v

p , t z j
q& v

t /l -f z N
4. *1
'

tk. / . o
( J)

' t k . t s
( : )

t k. . x v
( c )

Fi g.30. 2 Secondordercont r i buti onst ot he pr oper s el f ener gy f or a n el ect r ongas.

a pp e a r e di nt h el l a r t r e e Fo c kt h e o r yo f as hi e l d e dpo t e n t i a lP ' ( x )= Fc xl e x / a
whe r et he e f l kct i v e m as sm* and l owt em pe r at ur es pec i f ! c hea tbot h vani s hl i ke

( 1 n( ks J ) 1 1a sa+ . c c( s e ePr o bs . 4 . 1a n d8 . 2 ) .
The unphys i calbehavi orpr edi c t e d by t he f i r s t or dercont r i but i on ne c es s i t at esan e xam i nat i on oft he hi ghe r or de rt e r ms . AtF = 0,t he s ec ondor de r pr oper s e l f ene r gi e s have al r e ady bee ne num er at ed i n Fi g.9. 1 6,and t he s am e di agr am soc curi nt hehni t et e m pe r at ur ef or m al i s m. I nt he pr es e ntcal cul a t i on

h o we v e r ,t hr e et e r msv a n i s hi d e nt i c a l l yE P ' ( 0 )= 0 J ,a n dt heo nl ys e c o n do r d e r

c on t r i b ut i o n st oXAj a r es h o wni nFi g . 3 0 . 2 . He r ea n dt h r ou g ho ut t h i ss e c t i on ,


weus e v and f . ot o denot ee ve n and odd f r e que nc i e s ,r e s pe ct i ve l y. Thecor r e-

s po n di n ga n a l y t i ce x p r e s s i o n sa r e( t h es ub s c r i p trd e n o t e st h er i n gc o nt r i bu t i o n ofFi g . 3 0 . 2 4 )

Y! 2 ) r ( k, t . t V)= ( - ) 2 ( -2 ) ( j ) 2(j ) ( 2 , 06Jd' pd' qj F( q ) j 2 1 ) jF '


x' . 4 * ( p . ( sI ) F0 ( q+ p, ( . , , 1 +v ) go t k- q, n -v )( 3 0 . 4 c )

Y? i ) , ( k, ( z ? n )-( - ) . 2 ( j ) 2t ( ( 2 =) 6Jd? pd? qP ' ( q )F( k-q-p ) t l1 : '


x F0 ( k- q , u ) n- p )F0 ( p . t z ) j ) gt p t p+ q . ( sl +p )( 3 0. 4 : )
:J . Ba r de e n, Ph ys . Re v . , 5 0: 1 09 8( 1 9 3 6 ) ; E. P.W o hl f a r t h. Ph i l . A . f t 7 #. . 41 : 53 4( 1 9 5 0) .

270

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

I : ? i p t k , o , a l- ( - ) 2 ( # ) 2t Zt)z ( 2 *6Jdq pd3 qF( k- q )F( q- p ) t llL


x F0 ( q , t , ? , )F0 ( p , ( s z ) e f a ' a ng0 ( q , ( s j )( 3 p. 4 c ) wh e r et hef a c t or( -2 )i nZ? i ) r a r i s e sf r o mt hes pi ns u ma n dt h ec l o s e dl o o p, whi l e

t h ef a c t ore l u ' n Ti nZAl ca r i s e sb e c a us ea ni ns t a n t a n e o u si nt e r a c t i o nl i neF( q- p )


c o nn e c t sb ot he n dso ft hes a mep a r t i c l el i n eF0 ( p , ( , ) a ) . Al t ho u g ha 1 1 t hr e et e r ms
.

ar ef or m al l yofor dere 4 ,t hehr s tdi Fer sf r om t heot he rt woi nt hef ol l owi ngway. I ne ac ht e r m,t he f r e quenc ys ums yi el dv ar i ous c om bi nat i ons of Fe r mi Di r ac di s t r i but i on f unc t i onsnobutdo notqua l i t at i v el ya l t e rt hem om e nt um i nt egr a l s

f or s ma l l pa n dq .I t i st h e r e f or ec l e a rt h a tZ? i ) , di v e r g e sa s <> . 0g c cc 4fd3 qq* ) ,wh e r e a s1 2 , ,a n d Yxl cc o n v e r g e . Fort h i sr e a s on ,a n yc a l c ul a t i on t h a t


' ' '

i ncl udesonl y ir s t -and s ec on dor de rt er ms i n X* c annot be c ons i de r ed s at i s f a ct or y,and i ti ses s ent i alt oexa mi net hehi gher or de rdi a gr ams .
t um t r ans f e rh q on e ach i nt er ac t i on l i ne;i nc ont r as t , t heot herdi agr am st r ans f er di se r e ntmoment um on t he t wo i nt e r ac t i on l i nes . As i mi l ar s t ru ct ur e per s i s t s

Thes ou r c eo ft h edi v e r g e n c ei nE( t) r i st h eo c c u r r e n c eo ft h es a memo me n -

t oa l lor de r s . Fo re x a mp l e ,t he t h i r d o r de r pr op e rs e l f e n e r g yh a so n e( a n d

on l yo n e )di a g r a m E!) rwi t ht h es a memome nt u mh qt r a ns f e r r e db ya l lt h r e e


i n t e r a c t i o nl i ne s( Fi g. 3 0 . 3 J ) . Th i st e r mc o nt a i nst h emo s t d i v e r g e n tt hi r do r d e r
'

tk

tk

pz +q

pz

: :q
: : :

k-q

t l

k -q
q

p+4

p
q

t k Q

tq k

( X ( : ) Fi g.30. 3 Ri n gc on t r i b ut i o nt ot h ep r op e rs e l f e n e r g yi n( J )t h i r do r d e r ( b )h i gh e ror d er .

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

271

t e r mc ce 6jd% q6 .a l 1o t h e rt h i r d or de rt e r msa r el e s sdi v e r g e n t( e bjd3 qq4


a t mo s t ) . Cor r e s p o nd i n g l yi na t h or de r ,t h e r ei sa l wa y s as i n g l e di a g r a m

l 2 ) ra :Jd3 q( P ' ( t ? ) ) n t h a t i smor ed i v e r g e nt ( b yaf a c t o r t ? 2 )t h a na n yo t h e rt e r m


( Fi g. 3 0. 3 : ) . Th ef u n da me n t a la p pr ox i ma t i o ni nt h et h e o r yo ft h ee l e c t r o ng a s
i st or e t ai nt hi ss e l e ct ed c l as s ofm o stdi ve r ge nthi gher or de rdi a gr am sal ong wi t h t he com pl et e hr s t -and s e condor dercont r i but i ons
*

E*; zE* ( l ) + E* ( 2 ) b+ Y* ( 2 ) c+ n ) () 2 * ( n ) r =2
=

I : * ( l )+ Y* ( 2 ) b+ ) 2 * ( 2 ) c+ X* r

( 3 0. 5)

wh e r eY) ' i st hes u mo fa 1 ls e l f e n e r g yd i a g r a mswi t ht h es t r u c t ur eo fFi g. 3 0. 3 : ( r i n gd i a g r a ms ) .


SUM M ATI O N O F RI NG DI AG RAM S

Th ee v a l u a t i o no fY)i smo s ts i mp l yp e r f o r me db yi n t r o du c i nga na p pr o x i ma t e


e Fe c t i v et wobody i nt e r ac t i on ' /' ' rt hati ncl ude st hepol ar i za t i on oft he m e di um

( c o mpa r eS e c s . 9 . 1 2 , a n d2 6 ) a s s o c i a t e d wi t ht h ec l o s e dl o opi n1 2 ; * . Fi g u r e3 0. 4

q, v n q, G
.

q. v a

q+ p

* =v w -v q z v q+ v + .1 n
q& G

p, a , j

F i g . 3 . 4 Ri n ga p p r o + a t i o nt ot h ee f e c t i v et wo b o d yi n t e r a c t i o n .
s hows t he r e l e vant di agr am s and t he c or r es pondi ng anal yt l ce xpr e s s i ons ar e
'

# ' r t q , wl-Y' ( , ( q, y , n )+ ' / ' o ( q , ' z a ) J 1 0 ( q, v n ) ' # ' o ( q , y , n )+ .'' - ' # ' o ( q, p ' 2+ ' # ' o ( q , v 2J I Q ( q, r 2' f z r t q , r a )

( 3 0. 6 )

Th ef u nc t i on J 1 0 ( q , v a )r e pr e s e n t st hel owe s t or d e rpr op e rpo l a r i z a t i on i n s e r t i on


and wi l lb eeva l ua t e di n de t a i lbe l ow. Fort hem om e nt ,howe ve r ,i ti ss u/ c i ent t os ol ve D ys on' sequat i on
'

/ r t q , p ' n )- ' # ' ( , ( q , ' z a )( 1- ' # o ( q, ' z a ) 1 1 0 ( q, v n ) ) 1


-

p ' ( q ) I l- p ( q ) . r I qq , p , , ) ) 1

( 3 0. 7 )

Thi ss o l u t i o ni sf or ma l l yi d e n t i c a lwi t ht ha ta tz e r ot e mp e r a t u r e( Eq.( 1 2 . 2 2 ) ) e x c e p tt ha t' / Gt q , v a ld e pe n dsont h ed i s c r e t e( e v e n)f r e q ue nc yy ' n .

272

FI NI TETEMPERATURE FORMALI SM

Th ea na l y t i cf o r m ofJ 1 0 ( q , v a )i se a s i l yd e t e r mi n e dbywr i t i n go u tt h es r s t
t wo t er m sofFi g.3 0. 4
'

# ' r ( q , v a )-< o ( q , v , )+ ( <n ( q , ' z 2l 2 ( - ) . ( # ) ' ( -2 ) xI ( 2 , 43Jdb pF9 ( p , l ) F0 ( p+q , f sl +v a )+... l

whe r et hef a c t o r s( - ) 1a n d( -2 )a r i s ef r o mt hee x t r ap owe ro fe 2a n dt h es pi n s um a r o un dt hec l o s e df e r mi o nl oo p. Byc o mp a r i n gwi t hEq. ( 3 0 . 6 ) , wei d e n t i f y

J 1 0 ( q , v , )=2 ( j 2 ) 1) (( 2 =) 3Jd% F0 ( p, ( sj ) F0 ( p+q , ( sj + w) l


2 d3 p l
1

= ( 2 ,) 3 j v

f l sl - -t ( e 0 ? -p , )i o l k+ i v n- 1 ( : 0 -/ P+Q . t )
( 3 0 . 8 )

whi c hi sv e r ys i mi l art o Eq. ( 1 2 . 2 8 ) . At y p i c a lt e r mo ft h ef r e q u e n c ys u mi so f o r d e rt ( ul t 2a s1 ( t ) 1 i > . *,a n dt h es u mt he r e f or ec o n v e r g e sa bs o l u t e l y .I tc a n


beeval uat e d di r e ct l ywi t hac ont ouri nt e gr al ,buta s i mpl e ra ppr oac hi st oi ns e r t ar e dund antc onve r ge ncef act orct u ' l n, whi c h pcr mi t sade compos i t i on i nt o par t i a l

f r a c t i bn s . Ea c ht e r m ma yt he nbes umme ds e pa r a t e l ywi t hEq. ( 2 5 . 3 8 ) a n dg i v e s

J l 0 ( q, v n ) -j ( a ) 3 j s y a j l , ? ' z v a- , 1 ( : 0 p + q- el pj j( sj
X

d3 p

1
-

i j- h j ( % ( ) -p , ) -j g s j +i v n- h j ( 6 ( p ) + q' p . )
( 3 :. 9 )

= -2 ( 2 j p + q ( ) p ( j j =) i h v n-( E p + q- e p

#3 p

n 0 - nn

wher et hei de nt i t yei h v n= 1hasbe enus e d. W eemphas i zeagai nt hatnp ode pends

on t h ep a r a me t e rp . , whi c hc a nb er e l a t e dt ot hep a r t i c l ed e n s i t y N/ P ' o n l yatt h e


e nd oft heca l cul a t i on.
A

+ ''' =

Fi g.3 0. 5 Ri ngc on t r i b ut i on t ot hep r op e rs e l f e n e r g y.

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

273

Th ec o n t r i b u t i onY)( k , ( z ) n )t ot h epr op e rs e l f e ne r g yc a nn o wb ee v a l u a t e d d i r e c t l yi nt e r mso f' i z ' h( Fi g. 3 0. 5 )

X) ( k, f . t ) n )=( - ) -1 ( 2 7 83jd? q( ) h ) $j l j ' Fvq, y z a ) U a


f o t q. r a l l ' #0 . ( k- q , o ) n- ' %) ( 3 0 . 1 0 ) Eq ua t i o n( 3 0. 9 ) s h o wst ha t J 1 0 ( q , p a ) v a n i s h e sa t l e a s t a sf a s t a s) w1 t f o rl p n l . > . x.
-

'

I n cons e quenc e,t he di f l kr e nce $r- ' #( )al s o has t hi s be ha vi or ,whi u he ns ur es

t h ea b s o l u t ec on v e r g e n c eo ft h ef r e qu e n c ys umma t i o nf o rY) . Th i sc on v e r g e n c e ma yb ema d ee x pl i c i tbyr e wr i t i n gt h es q u ar eb r a c k e ti nEq.( 3 0 . 1 0 )a sf ol l o ws :

' # ' ' ( q u) -s -st V ' t q ) - --p ' ( q ) ,( q , v , )- y o , q l uyq, s)


( P ' ( q ) 1 2 J l 0 ( q, ' y)
.

l- p t q j ho t q , r ) j

( 3 0 . 1 1 )

APPROXI M ATE THERM O DYNAM I C POTENTI AL

I ti s now pos s i bl et oe val uat et he c or r e ct i ons t ot he t her m odyna mi c pot ent i al

a r i s i n gf r o mt het e r msi nEq. ( 3 0 . 5 ) . Thei n t e g r a n d ofEq . ( 3 0 . 1 ) c or r e s po n dst o

IV W
t )2 b Fi g.30. 6
gaS.

274

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORMALI SM

a d di n g af a c t o r 10j o i n i n gt h et wo e nd so fX*+ Y*F0 E*+ ...,t he r e b y

ma k i ngac l os e dl oo p. Thu sX1) ,X? i ) , ,XC) c , a n d X) t a k e no n c el e a dt ot h e


t er msf l) ,Dz p ,f z c ,and D,s hown i n Fi g.3 0. 6,wher ewe haveal r ea dyeval ua t e d

f l wi t ht hec or r e c t c on v e r g e nc ef a c t o r si nEq. ( 3 0. 3 ) . Th e r ei sa l s oana d d i t i on a l

s e c o n dor de rc o n t r i bu t i o n( 2 2 ,a r i s i n gf r o mt h ei t e r a t i o no fY? k t . Th et e r m D,
cont ai ns t he m os ti nt er e s t i ng phys i c alese c t s and i ss t udi e dl n de t ai li nt he

f ol l owi ngd i s c u s s i on. Th eo t he r( e x p l i c i t l y )s e c o nd or de rt e r msc a nb ewr i t t e n ou tbyc omb i n i n g Eq s .( 3 0 . 1 )a n d( 3 0. 4 ) .I ti se v i de ntf r om Fi g .3 0. 6t ha tDa c


and j ' l n ar et opol ogi cal l ye qui va l ent ,and a de t ai l ed e val uat i on s howst hatt he y ar eequa l . As t r ai ght f or war d cal cul a t i on yi el ds

( 1 a ,

#3 *d? pd? t q l; ' ( k+p+q ) n 2n k ( 1-n k j q ) ( l-n k + q ) ( F , P ' , / z ) = P ' j ( a . o :qP' s k y l s . s k o . q . s k r ; ( 3 0 . 1 3 J )


= -

( ' L a c t r , p , r z )- Dz 2F, P ' . / . z )

! . p ' j( 2 x) 9fd3 k#3 ,#3 :) ' ( k-q )F( p-q) n kr jn k ( 1- r j)


( 3 0. 1 3 : )

and t he t ot alc ont r i but i on t ot he t he r m odynam i cpot ent i albe com e s

f = f l o+ f 1 l +f l r +Dz y+ 2 f 1 z c ( 3 0 . 1 4 ) No t et h a tt h ec ou pl i n g c on s t a n ti n t e gr a t i oni nEq . ( 3 0 . 1 )l e a dst oa na dd i t i o n al


f a ct orn-if ore ach l / t hor de rc ont r i but i on t of 1 ,whi c hi saut om at i c al l yi ncl ude d i n ourc al c ul at i onalpr oce dur e bas ed on t he pr opers e l f ener gy and t he s i ngl e par t i c l eG r e en' sf unct i on. Asanal t e r nat i veappr oac h. Di ss om et i mese val uat e d

di r e c t l yf r o m Fi g .3 0 . 6wi t has e t of mo d /e dFe y nma nr ul e s ,b u tt hec o un t i n gof


t opol ogi ca l l y equi val e ntdi agr ams and t he f a ct or n-imake ss uch a ca l cul a t i on qui t ei nt r i c at e. Ourpr oce dur e,howeve r ,r e qui r e sonl yt heFeynm an r ul esand di a gr amsde ve l ope d pr evi ous l yf or$ . The pr ec e di ng ex pr es s i onsappl yt o an ar bi t r ar yt wobody pot ent i al ,and t hes pe ci alf e at ur esoft hee l ec t r on gasbe com eappar entonl yi nt hee val uat i on of

! ' 1 r ( r ? I z ' 1 r z ) =r / / ? l ( 2 r r ) 3j ( j A l J AJd kZ c i a ' n n Z 4A ( k % ( w) F0 ( k , ( w)


-v a
-- -

-1

' ( x j ' J 1 0 ( q. v a ) j o A . , ( 2 , . 4 3 # jvl-A) J3 : 1 xxj ' I J( 2 , r / p h z , -s . , ; g o t k -j , ( o , v a l g o t k , t s a l( 3 : . ) j )


1 .

1#A j - d% 1
e
.
,

A 2 ( F( q) j 2 J 1 0 ( q , p a )

01 :1 . J he s ur a'l a t i on overo) nconve r g es wher e Y' r k 'l a le er t ak en f rl m Eq. ' .3

e v e ni f' ? =0 . fn d: o1 1 p a. i sp nwi t ?E q. ( 3 0. 8. s l c ' w st n a tt h equ a n t i t yi ns qu a r e b r a c k e t . i s. !i J0 ( q . v n ) .g B' eE) o Mi n Eq. ( 3 b . 1 8 )t h a tJ l 0i sa ne v e nf u n c t i on o f

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

275

i t sa r g u me n t s . ) S i n c e F0i si n d e p e n d e n to fA ,t h ei n t e g r a t i on ov e rA i se a s i l y
c ar r i e d out ,and we f i nd

f L ,=
=

z )s . )j j x j y jjj j -j pq l . j . j j q , p a l a P ' ( 2 j) -1 ( 2 =) 3jdb q( j ( ( 1 ng l- P r t ql J 1 0 ( q, s) )+ P ' t q) J 1 0 ( q, s) j Pa


( 3 0. l 6 )

j z J *d3 q gl dh 2 j F( q) J ' I 0 ( q p y rl
.

I f Eq.( 3 0 . 1 6)i se x p a nd e di n a po we rs e r i e si nc 2 ,t h el e a di n gc on t r i b ut i o ni s
f or m al l y of or der : 4 owi ng t ot he expl i ci tr e m oval of t he r s t or de rt e r m . As s hown be l ow ,howev er ,t he s um m at i on oft he i nfni t es e r i e s m odi se st hi ss i m pl e pow e r l aw dependenc eon e l ,and,i ndee d,e4j 1 rdi ve r ge sasel. > . 0.

Fur t he rpr og r e s swi t h Eq. ( 3 0 . 1 6 )d e p e n d so nt h ee x p l i c i t f o r mo fJ 1 0 ( q , r u ) ,


and we hr s tpr ove t hat

J 1 0 ( q, p u )=J 1 0 ( q , -s)
-qr ? 0 Add and s ubt r a ctr l p o pi nt hen ume r a t o ro fEq. ( 3 0 . 9 )

J I 0 ( d3 ; ) n0 . ( 1 n 0 )-n 0 ( 1 n o p , , ) q, v u ) = -2 ( 2 . u ? . 9 . . -p P . ' =) 3 I f v n -( e p o y q / p )Thef i l ' s tt e r m ma yb er e wr i t t e nwi t ht h es u bs t i t u t i o n( p+q > . -p ) a l on gwi t ht h e a s s u me di s o t r o p yo ft h ed i s t r i b u t i onf un c t i o n( no t et h a tE ' p= 6 o 0 p= 6 p 0 )
0

( q , p a )= -2 j . y -. j n p 0 ( 1- n 0 p + q )i j j v, ( ( ) r ( p ) .s j . y . g ;-yy , u.. ( s ( p ) . j y .r j ;
-

' . d3 ,

- -

4j ( 2 = ' ) j n p 0 ( l ? : o p + q ) t y j s s j a -t p s J p t q j j p . q j j .

' * d3 n

s0- < . 0

( 3 0 . 1 8 )

wh i c hp r o v e s Eq. ( 3 0. 1 7 ) .l ti sa l s oc l e a rf r om t h ea b ov ec a l c ul a t i on st ha tJ l 0 i san e venf unct i on ofq a nd ofor derr , -2as' p n 1-> .c c: J 1 0 ( p3 q , v n )' - 4 c d5 n 0 p ( 1- n p 0 . q ) ( e D p- s o . h q l ( 3 0 . 1 9 ) i v a s ' c o( %) ( 2 =)
cLAssl cAL LI MI T

Ther i ngdi agr am c ont r i but i on t ot he t her m odynam i cpot ent i alD rc an now be us e dt os t udy t wo l i mi t i ng c as e s ,and we sr s tc ons i de rt he be hav i or athi g h t e m pe r at ur e and 1 ow de ns i t y, when t he quant um m ec hani ca l Fe r mi Di r a c

di s t r i b u t i o n ma yb ea pp r o x i ma t e d byt h ec l a s s i c a lBo l t z ma nn d i s t r i bu t i on ( s e e Eq. ( 5 . 2 3 ) )


0 n p= e x pL ) L y-v 0 p ) j =e H / k B T/ 9 2 p 2 / 2 m k s T

( ? g. J ( ) )

276
-

FI NI TETEMPERATURE FORMALI SM

Thi sa pp r o x i ma t i o ni s j u s t i s e dwhe n e v e re H / k B ' r< t1o rt q ui v a l e n t l yf o rJ z / k sF + . c c ) .I nt h i sl i mi t ,Eq .( 3 0. 1 9 )s ho wst h a tJ 1 0 ( , p , j )v a ni s h e sa sF2f o r /# 0. Th ef r e qu e n c ys um i nEq. ( 3 0 . 1 6 )s e p a r a t e si n t ot wop a r t s

f 1 , =. . V k pF( 2 = ) 3jd3 qt l ng l- P r ( t ? ) J l 0 4 , 0 ) )+ P r ( t ? ) J l 0 ( g, 0 ) )
*

+F ksr( 2 =) 3jd? q1 j j( l n( 1- P ' ( t ? ) J 1 0 ( t ? , 2 =/ k sF 1 ) ) -1


+P ' ( :) Ahq , l =l k zF l ) )( 3 0. 21 )
cor r e s pondi ng t o /= 0 and I# 0,r es pec t i ve l y,and t he di v er genc e at s m al lq

ha sn ow be e ni s o l a t e di nt hef r s tt e r m( / =0 ) . Tov e r i f yt h i sa s s e r t i o n, wel o o k


att he c ont r i but i on t ot he s ec ond t er m f r om a s ma l lr egi on a r ound q= 0. I n

t h eh i g h t e mp e r a t u r el i mi tEqs . ( 3 0 . 1 9 )a n d( 3 0. 2 0 )g i v e

Ao q q n l nl k .F 1 ). + . 4 ( 2 =/ #sF) 2 ( 2 , 03j#3 /( 6 k- e k + q ) n k = 2 e 1n o ( 2 ' z r / / c sF) 2 F. +c t l


wher ewehav ede sne d

n o= 2 ( 2 g 43Jdq pn n
Fur t her m or e ,t heproduct

ZW) Ao l q g l =l k.F/ i 1 ). > . -4 =e %l =I ksF) 2 h l n a ml


r e ma i nsb ou nd e da sq.0 . Thel o g a r i t hm i nt hes e c on dt e r mi n Eq .( 3 0. 21 )
can now bee xpande d asapowe rs er i esi ne1 ,and t hei nt e gr and bec omes

z l ' ( l n g l p t v l a o ( . ? , 2 ' , r ' , s ? . 7 ) j + , z t t ? l n o ( , 2 = ' ' , b ' ' j , ) 1 * 1 e 4 hl nv l c . i r T p( , , )( )


=

, .,

Thes um ove rl c onve r ge s ,a ndt hes i ngul arbe ha vi orat t ?; k : 0hast husdi s appe ar e d.

He n c et h es e c on dt e r m ont h er i g h ts i d eo fEq. ( 3 0 . 2 1 ) c o nt r i b u t e st ot het h e r mo d y na mi cpo t e n t i a l i nEq. ( 3 0 . 1 4 )i no r d e rp 4 , j us tl i k ef l a ,+ 2 j 1 z r . Th el e a d i n gc o n t r i bu t i o nt of l rt h e r e f or er e q ui r e son l yJ 1 0 ( , 0 ) .wh i c hc a n


beeval ua t ed wi t ht heor i g i na lde fni t i on

zz . p J l % , 0 ) =2 ( 3e c ; 2 =) p . . q- e p

#3 p nz p + q- nz p .

:3 n n . . p +q- nn 2p ) aa p
. . ..

(= p + q a p
-

( 3 0 . 2 2 )

Si ncet henume r a t orvani s hesatt hes amepl ac east hede nomi nat or ,wec an kee p t r ac k oft hes i ngul ar i t ybyt r e at i ngt hei nt e gr a lasaCauc hypr i nc i palv al ue. The

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

277

r e m ai ni ng i nt e gr at i onsar e el em e nt ar y and gi ve

( 3 0 . 2 3 )
whe r e

A. z ' n ph l ' 1

(. j. ( p , yv )

l =h l1

( 3 0 . 2 4)

i st he t her m alwav el engt h.

( 3 0 . 2 5 5 )
wi t ht he l i mi t i ng behavi or

( 3 0. 25:) ( 30. 25 c)

x 2 wg z t p t z z r jt 2 6 MAl ) 1. x 1 )( 3 0. 2 6 )

Whe r et hes ec ondl i nei sobt ai ne dwi t ht hechangeofv ar i abl esz= 8, 7 7 . 62, 3e bl x el xz . Thi s equat i on cont ai ns t he coupl i ng cons t ant : 2 bot hi n an ove r al l coeci ent and i nt he ar gum ent of t p ;we m ay obt ai nt he l ea di ng cont r i but i on by s et t i ng e= 0 i nf / l t ai nt e gr and,s i nc et he t er m s negl e ct e d ar e ofhi gheror de ri nE ' 2 . A
'

c o mbi na t i o no fEq s . ( 3 0 . 2 5 5 )a n d( 3 0. 2 6 )y i e l ds ( 3 0 . 2 7 )
whe r et hec onve r ge ntde sni t ei nt e gr alhasbee ne val uat e d by par t i ali nt e gr at i on. l ti snot a bl et ha tf l , ri sofor de rt a 3 ,al t hough t he l owe s t or de rt er mi n Y* r i sf or m al l y ofor der e 4 . Thi s be ha vi or can be unde r s t ood by ex am i ni ng t he

z7g

FI NI TETEM PERATbRE FORM ALI SM

p e r t u r b a t i o ns e r i e sf o rDr , wh i c hi so b t a i n e db ye x p a n di ngEq. ( 3 0 . 2 6 )

Dr Q $Z( 2 j) 1 ( 2 93Jf f 3 t ? ( . . ) ( 8 ' J r #e l 8 13 ) 2 ( e gl ) 4( y 4 #1 ) ) 2 +j l u =q e b HA 3 ) 3 ( e q1 ) 6( p( A ) ) 3+ ... j ( 3 0. 2 8 )


Thel e a d i n gt e r m( e 4 )di v e r g e sl i n e a r l y ,t h en e x t( e 6 )c u bi c a l l y ,e t c . ,a n de a c h i nt e g r a lmu s tb ec u tof l a tal owe rl i mi t mi n .I ti sc l e a rf r o m Eq. ( 3 0 . 2 6 )( s e e a l s oS e c .3 3 )t h a tt h en a t ur a lc ut o / mj ni sp r o po r t i o n a lt oe ,wh i c hme a n st ha t
eac h di ve r ge ntt e r mi sr e al l y ofor de r,3and mus tbe r e t ai ne di na c ons i s t ent cal cul a t i on. Our pr oc edur ef or e val ua t i ng Dr pr ovi de sa c onv eni e nt way t o i nc l ude a l 1oft hes et er ms. The t her m odynam i c pot e nt i alf or a hi ght e m pe r a t ur e el ec t r on gas c an now bewr i t t en as

Dt r, F, p , )= f l n+ f 1 l + Dr + O( e 4 ) ( 3 0 . 2 9 ) b e c a u s et h er e ma i ni n g( h ni t e )s e c on d or de rt e r msa r ee x pl i c i t l y ofo r d e re 4 .
W es how,i nt hef ol l owi ngdi s cus s i on,t hatt he hr s t or dere xc ha ng econt r i but i on

f 1 1i sa l s on e g l i g i b l ei nt hec l a s s i c a l l i mi t , a n dEq. ( 3 0 . 2 9 )r e d u c e st o D( F, F, / . t )= Do ( T ' , F. / . t )+ Dr I F . F, X ( 3 0. 3 0 ) Athi g ht e mp e r a t ur e s .t he t h e r mod y n a mi cp ot e n t i a l( 1 n t r, P e , p , )f ora p e r f e c t ( c l a s s i c a l )g a si sg i v e nby( Eqs . ( 5 . 2 4 )a n d( 5 . 2 5 ) )

f l o t r, P ' , / z )= -2F jl e l 8A 3 a n dac o mb i na t i o no fEq s . ( 3 0 . 2 7 )a n d( 3 0. 31 )y i e l d s

( 3 0 . 31 )

D ( F , F , p ) = p -se s / k s z ' g l + j ( 2 = ) + ( k C 2 / p A j 1 e s / 2 u z . j
ofJ z

2P' : w

( 3 0 . 3 2 )

Th et h e r ma l wa v e l e n gt hAi s g i v e ni nt e r mso fFb yEq. ( 3 0 . 2 4 ) ; t hu s f 2 i sp r o pe r l y e x p r e s s e di nt e r mso f( F, P ' , p , ) .


onl ya tt hi spoi nti si tpos s i bl et o5ndt hem e anpa r t i c l edens i t ya saf unc t i on

N ( T , p ' , p , ) ( 0 a p t ' 1 , ) z . ' z 2 A a Z e s / k s r g l + ( 2 , 0 1 ( y d ( . 2 / T A ) e p / z k s r ' ) ( 3 : . 3 3 )


Asus u a l ,h owe v e r ,wepr e f e rt oc on s i de ras y s t e ma tf i x e dde ns i t y' ,Eq.( 3 0 . 3 3 ) i se a s i l yi n v e r t e dt oir s to r de r . whi c hp r o v i de sane q u a t i onf o rg N)

k s / k ; l l n t 1 2 3 ( 1 n . 1 ( : C 2 s N y 1 j j ' j
# ( F , V , N 4 = - p ,; k J n s ' r y * ( e k 2 s a y l . ) ! '
-

( 3 0 . 3 4 )

wh e r et h ef i r s tt e r mi nb r a c ke t si st h er e s u l tf o rac l a s s i c a li d e a lg a sEq.( 5 . 2 6 ) . Th ec o r r e s po nd i n gp r e s s u r ei sg i v e nb yEq s . ( 3 0 . 3 2 ) a n d( 3 0. 3 4 ) Dt r , F. . N) k y .j

( 3 0 . 3 5 )

pHvsl cAt - SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

279

whi ch i st he De by el l i i cke lequa t i on ofs t a t ef ora c l as s i c ali oni ze d gas . l The I e adi ngt er m de s c r i be saper f e ct gas , whi l et hec or r e ct i ont e r mr educ e st hepr e s s ur e

s l i g ht l y . Our a p p r ox i ma t i o ns r e q u i r et h a t( e 2 n 1 / k sF) 1< .1 : , whi c he n s ur e s


t ha tt he aver age pot ent i al ene r gy per par t i cl ee 2n% i s m uc hs m al l er t han t he t her m alene r gy perpa r t i c l eksl' . Thi sc ondi t i on r e s t r i c t st hepr es entt he or yt o hi gh t e m per at ur e and l ow de ns i t y. N ot et ha tt he l e a di ng cor r e c t i on t ot he pe r f e ct gas l aw i s o or de r e? and c annot be obt ai ned wi t h any sni t eor der

p e r t ur ba t i o ns e r i e si nt h epa r a me t e r e 2 . Fur t h e r mor e , Eq . ( 3 0 . 3 5 ) i s i n de p e n d e n t


ofh,asbe ft sacl as s i ca le xpr e s s i on. TheD eby eHekel r es ul ti sobt a i ned c l as s i c al l y bysr s t exam i ni ngt hec har ge

d e n s i t ya n d po t e n t i a li nt h ev i c i ni t y ofa s i n g l ee l e c t r o n( c o mpa r e Eqs .( . 1 4 . 1 6 ) t o( 1 4 . 2 3 ) ) .l f t h eme ane l e c t r o nde ns i t yi s n v ( e x a c t l ye q ua l t ot h a t o f t heu ni f o r m po s i t i v eba c k g r o un d ) , t h e nt h e Bo l t z ma n nd i s t r i bu t i o ng i v e s


n ' kw =e e + a , s nu
-

( 3 :. 3 6 )

wh e r e( pi st he e l e c t r o s t a t i cp o t e nt i a li nt h ev i c i n i t yo t t h ee l e c t r on ( no t et ha t +( x)> . 0a sx > . c sbe c a u s eo ft hen e u t r a l i t yo ft heme d i u ml . Fu r t h e r mo r e ,; ?


i sr e l at e dt ot hechar gede ns i t yt hr ough Poi s s on' se quat i on

V2 p=4 xe t a- n o ) +4 z r e 3 ( x )= z We n o k e e *' k B T- l )+ 4 z , r p 3 ( x )
ck nz+ + 4 ; k ; 4 =e g r e 3 ( x )
aT

( 3 0. 3 7 )

when t he l as t equal i t y hol ds under t he condi t i ons di s c us s e d above,t hati s , e w. c 4ksr. Thi se quat i on c an be r ewr i t t e n

( V2- q j ) ( / ? =4 =e 3 ( x)
wher eqo i st her e ci pr oe aloft heD e by es hi e l di ngl e ngt h

( 3 0. 3 8 )
( 3 0. 3 9 )
( 3 0. 4 0 )
( ) %' = 0e wq ox

t ? lH k Fs

4=nzel

S i n c eEq. ( 3 0 . 3 8 )ha st h es o l ut i on %( . X )= -e X' f ' OX


t hec har gec l oud a r ound t hee l e c t r on i sgi ven by 1 eln e 3n

c l o u u

= -

y g

V2+

x >0

=-

k Bj . k Bp y

( 3 0 . 41 J )

oral t e r nat i v el y
Pc 2 4=x l o u u= e qn
e-qDx'

( 3 0 . 41 : )

'P.De by ea n d E. Hu c ke l , Ph y s i k. Z. . 2 4: 1 8 5( 1 9 2 3 ) .

ax

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FoRuAl l su

The w or k ne c es s ar yt o br i ng an i nhni t es i m alc har ge e l e m ent -de f r om i nEni t yt ot hec ent e roft hi sc har gec l oudi sgi ve n by t hee l e c t r os t at i cpot ent i alat t heor i gi n. Thusi fdW i st hewor k doneby t hes ys t em whe nt hechar geon ea ch oft heN el ec t r onsi si ncr eas e d by-d e,we5nd

dW = y# e ec l o u d t o )= Nd efp c l o u u t x ) x1 #3 x

= N q p e d e = N j u 4 = w N y z j + e z d e
l ' p ' e 1 j o d W -a( p w s r )
Fr o m Eq. ( 4 . 4 )t h ec ha n g ei nHe l mh o l t zf r e ee n e r g yc a nb ewr i t t e n J F= d E - Td S- Sd T= -dW - SdT
e

( 3 0 . 4 2 )
( 3 0 . 4 3 )
( 3 0 . 4 4 / )

Thewor k donebyt hes ys t em i n bui l di ng upt heent i r ec har ge, -eonea chel ec t r on i st he r e f or e
Ne 5 4z r 1 *

# FI w= -dW t r

( 3 0 . 4 4 : )

wh e r et h el a s tf o r m of Eq . ( 3 0 . 4 4 4 ) f o l l owsf r o mt h esr s tl a w of t he r mo d y na mi c s .
Thust hechangei nt he H e l m hol t zf r e ee ner gy oft heas s em bl y due t oe l e ct r i ca l wor ki s Ne3 4=N + ( 3 0 . 45 ) gw

F . k =p ' e y =- a( v g
p Fe l F P. .. S t = - pP' zw = . 2P P el r r l e 2al 0 1

Th ec o r r e s p o nd i n gc h a n g ei np r e s s u r ei so bt a i ne df r o m Eq . ( 4. 5 ) ( 3 0. 4 6 ) ( 3 0. 4 7 )

n o / c sT

j - kaT

whi c hi st her e s u l t g i v e ni nEq. ( 3 0 . 3 5 ) .


W ecannow ve r i f yt ha tf 1 1i si nde ednegl i gi bl ei nt hecl a s s i call i mi t . W hen

Bo l t z ma n ns t a t i s t i c sa p pl y, Eq. ( 3 0 . 3 : )ma yb er e wr i t t e na s D # 2 ( p2+q2 j


-

( F, U, J z )=-4 =e lFe 2 l # t ( 2 =) 6jdl pd3 qI p-q! 2 e x p


-F e 2

l m

( , r A )

x 2 -# 2 ) ye 2 s x s rj jdq xdq ye a

l x- yl

( 3 ( ) . 4 g )

wher et he di me ns i onl es sde fni t ei nt e gr alc onve r ge s . As t r ai ght f or war dc al cu-

l a t i o ns h o wst h a tDl / D,i so for de r( h l n k j mj l e l n k ks Tj k , whi c hv a n i s he si nt h e

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

281

c l a s s i c a l l i mi t( h. . +0 )o ra sF . +c o . Theq ua n t i t yh l n k l mi sa na v e r a g ek i ne t i c
ener gy pe rpar t i c l e,and f 1lt husbe c om e sneg l i gi bl ei ft hi se ner gyi sm uch s m al l er t han t he g eom et r i cm e an oft heave r a ge t her m aland pot ent i ale ne r gy perpar t i c l e . Fi na l l y,we r e m ar kt hat t he l i r s t quant um me c hani cal c or r e c t i on t ot he

c l a s s i c a l e qu a t i o nofs t a t ef orap e r f e c t g a s( S e c . 5 )i so fo r d e r

e b HQ s. i n /3; k r 1 mk st
'

ll =hlnk

whi c hi ss m al l at hi gh t e m pe r at ur es and l ow dens i t i es . For com par i son,t he

De b y e l d i i c k e lt e r m i n c l u d e di n Eq.( 3 0. 3 2 )i so f or d e r( c 2 / Vs F) t > 1 l 8; k ; l l e l nk j l ks l h ' ,wh i c hi sa g a i ns ma l la th i g ht e mp e r a t ur e sa n dl o wd e n s i t i e s . I ti se v i d e n tt h a tt h eq u a n t u mc or r e c t i o ni sn e g l i g i bl ea sl o n ga sh l n % j m. , : te l n f ,


whi ch guar ant ee st hatt he m e an ki ne t i ce ne r g yi s m uc hs m al l er t han t he m e an

pot ent i a le ne r g y. I ns ummar y,t he t hr e er e l e vant e ne r gi e s( ki net i c ,pot ent i al , and t he r mal )m us ts at i s f yt he s e tofi nequal i t i eshln kl ! m< xe 2 nk< : 4ksF;t hefr s t
al l ow st heus eofBol t z m ann s t at i s t i csand r ende r sD lne gl i gi bl e,whi l et hes e cond e ns ur e st hatt he D e bye l di i ckelt e r m r epr e s e nt sa s m al lc or r e ct i on t ot he per f e c t ga sl aw.
ZEROTEM PERATU RE LI MI T

The pr e c e di ng s e ct i on c ons i de r e d onl yt he cl as s i cal l i mi t , but t he s a me r i ng di agr am s m us t be r e t ai ne da ta l 1t e m pe r a t ur e st o yi e l d a conve r ge nt a ns wer . l

Asa ni n t e r e s t i n ge x a mp l e , wes ha l ln ow t u r nt ot h eo p p os i t e( z e r o t e mp e r a t u r e ) l i mi t ,when t he di s t r i but i on f unc t i on bec omes a s t e pf unc t i on n0 1 7= t ? ( / . z- 6 f p ) ) .


O nc ea gai n,i ti si m por t ant t or em e m ber t hat p .i s an i nde pende nt par a m et e r ,

Th us t he me a np a r t i c l ed e ns i t ya n dt he Fe r miwa v e n u mb e r kyH E E L ? nl N; ' P ' ) 1


cannotbel i x ed unt i lt heend oft hecal cul a t i on,w hi c h di f l kr scons i der abl yf r om

t h ep r e v i ou sg r o un d s t a t ef o r ma l i s m( Cha p s . 3t o5 ) . Th et e r msf 1 l( Eq.( 3 0 . 3 ) 1 ,f l z p( Eq .( 3 0. 1 3 J ) 1 ,a nd Dc c( Eq.( 3 0. 1 3 : ) )i n


t he t her m odynam i c pot ent i alhave al r ea dy bee n ev al uat ed i naf or m t hati s c onve ni entat1 ow t em pe r at ur e. The r em ai ni ng di cul t yi st he e val uat i on of Dr ,whi c h gi vest hedomi nantc or r e ct i on t of 1 lbe caus ei tc or r e c t l yi ncor por at es

t h el o n g wa v e l e n g t hb e ha v i o r .S i nc et h ei n t e g r a n di nAo l q n v n )h a so nl yas i mp l e p ol ea sa f u n c t i o no fv n( Eq.( 3 0 . 9 ) 1 ,i ti sp e r mi s s i b l et or e p l a c et h ed i s c r e t e

f r e q u e n c ys um ( j ) 1) (i n Eq.( . 3 0 . 1 6 )b ya c on t i n uo usi n t e g r a l( 2 , 81fd v , Pa


b e c a u s et h edi f l kr e n c ev a ni s h e sa tF . > . 0( s e et hed i s c u s s i o ni nS e c . 2 9 ) :

D r I F =0 , F , p , ) =! . P / 4 2 r r ) 4 j *d v J d ht 1 n ( 1 -U ( t ? ) J l 0 ( , p ) ) +P ' ( t ? ) J 1 0 ( . ' z ) l( 3 0 . 4 9 )
'M . Ge l l Ma n na ndK . A. Br u e c kn e r .Ph y s . Re v ,1 *: 3 6 4( 1 95 7 ) .

282

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORMALI SM

On c ea g a i n ,i ti smos ti mpo r t a n tt oe v a l u a t eJ l 0 ( , $a c c u r a t e l yf o rs ma l lq , a n d Eq. ( 3 0. 9 )i mme d i a t e l yg i v e s

J l( : , $=-

3 . p ( 2 *) l v- q y z j n t ) ( pw qs j qa ) ( ( p. 5 ( , )

#3 p

n0 p + q- a 0

x , a #3 p vp l ) q. zn q . + 0 ( 2 *)i h v- ( hI m4 p. q b e c ome sVp n l=p& ( p-k0 ) , wh e r ekoi sd e hn e dbyt her e l a t i on


h k.= ( 2 -p , ) + Thei nt e g r a t i o nsi nEq. ( 3 0 . 5 0 )a r er e a di l yp e r f o r me d, an dwe5 n d
J1 0

s i nc et hecor r e c t i onsofor derq2i nt hedenomi nat orcan bene gl ec t ed asl ong as vi shni t e. A tz er ot empe r at ur e,n0 pr educe st o as t ep f unc t i on,and i t sgr adi ent

( 3 0. 51 )

( 4 , r )= -N/zj h -j z- i mv l h q ko
= -

kom

dzz

kont

x ) . n . ah a A(

( 3 0 . 5 2 )
( 3 0. 5 3 )

whe r e X = k
and
.

mv

&x )=

-+ xz = ( )zz

1 Jz22

l- . xa r c t a nx

( 3 0 . 5 4 )

Wen o wr e t u r nt o Eq. ( 3 0 . 4 9 )a ndi n t r o du c et h ed i me n s i o nl e s sv a r i a b l e sx ( Eq. ( 3 0 . 5 3 ) ) a n d (=q / k o

o =V h 2 / C J 4 %g xd yr X( q aj j u g j .4=e2
.

r2 ( 2 , 4 4 j .: ( ) - $L k ( 2 a ( ) ( y g o ( , / c m l x t j j 4. : , e2 + k l ( z a t j y ( ) t , k m d x l j j( a ( j . 5 5 )

Al t ho ug hwer e a l l ywa n to nl yt h ed omi rv n tt e r mi nEq. ( 3 0 . 5 5 )f o rs ma l l e 2 , t h e


di ve r gentbe hav i oroft hei nt egr a nd pr e cl udesadi r e ctexpans i on i n powe r sofe2 .

I n s t e a d , t h e(i nt e g r a t i o nwi l l b es p l i ti nt ot wo p a r t s : f r om 0t o( 0< tla n df r o m

( 0t o n. For (< ( a .i ti sp e r mi s s i bl et oa p pr ox i ma t eJ ' I o / k o ( , h k i xt j m)by J 1 0 4 0 , h k k xl / m)= -( ko m/ h2 =2 ) R( x ) , whi l et h ef u l l (d e p e n de n c emus t b er e t a i n e d


f or(> ( o . Asl on ga s( 0i sE ni t e ,ho we v e r , t h ei n t e g r a n di nt her e g i on (> ( :
can be e xpande di n powe r sofe1 ,r e t ai ni ng t he l e adi ng t e r m ofor de re *. Thi s

p r o c e d ur ey i e l dsE c o mp a r et h et r e a t me n to fEq. ( 1 2 . 5 6 ) ) Dr = Dr l + Dr a

( 3 0 . 5 6 )

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

283

w her e 12 ol- 1 8 .3

k M l J ( x d x J ( 0 t e ( 3 d ( t I n g l + k o z j, ( t ) 2 a t x j k , 4 = m # i ( c t j 2 s t x j j( y ( ) . j , y u ) o r 2 , ' . w x z . . g 1 V g , h m l 3 / p c y ) j ( * * : r t s c g : ( r ( ) t . a C ; j s 4 r j e t . z j a o ( q j ; , ( , h k m x t j j z ( y ( ; , y g y j
Th e(i nt e g r a t i onl nEq. ( 3 0. 5 7 5 )c a nno w bee v a l u a t e de x p l i c i t l y:

* ( ' ( , . : 3 d ( t l n g l + d t e s z q d g z j t . a z e . t v i t , g I n ( l + t j t z l , ' d t e j z j 1 , ( , + t d ) )
-

*. $ . 1 2 : 4 ( 1 n( a d , 2 )- J . - 2l n( o )+ O( e 6 ) ( 3 0. 5 8 )
wher e

, d t x l =k o r ' r h zF c o 4 m ' r c ( j . . x a r o t a n x 1 . )
di ver ges:

4 mR( x) .

( 3 0 . 5 9 )

Thi se xpr e s s i on e xhi bi t st henonanal yt i c be havi oroff l r . Al t hough t he de sni t e

i n t e g r a li s fn i t ef o ra n y( 0> 0 .e a c ht e r m o ft h ef o r ma lp e r t u r b a t i o ns e r i e s

. ( 1 0 B ( 3 # ( ) l n g l + / ' j' X ( C c 2 )
= -

J , 4 2 e 4 j 0y + > + j z 4 3 e 6 . j 1 0y * j + . ( 3 0 . 6 0 )

( ( , dy

1 . * ( 0d

Thi sb e h a v i o ri ss i mi l a rt ot h a tofEq. ( 3 0 . 2 8 )d e s c r i bi n gac l a s s i c a l e l e c t r ong a s .


The hi gh- and l owt em pe r at ur el i mi t s di f l kr i n one i m por t ant wa y, howev er , be ca us et he l e adi ng t er m her e di ver ge sl ogar i t hm i c al l yr at he rt han l i nea r l y.

I nc o ns e q u e n c e , wh e nEq. ( 3 0 . 6 0 )i sc uto f l a tal o we rl i mi t( m i nc ce , wes e et ha t


t hef i r s tt e r mi sofor de re 4l newhi l et her e m ai ni ng onesar eofor de re 4 , i nc ont r as t

t ot h eP de p e n de n c eo f e a c ht e r mi nEq. ( 3 0. 2 8 ) .I ti st h i si s o l a t i o no ft h e: 4 1 nE z
be ha vi ort hata l l owe d ust o de t er mi ne t hel e adi ng t e r mi nt hec or r e l at i onene r gy

d i r e c t l yf r o m t h es e c o n do r d e rt e r mi nt h eg r o un d s t a t ee ne r g y( Pr ob .1 . 5 ) . Th ec o n t r i bu t i o n Dr ca l s oe x hi bi t sa l o g a r i t h mi cs i n gu l a r i t ya s( c. > . 0 ,

be c a us eJ 1 0 ( / c 0( , h ki x l j m)a pp r o a c he sac o ns t a ntv a l u ea s(+ . . 0 .I ti se a s i l y


v e r i f e df r o m Eq. ( 3 0 . 5 2 )t ha t t h ed i v e r g e n c ei si d e n t i c a lwi t ht h a ti nEq. ( 3 0 . 5 8 ) ,
a nd t he quant i t y 6l i

1 ( x 4 M 4 . 5 ( , . ( j t A 2 ( x ) l n ( c + j s 2 y : 7 ( 2 ) . ) 2 . ( X ( , 6 ; g n o ( k n ( , ' ' , t ' ' t ) j 2 )( 3 0 . 6 1 )


m

284

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

i s:ni t e. A c o mb i n a t i ono fEqs . ( 3 0 . 5 6 ) . ( 3 0 . 5 8 ) , a n d( 3 0 . 61 )y i e l ds

32 k p * DrQ ;P : = 3m

a a( x ) ) a j ng e z xt xl j- j ya xt x l j z j . d x ) ' l ' E f + 4 j = ( m z e k l z 4 2 u x j j( g p . 6 p

cor r e c tt hr ough or der e 4. The c al c ul at i on has now be en r educe dt o a one -

di me n s i o n a l i n t e g r a l c o n t a i ni n gt h ef u nc t i on s:( . x )a n d1 ( x ) s g i v e ni nEqs . ( 3 0 . 5 9 ) a n d( 3 0 . 61 ) .
Bef or ewec ompl e t et hee val uat i on off 1 , ,i ti sus ef ult ocol l e c ta1 lt het er ms of( 1t hr ough or dere4l ndand e 4:

D( F, F, p )= f l c+ Dj +t ' 1 ,+ f l z ,+ 2 f 1 z c
#( r, M f I f l c p f l l p a ,+ 2 f 1 c r ) F , p ) = t uj s s = a s -o g -(f1r+ (1 a s

( 3 0 . 6 3 )

To t he s ame or de rofappr ox i mat i on,t he me an numbe rofpar t i cl e si sgi ven by

( 3 0 . 6 4 )

wh i c he x pr e s s e sN a saf u n c t i o no fy . .T h e s e/ w ' t ?e q u at i o n s( 3 0 . 6 3 )a n d( 3 0. 6 4 ) p r o v i d ea v a l i da n dc o mpl e t ed e s c r i pt i o no fad e g e n e r a t ee l e c t r o ng a s .f o rt h e y


cons t i t ut eapar ame t r i cr el at i on bet we enN and f 1 . Neve r t hel es s ti sf r e quent l y ,i c onve ni e ntt oe l i mi nat e p,e x pl i c i t l y' ,t hi si sre adi l y pe r f or me d by e xpandi ng p , asape r t ur bat i on s e r i e s l

M= / z 0+ J L l +/ 1 2+ '''

( 3 0 . 6 5 )

whe r et hes ubs cr i ptde not est hecor r es pondi ngor deri ne 2 ,andt he n bye xpandi ng

e a c ht e r m on t her i g h ts i d eofEq.( 3 0. 6 4 )a sa Ta y l ors e r i e sa b ou tt h ev a l u e J z= n . Equ a t i o n( 3 0 . 6 4 )c a nn o wb ei n v e r t e dor d e rb yo r d e ri ne 2 , an dt h es r s t


t wo t er m syi e l d

N=

df l c . d r zs -s o

( 3 0 . 6 6 )

( p f 1 l / a p , ) , , , , , # ' l = -( a z f t o / a r z 2 j .-..

( 3 0. 6 7 )

He r et hesr s te quat i onde t er mi nespmasaf unc t i on ofN,whi l et hes e c ond det c r -

mi n e sp , 1i nt e r mso fp m( a n dt h e r e f o r eN4 . Not et h a tp , ( ) i sj us tt hec h e mi c a l p o t e n t i a l f ora ni d e a lFe r mig a sa tt e mp e r a t ur erwi t hd e n s i t yNI F.


The change ofvar i abl ef r om p,t oN i ndi c at est hatt he r el evantt her mo-

d y n a mi cf un c t i o ni st h eHe l mho l t zf r e ee n e r g y( s e eEq . ( 4 . 5 ) ) F( r, V, Nj= E - TS= D + I J . N


lTh epr e s e ntt r e a t me nt f ol l o wst h a to fW . Koh na ndJ . M .Lu t t i ng e r , Ph ys .Re v . , t 1 8: 41( 1 9 6 4 8.

PHYSI CAL SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

285

whi c hm a y bef or m al l ye xpande dt hr ough s e cond or de ri n powe r sof,2:

F=Do t p . o l +( J z I +r z z lsf p +1 . / , 1) - s-ya +Dl Go l i r z . .-.0

pf l

?2j 1

+ P ' 1, ? + / t j
,

? - -

p-l x l l

Thes ec ond and l as tt er msc anc elbec aus eofEq.( 3 0. 66)s ot hatt heex pl i ci tf or m o fy . zi sn e v e rn e e de d. Equ a t i on s( 3 0 . 6 7 )a n d( 3 0 . 6 8 )c a nb ec ombi n e dt og i v e F( F, V, N)= Fo ( F, P ' . . N)+ D I ( / . t a )+ f ' l r t r z o l+ f 2 2 , ( / . t : ) l( 8 ( a1 / ' 8 r z ) 2 . , + 2 f 2 2 c ( / z 0 )- j( j k o-o a P ' ? ' ? - ( 3 0 . 6 9 ) ( ) // . zl , x , . , whe r ep , ai sa f u n c t i o n ofN,a n dF v ( T, U , A' ) -f o t p , e l +p , o Ni st he He l mho l t z
f r e e ene r gy ofan i de alFe r m igas .

Thep r e s e n td e s c r i pt i o nb e c o me se s p e c i a l l ys i mp l ea t z e r ot e mpe r a t u r e( s e e Eq . ( 5 . 5 3 ) 1 :

( 8 f ? . p . ( e 0 g , I q j j ) j y s s , / 9 2 ( ) a ( 0 , # ' , r z ) ! , a s2 ) , s ,
I nt hi sl i mi t ,t he z e r oor de rt e r m p , oi sgi ve n by

( 3 0. 7 0 )

# ' o ( X )= g sy

hl 7 3 7 , 7 . 2 N' i h 2 / ( . k -

(p ' Kj / / / =6 1

( 3 0. 71 )

wher e kr i st he us ualFer m iwave num be r. The subs eque ntdi s c us s i on s hows

t ha tt h el a s tt e r mo fEq.( 3 0. 6 9 )( i ns qu a r e br a c k e t s )v a n i s h e sa tF = 0 . Con s e que nt l y,t he gr ounds t at e ene r gy oft he Atpa r t i c l ei nt er act i ng s ys t e m hast he f ol l owi ngex pans i on

E - Ez+ . t 1, ' ( E ' k . )+ Dr t e ' y l+ t ' 1 2 , ( e ' . )


sr s t or d e re x c h a n g ee n e r g y( c omp a r eEq s . ( 3 . 3 4 )an d( 3 0 . 3 : ) )

( 3 0. 7 2 )

be caus e F - E - TS . . > . E asF . > . 0. Her et he f i r s tt e r m foi st he gr ounds t at e

e ne r g yo ft h ec or r e s po n di ngp e r f e c tFe r mi g a sg f ' o= j . k ve / l . whi l ef 1 l ( 6 k . )i st h e

f 1 l ( 6 ) )= -4 =e 2P r ( 2 =) 6jd? p( / 3 ( y4 p- qj 2 j j ks-pj p j k s- q j
t he c or r e l at i on e ne r gy

( 3 0. 7 3 )
( 3 0 . 7 4 )

Ther e ma i n i n gt e r mso fEq. ( 3 0. 7 2 )c l e a r l yr e p r e s e n tt hel e a di n gc on t r i bu t i o nt o

fc o r r = Dr ( 6 / )+ ( 1 1 , ( e . )

28e

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

Thedom i nantt er m i nt he c or r e l at i on e ner gy com esf r om t he l ongwa ve-

l e n g t hp a r tof( 1 r .I n t r o du c i n gt h eu s u a ldi me n s i on l e s sun i t s( s e eS e c .3 )a n d


i dent i f yi ngkowi t h ks,wec an wr i t e

fc o r , =2 e c o r r
whe r ef r o m Eqs .( 3 0. 5 9 ) an d( 3 0 . 6 2 )
3 c o z

Ne l .

( 3 0. 7 5 )

e c o r =4 j l n GJ . I A @) )d x G*0

( 3 0 . 7 6 )
.

Thei n t e g r a l i smo s te a s i l yp e r f or me dwi t ht hei n t e g r a l r e pr e s e n t a t i onEq. ( 3 0. 5 4 )

j * x ( R ( x ) ) 2 =j v d y j t j ( f z J# : , 2 z 2 Xd x( y z. y . x z ; ( z z. j . a z j
..

c o

=r j o ' d y j ' ; # z y A . ' j Z . y


=

3 =( 1- l n2 ) r ,> . 0

( 3 0 . 7 7 ) ( 3 0. 7 8 )

Thus

e c o r r =4 1 ( 1- l n2 ) l nr , +c o n s t

wh i c ha g r e e swi t hEq. ( 1 2 . 6 1 ) . Th ec on s t a n t t e r mc a na l s ob eo b t a i n e df r o m Eq. ( 3 0 . 7 4 ) , bu t t hee v a l u a t i o n


i sc ons i de r a bl y m or e di cul t .I nt r oduci ng t he s ame di me ns i onl es s uni t si nt o

Eq s . ( 3 0. 1 3 c )a nd( 3 0 . 6 2 )g i v e s
D
2,

( 4)= z a t ' l 0
Ne l .

Ne 2

( 3 0 . 7 9 / )

f 1 r ( 6 k )= z a 3 * 3 j w d x R l x b j l ( l n ( 4 a G z r 1 ) +l n A @) - ) +3 j ( 3 0 . 7 9 : ) o(
wh e r ex= ( 4 / 9 , 01 , e li sad e sn i t ei n t e g r a l g i v e ni nP r ob .1 . 4 , a n d

3 J d x l l p( I , i m . ( = 4 a ( l I n 2 ) l n ( , a 3 . , j * ( a q . # . z d3 :d3 ,0 6 1- k) $ 1-p) # ( l p+ q x j j- g z . y . q , ( p . y . k ; j 1 ) % I k + q I -1 ) j
.

( 3 0 . 8 0 )

i si n d e p e n de ntofr , . Thel a s te x p r e s s i on f or3i sj u s tE Twi t ht h el o g a r i t h mi c


s i ngul ar i t yr emove d( s e e Pr obs .l . 4 and 1 . 5 ), .i t sde r i v at i on i sout l i ne di n Pr ob.

-W
'

7 .

'

$ '

! 1
h

PHYSICAL SYSTEMS AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

287

8 . 7 .s u bs t i t ut i o no fEqs .( 3 0 . 7 7 )a nd( 3 0. 7 9 )i n t oEq.( 3 0. 7 4 )y i e l d s 2( 1

f c o r r = = j ; i l n 2 ) l n ( 4 = G ) + ( j n R ) . . l+ j 3 + 4
-

( 3 O . g l )
( 3 0 . 8 2 5 ) ( 3 0 . 8 %)

He r et henumer i ca lcons t ant s( l nAla vand 3mus tbef ound nume r i c al l yl

J * . # x R l l n R ( 1 n A l a v >J . dx Rz o . j s j
= . -

--

&= 0. 05 08
3

wh i l et h eni n e d i me n s i on a l i n t e g r a l e lh a sb e e ne v a l u a t e da n a l y t i c a l l yb yOn s a g e r z e l= . . l n2- 2 z( 4 3 )= 0 . 0 4 8 =


Thesnalex pr es s i onf ort hec or r e l at i on e ner g y be com e s

( 3 0. 8 3 )

e c o r r= 0 . 0 6 2 2l nr ,- 0 . 0 9 4+ Ot r y l nr a ) ( 3 0 . 8 4 ) i nc omp l e t ea g r e e me ntwi t h Eq.( 1 2 . 6 2 )d e r i v e df r o m t he z e r o t e mp e r a t ur e


f or m al i s m. I ti si nt e r e s t i ngt hatt hepr es entz er ot em pe r at ur eappr ox i m at i oni s

v a l i da th l k h de ns i t i e s( n 1 e 2 < < : h z n h j mj ,i nc o n t r a s tt ot h ep r e v i o usc l a s s i c a l


c al c ul at i on. I nbot hc as es .howev er , t hepot e nt i a le ner g yn1e2i ss m al lc ompar e d

t ot h eo t h e rr e l e v a n te ne r g y( h l n h j ma tF= 0, ksra tF. > . *) .


To c om pl e t et hi sc al cul at i on, 3i ti sne ce s s a r yt os how t ha tt hel as tt e r mi n

Eq.( 3 0. 6 9 )i n de e dv a n i s h e s . Th es e c o n dor d e rc o r r e c t i on Dz r( Eq .( 3 0. 1 3 5 ) )
c an ber ewr i t t e nf oral It em pe r at ur e sas

d5 k:3 p:3 : a ? 4 ( F , F , p , ) = ' I ' F J ( 2 , 0 9 Z ( k q ) F ( P q l d $ : 4 be c aus e


-

Dac

( 3 0 . 8 5 )

P ? 4 ja 1 ( 1-n 2 )= e

I nt h el i mi tr. > . 0,t h ef a c t o r n j / e lr e du c e st o-J 4 p , - 4) ,an dwec a nwr i t e Q2 e ( 0 , F, p , ( )= -. i ' F( 2 =) 3fd%3 ( p m-4) ( . / :2 ( 3 0 . 8 6 )
He r e

f q-( 2 , 43J:3 kP ' t k-q l a k j s w j j i , r . o = ( 2 x) 3jd5 kp r t k-q ) e l y . o- 4)


'M . Ge l l Man na n dK . A.Br u K kn e r , l oc . c i t . 2L, Ons ager,L.M i t t ag.and M . J . S t e p i wn,An n. Ph y s l k .1 *: 71( 1 9 6 6 ) . 3Thi spo i n twa ssr s te mp ha s i z e db yW . Koh na n dJ .M . Lut t i n g e r ,I o c . c i t .

( 3 0 . 8 7 )

28:

FI NI TETEM PEnATURE FOaM ALI SM

a n dJ zh a sb e e ns e t e qu a l t op , ( ) . a sr e qu i r e db y Eq. ( 3 0 . 6 9 ) . As i mi l a rc a l c u l a t i o n l e a dst o( c omp a r eEq. ( 3 0. 3 : )f orF= 0 J

( j s . ! ) s . . , p ' J y j . ) , 3 y p ' ( k q ) l ? 2 o . j n . s 6 . 0 + A ? z D j n s k s . s a
. .. .

' ?D

#3 k#

, v.,

= -

2P ' ( 2 , 7 . ) 3f#3 t ? 3 ( j z a-6 2 ) A

( 3 0 . 8 8 )
( 3 0 . 8 9 )

Fi nal l y.a di r ec te val t l at i on yi e l ds

( 0 . j 2 . / ( 7 2 ) ' j 2 p * ( d y x . 3 . 6 y / 3 ( s ( ) e ( : ) 1 # ( -vo =
.

whi ch i se qui val e ntt ot hel a s tl i neofEq. ( 3 0. 7 0) . Wi t ht hef ol l owi ngdehni t i on


ofan ave r ag e ove rt he Fer m is ur f a ce
,

' '

( 2=) -3 $ ' ( 1 3 4 3t s( )- e 0 q ) ( ' * i ' .) 3j d3 :b l gv- : b ) q


. . .
.

( 3 0 . 9 0 )

t hel as tt e r m ofEq.( 30. 6 9)as s ume st het r ans par entf or m

2 ( 1 l( t ' ? f ) (0 ) j . ) 2 v . y o z c( J , , o )-2( # i j j y j sz j ( ) ..s,


- -

U( ( ( / q- x . / k ) s ) 2 s ) ( 2 =) 3fd? q3 ( J z ( ) -e q 0 )
( 3 0 . 91 )

Thi sc ont r i but i on t ot he gr ounds t at ee ner gy i spr opor t i onalt ot he mean s quar e

d e v i at i onof f qo v e r t h el l n pe r t u r b e dFe r mi s u r f a c ea n dc a nne v e rr a i s et h ee n e r g y .


Fur t her m or e.t he cor r e c t i on e vi de nt l y vani s he sf ora s phe r i calFe r m is ur f ac e , whi ch i st he cas ef oran e l e ct r on ga si n a uni f or m pos i t i ve backgr ound. The f or e goi ng c anc el l at i on i sa s pec i hc e xam pl e of a gene r al t he or em l

f o rs pi nll e r mi on st h a tt h eF+0 l i mi to ft h et i n i t et e mp e r a t u r ef or ma l i s m
al ways gi v es t he s am e gr oun ds t at ee ner gy a st hat cal cul at e d wi t ht he r = 0

f or ma l i s m( e i t h e ri n Fe y n ma no ri n Br u e c k n e r Gol ds t o n ef o r m) , a sl o n ga st h e
unpe r t ur bed Fer m is ur f ac ei ss pher i ca l l ys ym m e t r i c and t he i nt er a et i ons ar e i n var i antunde rs pat i alr ot at i ons . Thi sr es ul ti snotata1 1obvi ous ,be caus et he t wo appr oa ches des cr i be t he i nt e r ac t i ng s ys t em i nv er y di f l kr e nt ways . The F+ 0 f or m al i s m com put e st het her m odynam i c pot ent i alD asaf unct i on oft he par am e t e rJ z , and i t sF . > . 0l i mi ti nvol ve si nt e gr al s ov er Fe r m i di s t r i but i on f unct i ons t hat ar es i ngul ar wher et he e ner gy i s equalt oy , . A tt he end of t he

ca l cul at i on,/ . tmay bee l i mi na t ed i nf avoroft hepa r t i c l edens i t yNj P ' ,and p, t he n
de hne st he Fer m ie ner gy e s oft he i nt e r ac t i n g gr ound s t at e . Ont he ot her hand, t he us ua lF = 0 f or m al i s mc ons i der sa f i xe d num berofpar t i c l e sN f r om t he s t ar t and e val uat est he gr ounds t at e ene r gy as a s e r i e si nt he c oupl i ng cons t antoft he
tW .Kohn and J.M .Lut t i nger ,I oc.ci t . ;J.M .Lut t i ngerand J.C.W ar d,I oc.ci t .

pHvsl cAt - SYSTEM S AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

289

t wobody pot ent i al . Eac ht er m i nt hi ss er i e si nv ol v es i nt e gr al s ove rt he u nper t u r be d Fer m idi s t r i but i on f unc t i on,whi ch ha si t s di s c ont i nui t ya tt he un-

p e r t u r b e d Fe r mi e n e r g ye /= ( h l ( 2 m) ( 3 =2 A' / F) 9 .
l n com pa r i ng t he t wo f or ma l i s ms ,we i mme di at el y not et hat t he F # 0 e xpans i oncont ai nst e r m st hatar e ne ve rc ons i der e d atr = 0. Fore xam pl e,t he

z e r ot e mp e r a t u r ev e r s i o no fXt i l cc o n t a i n sa ni n t e g r a lo v e ro k r- qj # ( - ks )
a n dt h e r e f o r ev a ni s h e s( Pr o b. 3 . 1 2 ) . At hn i t et e mp e r a t ur e , h o we v e r , t h et he r ma l
wi dt h yi el dsanonze r o val uet hatr em ai nssni t eeve ni nt hel i mi tF = 0. A 1 lof t he s eaddi t i onaldi agr am scont ai ns i ngul arf a ct or satze r ot em per at ur e,s uc h as

3 ( e 2- J . t )ori t sde r i va t i v e s ,whe r e a st h ed i a g r a ms t h a ta r ec ommon t o bo t h


f or m al i s m s cont ai n onl ys t ep f unc t i ons at F = 0. Si nc et he F = 0 f or ma l i s m a nt e da t e st he F + 0 one ,t he s e addi t i onalt e r m sar econve nt i ona l l y des cr i bed as a nomal ous . Thet wo f or ma l i s m sal s o di f l krbe caus eoneus est heexa ctche mi ca l

p o t e n t i a lJ zH e s ,wh i l et heo t h e ru s e st h e un p e r t u r b e d Fe r mie n e r g ye /M y , n . Th e Ta y l o rs e r i e sf o rf 1 ( F= 0, e s )a bo utt h ev a l ue f 1 ( F= 0 , e . )i n v o l v e sa n e x p a ns i ono fs t e pf u n c t i o nsa te si nt e r msoft h o s ea te k; t h i se x pa n s i onl e a d st o


addi t i onalde l t af unc t i onsand de r i vat i v es ofdel t af unct i ons . The cont e ntof t he K ohnl ut t i nger W ar dt heor e mi st hatt hee xt r ac ont r i but i on i nc ur r ed i nt he

s h i f ti n Fe r mie n e r g yf r om e st oe /pr e c i s e l yc a n c e l st h ea no ma l o u sdi a g r a ms ,


l e avi ngt heBr uec kne r G ol ds t ones e r i e sf ort hegr ounds t at ee ner gy. l fper t ur bat i on t heor ypr ovi desa v al i d des cr i pt i on ofa ni nt er a ct i ngs ys t e m, t hen t he F = 0 l i mi toft he t em pe r at ur ef or m al i s m ne ce s s ar i l y yi e l ds t he t r u e gr ound s t at ef or any v al ue oft he coupl i ng cons t ant . I nc ont r as t ,t he F = 0 f or m al i s m me r e l y gene r at e st hat e i ge ns t at e of t he ham i l t oni an t hatde ve l ops a di a ba t i cal l yf r om t he n oni nt e r ac t i n g gr ound s t at e. Foran ar bi t r ar ys ys t e m, t hes et wo appr oac he s m ay yi e l d di f l kr ente i ge ns t a t e s ,as s hown by t he s i m pl e

e x a mp l eo fa p e r f e c tFe r mig a si n aun i f o r m ma g n e t i cse l d( Pr o b.7 . 5 ) . The


Kohnl ut t i nge r W ar d t he or em can t her ef or e be i nt er pr et e d a ss pe ci f yi ng s u c i e ntc ondi t i onst oe ns ur et hatt he F = 0 f or m al i s mi nde ed yi e l ds t he t r u e gr ound s t at e. U nf or t unat e l y,t he ve r yi nt er es t i ng ques t i on ofnec e s s ar y condi t i onsr em a i nsunans we r e d.
PRO B LEM S

8. 1. Ve r i f yt hatCk f or an el ec t r on gas i nt he Har t r e eFoc k appr oxi mat i on b e ha v e sl i k e - F( 1 nF) 1a sF. + . 0. ( Comp a r et h ed i s c u s s i on f o l l owi n g Eq. ( 3 0. 3 ) . )

8. 2. ( J ) Us i n gt h er e s u l t sofPr o b. 4. 9f ort h el owe s t or de rp r op e rs e l f e n e r g y

o fa ne l e c t r ong a sh t i ) ( q )a n de f l k c t i v ema s sm* ,s h ow t ha tt h ec or r e s p o nd i n g


h e a tc a p a c i t ya t z e r ot e mpe r a t u r es a t i s se sCv l T= 0 . ( b 4Th el on g wa v e l e n g t hc o u l o mb i n t e r a c t i o ni smo di se db yt hepr e s e n c eo f t h eme di um a c c o r d i n gt o Eq. ( 1 2 . 6 5 ) . Sh ow t ha tt h ec o r r e c tl o wt e mp e r a t u r e

290

Fl NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

h e a tc a p a c i t yi s gi v e nb y Cv ( C;- ( l- ( a r s / 2 = ) l l nt t x r s / n ' ' l +2 ) + ... ) -1 a s r s. + . 0, wh e r eC(i st heh e a tc a pa c i t yofano ni n t e r a c t i n gFe r mi g a s . l


8. 3. Repe atPr ob.4. 4wi t ht hesni t et empe r at ur e Gr e en' sf unct i ons .

8. 4. ( J ) Us et h e Fe y nma nr u l e st oe v a l u a t et h es e c on do r d e rs e l f e n e r g y
cont r i but i ons t ot he t em pe r at ur e Gr ee n' sf unc t i on s how n i n Fi g. 3 0. 2 / and b

f o rau ni f o r ms y s t e m of s p i n !f e r mi on s . Fi n dt h ec or r e s p on di ngc on t r i bu t i o n s t ot het her modynami c pot e nt i aland ev al uat et he ne c es s ar yf r e que ncysums( s ee Pr o b. 7 . 3 )t oo b t a i n

Dz g=-2Fj j j( 2 09 #3 gJ3 pd3 kj Ft q l2 a k a p 0 ( 1-n k u q ) x( 1- n 0 p + q ) ( 6 2 . q+ c p 0 . a- 6 2- e n p l '


a n dE q. ( 3 0 . I 3 J ) .

( : )Con s i de rane l e c t r ong a sa thi g ht e mp e r a t ur e swh e r er l k= e b ?e x pt -je k )< < :1 .


Byu s i n gc y l i n dr i c a l p ol a rc o or di n a t e sE k=t l k , + kuls h ow t ha t
-

f l z a v t p, 2 / 8 ( z n pz q . . ' # j . w t i p ' b J . A. .
j 2 ( / c 2 ,+p2 , ) 1 ' i m t ? ( pI I +/ c ! , )+q
He nce c onc l ude t ha tf l : ai sI i ne ar l y di ver ge nt at s m al l m om ent um t r ans f e r

m Z ' 4

l ' n

2 d3 q

* x

c c

( q+0 ) .

ha st hea s y mpt o t i cf o r mJ 1 0 ( q , r l ) , w-L . 6 = $e b l x ( ql ( ; j ) ( ( 4 / A ) 4+ ( 8 =2 / ) 2 j lf orl a r g e q, j-ql z n hl l mkzTl ka n d1 / 1 . ( b )I f3 f 1 ,de n ot e st h es umma t i on o ft e r msf orl>0 i nEq .( 3 0. 21 ) ,v e r i f yt h a t 3 t l r / f 1 r = &( ( e 2 ai ) 1( n 1 2 / r n ) 1 ( 1 / #sF) ) whe r et ' 1 ,i st a k e nf r om Eq. ( 3 0. 2 7 ) .
8. 6. ( J ) Us e Eq. ( 3 0 . 3 2 )t oc omp u t et h es p e c i fch e a to fa ne l e c t r on g a si nt he

8. s. ( J )I nt h ec l a s s i c a ll i mi twhe r er l k-e x pl j/ . t-je k ) ,s h o wt h a tp R0 ( q , v I )

c l a s s i c a l l i mi tCp z =lN/ c s l l+J ' r r 1 ( e 2 n 1 / #s F) ) .


( b )De r i v et hi sr e s u l tf r o m Eq. ( 3 0 . 45 )i nt h eDe b y et h e or y .

8. 7. Ev a l u a t e( 1 / j )( ) (( J 1 0 ( q , y , ) 1 2wi t ht hei nt e g r a lr e p r e s e nt a t i o n( 3 0. 9 ) .I n P
t he ze r ot em per at ur el i mi t ,t hi ss um m ay be appr oxi m at ed by an i nt e gr alov e r

ac o n t i nu ou sv a r i a bl e . He n c ee v a l u a t eJ X xd xl l x ) ,wh e r e1 ( x 4i sg i v e ni n Eq.
( 3 0 . 6 1 ) , a n dv e r i f yEq. ( 3 0 . 8 0 ) .
1M . Ge l l Ma n n, Ph y s .Re ! , ' . s1 0 6: 3 6 9( 1 9 5 7 ) .

9 ons and Real ti m e Gr een' s Functi Li near R esponse

I nt he z er ot empe r at ur ef or mal i s m ,t he pol e s of t he s i ng l e par t i cl e Gr e en' s

f u n c t i o n G( k, )y i e l dt hee n e r g yan dl i f e t i meoft h ee x c i t e ds t a t e sofa s y s t e m c o nt a i n i n go nemor eo rl e s sp a r t i c l e .S i mi l a r l y , t h ef u n c t i o nDR ( k, ( s ) d e t e r mi n e s


t hes c r e eni ngofani m pur i t yi nanel ec t r onga saswe l last hes pe c t r um ofc ol l ec t i ve dens i t ymode ss uch aspl as maos c i l l at i onsorz e r os ound. Thr oughoutChap.8, howe ver , t het emper at ur e Gr e en' sf unc t i on @ wasus ed onl yt ocal cul at eequi l i br i um t her m ody nam i c pr oper t i es . W es hal lnow com pl et et he des c r i pt i on at

sni t et empe r at ur e by i nt r oduc i ng a r e al t i me Gr e en' sf unct i on C t hatc ont ai ns


t hef r e quenc i e sa nd l i f e t i me sofe xc i t e ds t at esatsni t et e mper a t ur e.
291

292

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

3IQGENERALI ZED LEHM ANN REPRESENTATI ON W es t ar tourdi s eus s i on by gene r al i zi ng t he not i on ofa G r e en' sf unct i on f r om t he gr ounds t at ee xpec t at i on val ueofa t i me or der e d pr oduc tofhe l d oper at or s t ot hee ns em bl eave r ag e oft hi ss am equant i t y.
DEFI NI TI ON oF '

Th er e a l t i meGr e e n' sf u n c t i on i sd e f i n e di nd i r e c ta n a l o g y wi t h Eq.( 7 . 1 )a t


F = 0:

i cx b l xt , x' t ' ) eTr t / sF( #x . ( x/ ) #f x j t x' t ' ) ) ) whe r e) ( ; i st h es t a t i s t i c a lo p e r a t o rf ort h eg r a ndc a n on i c a l e n s e mb l e( Eq. ( 4 . 1 5 ) 1 a n dgx u l xt )i sat r u eHe i s e nb e r go p e r a t or 9X a ( X/ )H t ' i l / ' 9x ( X ) e i k t l b
.

wi t hr e s p e c tt ot h e ha mi l t on i a n X. As i n Ch a p.3 ,t h e or d e r i n g op e r a t or F i n c l u de saf a c t o r( -1 ) Pf o rf e r mi on s . Eq u a t i o n( 31 . 1 )h a so n ei mp or t a n tn e w f eat ur ebe c aus e C de pe ndse xpl i ci t l y on F and p .i n addi t i on t ot he us uals pac et i m evar i abl e s . I n m os t cas es ,t he ha mi l t oni an i st i me i nde pendent ,and t he r es ul t i ng Gr e en' sf unc t i on cont af nsonl yt he c om bi nat i on t- ?' . Fur t her m or e ,we s hal l cons i der onl y hom ogene ous s ys t e ms , and t he G r ee n' sf unc t i on as s um es t he s i m pl ef or m

Ca j t x/ , x' t ' )= Cz j l x- x' , t -t ' )


di agonali nt he m at r i xi ndi c es

( 31 . 3 )

Fi nal l y,we e xc l ude e xt er na lmagnet i cfe l dsand f er r omagne t i s ms ot hatCa ji s

0a j ( x, l ) = a jC( X, t )
Each oft hes eas s um pt i onsc an ber e l ax ed,butt hes ubs e quentanal ys i sbec omes c ons i de r abl y m or e cum be r s om e.

As s u met h a t/i sp os i t i v e . Equ a t i o n( 3 l . 1 ) t h e nb e c o me s

i C>( x , t )-( 2 J+ 1 ) 1 Tr t s( ' x = l xt ) Xa ' ( 0 ) )


I nt he pr e s enthom oge neouss ys t e m ,t he Hei s enber g ope r at or s m ay be r e wr i t t e n

a . sE c o mpa r eEq. ( 7 . 5 2 ) )

jX a f & ' vt a* j 7 . .< u / P w x l h w u / X l / . J F f f N / ' v M / u v 2 k t , ' h u < i ' . x , ? 5


,

/ N ' ) ' A 1 . 6 )

b e c a us ef :e o mmu t e swi t h #. A c o mb i na t i o no fEq s .( 31 . 5 )a nd ( 31 . 6 )y i e l d s

d>( x, / )- ( 2 . s +1 ) 1 Tr l e l d f z f ' c i ' x / . e i k t l ' #a ( 0 )e i e t , 'e i p x / , #: ( 0 ) )


( 3 1 . 7 )

nEALTI M E GREEN' S FUNCTI O NS AND LI NEAR RESPONSE

293

whe r et het r ac ecan beeval uat e di n anybas i s . A par t i c ul a r l yc onveni entc hoi c e

i st hee x a c te i g e n s t a t e so f/ ? , , a n dX :

X( r n )= Kmf r al= ( Em- y , Nm ) f m) ( v ? )= Pm( & l )


and wehnd

( 3l . 8 )

, ' G>( x. f )- ( 2 s+ 1 . ) 1 e i l) (e l A -e ' m x i h e i x p n t l h i k m3 v . -( 0 ) 1 a )


l np

xe i x n t l h e i r a w x / . t nj y t t o l l r n )

=( 2 : . +l ) 1 e bt ' l) ( e b K me i ( P , P , n ' * x / h e i t A : n A m l r / ' 1 ( mj y ' A a I n )! 2


( 3 1 . 9 )
I n as i mi l arway,t hecor r e s pondi ng f unct i on f orf< 0 be com es

i c<( x , ? )- +( 2 J+ 1 ) l e b t ' t Trf e b kf 4. ( 0 ) #a a ( xr ) ) =+ : ( 2 . j . +1 ) 1 e b t ' lj g e K n e f ( P . P m ' * x / ' e f ( X a X ' . ) ' / j ( p l ! <z I a )1 2


( 3 1 . 1 0 )
Thet ot alGr ee n' sf unc t i on i st hes um oft he s et wo t er ms

t Rx . ? )= # ( ? ) ;> ( x, ? )+ p ( -J ) ;<( x, ? )
a n di t sFo u r i e rt r an s f o r m ma yb ec a l c u l a t e de x a c t l ya si nEq. ( 7 . 5 4 )

( 3 1 . 1 1 )

( ; ( k , ( s ) = ( 2 J + 1 ) 1 e b i m a t ( 2 r r ) 3 3 ( k l ( P , P m ) 1 . l ( ? n ' ! 1 / ) z t n ) 1 2 e -q Km el A. , -, . ( a - xo + i T* - -' ( x-- x)- i ,l t 3 ' ' l 2 )


x
-

Equ a t i o n( 3l . 1 2 )s h o wst h a t( Rk, f . s ) i same r o mo r p hi cf u n c t i ono fh u l wi t hs i mp l e p ol e sa tt h es e tofv a l u e sKn - Km> En- Em- y . ( Nn-Nm ) ;t hec or r e s po n di ng r e s i d uei spr o p or t i on a lt ol t r r l 1 ( ' , ! n )1 2a n dv a n i s he sun l e s sNn= Nm+ l . Th e
ens e m bl e ave r ag e atsni t et em pe r at ur e cl e ar l yg ener al i ze st hez er ot em per at ur e

e x p r e s s i o nb e c a u s eb ot h1 z n )a n d1 a )c a nr e f e rt oe x c i t e ds t a t e s . Forf e r mi o ns a tF= 0, h owe v e r , i ti se a s i l yp r o v e d( Pr o b. 9. 1 )t h a t

Ct - V ) l r ' o= G( t z 9
whe r eG( ( s )i st h eg r o un d s t a t eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i o nf r om Ch a p. 3 .

( 31 . 1 3 )

2%

FI NI TETEM PE9ATUBE FORM ALI SM

RE TARDED AND ADVANCED F UNCTI ONS

I f( z )i sr e a l ,t h er e a la n di ma g i n a r yp a r t so fd( k, f , ) )a r er e a d i l yf ou n d wi t h Eq. ( 7 . 6 9 ) :

:( k, a ) )- ( 2 x+ 1 ) 1 e l n) 2e / n( 2 ,) 3 3w - -i ( Pa- 1 u) )l t r z ' l #zl n l1 2


x( . ' : . #( f . & ) -h $ ( Kn- A , 21 1 ( 1: FF # t RX ' e ' ) f . p . 3 l o , - h3 ( Kn- Am ) ) ( 1+ e # t A . A ' . ' ) J( 31 . 1 4 ) whe r e. 'd e no t e sa p r i n c i p a lv a l u e . Thei ma g i n a r yp a r to fEq. ( 3 1 . 1 4 )ma yb e
-

r e wr i t t en as

I m <t k ' t s ) - -( 2 J+ 1 ) 1 ' n e b t z( 2 e / A ' n ( 2 =) 3 g k- l ( Pa- Pm ) )


r r l n

xJ ( ? ' n! #. I n )l 23 ( o a- -1 ( A' a- . &m l ! ( 1+ e b h u ' l( 31 . 1 5 )


and i ti seas i l yve r i sed t hatt her ea lpar tt hen be come s

Ret Rk, ( z ) )= -. t . #
= - .

* d ' I m Jt ko a ' )1: T : e n h u ' '


-X

' ( z ;- o A ' l: i : ee h ,,
( 3 1 . 1 6 )

# o a / l mt Rk, f x ) / ) # * , . ( t a n h( Jj f , ) ' ) ) t t X = O -
-

whi c h wassr s tder i ve d by Landau. l Formanypur pos es ,i ti smor ec onve ni entt o de alwi t hr e t a r dedoradv ance d

r e a l t i meGr e e n ' sf u n c t i o n s( c omp a r eEq. ( 7 . 62 ) ) :

f Gl j t xr . x' t ' ) Ye ( t -t ' ) Tr t l sl #x a t x f l , & 1 1 j t x? / / ) 1 v ) i cl b l x t , x ' t ? )- -p ( f ' -t 4 Tr ( ) G( #x . ( x f ) , f 4, ( x' r ' ) ) v )

( 31 . 1 7 )

W es hal lagai n cons i deronl y homoge ne oust i me i nde pende nts ys t e ms wi t h no

ma g n e t i cNe l ds .I nt hi sc a s eCRa n d( P ha v et h es a mes t r u c t u r ea si nEq. ( 3 l . 4 ) ,


and t hei rFour i e rt r ans f or msar ee as i l yf ound t obe

CR ( k9 ( t ) )= ( 2 J+ 1 ) -1 e l f lj ( e # X m ( 2 r r ) 33 ( k- l ( PF l - Pm ) ) j t r nj j kn j 1 2
mn

x( 1: F : e ' K n K t ) l o ?- 1 ( #n- Km )+ 1 * . r / ) 1 ) ( 3 1 . 1 8 ) ( P( k, t M =( N +1 ) i e b f b7 2 ( e # X ' ' ( 2 ' z r ) 3 3( k- 1 ( Px- Pm ) ) j ( ? n1 . f a 1 a )l 2


mn

x( 1: Fe # t K n X p , ) )g t . s-h 1 ( n/ K - um K )- i y j -1 )
l ti se vi dentt ha tbot h CRand GA ar e mer omor phi cf unc t i onsof( , ) ;i na ddi t i on, CR I CA )i sa n a l y t i ci nt h eu pp e r( l owe r )h a l ft z apl a n e .
lL. D. Lan da u, So v . Ph y s . JETP, 7: l 8 2( 1 95 8 ) .

REALTI M E GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND LI NEAR RESPONSE

29:

The r et ar de d and a dvanc e dGr e en' sf unc t i onsar ec l os e l yr e l at e d. W i t h t hede sni t i on

p ( k, t o )- ( 2 . + 1 ) i e l f z) g( e l A ( 2 , r ) 3 8 w- 1 ( Pa- P. , ) 1 x2 =3 ( t s- h -t ( Kn- A Q) ( 1: Fe # ' ) I ( vI #.i a )1 2 J( 31 . 1 9 )


whi c h depe ndson bot hFandJ z , t hei magi na r ypar t sofCRand CAmayl x wr i t t en
as

I mt P( k , ) =1 p ( k, t M ( 3 1 . 2 0 ) I m( P( k, )= . i . p t k, l Fu r t h e r mo r e ,a c omb i n a t i o no f Eq s .( 31 . 1 8 )a n d( 31 . 1 9 )y i e l d st he i n t e g r a l
r epr e s e nt at i ons

JR ( k

*) =

*d ' p ( k, o , ' ) j r r( , ,- ( . o, +i . b
( 31 . 21 )
-

6X ( k' ' p ( kt t ? ' ) t . t l l= X d 2 = ( . o - ' ' i ' q


whos er e alpar t s ar ef or mal l yi dent i c alwi t ht he di s pe r s i on r el at i ons at z er o

t e mp e r a t u r e( Eq .( 7 . 7 0 ) J .I fwei n t r od u c e af u n c t i on o fa c o mp l e xv a r i a bl ez F( kZ od ' p ( k, t s ' ) )= c 2 , ( 31 . 2 2 )


,

. n z- f . o

t h e nt 7 R ( k, o a )a n d( P( k, )r e p r e s e ntt h ebo u n da r yv a l u e so fr a sza p p r o a c he s


t her ealaxi sf r om aboveand be l ow ,r es pe c t i ve l y:

GR ( k, o)= P( k, ( . o+ i T l

( 3 1 . 2 3 ) ( P( k, )= l > ( k, u )- i T j I nv i e wo ft h eg e n e r a l r e l a t i o nb e t we e nG, GR , a n dGAa tF = 0( Eq s . ( 7 . 6 7 ) a n d( 7 . 6 8 ) )i ti sn ots ur p r i s i n gt h a tp t k , ( t ) la l s od e t e r mi n e st heFou r i e rt r a n s f or m


oft he t i me or de r e dGr e en' sf unct i on. A s t r ai ght f or war dc al c ul at i on wi t h Eqs .

( 3 1 . 1 4 )a n d( 3 l . 1 9 )s h o wst h a tC( k, o y )ha st h ef ol l o wi n ga l t e r na t i v er e p r e s e n t a t i ons:

( R k q f z ) l = J . . a x p t k , u , ' l t . ' # , t s . 1 0 , f m ' E t a n h t . i j a p l p l : ( f . , a , ) )


=

- f ' '

( 1: Fe x' * ' l -i CA ( k. ( s )+ ( 1: Fe l A ) l t P( k, )

( 3 1 . 2 4 ) ( 3 1 . 2 5 )

Forr ealf , ) ,al lt hr e eGr e en' sf unc t i onsha veequalr ea lpar t s

ReG( k, a , )= RedR ( k, ( s )= Ret P( k. ( s )

ae

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

whi l et h ei ma g i n a r yp a r t sa r eg i v e nb yEq. ( 3l . 2 0 )a n db y

I m( : ( k, f a ) )= -l t a n h( . # f . , ) ) ) 7 1 p t k, f . t ) l

( 31 . 2 6 )

I nt he s pe ci a lcas e off e r mi onsat z e r ot e mper a t ur e , Eq.( 3 1 . 2 4 )a s s u me st h e f a mi l i a rf or m

t Rk,

*J u , ' , p ( / . s ) 9 ( -( s ) ) i r o J . . a . r P t k , a ' ) 1 ' r 0 ( , ( . , , + . j j + . ( , , , i q ( 3 1 . 2 7 )

whi c hs ho u l db ec o mpa r e dwi t h Eq s . ( 7 . 6 7 )a n d( 3 l . 1 3 ) . Th ewe i g h tf un c t i o np t k . ( s lc o n t a i nst h ei mpo r t a n tp h y s i c a lp r o pe r t i e so f


t hes ys t e m. Al t houg ht hepr e ci s ef or m ofpc anbeev al uat e d onl ywi t hade t ai l e d cal cul at i on,t her e ar ec er t a i ng ene r alpr ope r t i e st hat f ol l ow di r e c t l yf r om i t s

d e s ni ng e q ua t i on ( 31 . 1 9 ) . Ea c ht e r mi nt he s u mi sp os i t i v ei f( . vi sp o s i t i v e;
m or e gene r al l y,p hast he f ol l owi ng pos i t i ve de f i ni t e pr oper t i es:

( S gna k l p t k, t t J l> 0

b os o n s ( 31 . 2 8 )

p l k, t z a l> 0

f e r mi o n s

l n addi t i on,p s at i s sesani mpor t ants um r ul e,whi c h we now de r i ve. Cons i der t hef ol l owi ng i nt e gr al

( 3 1 . 2 9 )
whe r et he( . oi nt e gr ali seval ua t ed by c l os i ng t hecont ouri nt hel owerhal fpl ane.

Equ a t i on( 3l . 2 9 )c a na l s obec o mpu t e ddi r e c t l yf r om t hed e sn i t i o ng Eq .( 31 . 1 7 ) )


* d
-*

2 l ' ( ; R ( k'( z ) l e 2 * T= JdT xe k e x ( ; R ( x, ' r / ) , /. = ( 2 &+ 1 ) 1fd3 xe i k s x Tr ( cg <x a ( x 0 ) , #) ' a ( 0 ) ) ; : ) = j#3 xe f k * x3 ( x ) Tr ) s


=

( 3 1 . 3 0 )

whe r et h ec a no n i c a lc o mmu t a t i onr e l a t i on s( 2 . 3 )ha v eb e e nu s e di na r r i v i n ga t t h et h i r dl i n e . Comp a r i s o no fEq s . ( 3l . 2 9 )a n d( 31 . 3 0 )i mme d i a t e l yy i e l ds * d u l '( 2 P k,( s' ) =l = ( 3l . 31 )

REALTI M E GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND LI NEAR RESPONSE

297

whi c hi sc or r e c tf orbot hbos onsandf e r mi ons. Thi ss um r ul eExe st heas ympt ot i c

b e ha v i o ro ft h eGr e e n' sf u n c t i o n sf o rl a r g e1 *l : JR ( k)= CA 1 * # t t ) ' 1 ( k, )' wp ( k , ' )' w,

( . o .2 =

( , )

( 31 . 3 2 )

whi c hi sus e f uli ne s t abl i s hi ngc onve r ge ncepr oper t i es .


TEM RERATURE GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND ANALU I C CONTI NUATI ON

I nt hepr ev i ouss e ct i on, t hewei ghtf unc t i ons e r ve donl yt ode t e r mi neandor r el at e t hevar i ousr e al t i meGr e en' sf unc t i ons . Al t houg hs uc hr e l at i onsar eval uabl e,

t h e y wou l dn o tb yt h e ms e l v e sj us t i f you re x t e n s i v ed i s c us s i o no ft heLe hma n n

r epr e s e nt at i on a tsni t et em pe r at ur e,andwes hal lnow pr ovet hei m por t antr es ul t t hatt hes amewei ghtf unct i on al s o de t e r mi ne st het em pe r at ur e Gr e en' sf unct i on @. By t hi smeans ,t he Lehmann r e pr e s e nt at i on pr ovi desa di r e c tconne ct i on

bet we en@ and C andt huspl aysac ent r a lr ol ei nt hefni t et e mpe r a t ur ef or mal i s m.
l ti ss uci e ntt oc ons i de ronl y pos i t i versand F t he n bec omes

@( xr )=-( 2 J+ 1 ) l Trg ) ( ; ' l h x z t x' r ) f 4 . . ( 0 ) ) = -( 2 . : +I ) l e b f l Tr( e # Ae i n x / h e # ' r / 1 , 4 / a ( 0 ) e k r l ' e p * x / y J ( ( j ) j


= -

( 2 . 9 +1 ) 1 e j f l J; L e p x m: f I %P m ) * x / 1 ( ? t A ' . A u) m / Al s t . r a( . f / zj n) t 2 )
mn

( 3 1 . 3 3 ) Th ec o r r e s p o n di n gFo ur i e rc o e mc i e n ti sg i v e nb yE s e eEq . ( 25 . 1 4 ) ) F( k, j ,

( . & ) , ) =j v# ' r e i u ' ' j d 3 x p f k * x F ( x . r )


-

( 2 . s+ 1 ) 1 e ' t ' t) ( ( e # A ' . ( 2 z r ) 3 3 1 - 1 ( Pn- Pm ) j 1 ( r r I l #. I a )1 2


mn

x( 1: ! n e / ( K n x m ' ) ( f ( , a , - h, ( Kn- . &' m ) ) 1 ) ( 31 . 3 4 )

wh e r u ) t =2 / ' v / # f o r bo s o ns a n d( 2 / +1 ) =/ # f or f e r mi on s . Co mpa r i s o n
wi t hEq. ( 3 1 . 1 9 )i mme d i a t e l yy i e l d st h ei mp o r t a n tr e l a t i on F( k, = l t s ,p ( k, ( s ' )

2 = J . . 2 x i c o . ( z ) '

( 3 1 . 3 5 )

wh i c hs h owst h a tt h ef u n c t i on rt k, z ,I ) Eq .( 31 . 2 2 ) )d e t e r mi n e st h et e mp e r a t u r e
Gr e en' sf unc t i on as wel lasCR and CA. l n any pr a ct i calca l c ul at i on,we Er s t

e v a l ua t e Ft ks f . s a la n dt h e r e f o r ek no w r( k. z )o nl ya tt h edi s c r e t es e to fp o i n t s L i n j .I ti st h e nn e c e s s a r yt op e r f o r ma na na l y t i cc on t i nu a t i o nt ot h ew' ho l e
c om pl e x z pl ane. W i t hout t ur t he ri nf or mat i on.s uc h a pr oc e dur e cannotbe

u ni qu e .S up p os et h a tP( k, z )i so n ep o s s i bl ec on t i n ua t i on:f o ra n yi n t e g e rp. t he f u n c t i o ne l n p z i ' . P( k, z )i sa n ot h e rp o s s i b l ec on t i nu a t i o nb e c a u s ei ta l s o r e du c e st o P( k, ra ) a tt h epo i n t si u u . Ne v e r t h e l e s s ,t h e s ev a r i ou sc o nt i n u a t i o ns

29:

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

di Fe rf r om e ac h ot he rev er ywhe r ee l s ei nt hecompl e xzpl anei nc l udi ngt hepoi nt

a t i n sn i t y . Si n c et h es u mr u l e( Eq. ( 3 l . 31 ) ) r e qu i r e st h a tP( k, z )' wz 3 a sI zI > . c c ,


wear et husabl et os e l e ctt he pr operanal yt i ccont i nuat i on,whi ch i sgu ar ant e e d t o be uni que. l I n pr ac t i c e,i ti sus ual l ys i m pl e s tt oc om put ep.( k , ( s )di r e c t l yf r om Ft k, ( s a l by f or m al l yc ons i de r i ng i u l nasa cont i nuous v ar i a bl e. The we i ghtf unc t i on i s t henobt ai ne d ast hel i mi t i ng v al ue

p ( k, x) = ' 1 ( Fl k. a l l i u u x i n- f # l k, t / a n l t i f a u x . i n l

( 3 l . 3 6 )

He n c ea n ya pp r ox i ma t i o nf o rC #t k, ( s n li mme di a t e l yp r o v i d e sa c o r r e s p on d i n g p t k, f . s la n dt he r e byC, CR , a ndCA . Asapa r t i c ul a r l ys i mp l ee x a mp l e , c o n s i d e r

t h eno ni n t e r a c t i n gt e mp e r a t u r eGr e e n ' sf u n c t i o nF0 ( k, t z ) a ) =( j t z ? a -h 1 4 6 2 -p . ) ) 1 .


Thenoni nt e r ac t i ng we i g htf unc t i on poi sgi venby

p 0 ( k , x )= i
=

ww --w - --, -- v . x- h ' ( < -p , )- t ' r l x- h ' ( e 2- J z )+ I n 2 =3( . x- / j 1 ( . . 2-) t ) J

a nd s o mes i mpl ea l g e b r awi t h Eq. ( 31 . 2 4 )g i v e st het i me or d e r e df u n c t i on ( ; o t kjt 1 -1 -uj= l+ e . r ) x pl i j ( ' d -p ' i l o , j ' Z ' t e t-J z ) , l . q
1 1

+j . ' ! n e x p yt e t . p . 1( a , y . u j ( e ( . J z j . . i q( 3 j . J 8 )
Equ a t i o n( 31 . 3 8 )c a na l s ob eo b t a i n e ddi r e c t l yf r om t h ede sn i t i o n( Eq.( 3 l . l ) 1

wi t ht h er e l a t i o nTr t l ct z l u k )= / 1 2= ( e x pE j ( E 2- p . ) ) D . r1 ) l .
32LLI NEAR RESPONSE AT FI NI TE TEM PERATURE

l n Sec .31 we s aw how t he t empe r at ur e Gr e en' sf unc t i on Ft k, f z ) a lcan be us e d


t o det e r mi ne t he be hav i or of ex ci t e ds t at e s obf ai ne d by addi ng or s ubt r a ct i ng onepar t i cl ef r om as ys t em i nt he r m odynam i ce qui l i br i um . Asnot edi nChap. 5, howev er ,t her ear em an y ot herki ndsofe xci t ed s t at e s ,t hem os ti m por t antbe i ng t hos et hatcons er v et he num be r of par t i cl es . The t heor y of l i ne ar r e s pons e pr ovi de sa c onve ni entba s i sf orde s c r i bi ng s uch e xc i t at i ons ,and we s hal lf i r s t ext e ndt hepr e vi oust he or yt o sni t et e m per a t ur e s .
GENERA L THEORY

I fa s ys t em i sper t ur bed f r om e qui l i br i um att= t o by an e xt er nalham i l t oni an

Xe A ( / ) , t h esr s t o r d e rc h a n g ei na na r b i t r a r ymat r i xe l e me nt ofa no p e r a t o r0 i s


1G. Ba ym a n d N.D. Me r mi n, J . Ma t h. Ph y s . , 2; 2 3 2( 1 9 61 ) .

REALTI M E GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND LI NEAR RESPONSE

299

n par t i cul ar ,t he change i n a di agonalm at r i x el em ent g i v e nb y Eq.( i 3 . 9 ) .l


r educ est o

b i j NI :( l ) l / N)- j
.

i
f0

dt ' l j . N1 E W7( ! ' ) , ? ( ? ) 1 l / . N' )


.

( 3 2 . 1 )

wher et he s ubs c r i ptH de not e st he H e i s e nber g pi ct ur e wi t ht he f ul lunpe r t ur bed

j N)i sa ne x a c te i g e ns t a t eo fX a n d 9 wi t he i g e n v a l u e s h a mi l t o ni a nX,a n d1
.

Ej L N)a n d N. Fo rt< t o , t h es y s t e mi si nt h e r mo dy n a mi ce qu i i i br i um. a n dt h e

o c c up a t i ono ft h edi f l kr e n ts t a t e sk j N$i sde t e r mi n e dbyt h es t a t i s t i c a lo p e r a t or ? o . Si n c e Eq .( 3 2 . 1 )i sa l r e a d ypr o p or t i on a lt o Xe x ,t h esr s t o r d e rc ha n g ei n


t h ee ns e mb l ea v e r a g eo f0 ma yb ee v a l u a t e db ya dd i n gt h ec o nt r i b u t i on o fe a c h

s t a t eI . j N) , we i g ht e da c c or di n gt ot h eun p e r t u r b e de n s e mb l e 3 ( d( / ) ) r x= p E b L L I E J C N 3 ' P I i N ? 3 4/ . N1 0( / ) b j N) ' A '


.

l ' t

-j
t :

JJ , ' r r t c l /kt xf , ) , ys ( ? ) ) j

Thi se q u a t i oni sadi r e c t g e n e r a l i z a t i o no fEq. ( 1 3 . 1 0 )a tF = 0 . Tobes p e c i fc , a s s u met ha t4e ' ( / )t a k e st h ef o r m

4e x ( ? )= fdq x:( x? ) Se x t x? )

( 3 2 . 3 )

whe r eE* x ( x? )i sag e n e r a l i z e dc nu mbe r f o r c et ha tc ou p l e st ot h eo p e r a t o rd e n s i t y d( x? ) . Thel i n e a rr e s p on s eo ft x f )i sg i v e nb y

3 ( :( x? ) ) e x- -j
=

j t
r :

x' Tr t l s l t q s t xr l , t g st x' r ' ) ) ) Ee x ( x ' / ' ) dt 'fdq


.

j $
f ;

dt ' J#3 x. DR l xt , x' t ' ) Ee x t x ' t ' )


( 3 2 . 5 )

wher e D Ri sa r e t ar ded c or r e l at i on f unc t i on

I ' DR L X t , x' t ' )> Tr ( G( ds ( x ; ) , ds ( x ' / : ) 1 ) 0 ( t -? ' )

eval uat e di nt he e qui l i br i um gr and c anoni c ale ns em bl e. Theanal ys i sofl i ne ar r es pons ei st husr e duc ed t ot he c al cul at i on ofa r e t ar ded c or r e l at i on f unct i on. Si nce t he unpe r t ur be d ham i l t oni an i st i me i nde pe nde nt ,DR t ake st he f or m

DR ( x, x ' , t -? ' ) . Fur t h e r mor e ,O us u a l l yc ommu t e swi t h X,wh i c ha l l o wsus


t or e i nt e r pr e tt he H e i s enbe r g ope r at or si nt e r m soft he gr and c anoni c alham i l -

t on i a n# = W' -p . X: On l xt )= e i k t l h d( x) e 6 k t l h. Jx ( x/ ) ( 3 2 . 6 ) Th e Fo ur i e rt r a n s f o r m DR ( x, x' , *)h a sas i mp l eLe h man nr e p r e s e nt a t i o n, wh i c h s h owst h a tDR ( x , x' , u ) )i san a l y t i cf o rI mo p>0.

3*

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALS SM

I ti si nc onveni entt oc al cul at e D R di r e ct l y. .i ns t ea d,wei nt r odu cea c or r e s pondi ng t emper at ur ef unc t i on V t hatde pendson t he l ' magi na r yt i mevar i abl es
T:

Vt xm s x' ' r ' )- -Tr f ( ; F. ( t k( x' r ) Ox t x' m ' ) J )


He r et h eHe i s e n b e r go p e r a t o ri sgi v e nby( c o mp a r eE q. ( 2 4 . 1 ) J x t xr ) =e * % / ' d( x ) e k r / h
Si n c e9 i so ft hef o r m. @( x, x' , r- ' r ' ) . i t sFo ur i e rc o e mc i e nt. f ? ( x , x' , p n )a l s oh a s
as i m pl e Le hm ann r e pr es ent at i on. Jus tasi n Sec .31 ,t hi sr epr e s ent at i oni sve r y '

i mp or t a n tb e c a us et h es a me we i g htf u n c t i on d e t e r mi n e sb o t h DR ( x, x' , o ) )an d #( x, x' , v a ) . Fu r t h e r mo r e ,. @( x, x' , L)c a nb ee v a l u a t e d wi t ht h eF e y n ma nr u l e s


and di a gr am m at i canal ys i sofSe c.25. A n anal yt i cc ont i nua t on t ot he upper s i deoft her e al( , aax i st henal l owsust oc al cul at et her e t ar de dc or r el at i onf un ct i on.
DENSI TY CO RRELATI O N FUN CTI ON

The pr e ci s ef or m of -t he Lehm ann r epr e s e nt at i on depends on t he par t i cul ar ope r a t or si nvol ve d. As an e xam pl e of gr eat i nt er es t , we now c ons i de rt he par t i c l e dens i t y and c ar r yt hr ou gh t he pr ec e di ng anal yt i c cont i nuat i on i n de t ai l . Fors i m pl i c i t y,t hes ys t em i st akenashom oge neous ,butt hes am ege ner almet hod appl i e st o m or ec om pl i cat e ds i t uat i ons . The oper at ori n qu es t i on i st he dens i t y devi at i on oper at or

H( x )= H ( x)-. x ' H ( x ) )

wh e r eq x H t x l li s t hee n s e mb l ea wr a g eo f t hed e n s i t yop e r a t or a n dd e p e n d s e x p l i c i t l y


on F and y. . Ther et ar de d andt e mp er at ur ef unc t i onsar egi v en by

i DR l xt , x' t ' )= Tr l ) c( ? ' i x ( x/ ) , # x ( x ' / ' ) J ) # ( ? -t ' ) gl xr s x' r ' )= -Tr1 / GFv ( : x ( x m ) h K ( x' r ' ) ) )
and havet he us ualFour i e rr e pr e s e nt at i ons

( 3 2 . l 0 ) ( 3 2 . l 1 )

DR L xtx ' ; ' )= ( 2 z r ) 4Jdhd c oe f q * t x x ' ) : t z a ( ! l ' ) oR ( q( z ) l gl x r , x' , r ' )= ( 2 7 43Jd3 ql ph l -') y e f q * t x x ' ) e ' z a t m r ' ) 5> ( q , p a ) 1 1
Le hmann r epr e s e nt a t i on ofea ch oft hes ef unc t i ons ,and wef i nd

( 3 2 . 1 2 ) ( 3 2 . l 3 )

wh e r ev a =l n n ' l lhde n ot e sa ne v e ni n t e g e r .l ti ss t r a i g h t f o r wa r dt oe v a l u a t et h e
DR ( . ,d c o ' h( q, ( s ' ) q, t z , )- h ' 1 V( . o- o ) ,+ i x l 9( c od l . o ' a( q , ( s ' ) q , ? %)= h X 2 , vi vn- t o,
-

( 3 2 . l 4 )

( 3 2 . 1 5 )

REALTI M E GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND LI NEAR RESPONSE

301

Whe r e

z t qq t s l= - . ( -q, -( , ? )

=e C 1j ( ( e # X l ( 2 . r r ) 3 jl q- -l ( P - Pj ) ) z r . r l g ( s- h1 ( #m- A ' j l j
l l n

x( 1- e b h c v l i l l ( J1 -)i 2 )( 3 2 . 1 6 )
Equ a t i o n s( 3 2 . l 4 )a n d( 3 2 . l 6 )t o g e t h e rs ho wt h a tD& ( q, f . , ) )i sa me r o mor ph i c f u n c t i ono ff . , ywi t hi t sp ol e sj u s tb e l ow t h er e a la x i s . Ea c hp oi ec o r r t s p o nd st o
a pos s i bl et r ans i t i on bet we en s t at est hatar econne c t ed by t he dens i t y oper at or .

I f. @ we r eg i v e ne x p l i c i t l yi ns pe c t r a lr e p r e s e nt a t i o n( Eq. ( 3 2 . 1 5 ) ) , t h e nt he
anal yt i cc ont i nuat i onwoul dbee l ement ar y. l npr ac t i c e, howev er , t hee xpr es s i ons t akea di f r er entf or m ,and i ti snec e s s ar yt o exam i n et he per t ur bat i on expans i on

f orf i ' i nmor ede t a i l . Equ a t i on( 3 2. l 1 )ma yb er e wr i t t e na s N' t x m , x' r ' )- v H x ( xm ) ) ) t l i x t x' z ' ) )
- -

Trt ) cF m E f h l x . ( x r ) v ' K x l x r ) f 4/x' ' r ' ) y V# ( x ' r ' ) ) )( 3 2 . I 7 )

whi ch can be t r ans f or me dt ot he i nt er act i on pi ct ur e. The s t e psar ei dent i c al wi t ht hos ei n Chap.7 ,an d we mer e l ys t at et he hnalr es ul t
*
-

j lj b h
:' 0

j h
0

V ' ' ( xm , x' m ' )= ' ) x t x' r l l( z i x t x ' ' r ' ) )-

1= ( ) ' 4

u- s

# ml'''

d r l

x Tr j t /f C l ( k a ) rT ( #j ( r . j )...#j t z j ) t / y t z t x z ) x' f z z t x ' r ) ' J z f j t x' , ) v k b l x' g ' ' l l l c o n n e c t e d

( 3 2 . 1 8 )

whe r et hes ubs cr i ptm e anst hatonl yc onne ct e d di agr am sar et o ber e t ai ned. I ti si m por t antt or e m embe rt hata connec t ed di agr am i s one i n whi ch

e v e r yp a r t i s j oi n e de i t he rt ot h ep oi n t x' ro rt h ep o i n tx' r ' . Thu sbo t hd i a g r a ms


i n Fi g.3 2. lar econs i der ed c onne ct e d. Ne ve r t h el es s ,t heyhav ea qui t edi f l kr ent s t r uc t ur e.be caus e Fi g.3 2. 1 :i t s e l fs epar at es i nt ot wo di s t i nc t pa r t s . The s um

o fa 1 ls u c hs e pa r a bl ec o nt r i bu t i on si sj u s tt h ep e r t u r b a t i o ne x p a n s i o no f ( ? i x ( xm ) )( H x ( x? ' r ' ) ) ,a n dp r e c i s e l yc a n c e l st h ef l r s tt e r m o nt h er i g h ts i d eo f Eq.( 3 2 . 1 8 ) . Co ns e q u e n t l y V' t x c , x' ' r ' )c o n s i s t sofa 1 lc on n e c t e d di a g r a msi n wh i c ht h ep oi n t sx ' ra n d x' r 'a r ej oi n e d by i n t e r n a ll i n e s . Fo re x a mp l e ,t h e
-

XT

17

Fi g.3 2. 1 Lowe s t or d e rc o nt r i bu t i on st o( J ) 1( x' r , x' r ' ) ( :)' r z i x t xr l )' t x t x' ' r . ' ) ) .

X' m'

x' ' r '

( J)

( h )

x:

FI NI TEIEM PEHATURE FORM ALI SM

o nl yz e r oor der c ont r i but i on i st hat gi v en i n Fi g.32. 1 J,and W i ck' st heor e m

a p pl i e dt oEq. ( 3 2 . 1 8 )y i e l d s

#0 ( x m , x ' r , ' ) =: ! : F. Q # ( x m , x ' m ' ) F( / a t x ' r ' , x m l


=

: 4 : ( 2 . 9 +1 ) F0 ( x m , x' m . )@0 ( x' r ' , x m l

( 3 2 . 1 9 )

I ti scl ea rt hat9 hast hts t r uct ur eofa pol ar i zat i on par t ,and,i ndee d, , V' ( l , 2)i s pr o po r t i o na lt ot h et ot a l po l a r i z a t i onJ l ( 1 , 2 ) . Ana r g u me n te x a c t l ya n a l o g o u s t ot h a tu s e di nob t a i n i n gEq. ( 1 2 . l 4 )g i v e s T( 1 , 2 ) = J 1 ( 1 , 2 ) ( 3 2 . 2 0 )
I nanys pe ci scpr obl e m, i ti sal wayse as i e rt oeval uat et hepr ope rpol ar i za t i on

J 1* and t he nt o de t er mi ne J l and . @ f r om Dys on' se quat i on. The anal ys i si s


par t i c ul a r l ys i m pl ef orauni f or ms ys t e m ,whe nt hes ol ut i on ofD ys on' sequa t i on r e duc est o

J 1 ( q, w) =J 1 * ( q , p ' 2( 1- A t ) t q y y t 2J 1 * ( q , v 21 1 = J 1 * ( q, v 2( 1- F( q ) J l * ( q , p ' a ) ) 1

( 3 2 . 2 1 )

Si n c eJ l * ( q , v a )i sap a r t i c u l a rpo l a r i z a t i oni n s e r t i o n, i t sLe hma nnr e p r e s e n t a t i on mu s th a v et h es a mef or ma st h a t f o rJ 1 ( q , %)a n d. @( q , p . ) : 'f J I * ( 4, =J f t t p ' * ( q s. ) L % ) = -x , xr I z ( 3 2 . 2 2 ) , ) / zl Pa (
-

wh e r eA* ( q, o ? ' )= -1* ( q , -( z g ' )i sr e a l . W ec a nn ow pe r f or mt h ea na l y t i cc on t i n u a t i o nf r o m@( q , p n )t o. DR ( q, ( , p ) ( Eq s . ( 3 2 . 1 4 )a n d( 3 2 . 1 5 ) j .I t i sc o n v e n i e n tt oi n t r o du c eaf u nc t i o no fac o mpl e x


var i abl ez

F( <z od o l ' l* ( q u , ' ) = c -2 ' ' ; , ) -* . a. z - t t l


t hatr e dt l c est o. J 1*atadi s c r e t es etofv al uesz= i v n:

( 3 2 . 2 3 )

J 1 * ( 4 , 1 G)= F( q , i > a )

( 3 2 . 2 4 )

i Anal yt i c ' % c on t i nu a t i o n i . 2 i i v v 1 *Z= o z+ j 5 i v- ) i v-z i y ' 3 Fi g. 32. 2 Anal yt i c cont i nuat i on f r om

Z( q, & % )t o1 1R ( q, a ) +i T s .

REALTI M E GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND LI N EAR RESPONSE

303

I nt hi sway,t hepol ar i z at i on c an bewr i t t enas

J 1 ( q, ' % )- 1 @( q, w)- Fl z b i v n ) ( 1- P ' ( q ) F( q , %) J 1

( 3 2. 2 5 )

S i n c et h ezd e pe n de n c ean da na l y t i cp r o p e r t i e so f F( q , z ) ( 1- P r t q l F( q , z ) j la r e
expl i ci ti n bot ht he upper and l owe r z pl ane ,t hi sf unc t i on can be i mm edi at e l y

c o n t i n u e do nt ot h er e a l a x i sz . > . ( . o+ l h( s e e Fi g. 3 2 . 2 ) , wh e r ei tg i v e st h ec o r r e s pondi ng r e t ar de df unc t i ons

l l R ( q . ( s )= 1 DR ( q , f . t ) )= F( q, ( . o+ j ? . y l ( 1- ) ' ( q) F( q , u ) +, ' ? . y ) j 1

( 3 2 . 2 6 )

3D SCREENI NG I N AN ELECTRON GAS A san e xam pl e oft hi st he or y,we s hal ls t udy t he r es pons eofa ne l e ct r on gast o an

appl i e ds c al ar pot ent i a l( p e x t xr ) . The e xt e r nalper t ur bat i on i st he s ame as i n Eq. ( l 3 . l l )( t h ec h a r g eon t h ee l e c t r on i s-e ' ) I q x l t )- -(db xH s( x/ ) t a t p e x t x/ ) ( 3 3 . j )

wh e r et h es u bs c r i ptH n ow de no t e s a He i s e n b e r gp i c t u r e wi t hr e s pe c tt oX = W -y , , 9,a si n Eq. ( 3 2. 6 ) . Fo rau ni f o r ms y s t e m,t h ei nd u c e dd e n s i t ya twa v e v e c t orqa ndf r e qu e n c y( . oi sg i v e nb y( c o mpa r eEq . ( 1 3 . l 8 ) j 3 ( ? i ( q , ( , a ) )= - 1DR ( q . ( s ) t ye x t q , t =)= -I I R ( q, t . s ) g ve x t q , t z ? ) Si n c e F( q , ( . o+ i T4i st h ec on t i n ua t i on ofp ' 1 * ( q , p ' o ) ,Eq s .( . 3 2 . 2 6 )a n d( 3 3 . 2 )r e l a t e
t hel i nearr e s pons eofa s ys t em i nt he r m odynam i cequi l i br i um t ot het ot alpr oper pol ar i z at i on e val uat ed i nt he t em per at ur ef or m al i s m. l npr ac t i ce : J1 *mus tbeappr oxi mat edbys omes el ec t eds e tofdi agr a ms ,and we now cons i der t he s i m pl e s tc hoi c e J1 0 ,s t u di e di n Se c.3 0. Com par s on of

Eqs . ( 3 0 . 9 ) , ( 3 2 . 2 2 ) , a n d( 3 2 . 2 3 )s h owst h a tF0 ( q , z ) i sgi v e nby


:3 no - no F0 ( q, z ) - -2 O j-. *1 pg ( =)h z- ( e o p + q- e , )

Thust hecor r es pondi ng r et ar ded f unct i on be com e s o 6 1 3 P n0 - nn

F( q, ( z ) +i T l= -2 ( 2 aj - . p + q op c =) ( . o+ I T- ( e p y . q- e p )
= -

d3 p

( 2 z 43 > +1 Qh u t +i x l - h2 p. q / r a
-

nn

l
1

h 3 3 . 4 ) ut+ I T + h2pq/ r n (
,

wher et hel a s tf or mi sobt ai ne d wi t h as i m pl eehangeofvar i a bl e s . Thi se quat i on appl i e sf or a l lF and p ,and cl ear l yr e pr oduce st he ze r ot em pe r at ur er et ar de d

a-

FI NI AUTEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

f u n c t i on l 70 R ( q, r s )a sF >0 ( Eq.( 1 5 . 9 ) J . Al t ho ug hac omp l e t ei n t e gr a t i o n of Eq .( 3 3 . 4 )wo u l d beq u i t ei nt r i c a t e ,t hee x p r e s s i o n sa l s o be c omes i mp l ei nt he


c l as s i c all i mi t ;wher et he di s t r i but i on f unct i on r e duce st o a gaus s i a nf unc t i on

n 0= e p b He b h 2 / / 2 m . Eq u a t i o n( 3 3 . 4 )c a nt h e nb ee v a l u a t e d us i n gc y l i n dr i c a l pol arc oor di nat esp= ps + k 1wi t h4a st hep o l a ra x i s : F0 ( q, ( . o+ ' , ? )- -l e $ . #2 p


. .

J( 2 , 4 s 2 r x p ( / J 2 ' a 2 ? . A 7 2 ) = # ,1 . e xp ' j . 2 , . g # ( : 1 2 + m ! ' ) 2 2 j 1 1 c n .i , . , . , c ,, , q j m) ' < l n f . s + i , J k , , q ; m -c oz zf -d p, e v nr . / ( p. . +1 4) 2 1 2 - J.2 , 7 ,. rL z m 1 1 X l / j ( s + i y : 2 , , q j mJ j o a + i . r l + l / j 2 p , q j m j( 3 3 . 5 )


-

wh e r eA= l z np hz l ml ki st h et h e r ma l wa v e l e ng t h( s e eEq. ( 3 0 . 2 4 ) 2 .
I t i sn ow c o nv e n i e n tt os e pa r a t eEq. ( 3 3 . 5 ) i n t oi t sr e a l a n di ma g i n a r yp a r t s :

F0 ( q, ( . o+ i T )= Ff ( q , f z ) ) + F ( q , t z ) )

( 3 3 . 6 )

z ? ( q , ( s ) 2 , p , z c . ,j . a A . e x p g / x r + z m b q t z h l j ( l z ' b o h o l + l l p q l m j( 3 3 . 7 * z @ ( q . r . , ) l e j s z z . ( o . t y e x p g # ( # z f m 1 4 ) 2 2 j j j l a j ( s f m p q j / ) z j ( y y ( . v + h l m p q ) j( a a . , 7 , )
' x

Fur t her m or e,w' es ha l l us et he t her modynami cr el at i ons obt ai ne d pr e vi ous l y

g Eq .( 3 0 . 3 4 ) )t oe l i n n i n a t et hec h e mi c a lpo t e n t i a lr ti nf a v o ro ft hed e ns i t yn . S i n c eU ( q ) F0 ( q, ( s )i s a l r e a d yof or de re 2 , i ti sp e r mi s s i b l et or e t a i n on l yt h el e a d i n g

t e r me b i ; k . ! . n A 3 . Th ei ma g i n a r yp a r tFi se a s i l ye v a l u a t e d, a n dwe5n d
( 3 3 . 8 ) I ti sc l e a rt ha tFi sa no d df un c t i ono f( . oa n dv a n i s h e sa t( . o= 0 ,i na g r e e me n t

/ y ( t ? , u ? ) r l q a ' ( j n p m ) A e x p ( l . a T q t ' . / ' ' h l m q ' j S i n h j q j s p . h o . , l

wi t ht heant i s ym m e t r y oft hewe i ghtf unc t i on*.

REALTI M E GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND LI NE AR RESPONSE

305

I nc on t r a s t ,t h er e alp a r tFfc a nn o tb ee xp r e s s e di nt e r mso fe l e me n t a r y


f unct i ons ,buta c hangeofva r i abl e syi e l ds

F q , o , b I q ( ! q m l ' ( * g ( . i , z 4 ) + ( ) + . a / i f s y l j * g t . l n k p l . ( ' 4 2 ' ) , T ) 1 )


( 3 3 . 9 )
whe r e

i st he r e alpar toft he pl as ma di s pe r s i on f unc t i on. l l ft hei nt e gr and i sm ul t i pl i ed

b y( x+ y ) , I ( x4 y ) , t h er e s u l tma yb er e wr i t t e na s ( 3 3 . 1 1 )
ym pt ot i cf or mi s obt ai ne d wh i c hs ho ws t h a t*( x)i sa n od df u n c t i o n. The as
by e xpandi ng t he i nt egr and f or l ar ge x

*( . X )- X -1 ( l+ 1 . 1 2i -''
.

( 3 3 . l 2 )

butt he behav i or f or s ma l l. , ' tr e qui r es a l i t t l e mor e ef l br t . Equat i on ( 3 3. 1 0) s howst hat*( 0 )= 0 ,b e u a u s et hei n t e g r a n di st he na no dd f u n c t i o no fy. Di f f e r e n t i a t eEq.( 3 3 . 1 0 )wi t hr e s p e c tt oxa n di n t e g r a t eb yp a r t s . Ther e s u l t i n g
expr e s s i on m ay be r ear r ange dt o yi e l d

*' ( x )= 2 - 2 x*( x . )
whi c h hast hes ol ut i on

( 3 3 . l 3 )

* ( x ) =2 e x 2 j x # > ' p ' 2


Wes e et h a t*( x )i sa ne n t i r ef u n c t i o no fx, a n dad i r e c te x pa n s i ong i v e s

( 3 3 . 1 4 )

t D( Y )1 k 7 2 . X ( 1- i ' . X 2+ .'' )
To be s pe ei f i c , as s um e t hat t he ex t er nal pe r t ur ba t i on i s a pos i t i v e poi nt

c ha r g ewi t hp o t e n t i a l+* ' ( q . t z ) )= 4 = Ze q2 2 =( 5 ( ( z ? ) . W et h e r e f o r ene e d on l yt he z e r o f r e qu e nc yc omp o he n to f DR ( q , o , ) ;a c o mbi n a t i on ofEqs .( 3 2. 2 6 ) ,( 3 3 . 2 ) ,


1Thi sf unct i on i st abul at edi nB. D.Fr i edandS.D.Cont e,' e l hePl as maDi s per si on Funct i on. * ' Ac ademi cPr es s ,New York,1961 ,

3g6

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORM ALI SM

( 3 3 . 8 ) , a n d( 3 3 . 9 )y i e l d st h ei n d uc e dc h a r g ed e ns i t y

( ) ( x ) )= -e 3 ( ? i ( x) ) #% f q x P ( t ? ) F% . 0 ) = ze
= -

j( a , o ) ej s t t y ; s y t o o #3 : f ( ? / ) . g ' l ( A ) ze j( z . j y eg z . ) . g j g j f q y
qx

( 3 3 . 1 6 )
( 3 3 . 1 7 )

wh e r eq y= ( 4 o wc 2 j) 1i st he r e c i p r o c a lo ft h e De by es hi e l di n :l e n g t ha n d A= ( 2 =h 2 #/ , A ; ) 1i st h et h e r ma lwa v e l e n g t h( s e eEq s . ( 3 0. 3 9 )a n d( 3 0. 2 4 ) ) . He r e t h ef u nc t i ongj t y )i sg i v e nb y

# 1 ( . $= 2 z ' r + . F 1 ( I I ( z J 1 1
and hast hef ol l owi ng l i mi t i ng beha vi or

:1 ( . $; k 1+ 0( . F 2 ) y. , c :1 ( 3 3 . 1 8 ) gl ( y)- 8 7 . 12 y> 1 ( 3 3 . 1 9 ) Equ a t i on ( 3 3 . 1 6 )i sc l e a r l yv e r ys i mi l a rt o Eq .( 1 4. 1 4 ) ,a n d mos to ft h es a me


r em ar ksappl y.

l .Thet ot ali nduc ed c har gei s

3: =J#' x3 ( ) ( x) )=-ze
s ot hatt hei m pur i t yi sc om pl e t e l ys cr ee ned a tl ar gedi s t ance s .

( 3 3 . 2 0 )

2 .Th ei n t e g r a n d va ni s h e sI i k e q4a sq. + . c c ) ,wh i c he n s u r e st h a t3 ( ) ( x ) )i s


bounde d ev er y whe r e ,i n cl udi ng x = 0. 3.Thes i ngul ar g-2de pe nde nceat s m al l g2i sc ut of l att hei nv er s eD ebyes cr ee ni ng

l e n g t hq n= l 4 = n e z pl ' t ,whi c hj u s t i s e so uru s eo fa c u t o f m j nc ce i n Eq. ( 3 0. 2 8 ) . Si n c egl ( ( ? A )i sa ne n t i r ef u n c t i ono fqh ,i ti si n sn i t e l yd i f l kr e nt i a bl e t h r o u g ho u tt h ec ompl e xq p l a n e . Th ea s y mpt o i i cb e h a v i o ro f3 t ) ( x) ) t h e r e f o r ec a nb eob t a i n e dwi t ht h ea pp r o x i ma t i o ngj t )a ; gl ( 0 )= 1 , b e c a u s e t h et e r msn e g l e c t e da r eo fo r d e r( sA ) 2( x : ( a e 2 j) ( / i 2 j / n 1 )= ( n 1e l l j l hz n k pj l . n j < t1g : s e et h ed i s c us s i o nf o l l owi ngEq . ( 3 0 . 4 8 ) ) : 3 i q e x / ) Xj f : ? ( x) )- -Ze #3 je , ( 2 *) q + q o
= -

Zt N ( 4 ' r r x ) ' e q B x

( 3 3 . 21 )

Thi sex pr e s s i on e xhi bi t st he r ol e ofgoiasa cl a s s i ca ls c r e eni ng l en gt h and i s

i d e n t i c a l wi t hEq . ( 3 0 . 41 : )wh i c hd e s c r i b e sane g a t i v e l yc h a r g e di mpu r i t y. At


z er ot e m pe r at ur e,t he s har p Fe r m is ur f ace m odi ie dt he as ym pt ot i c char ge

d e n s i t yb yi nt r o du c i n ga d d i t i o n a ld omi n an to s c i l l a t or yt e r ms( Eq.( 1 4 . 2 6 ) J ;

REALTI M E GREEN' S FUNCTI ONS AND LI NEAR RESPONSE

307

no S uc h be ha vi or oc cur si nt hepr e s e ntc l as s i c a ll i mi t ,bec aus et he di s t r i but i on f unct i onsar e5 m 00t h.

3K PLASM A OSCI LL ATI O NS I N AN ELECTRON GAS The pr es e ntf or ma l i s m al s o can be us e dt os t udy t he c ol l e ct i ve os c i l l at i onsofa s ys t em i nt he r m odynam i ce qui l i br i um ,and w' e now exa mi ne t he pl as m a os ci l l a-

t i o n si na ne l e c t r ong a s .l f t hes y s t e mi ss u b j e c t e dt oa ni mpu l s i v ep e r t u r b a t i o n @e x t x/ l= @( ) t ? i q x 3 ( / ) ,t he a s s o c i a t e di n d uc e dd e n s i t yb e c o me s( c ompa r e Eq. ( 1 5 . 7 ) ) o io 3 ( H ( xr ) ) F. ( v , t . , a )+ i Fb l q, t t q-x dk a f =. -e poe yur sj g, ( s ). . j st ( y ) sz t t y ol = e 1( q) j wh e r eF( q , ( . o+ i T)h a sb e e ns e p a r a t e di n t oi t sr e a la nd i ma g i n a r yp a r t s ,a si n Eq.( 3 3 . 6 ) . Thena t u r a lo s c i l l a t i o nf r e qu e nc i e sa r ed e t e r mi n e d byt h ep ol e so f
..

t he r et ar de d dens i t y cor r el at i on f unc t i on,w' hi c h oc cura tt hes ol ut i onsf z q- i yq oft hee quat i on

1- 1 , ' ( t ? ) Fl ( , Dq- i y q )- 1 * F ' ( 4 2 ) #c ( ( ? , t ' l q -i yq )= 0


Thi s des c r i pt i on i se nt i r e l y g ene r al . l ft he e xac t pr ope r pol ar i z at i on

A* l q t v n li sa p pr ox i ma t e db yt h ez e r o or de rp o l a r i z a t i onJ 1 0 ( ( ? , s) ,weob t a i nt he fn i t e t e mp e r a t u r eg e n e r a l i z a t i o no fEq. ( 1 5 . 1 0 ) . Th et h e o r ybe c ome se s pe c i a l l y

s i mp l ei nt hec l a s s i c a ll i mi t ,wh e nt h ep r e v i ou se x p r e s s i on sf o rFfa n d F?a r e


a ppl i c abl e . Fur t he r m or e ,we as s um e t ha tt he dam pi ng i ss ma l l ,s ot hatt her ea l

a ndi ma g i n a r ypa r t so fEq. ( 3 4 . 2 )be c omc

1- p ' ( :) F l q . f j q ) F ( C : f . ' 3 -' y q- F@ ( , f 1 q )0 ) C O o

( 3 4 . 4 )

A ss hown be l ow,t hi si sa good a ppr oxi m at i on f or( 1c . tqo,whe ni ti spos s i bl et o

e v a l u a t eFfwi t ht hea s y mp t o t i cf or mg i v e ni nEq. ( 3 3 . 1 2 ) .As t r a i g h t f o r wa r d


c al cul a t i on yi e l ds

# ( t ? , f . ' J )Q J j 1+ j z1 -''' m' z n f x p


Equ a t i o n( 3 4. 3 )t h e nr e du c e st o
j=

nq2

3 V2

q*( )

4=nel 3 g2 y j. j . . y

mq

j r n t l q

wi t ht he a ppr oxi m at es ol t l t i on

f l q ' i n t a p l g l + 3 j j q . # n ) 2 1

( 3 4 . 7 )

at s

FI NI TETEM PERATURE FORMAUI SM

wh e r ef l p la n dq oa r eg i v e ni n Eq s .( 1 5. 1 8 )a nd ( 3 0. 3 9 ) . Thec ol l e c t i v emo d e
aga i nr e pr e s ent sa pl as m a os ci l l at i on,and t he di s pe r s i on r el at i on hast he s am e

f or ma sa tF = 0( c o mp a r eEq. ( 1 5 . 1 7 ) ) .
Thesni t et e m pe r at ur ei nt r oduc e sone ne wf e at ur e,howev er ,be caus et hes e c ol l e ct i v e m odesar e now dam pe d,e ve ni nt he l owe s t or de ra ppr oxi ma t i on of

r e t a i n i n go n l yJ l O . Si n c eJ f l p l = Ol q oh j < 1a th i g ht e mp e r a t u r e s ,Eq .( 3 3 . 8 )
ma yb ea pp r o x i ma t e db y( q< : . : q o )

K lt z l ( J F ( , ( s ) = q r r j r n l l e x p ( V K l 1 q t * 2 2 j

( 3 4. 8 )

Th ed e r i v a t i v eofEq. ( 3 4 . 5 )c a nb ec o mb i n e dwi t h Eq s . ( 3 4 . 4 )a nd( 3 4 . 8 )t og i v e

O XI I SQ i ' g J ' j ( g , c i n o p j ) g a . ; . . ; o p y j = q3 f c l t ' ' ' * l t i ' r l ' e x p ( D l J ' q m 2 j 0 , ( . 4 . , , ) + ( % ; ) ' e x p g j ' ( % q 1 ? ) 2 j
-

As e xpe ct e df r om gene r alcons i de r at i ons ,w i spos i t i v e,and bot h pol e s of DR 1 i ei nt he I ower hal f pl ane a tu ); k ; u i n f p !- i yq . The appr oxi m at i on of s m al l

d a mpi n gi sf ul l yj u s t i : e da tl o n gwa v e l e n g t h s . b e c a u s el yq / f h v l v a n i s h e se x po n e n t i al l y. Thi swe ak dampi ngi sknownasLandauda m pi ng, lbec aus eLandau was

t h ef i r s tt on ot et h a t t h es o l u t i o nso fEq. ( 3 4. 2 ) a r ec o mpl e xi ns t e a dof r e a l .I ti s


i nt er e s t i ng t hatt he t e m per a t ur e aFe c t s bot ht he dam pi ng and t he ql c or r e ct i on t ot he di s per s i on r e l at i on,butdoe s notal t e rt he f undament alpl a s maf r e quenc y.

PRO BLEM S

9. 1. I fEo ( Nji st he gr ounds t at ee ner gy ofa Fe r mis ys t e m wi t h N par t i c l e s .


s how t hatt hegr and par t i t i onf unc t i on atl ow t em per at ur em ay bewr i t t enappr oxi -

ma t e l ya se b t ' l e b E z N Q b l x % ' ' z ? g 2 r r / jQ' ' ( A% ) ) + ,wh e r e. N' e ( p , )i sd e sn e d by t h e


r e l a t i o n Eo ' ( Nf t )= r za nd t h ep r i me sd e n ot e di f l kr e n t i a t i o n wi t hr e s p e c tt o N. W hyc anNobei dent i sedast hemeannumbe rofpar t i cl es? Eva l uat eEq. ( 3l . 1 2) i nt h es a mea p pr o xi ma t i o na n dp r o v et h a t6( k, ( . o- gh l v o= G( k , t z ? ) ,wh e r eG
i st heze r ot e m per a t ur ef unct i on ofChap.3.

9. 2. Eva l uat et he we i ght f unc t i on p( x, x' . ( s) f or t he Har t r e eFoc k Gr e en* s f u n c t i on ( 2 7 . 8 ) . Fi n dt h ec or r e s po n di n gr e a l t i meGr e e n' sf u n c t i o n C( x , x ' , Y)
and t her e t ar de d and a dva