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McCoy (2004). Your Voice: An Inside View. Chapter 9 (pp. 107135) Thurman & Welch (2000). Bodymind & Voice. Vol.2, Chapter 6 (pp.356366) Malde, Allen & Zeller (2009). What Every Singer Needs to Know About the Body. Chapter 1 & 2 (pp. 146)

Voice Anatomy 101

1. Briefly review the whole body as an instrument 2. Outline important factors concerning body alignment 3. Identify the structural elements of the larynx and vocal tract; extrinsic & intrinsic.

This module seeks to provide a brief overview of the vocal instrument; both holistically (as a whole-body instrument) and topically (larynx and vocal tract). At the end of the session, the student teacher should be able to label key components of the vocal apparatus and nominate their functional characteristics.

1. The BIG Picture

Before zoning in on the apparatus that creates the sound (the larynx), it is important to take a look at the big picture. It is all too easy to forget that the instrument is the whole person. When we see a guitar we dont single out the string as the sole component that produces the sound. A guitar is the sum total of its parts. Yes, it is the string that vibrates and agitates the air, thus producing sound-wave patterns. But the string is completely useless without the body of the guitar. So it is with our voice. The vocal folds oscillate to form sound, but the resulting sound is affected by the instrument that encases it.

The first step towards monitoring the voice as a whole (i.e. the body) is to develop kinaesthetic awareness. MaryJean Allen (2009) defines kinaesthesia as the perception of your body in motion: how it moves, where it moves, and the quality of that movement (p. 5). Specifically, when we sing, the body moves both on an extrinsic level (arm gestures, head movements etc.) and on an intrinsic level (empathetic vibrations, muscular movements etc.).

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So how does one develop kinaesthetic awareness? Allen provides us with a list of helpful ideas designed to orientate our awareness to different body parts and motions (pp. 45): a. Study: unlike other instruments such as the piano or violin which are external to our own bodies, many of the operational characteristics of the voice are internal. This simple fact means that we need to ensure that our mental picture of what is taking place is anatomically accurate. It is therefore important to study anatomical models and illustrations to ensure what you imagine is taking place is anatomically true. Scott McCoy (2012) writes,
As singers and teachers, we face two perennial problems related to physiology: 1) most of the vocal mechanism is not visible under normal circumstances; 2) kinaesthetic feedback we receive while singing often is inaccurate. Knowledge of the physiologic connections in the voice, beginning with the respiratory system and moving on to phonation, resonance, and articulation, helps ameliorate these difficulties. (p. 529)

b. Use the Mirror: We are outward looking creatures; that is we are constantly looking away from ourselves. The use of a mirror is extremely helpful in observing our bodies in motion. Allen asks the question, How does what I see differ from what I expect to see? (p. 5). Observing yourself in a mirror can be quite illuminating; revealing those actions we were otherwise unaware of. c. Draw the area to be mapped: You dont have to be Da Vinci to put pen to paper and sketch the different body parts. Drawing anatomy can be helpful when associating size and proportion. d. Ask specific questions: Be inquisitive! Sometimes the simple questions can be revealing in the level of detail that they expose. For example, you might like to consider what are the main muscles employed when swallowing. This enquiry in turn might lead you to ask, Are these the same muscles used when lowering and lifting the larynx? Furthermore, what does this tell us about how the larynx acts when it is away from its point of midline rest? And so the questions keep rolling e. Move: Once you have started to form an accurate mental picture with a heightened sense of physical awareness its time to move. Moving the instrument (your body) requires the monitoring of multiple sensory inputs all at once. Now that you are moving, start singing what are you experiencing? Are you able to manage all of your bodys sensory signals at once? f. Relate: Do you notice any relationships between different body parts and their individual activities? For example, if your neck tilts back, what do you observe in your voice, your back and even your feet?

A highly developed kinaesthetic awareness seems to be the hallmark of an advanced performer, so that he is able to concentrate on many things other than vocal technique. (Nisbet, 2010, p. 109)

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Body Alignment
As we become more aware of the whole instrument we may start to notice the necessity for structural alignment; i.e. the human body works best as a sound making instrument when the skeletal structure and the muscular scaffolding has achieved a state of balance and alignment (Shewell, 2009; Thurman et al., 2000). Unfortunately, the human body does not have a natural propensity for good postural alignment. Meribeth Bunch Dayme (2009) notes, Some typical problems teachers will see and have to correct are improper position of the head, rounded shoulders, a cramped chest, and excessively arched lower back (lordosis) and locked knees (p. 59). So what does good body alignment look like? The first thing to consider when seeking good body alignment is the structural makeup of the human skeleton. The following image (Figure 1) shows the human skeleton and its six points of balance:

1. A-O Joint (Atlas-Occiput)

2. Shoulders

3. Thoracic & Lumber Interplay

4. Hip Joints

5. Knee Joints

6. Ankle Joints

Figure 1: Human Skeleton & Points of Balance

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Allen (2009) states that, accurately mapping the six places of balance gives singers an extremely powerful set of singing tools (p. 25). Lets define these 6 points of balance: 1. A-O Joint: The skull (occiput) is centrally balanced on the top cervical vertebra (atlas). The A-O joint provides feedback as to the position and movement of the head in relationship to the rest of the body situated below it. 2. Shoulders: Apart from housing the shoulder socket in which the arm attaches to the thorax, the shoulders also contribute to the structure and scaffolding of the ribcage (via the framework of muscles that attach to the Clavicle and Scapula). Allen highlights, To balance your arm structure, the rest of your body must already be in balance (p. 40). 3. Thoracic and Lumber Interplay: The largest mass of the human body is found in the thorax. If the thorax is not suitably balanced over the lower points of balance (Hips, Knees, Ankles) then undue muscular tension may be distributed above the thorax. This in turn forms an undesirable housing of the larynx; i.e. the larynx will be encased in muscular tension that is likely to restrict its efficient and sustainable manoeuvrings. 4. Hip Joints: Beautifully designed, the hip joints evenly distribute the weight of your body through your legs and into the floor. It is important to keep your hip joints aligned; ensuring that the pelvis does not tuck under (allowing the position of the spine to collapse into the pelvic girdle; Figure 2). Equally, the pelvis should not be allowed to thrust forward (causing the spine to curve through the lumber portion of the back). 5. Knee Joints: It has been noted with the other points of alignment that Figure 2: Pelvic Girdle (Hips) a lack of balance in one place will likely result in poor balance and alignment in others. So too with the knee joints. If the knee moves into a locked position, the rest of the body (particularly the thorax) will often compensate with muscular tension that is not conducive to good singing. 6. Ankle Joints: Free and agile movement of the entire body is dependent on balanced and responsive ankle joints. Balanced and responsive ankle joints are dependent on the relational alignment of everything above them as Allen explains:
The ankle joints will stiffen if the thorax is not balanced in relation to the lumber spine, and fluid free movement will not be available to you. There is also a direct relationship between balance at youre A -O joint and balance at your ankle joints. Therefore, first balance at your A-O joint, then balance your thorax in relation to your lumber spine. Next, balance at your hip and knee joints, and then you will be ready to balance at your ankle joints. Thus, in order to distribute weight efficiently and easily to the floor, the ankle joints require upper body balance as described. (p. 38)

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2. The Larynx & Surrounding Anatomy

Before zoning in on the larynx and surveying its surrounding anatomy, it is important for me to note here that I am skipping the anatomy of breathing in this module in preference for highlighting Breath Management as a stand-alone module.1 A second disclaimer must also be applied before continuing. Laryngeal anatomy is highly complex and our hunger for knowledge about this incredible instrument is extracting new understanding every day via research conducted across the globe. Accordingly, that which follows is limited by two factors: (i) the breadth of the subject matter must be restricted to the scope of this module; i.e. a brief review.2 (ii) All information supplied below is current (and appropriately referenced) as of the time of writing; but is subject to more highly refined understandings as they come to light via new research. This might go without saying, but I find it necessary to remind my readers of this fact given the exciting pace at which our pursuit of new knowledge is moving. With these two governing factors in place, lets proceed

The Superstructure
The major framework of the larynx consists of one bone (hyoid) and a number of cartilages (Figure 3). The superstructure of the larynx is suspended underneath the hyoid bone and because the hyoid has no joint connecting it to the skeleton, it enjoys a substantial freedom of movement (McCoy, 2004, p. 113). The hyoid bone also provides the anchor point for many of the extrinsic muscles which in turn are important for swallowing.

Figure 3: Larynx Cartilages - Sagittal Section

Many structures important in singing share common points of origin and attachment; improper postures and tensions therefore are easily transferred from one location to another. This is particularly true of jaw and tongue tensions, which are passed directly along to the larynx from the hyoid. (p. 114)

For some, this might break with the natural flow of inquiry, however I believe that Breath Management and the accompanying review of associated anatomy requires in-depth investigation and break-down; given that breath is fundamental to all sound moreover, breath fuels the voice and advances every other vocal activity that might be nominated. 2 Those wishing to know more about the anatomy of the larynx are directed to read the excellent works written by Thurman & Welch (Bodymind & Voice), McCoy (Your Voice: An Inside View), Sunberg (The Science of the Singing Voice), and many others. Page 5 Voice Anatomy 101 2013 Dr Daniel K. Robinson

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There are five cartilages that form the superstructure of the larynx: 1. Thyroid Cartilage: Often referred to as the Adams Apple the thyroid cartilage is often seen to protrude from the neck on most men. The word thyroid has been taken from the Greek word which literally means shield-like; because the thyroid cartilage, the largest piece of structure in the larynx is like a shield protecting the inner workings of the mechanism. 2. Cricoid Cartilage: Shaped like a signet ring (large portion at the back, smaller band at the front) the cricoid cartilage sits directly below the thyroid cartilage. The cricoid is attached to the inferior horns of the thyroid cartilage through synovial joints3, which allow the cartilages to both pivot and slide in position relative to each other (p. 114). The cricoid cartilage is both the top of the tracheal stem (windpipe) and the base of the larynx. 3. Arytenoid Cartilage: Situated at the rear of the mechanism, the two (left and right) arytenoid cartilages straddle the cricoid cartilage like a rider mounts a horse. Synovial joints connect the arytenoids to the cricoid, permitting them to rotate on its surface and to slide together and apart (p. 115). 4. Epiglottis: Arguably the most important piece of moving structure within the larynx, the epiglottis forms the front wall of the space above the vocal folds, with the aryepiglottic folds running back from the epiglottis to the arytenoid cart ilages (Shewell, 2009, p. 163). The epiglottis is crucial to the survival of the human being because it directs food and fluid into the oesophagus and away from the larynx by closing off the airway; thus preventing chocking and/or drowning. 5. Tracheal Stem: The tracheal stem is made-up of incomplete cartilaginous rings. These rings are connected by a flexible membrane which in turn allows for the lowering and lifting of the larynx.

Extrinsic Muscles
Situated directly beneath the jaw and mouth, the larynx sits front and centre in the neck (Figure 4). Lieberman and Chapman (1998) describe the position of the larynx stating, Anatomically, the larynx is not attached to the spinal column, but is suspended between the skull and the sternum through a complicated network of muscles (p. 2). The extrinsic musculature not only suspends the larynx in place, but also directly influences the activity of the larynx and in doing so can impact phonation both positively and negatively. Scott McCoy (2004), in his book, Your Voice: An Inside View, groups the extrinsic

Figure 4: Position of Larynx

A synovial joint is different to a cartilaginous joint or a fibrous joint because of the existence of small cushions (filled with lubricating synovial fluid) that sit between the articulating structures. Page 6 Voice Anatomy 101 2013 Dr Daniel K. Robinson

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musculature into three groups according to their collective roles (pp. 125129): i. Constrictor Muscles: wrapping around the entire vocal tract, constrictor muscles assist in swallowing. Additionally, the constrictors (superior, middle, inferior) influence pitch-control. ii. Laryngeal Elevators: These muscles serve to raise and lower the larynx.
a. Thyrohyoid Muscle: situated between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage, the thyrohoid muscle serves to lift the larynx and partially close the gap between the two structural points. Excess[ive] tension in this muscle is [a] common factor in the vocal pathology known as muscular tension dysphonia, which can lead to a chronic breathy sound resulting from incomplete glottal closure (p. 127). b. Anterior & Posterior Digastric: Dual purpose muscles, the paired digastric both raise the larynx and lower the jaw. McCoy notes that unfortunately, this muscle is very adept at performing these two functions simultaneouslythe juxtaposition of a tight, over extended jaw with a lifted larynx is frequently seen in younger singers (p. 127) c. Stylohyoid: Associated mostly with swallowing, this muscle pulls the thyroid (via the hyoid) both up and back. d. Mylohyoids: Forming the muscular floor of the mouth these muscles raise the hyoid bone or lower the mandible. e. Geniohyoid: Extending from the point of the chin back to the hyoid bone, the geniohyoid muscle either depresses the mandible or raises the larynx via a lifting of the hyoid bone. f. Hyoglossus: This powerful muscle acts to assist swallowing by depressing the back of the tongue.

g. Genioglossus: Known as the tongue-sticker-outer muscle (p. 128), the genioglossus is the largest tongue muscle.


Laryngeal Depressors: Also known as the infrahyoid muscles, this group of muscles mostly exert a lowering influence on the larynx and hyoid bone. When they are unnecessarily engaged during speaking or singing, they can contribute to a common interference with the internal laryngeal musclesespecially when singing so-called low pitches (Thurman, Welch, Theimer, Feit, & Grefsheim, 2000, p. 364). There are three laryngeal depressors:
a. Sternothyroid: Connected between the inside surface of the sternum and the lower edge of the thyroid cartilage. A singers ultimate goal should be the release of tension from these muscles that would elevate the larynx (McCoy, 2004, p. 128). b. Sternohyoid: An over-active sternohyoid muscle may drag the larynx downwards as it reduces the distance between the sternum and the hyoid. c. Omohyoid: These large muscles originate from the shoulder blades (scapula omo). Presence of these muscles gives further explanation as to why excess tension in the shoulders can negatively impact the singing voice (p. 129).

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The false depressors are normally used in swallowing, eating, and other non-vocal tasks and can involve inappropriate tensions not conducive to good voicing. Of particular concern are the use of tongue root and jaw muscles. The only true depresses of the larynx are the sternothyroid, the sternohyoid, and omohyoid muscles. In singing the most important of these is the sternothyroid. (Chapman & Morris, 2006a, p. 74)

Figure 5: Posterior view of Larynx

Intrinsic Muscles
The external muscles of the larynx are given to the positioning of the larynx within the neck, and although they have an indirect bearing on the production of sound, it is the intrinsic muscles of the larynx which are directly responsible for phonation. There are seven intrinsic muscles which combine to form vocal sounds: 1. Thyroarytenoid (TA): Also known as the TA muscle, the thyroarytenoid is the largest intrinsic muscle. As its name suggests, it runs between the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages; thus, there are two thyroaytenoids (left and right). This muscle forms the body of the vocal fold and is responsible for the shortening and thickening of the vocal folds.

2. Cricothyroid (CT): Working in team with cricoarytenoid muscles the Cricothyroid (CA) serves to elongate (lengthen) the vocal folds. It does this by working both with and against the thyroarytenoid muscles. This is called an agonistic-antagonistic relationship.4 3. Lateral Cricoarytenoid (LCA): Primarily engaged for the adduction (closure) of the vocal folds, the lateral cricoarytenoids rotate the arytenoids, bringing the vocal processes together to close the anterior portion of the glottis (McCoy, 2004, p. 118). 4. Interarytenoidtransverse & oblique (IA): Without the interarytenoid muscle the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid alone would produce an incomplete closure of the vocal folds. 5. Posterior Cricoarytenoid (PCA): The lateral cricoarytenoid, with the help of the interarytenoids, draws the vocal folds together (adduction). Of course this must be appropriately countered with musculature designed to retract the adduction. The posterior cricoarytenoids do just that! On

A similar relationship is observed between the bicep and the tricep. Muscles can only contract. They need another muscle to pull them out of that contraction. When you lift your arm the bicep contracts pulling the passive tricep out of its contraction; which had the arm extended. This agonistic-antagonistic relationship is required for the shortening (TA) and lengthening (CA & CT) of the vocal folds. Page 8 Voice Anatomy 101 2013 Dr Daniel K. Robinson

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contraction, the arytenoids are rotated in a direction opposite of the action induced by the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles, thereby opening the glottis (p. 118). 6. Aryepiglottic: Used primarily for the folding of the epiglottis to protect the airway during swallowing, the aryepiglottic muscle is also used in the production of the contemporary resonance quality referred to as twang. 7. Thyroepiglottic: Working in team with the aryepiglottic muscle the thyroepiglottic is primarily employed for the function of swallowing.

The Vocal Folds

The final stop on our whirlwind tour of the larynx reviews the section which actually makes the sound: the vocal folds. Both vocal folds have a cartilaginous portion (posterior two-fifths of the length) and a membranous portion. The vocal processes of the two arytenoid cartilages are wedged into the posterior two-fifths of the two folds making them somewhat rigid (Thurman, Welch, et al., 2000, p. 362). Also known as vocal cords the vocal folds are approximately 3 mm long in the new born infant and grow to about 9 to 13 mm and 15 to 20 mm in adult female and males respectively (Sundberg, 1987, p. 6).
Figure 6: Larynx Sagittal Section

Christina Shewell (2009), in her text Voice Work: Art and Science in Changing Voices displays Mathiesons table of the vocal folds and how they move (p. 168). The table is reproduced below: The Two Functional Layers

The Five Histological Layers

(see Figure 7, p. 2)

Epithelium (the outer layer); covered by mucous membrane Superficial layer of lamina propria: gelatinous (Reinkes space). Strong vibrations in phonation. Intermediate layer of lamina propria: elastic fibres. Deep layer of lamina propria: collagenous fibres Vocalis muscle: the middle part of the thyroarytenoid muscle. It controls the shape and tone of the vocal fold.

The Cover
This travels over the vocal fold body in mucosal waves. These begin on the under surface of the fold, and travel up and over the top of the body of the fold, so its movement is in a vertical dimension.

The Body
This bounces inwards and outwards in a slightly elliptical path.

Table 1: Mathieson's Vocal Fold Layers

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Vocal Fold Movement

The complexity of vocal fold movement is what separates it from other man-made instruments. The manner in which the sound commences (onset: aspirate/simultaneous/glottal), the vibratory nature (thick/thin fold, long/short, long phase/short phase etc.) and the release (offset) of sound all contribute to unique sounds not to mention what happens to the sound once it travels through the vocal tract via the resonators and articulators. McCoy (2004) describes vocal fold oscillation as eight steps across a single cycle of vibration (p. 111): i. ii. iii. The vocal folds are gently closed by muscular forces within the larynx; Air pressure increases beneath the closed folds; Increasing air pressure begins to open the glottis. Because of the ability of the cover to move independently of the body, this opening begins on the underside of the glottis; iv. The glottis continues to open from the bottom to top, until air begins to escape; v. As the air begins to flow through the glottis, its velocity increases and its pressure decreases through the Bernoulli Effect;5 vi. Reduced pressure in the flowing air is no longer sufficient to hold the glottis open; vii. As soon as the glottis is fully closed, the process begins again, repeating as many times per second as the frequency of the pitch being spoken or sung.
Figure 7: Vocal Fold Histology

Figure 8: Vocal Fold Oscillation


For more information on the Bernoulli Effect the interested reader is encouraged to review McCoys excellent explanation in his text, Your Voice: An Inside View (McCoy, 2004, p. 110). Page 10 Voice Anatomy 101 2013 Dr Daniel K. Robinson

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Your true vocal folds are neurally connected to you biceps. Your false vocal folds are neurally connected to your triceps musclesThe nerve pathways linked to triceps and biceps get the story about your death-grip on the mike stand and pass that constricting tension down the line to your true and false vocal foldsyou think your grabbing that mike in order to add passion and power to your voice, and all it really does is to restrict the range of your sound by forcing your vocal folds to constrict. (Wilson, 2001, p. 59)

3. The Vocal Tract: Resonators & Articulators

Once the sound (having been initiated by the oscillation of the vocal folds) enters the vocal tract it is shaped and manipulated by the resonators and articulators. Sally-Anne Chalmers (2009) describes the developmental pathway of the voice well when she writes:
The Voice is often described as having several components. The Actuator is the breath, the power source and energy of the voice. The Vibrator is the pair of vocal folds which is the valve-like structure of muscle and tissue. The Resonator is the vocal tract, a combination of the larynx, the pharynx and the oral cavity amplifying the sound. And finally the Articulators are primarily the tongue and lips which shape the sound into meaningful units. (pp. 8-9)

Frontal Sinus Nasal Cavity

Hard Palate

Sphenoidal Sinus

Oral Cavity

Nasopharynx Soft Palate Uvula Oropharynx Tongue Epiglottis Laryngopharynx

Figure 9: Sagittal Section showing Resonators & Articulators




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The Resonators
Gillyanne Kayes (2004) in her book Singing and the Actor notes, What voice trainers and singers call resonance is a form of sound filtering. Each part of the vocal tract (the tube of the larynx, the nose, the mouth and the pharynx) has its own resonating frequency (p. 110). Simply, the resonators influence the sound as it travels through the vocal tract, and the result of these influences is called resonance. Lets briefly survey each of the resonators along the vocal tract (shown in Figure 9, p. 2; above): The Larynx: Not only is sound produced within the larynx, it also immediately influences the timbre of that sound. For example, twang is added to the sound in the collar of the larynx or the aryepiglottic area (Chapman & Morris, 2006b, p. 83). The Pharynx: The highest level of influence on the sound (and its resonance) is exerted via the pharynx because of its high degree of malleability. Often referred to as the throat, the pharynx can be split into three sections: a) Laryngopharynx the lower end of the pharynx. b) Oropharynx the middle of the pharynx; also the entrance into the oral cavity. c) Nasopharynx the top of the pharyngeal space and the entrance into the nasal cavity. The Oral Cavity: Housing most of the articulators, the mouth is another resonating chamber, as it is used to shape the vocal tone emanating from the pharynx into vowels and consonants (p. 85). The Nasal Cavities: Lifting and lowering the velum allows singers to direct the sound away from or into the nasal cavity.

It is important to note that the sinuses are not resonators! Janice Chapman & Ron Morris (2006b) explain,
Similarly to the chest and nasal cavities the sinuses are the sensation traps, not resonating chambers. Singers can use these sensations to monitor the quality of their singing but they must remember that these sensations are not the cause of their vocal quality. (p. 88)

One could also say that a resonator resonates at certain frequencies, or that it possesses resonances (formants in the case of the vocal tract) at certain frequencies. Thus, the ability of the vocal tract to transmit sound is greatest at the formant frequencies. Most resonators possess a number of resonance frequencies. In the vocal tract the four or five lowest formants are the most relevant ones. The two lowest formants determine most of the vowel colour; all of them are of great significance to voice timbre. (Sundberg, 1987, p. 12)

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The Articulators
The resonant quality of the sound is extremely important it is what makes the sound desirable to listen to. However, resonance without articulation is incomprehensible. It is articulation that allows us to shape the resonance into understandable patterns for speech and language. Johan Sundberg (1987) defines articulation as the name for the manoeuvres made in order to adjust the shape of the vocal tract during phonation. This is achieved by means of the articulators: the lips, the tongue, the jaw, the velum, and the larynx (p. 91). Lets briefly survey each of the articulators along the vocal tract (shown in Figure 9, p. 2; above): Velum: As was highlighted earlier, the velum determines whether a sound will be nasalised or not. Tongue: A major contributor to the formation of vowels and consonants, the tongue is shapes and connects with other articulators to form speech patterns. Teeth: also known as the alveolus, the teeth helps shape consonants such as /t and /s. Mandible: The mandible (jaw) is a secondary articulator and is primarily used for mastication (chewing). It also plays a role in the formation of resonance because it is used to develop space in the oral cavity. Hard and Soft Palate: Both the hard and soft palates provide a contact surface for the tongue to engage with; thus producing many of the consonants. Lips: The lips are the end of the vocal tract. The lips can elongate the length of the vocal tract by protruding forward (away from the teeth) and assist in the shaping of consonant and vowel. Vocal Folds: Although the vocal tract is not shown on Figure 9, it is important to note its contribution to articulation via voiced and unvoiced sounds.

Finally, Morris and Chapman (2006) remind us that,

The articulatory system certainly does change resonance and is, of course, responsible for articulating vowels and consonants but: Deviations in articulatory postures can influence vocal tone. Inefficient use of the speech physiology can affect voice quality and vocal tone. The articulatory system can act as a monitor to what is occurring at the level of the larynx and even below at the level of the breath support system. (pp. 9798).
Who is Dr Daniel K. Robinson? Daniel is a freelance artist and educator. In 2011 Daniel completed his Doctor of Musical Arts degree at the Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University. He has served as National Vice President (200911) and National Secretary for the Australian National Association of Teachers of Singing (200611). Daniel is the principal Singing Voice Specialist for Djarts (www.djarts.com.au) and presents workshops to singers across Australia and abroad. Over the past two decades, while maintaining his own performance career, Daniel has instructed thousands of voices. This vast experience enables Daniel to effortlessly work with voices of all skill levels: beginners to professionals.

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Allen, M. (2009). Body mapping, kinesthesia, and inlcusive awareness. In M. Malde, M. Allen & K.-A. Zeller (Eds.), What every singer needs to know about the body (pp. 19). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing Inc. Chalmers, S.-A. (2009, July). Breathing for singing. Voiceprint, 35, 812. Chapman, J. L. (2006). Singing and teaching singing: A holistic approach to classical voice . San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing Inc. Chapman, J. L., & Morris, R. (2006a). Phonation and the speaking voice. In J. L. Chapman (Ed.), Singing and teaching singing: A holistic approach to classical voice (pp. 5980). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing Inc. Chapman, J. L., & Morris, R. (2006b). Resonance. In J. L. Chapman (Ed.), Singing and teaching singing: A holistic approach to classical voice (pp. 8196). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing Inc. Dayme, M. B. (2009). Dynamics of the singing voice (5th ed.). Austria: SpringerWienNewYork. Kayes, G. (2004). Singing and the actor (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Lieberman, J., & Chapman, J. (1998). Posture and voice: Safeguarding children's future singing. Mastersinger, 30, 23. McCoy, S. (2004). Your voice: An inside view (2 ed.). Princeton, NJ: Inside View Press. McCoy, S. (2012). Some thoughts on singing and science. Journal of Singing, 68(5), 527530. Morris, R., & Chapman, J. L. (2006). Articulation. In J. L. Chapman (Ed.), Singing and teaching singing: A holistic approach to classical voice (pp. 97128). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing Inc. Nisbet, A. (2010). You want me to think about what?!: A discussion about motor skills and the role of attentional focus in studio voice teaching. In S. D. Harrison (Ed.), Perspectives on teaching singing: Australian vocal pedagogues sing their stories (pp. 101121). Brisbane, QLD: Australian Academic Press. Shewell, C. (2009). Voice work: Art and science in changing voices. West Sussex, United Kingdom: WileyBlackwell. Sundberg, J. (1987). The science of the singing voice. Dekald, IL: Northern Illinois University Press. Thurman, L., Pryor, A., Theimer, A., Grefsheim, E., Feit, P., & Welch, G. (2000). The most fundamental voice skill. In L. Thurman & G. Welch (Eds.), Bodymind and voice: Foundations of voice education (Vol. 2, pp. 326338). St. John's University, MI: The VoiceCare Network.

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Thurman, L., Welch, G., Theimer, A., Feit, P., & Grefsheim, E. (2000). What your larynx is made of. In L. Thurman & G. Welch (Eds.), Bodymind and voice: Foundations of voice education (Vol. 2, pp. 356366). St. John's University, MI: The VoiceCare Network. Wilson, P. (2001). The singing voice: an owners manual (2nd ed.). Strawberry Hills NSW, Australia: Currency Press.

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