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Topan Setiadipura1, Utaja2

1

Computational Field, Center of Nuclear Informatic Development BATAN INDONESIA

Telephone: + 62 21 756 0905

Fax : + 62 21 756 0923

Email : tsdipura@batan.go.id ;

2

PRPN BATAN

utaja@batan.go.id

ABSTRACT

Development of an innovative nuclear reactor design, Long Life Small PWR with (Th,U)O2 fuel is in

progress. Small long-live nuclear power plant with moderate economical aspect is an important

candidate for electric power generation in remote area, such as many part outside Java-Bali area in

Indonesia. The neutronic aspect of the reactor design already done and giving an optimum cylindrical

core design with diameter 100cm and height 200cm and 0.7 dk/k excess reactivity with16.8 W(t)/cc

power output and 10 years lifetime. In this paper, the thermal hydraulic with natural circulation heat

removal mechanism of the reactor design will be reported. This research is to investigate the coolant

flow rate and the additional chimney needed when the natural circulation heat removal mechanism is

applied as the cooling mechanism of the reactor. In a natural circulation system, the flow of the

coolant in the reactor only govern by natural fenomena, gravity, without external sources of

mechanical energy. This system is an important design feature for an innovative reactor design

because in many reactor shutdown or emergency condition, forced cooling is assumed or predicted to

be lost. Besides, this system provide a significant cost-savings by the elimination of pumps and

ancillary equipment and also can result in simplified and hence higher reliability safety system. To

apply the natural circulation mechanism on this reactor a chimneys is added. The height of the

chimney is depend on the temperature inlet on the channel, which gives its own mean coolant velocity.

The lowest mean coolant velocity is 0.6m/s with 1.2cm and 16.8cm chimneys for inlet coolant

temperature 280 oC and 290oC respectively.

1. INTRODUCTION continuously without refuelling it is necessary

to have relatively large internal conversion ratio

Small long life nuclear power plant with so that we can obtain optimal design with

moderate economical aspect is an important relatively low excess reactivity during burn up.

candidate for electric power generation in Designing such reactor is a difficult job, here

remote area, such as many part outside Java- we employ several concept to achieve that goal.

Bali area in Indonesia. Such nuclear power This reactor design also apply the natural

reactors match with the necessity and planning circulation as a heat removal mechanism to

of many cities and province outside Java-Bali have a better safety aspect, more economically

islands.Such nuclear power reactors can moderate design, and also more compact reactor

increase the nuclear reactor contribution to design. In heat removal aspect, an important

supply the electric power demand with low feature is the natural circulation mechanism

transportations of nuclear materials. In order where the flow of the coolant in the reactor is

1

only governed by natural fenomena, gravity, be minimized by considering that the thermal

without external sources of mechanical energy. limitation is still achieved.

This system is an important design feature for The configuration of the reactor core is as

an innovative reactor design because in many shown in the picture 1 below.

reactor shutdown or emergency condition,

forced cooling is assumed or predicted to be

lost. Besides, this system provide a significant

cost-savings by the elimination of pumps and

ancillary equipment and also can result in

simplified and hence higher reliability safety

system.

2. DESIGN CONCEPT

in order to get good design for small long life

PWR which can be operated 10 years without

refueling or fuel shuffling. First, we propose

the usage of thorium based fuel. Thorium

cycle in the thermal environment is superior

than uranium cycle in term of producing core

with high internal conversion ratio. Besides its Figure.2 Reactor core

advantage related to its abundant and the non

proliferation issue. Second, we introduce tight The general parameter of the reactor design

lattice core concept by increasing the fuel including the fuel is shown in the table 1.

volume fraction. Third, we add Pa-231 as a

burnable poisson to further reduce the initial Parameter Spesifikasi

excess reactivity in the beginning of life Power

(BOL), due to its high capture cross section, 20 MWt

(Thermal)

while supplying U-233 at the later stage of Lifetime 10 Year

burn up by conversion process to U-233 after (Th,U)O2 +

two neutron capture and beta decay. Fuel

Pa-231

Structure Zircalloy (Zr)

Coolant H20

U-233 7.5w/o-16w/o

enrichment U-233

Smear Density 90 %

Fuel Volume

60%

Fraction

Rectangular

Pin Cell Type

Cell

Figure 1. Pa-231 conversion Clad thickness 0.07 cm

Pin pitch 1,4 cm

From the thermal hydraulic aspect, the heat

Fuel height 195cm

removal of the reactor is using natural

circulation mechanism. Additional chimneys Fuel pellet

0.612cm

at top of the core is needed, to have a more radius

compact nuclear reactor this chimney should Reflector H2O

Reflector width 5cm

2

(up & below) where :

Table.1 General Parameter f :dimesionless friction factor(=0.02)

Illustration of the coolant channel which De : equivalent channel diameter

comprise of fuel pellet, clad and coolant flow Vm : mean coolant flow rate

area is given in the picture below

The pressure losses due to abrupt change in

geometry when the coolant is enter and exit the

channel, the relation is as follow :

Vm2

ΔPform = ξρ (4)

2

where :

ξ : pressure drop coefficient (=0.065)

and the coolant density is its density when at the

entrance and exit position.

Figure.3 Coolant channel

Acceleration losses is calculated as follow

3. CALCULATIONAL METHOD Vm2

ΔPacceleration = 0.25 ρ m (5)

AND RESULTS 2

To determine the coolant flow through the The natural convection heat transfer coefficient

core, specially through the coolant channel, is calculated by calculating many parameter

the buoyant forces were compare to the such as the grashof number given as follow :

resultants losses from the friction losses, form βDe3 gΔT

losses, and the acceleration losses. All the Gr = (6)

calculation is using NKS units. The relation is υ2

where :

shown below

β : expansion coefficient of water.

ΔPb = ΔPfriction + ΔPform + ΔPacceleration (1) ΔT : temperature different between the

coolant and the cladding wall.

ν : kinematic viscousity

The buoyant forces are given by

and the Nusselt number is calculated as follow

ΔPb = g[Lf (ρ0 − ρm ) + (Lr + Lc )(ρ0 − ρu )] (2)

where Nu = C (Gr ⋅ Pr) n (7)

ρo, ρm, ρu : fluid density at entrance, mean, and

exit the channel respectively. where Pr is Prandlt number which characterizes

G gravity constant the physical properties of the coolant fuid, and

Lu,Lf,Lc Height of the upper reflector, fuel, the constants C and n is depend on the value of

and the chimney. Gr and Pr multiplication.

The frictional pressure losses result from wall From Nusselt number then the natural

friction and turbulence in the uniform cross convection coefficient is calculated as follow

section channel. These losses calculated as Nu ⋅ λ

follow : h= (8)

De

Lf Vm2

ΔPfriction = f ρm (3) where λ is thermal conductivity of the water.

De 2

3

The method used to find the natural the coolant will boil as shown in the case of

convection heat transfer is by using the inlet temperature 290 oC and the Vm = 0.4m/s.

dependency of the Gr to ΔT. Using a computer

code, value of ΔT is tried to find the Gr which

resulting a natural heat flux as same as the 4. CONCLUSION

heat flux of the neutronic data for each axial

position. Then, the axial temperature Natural circulation aspect of the reactor is

distribution of the coolant and the clad is investigated. It is possible to applied the natural

calculated also the density of the coolant along circulation as the reactor heat removal

the channel. So, in this research the mean mechanism with certain flow rate and related

coolant temperature is assumed first then the additional chimney. To achieve more compact

related axial temperature and density is nuclear reactor it desirable to have a short

calculated to finally calculate the chimney chimney, this value is achieved when the natural

need for that coolant flow by comparing the circulation flow rate is 0.6m/s.

equation (1) and (2).

By this method, the lowest coolant flow rate 4. REFFERENCES

that make the natural circulation is possible to

applied is 0.6m/s. The additional chimney is 1. Topan S, Muh.Nurul S, Yuliastuti, Zaki

also a function of the inlet temperature. Data Su’ud, “Neutronic Design Study of Small

of the power density of the fuel along the Long-Live PWR with (Th,U)O2 Fuel”.

channel is taken from the previous neutronic Proceedings of GLOBAL 2005 Tsukuba

calculation. Results of the coolant flow rate Japan, Paper No.5101.

and the chimney is shown as follow 2. “Natural Circulation data and methods for

advanced water cooled nuclear power plant

Inlet Temperature (degree C) designs”,Proceedings of a Technical

Vm(m/s) 280 290 300 Committee Meeting, IAEA-TECDOC-1281.

0.6 0.168079 0.012507 ** 3. L.S.Tong, J Weisman, “ Thermal Analysis

0.7 0.9924 0.758192 0.514201 of Presurrized Water Reactor”,ANS,1979.

0.8 2.056155 1.735039 1.385538 4. B.Nekrasov, “Hydraulics”, Peace Publisher,

0.9 3.374798 2.960503 2.446634 Moscow,USSR

1 4.963485 4.374174 3.716405 5. M.Mikheyev, “Fundamental of Heat

Table.2 Chimney’ length and flow rate results Transfer”, Peace Publisher,Moscow,USSR

6. Efrizon Umar, “Prediction of Mass Flow

The results above show that with inlet Rate and Pressure Drop in the Coolant

temperature 300 oC the natural circulation Channel of the TRIGA 2000 Reactor Core”,

with Vm = 0.6m/s is not achievable. LKSTN VIII BATAN,1997.

channel for different inlet temperature and

mean flow rate is shown in the pictures at the

appendix. If the coolant flow rate is too slow

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