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Kafue Gorge Regional Training Centre

TRAINING MANUAL FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION USING MICROSOFT PROJECT 2003

KAFUE GORGE REGIONAL TRAINING CENTRE 2007

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES .................... 1 AN OVERVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT ........................................................ 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 1 WHAT IS A PROJECT? .............................................................................................. 1 WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT? .................................................................... 3 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PROJECT SUCCESS AND FAILURE.................. 8 THE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER ............................................................. 8 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE WITH A PROJECT FOCUS............................... 10 PROJECT PHASES AND THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE........................................ 14 PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS.................................. 20 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS............................................................... 22 THE PROJECT INITIATION PHASE ...................................................................... 22 THE PROJECT DEFINITION PHASE ..................................................................... 23 THE PROJECT PLANNING PHASE........................................................................ 34 THE PROJECT EXECUTION PHASE ..................................................................... 54 THE PROJECT CLOSE-OUT PHASE...................................................................... 63 REFERENCES: .......................................................................................................... 65 PART 2 : PROJECTMANAGEMENT SOFTWARE APPLICATION......................... 66 USING MS PROJECT 2003 TO MANAGE PROJECTS.............................................. 67 THE PROJECT SCREEN .......................................................................................... 67 DEFINING THE PROJECT........................................................................................... 69 TASKS........................................................................................................................ 72 ASSIGNING MILESTONES ..................................................................................... 76 WORKING WITH OUTLINES ................................................................................. 78 ESTABLISHING DEPENDENCIES ......................................................................... 81 ADDING LAGILEAD TIME..................................................................................... 83 RESOURCES ............................................................................................................. 84 ENTERING WORKING TIME ................................................................................. 87 ASSIGNING RESOURCES TO A TASK ................................................................. 88 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT VIEWS..................................................................... 92 PROJECT TABLES ................................................................................................... 93 ANALYZING SLACK............................................................................................... 95 ADDING FIXED COSTS .......................................................................................... 96 ADDING CONSTRAINTS ........................................................................................ 97 CONSTRAINT CONFLICTS .................................................................................... 99 HANDLING SCHEDULING CONFLICTS ............................................................ 100 USING OVERTIME................................................................................................. 101 HANDLING RESOURCE CONFLICTS................................................................. 101 RESOURCE OVER ALLOCATION....................................................................... 102 SAVING A BASELINE ........................................................................................... 105 VARIANCE.............................................................................................................. 105 PROJECT STATISTICS .......................................................................................... 106 INTERIM BASELINE ............................................................................................. 107 PROJECT TRACKING IN MS PROJECT 2003 ......................................................... 108 UPDATING TASKS ................................................................................................ 108 UNDERSTANDING THE FIELDS USED IN UPDATING................................... 109 UPDATING TASKS AS SCHEDULED ................................................................. 112 THE RESCHEDULE WORK BUTTON ................................................................. 115 UPDATING RESOURCES...................................................................................... 115
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USING THE RESOURCE USAGE VIEW.............................................................. 117 PRINTING VIEWS .................................................................................................. 118 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 124 ACKNOWLEDGMENT .............................................................................................. 125

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques

PART 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

AN OVERVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT


INTRODUCTION
The rapid creation and delivery of high quality products and services is critical to business survival in todays highly competitive and fast-paced environment. In this environment, those organisations that practice sound project management methods have a competitive advantage over those that fly by the seat of the pants. Consequently, many people and organisations today have a new or renewed interest in project management. Until the 1980s, project management primarily focused on providing schedule and resource data to top management in the military and construction industries. Todays project management involves much more, and people in every industry and every country manage projects. Todays companies, governments, and non-profit organisations are recognising that to be successful, they need to be conversant with the use of modern project management techniques. Individuals are realising that to remain competitive, they too must develop skills to become good project team members and project managers. They also realise that many concepts of project management will help them in their everyday lives as they work with people and technology on a day-to-day basis.

WHAT IS A PROJECT?
To discuss project management, it is important to understand the concept of a project. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge) defines a project in terms of its distinctive characteristics: A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service. Three factors differentiate projects from routine operations: Uniqueness: Projects involve doing something that has not been done before. Uniqueness derives either from activities that have not been done before or from some product or service feature that distinguishes it from all other products or services the organisation has produced before. A temporary nature: Temporary implies that projects are of a transient nature with a defined beginning and end. The end is reached when the projects objectives have been achieved and effectively handed over to the business. A project may also be terminated when it becomes clear that it cannot achieve the stated objectives, or when the business outcomes are no longer feasible for the owner. Progressive elaboration: Due to the uniqueness of project results, the precise details in terms of the deliverables contributing to the results are not known from the outset. Because of this, the deliverables characteristics, and in fact the project parameters will need to be progressively elaborated. Progressively means proceeding in steps; continuing steadily by increments. Elaborated means worked out with care; developed thoroughly. At the start of a project, the characteristics of its deliverables and the project parameters of scope, time, cost

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management and performance will be broadly defined. During the development of the project plans, and as the early stages of the project progress, a better understanding of the project will be obtained it will be progressively elaborated. Every project is constrained in different ways by its scope, time, and cost goals. These limitations are sometimes referred to in project management as the triple constraint. To create a successful project, a project manager must consider scope, time, and cost and balance these three often-competing goals. He or she must consider the following: Scope: What work will be done as part of the project? What unique product, service, or result does the customer or sponsor expect from the project? Time: How long should it take to complete the project? What is the projects schedule? Cost: What should it cost to complete the project? What is the projects budget?

Figure 1 illustrates the three dimensions of the triple constraint. Each area scope, time, and cost has a target at the beginning of the project. Managing the triple constraint involves making trade-offs between scope, time, and cost goals for a project. Experienced project managers know that you must decide which aspect of the triple constraint is most important. If time is most important, you must often change the initial scope and/or cost goals to meet the schedule.

Figure 1: The Triple Constraint of Project Management Although the triple constraint describes how the basic elements of a project scope, time, and cost interrelate, other elements can also play significant role. Quality is
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management often a key factor in projects, as is customer or sponsor specification. Some people, in fact, refer to the quadruple constraint of project management, including quality along with scope, time, and cost. Others believe that quality considerations, including customer satisfaction, must be inherent in setting the scope, time, and cost goals of a project. Therefore, a project is considered as a multitask job that has performance, time, cost, and scope requirements and that is done only one time. A project should have a definite starting and ending points (time), a budget (cost), a clearly defined scope or magnitude of work to be done, and specific performance requirements that must be met (PCTS targets). How can you avoid the problems that occur when you meet scope, time, and cost goals, but lose sight of quality or customer satisfaction? The answer is good project management, which includes more than meeting the triple constraint.

WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?


Project management is facilitating the planning, scheduling, and controlling of all activities that must be done to achieve project objectives. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Guide describes project management as: The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholders needs and expectations from a project. Project managers must not only strive to meet specific scope, time, cost, and quality goals of projects, they must also facilitate the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of the people involved in or affected by project activities. Therefore, meeting or exceeding stakeholder needs and expectations invariably involves balancing competing demands among: Scope, time, cost, and quality. Stakeholders with differing needs and expectations. Identified requirements (needs) and unidentified requirements (expectations).

Figure 2 illustrates a framework to help you understand project management. Key elements of this framework include the project stakeholders, project management knowledge areas, project management tools and techniques, and the contribution of successful projects to the enterprise.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

Figure 2: Project Management Framework PROJECT STAKEHOLDERS Project success is and can only be defined by the stakeholders. Project stakeholders are individuals and organisations who are actively involved in the project, or whose interest may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or successful project completion. The project team (the people who report either directly or indirectly to the project manager from the project team) must identify the stakeholders, determine what their needs are, and then manage and influence those expectations to ensure a successful project. In project management, lack of direct authority over project team members and other stakeholders is the norm. Therefore, the concept of influence (the ability to persuade rather than to command) is appropriate, as the project manager does not generally have the formal organisational authority residing in the functional departments. Some of the most important stakeholders are shown in Figure 3. This illustrates that both the project manager and sponsor have responsibility for influencing upper management and the project council, and for a high-level interface with external stakeholders.
Upper Management Government Agencies

Owner and End-Users

External Stakeholders

Project Sponsor and Project Manager

Department/ Functional Managers

Project Council Project Team

Individual Citizens, NGOs

Figure 3: Project Stakeholders


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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

Stakeholder identification must be as comprehensive as possible. Essential to the process is the identification of both internal and external stakeholders to determine the degree to which they are able to influence the project. PROJECT MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE AREAS Project management knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop. The Project Management Institute (PMI) has currently identified nine general areas of knowledge as the minimum body of knowledge that a project manager needs in order to be effective. The centre of Figure 2 shows these nine knowledge areas of project management. The Project management knowledge areas can also be referred to as dimensions of project management. The four core knowledge areas of project management include project scope, time, cost, and quality management. These are core knowledge areas because they lead to specific project objectives. Brief descriptions of each core knowledge area are as follows: 1. Project Scope Management means ensuring that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It covers scope initiation, planning, definition, verification, and change control. Project Time Management includes the decisions and actions required to ensure timely completion of the project, such as activity definition, sequencing, duration estimation, schedule development, and control. Project Cost Management refers to the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget resource planning, cost estimation, cost budgeting, and control. Project Quality Management means the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It covers quality planning, assurance, and control.

2.

3.

4.

The four facilitating knowledge areas of project management are human resource, communications, risk, and procurement management. These are called facilitating areas because they are processes through which the project objectives are achieved. Brief descriptions of each facilitating knowledge area are as follows: 5. Project Human Resource Management is making the most effective use of people involved with the project. It includes organisational planning, staff acquisition and team development. Project Communications Management refers to the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of project information. It entails communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting and administrative closure. Project Risk Management means identifying, analysing and responding to project risk. It includes risk identification, risk quantification, risk response development and risk response control. 5

6.

7.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

8.

Project Procurement Management covers the processes required to acquire goods and services from outside the performing organisation procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration and contract close-out.

The ninth knowledge area is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all other knowledge areas. 9. Project Integration Management relates to the processes required to ensure that various elements of a project are properly coordinated. It includes plan development, execution and overall change control.

The four core knowledge areas scope, time, cost and performance relate in a unique manner, as reflected in Figure 4. Time is the time schedule, cost is the project budget, performance encompasses the specifications of the project deliverables, and scope is the sum of the deliverables (products and services) to be developed through the project process. As indicated in Figure 4, scope is bound by the constraints of time, cost and performance. Ideally, time and cost should be determined after the development of scope to meet the performance requirements. In practice, this is often not the case. Often a projects time, cost and performance are determined before scope is defined, resulting in the scope being limited to the surface area of the triangle. Unless initial dimensions of time, cost and performance are generous, fixing these three dimensions, and effectively the sides of the triangle, before scope is defined, is poor management and must be avoided. At least one and preferably two sides of the triangle should remain flexible so that the scope can be effectively defined to fit the triangle. Alternatively, if scope can reduce, the project team could possibly fit it into a fixed triangle. The trade-off between time, cost, performance and scope is an iterative process that must be understood by the project team, project manager and upper management if realistic project result is to be achieved. Competent project managers make it their business to know which of the four dimensions are negotiable. Time

Scope

Cost Figure 4: The Trade-Off Triangle

Specification/ Performance

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in carrying out work in all nine knowledge areas. For example, some popular timemanagement tools and techniques include Gantt charts, project network diagrams, and critical path analysis. Table 1 lists some commonly used tools and techniques by knowledge area. Table 1: Common Project Management Tools and Techniques by Knowledge Area Knowledge Area Integration Management Tools and Techniques Project selection methods, project management methodology, stakeholder analysis, project charters, project management plans, project management software, change control boards, project review meetings, work authorization systems. Project scope statements, work breakdown structures, statements of work, scope management plan, requirements analysis, scope change control. Gantt charts, project network diagrams, critical path analysis, program evaluation review technique (PERT), critical chain scheduling, crashing, fast tracking, milestone reviews. Net present value, return on investment, payback analysis, business cases, earned value management, project portfolio management, cost estimates, cost management plan, financial software. Six Sigma, quality control charts, Pareto diagrams, fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams, quality audits, statistical methods. Motivation techniques, empathic listening, team contracts, responsibility assignment matrices, resource histograms, resource leveling, and team building exercises. Communications management plan, conflict management, communications media selection, communications infrastructure, status reports, virtual communications, templates, project Web sites. Make-or-buy analysis, contracts, requests for proposals or quotes, source selection, negotiating, e-procurement. Risk management plan, probability/impact matrix, risk ranking, Monte Carlo simulation, top-ten risk item tracking.

Scope Management

Time Management

Cost Management Quality Management Human Resource Management Communications Management Procurement Management Risk Management

Project managers must work with key stakeholders to define what constitutes success for a particular project and strive to complete their projects successfully by applying appropriate tools and techniques. In many organisations, project managers also support an emerging business strategy of project portfolio management, in which organisations group and manage projects as a portfolio of investments that contribute to the entire enterprises success. Despite its advantages, project management is not a silver bullet that guarantees success on all projects. What works on one project may not work on another, so it is essential
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management for project managers to continue to develop their knowledge and skills in managing projects. It is also important to learn from the mistakes and successes of others.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PROJECT SUCCESS AND FAILURE


Why do some projects succeed and others fail? Can organisations provide a better environment to help improve project success rates? There are no easy answers to any of these questions, but many people are contributing to our knowledge base to continue to improve the theory and practice of project management. Table 2 summarises some of the reasons why projects fail or succeed. Table 2: What Factors Influence Project Success and Failure? Why Projects Succeed Clear statement of requirement Financial control and integrity Focus on the business objective End-user involvement Executive management support Team estimates and generates the plan Use two-level approach to planning Use deliverables-based task planning Motivate and empower the team Structured approach and methodology Track work progress and re-plan Manage and respond to risk Effective education and training Clarify project roles and responsibilities Highlight critical path activities Improve meeting skills Why Projects Fail Incomplete/no terms of reference Lack of resources (financial and human) Lack of end-user involvement Unrealistic expectations Lack of management support Inadequate planning Lack of co-ordination Lack of communication Lack of skills/experience/knowledge Insufficiently measurable outcomes Lack of quality control Changing requirements/specification Resistance to using the planning process Too many issues for the Steering Group Lack of appreciation of key deadlines Poorly managed meetings

THE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER


The project Manager is one of the most important project participants (the term project participants includes everyone who has a role to play on the project). The project manager is responsible for the efficient management of the project management process and the effective delivery of the project objectives. The project manager has to be familiar with the nine project management knowledge areas and the various tools and techniques related to project management. But what do project managers do, exactly? What skills do they really need to do a good job? PROJECT MANAGER JOB DESCRIPTION Upper management (which includes the executive and senior management of the performing organisation), and specifically the sponsor, expect the project manager to: be accountable for the achievement of the project objectives

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management efficiently manage the project process by planning, leading, organising, coordinating, and controlling the project manage the project in a cross-functional manner, ensuring integration with the functions of the organisation appoint the team members (jointly with the sponsor and functional managers) build the project team establish an appropriate office environment support, guide and facilitate the project team through the process act as a change agent for the project team and other project participants effectively resolve issues and manage risk minimise organisational disruption during the execution of a project have the capacity to handle most interpersonal issues communicate progress to upper management and other project participants interface and communicate with internal and external stakeholders.

Project manager is a role, not just a title. PROFILE OF A PROJECT MANAGER The Association of Project Managers (APM) in their Body of Knowledge considers the profile of a project manager in two areas: experience and personality. Experience: In terms of experience, the APM considers the type of project a project manager manages at four levels. Level One: A project manager working at level one would be managing an in-house project with no responsibility (or very little) for external contractors or suppliers. The predominant management activity at this level would be the application of management tools and techniques to enable work to be managed more effectively. Level Two: The Project Manager at this level may be involved in managing a number of disciplines within a single company, again with limited involvement with external contractors or suppliers with the possible exception of procurement. The Project Managers activities would be associated mainly with the tools and techniques, limited people and organisation skills and some appreciation of wider project management issues. Level Three: A Project Manager working at this level would be either (a) managing a multi-disciplinary team from a number of independent companies, where the team has been established for the purpose of the project or, (b) responsible for a team of people undertaking a set of projects. At this level a detailed understanding of the application of the appropriate tools and techniques; experience in managing people and an understanding of organisations; together with a full understanding of project management issues in the widest sense would be necessary. Level Four: A level four project would involve a multi-disciplinary team from a variety of companies and working in a number of countries. Projects at this level are the exception rather than the rule.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

A person managing a level three project would certainly have the experience to become a Certified Project Manager, while those managing level two projects could also have the appropriate knowledge and experience which should allow them to attain the status of a Certified Project Manager. Personality: The APM define the principal personality characteristics of a project manager to include the following. Attitude: an open, positive can do attitude which encourages communication and motivation and fosters cooperation. Common sense: a strong ability to spot sensible, effective, straight forward, least risky, less complex solutions, that is, 90% right on time is better than 100% far too late! Open mindedness: an approach where one is always open to new ideas, practices and methods and in particular gives equal weight to the various professional disciplines involved on the project. Adaptability: a propensity to be flexible where necessary and avoid rigid patterns of thinking or behaviour, to adapt to the requirements of the project, the needs of the sponsors, its environment and people working on it and for it to ensure a successful outcome. Inventiveness: an ability to discover innovative strategies and solutions either from within oneself or by encouragement with other members of the project team and to identify ways of working with disparate resources to achieve the project objectives. Prudent risk taker: a willingness and ability to identify and understand risks but not to take risky approach in an unwise or reckless fashion. Fairness: a fair and open attitude which represents all human value. Commitment: a very strong overriding commitment to the projects success, user satisfaction and team working. A strong orientation towards goal achievement. A competent project manager is characterised by the capability or ability to manage projects proved by five attributes: knowledge, skill, aptitude, attitude and experience. All five attributes must be present to a greater or lesser extent to ensure competency. The level of competency then can be defined as how knowledgeable, skilled and experienced a project manager is. The other two attributes of aptitude and attitude are, to a certain extent, innate traits linked to behaviour and personality that must be present in a competent project manager.

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE WITH A PROJECT FOCUS


Project structures are influenced by the organisation or organisations that set them up. Typically, projects are a temporary part of an organisation larger than the project, also known as the performing organisation. The structure of the performing organisation influences the availability of resources. Resources are usually allocated to projects by

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management functional managers (sometimes called resource managers). Organisational structures can be classified in a wide range from functional at the one end of the spectrum to pure project at the other. Work is integrated horizontally through matrix management. In reality, very few organisations operate as either a pure functional or a pure project structure. Most operate some form of matrix weak, balanced, or strong. The choice of structure reflects the organisations approach and maturity to the management of projects. The classic functional organisation shown in Figure 5 is a hierarchy where each employee has one clear superior. Staff are grouped by specialty, such as production, marketing, engineering, and accounting at the top level, with engineering further subdivided into mechanical and electrical. Functional organisations still have projects, but the perceived scope of the project is limited to the boundaries of the function: the engineering department in a functional organisation will do its work independent of the manufacturing or marketing departments.

Figure 5: Functional Organisation At the opposite end of the spectrum is the projectised organisation shown in Figure 6. A projectised organisation is defined as any organisational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities and to direct the work of individuals assigned to the project (PMBOK Guide). In a projectised organisation, team members are often collocated. Most of the organisations resources are involved in project work, and project managers have a great deal of independence and authority.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

Figure 6: Projectised Organisation Matrix organisations as shown in Figures 7 to 9 are a blend of functional and projectised characteristics. Weak matrices maintain many characteristics of a functional organisation and the project manager role is more that of a coordinator than that of a manager. Similarly, strong matrices have many of the characteristics of the projectised organisation full-time project managers with considerable authority and full-time project administrative staff.

Figure 7: Weak Matrix Organisation

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

Figure 8: Balanced Matrix Organisation

Figure 9: Strong Matrix Organisation A major feature of the matrix organisation is the conflict it induces. Functional managers control organisation departments while project managers coordinate and integrate work across functions. This causes conflict in that project team members usually have to serve two managers: the manager of the functional department to which they belong and the project manager. When project demands conflict with the needs of the functional managers, problems arise. Trapped in the middle is the team member trying to meet the expectations of both. As the project manager rarely controls the team members remuneration and promotion, the team members loyalty will usually be strongest towards their functional manager. Organisations that are serious about project
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management management ensure that project managers evaluate team members performance on the project and report these to both the functional manager of the team member and the project sponsor. Additionally, project managers should be authorised to make rewards available to project teams that perform well and deliver the results. The strong matrix structure attempts to harmonise the powers of the project manager and the functional manager. The project manager is responsible for all project managerial aspects while the functional manager is responsible for all technical aspects. Joint accountability has now been created as the project manager determines: What is to be done (the project) When the project will be done How much money is available to do the project. In turn, the functional manager determines: How the work will be done Where the work will be done Whether the work done is quality work Who will do the work.

PROJECT PHASES AND THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE


Organisations performing projects usually divide a project into phases to better provide management planning and control, and identify appropriate links to the organisations ongoing operations. Collectively, the project phases are known as the project life cycle. Figure 10 illustrates a generic project life cycle. Initial Intermediate phases Final phase (one or more) phase Cost or staffing level

Start

Time Figure 10: Generic Project Life Cycle

Finish

Generally an initial phase and final phase are identical, with a number of intermediate phases in between. A project management process is used to move across a project life cycle. A project management process is a generic description of a process that applies to all projects. It forms the basis for a methodology that can be described in terms of
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management project management practice and a set of supporting tools and techniques. Applying a project management process across the project life cycle is the challenge facing the project manager and team. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS A typical project management process contains four phases: initiation, planning, execution and close-out. The Objective Directed Project Management (ODPM) process contains five phases: initiation, definition, planning, execution and close-out, as reflected in Figure 11. Objective Directed Project Management (ODPMTM) is a process developed by Frigenti and Comninos, described in detail in their book titled The Practice of Project Management a Business Approach. The process consists of a series of interrelated steps, tools and techniques sequenced in a systematic and logical manner to provide a process for initiating, defining, planning, executing and closing-out a project. Project managers implement and rely on the process to effectively manage the project as it provides both focus and consistency to project management. Project management is most effective when applied in a consistent repetitive manner in the form of a process. Each project phase is named or defined in terms of the major deliverable produced in that phase. A deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work product such as a feasibility study, user requirements specification, functional requirements specification, system requirements specification, detailed design, implementation plan, or system development. Deliverables from the preceding phase are usually approved before work commences on the next phase. Subsequent phases can sometimes begin before approval of the previous phase deliverable when risks are deemed to be acceptable. This practice of phase overlapping is called fast tracking.
Initial phase Cost or staffing level
Project Charter

Intermediate phases (one or more)


Integrated baseline Project definition package

Final phase
Execution complete

Project Closed-out

Initiation Definition Planning

Execution

Close-out

Time Figure 11: Project Management Process (ODPM)

Although the ODPM process is continuous and sequential, it is subdivided into five distinct project management life cycle phases: Initiation, Definition, Planning, Execution and Close-out. Tables 3 through 7 give the ODPM summary, showing steps involved and tools and techniques used during each project life cycle phase.
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

Table 3: Project Initiation Phase Step


1. Select project manager 2. Scrutinise the documentation Description/Comments Identify and select the best person to lead the project The project manager must scrutinise all documentation relating to the project, such as the business case and feasibility studies, to ensure completeness. Verify the stakeholders who should be represented at the Project Definition Workshop. Stakeholders should have been identified and analysed when preparing the business case. The Project Charter document is produced and signed by the sponsor and project manager. The project manager accepts accountability for the project. Inform all parties of the start of the project by circulating the Project Charter to all affected and involved parties. Tool, Technique, Template

Business case and supporting documentation

3. Stakeholder verification

Business case and supporting documentation

4. Produce the Project Charter 5. Inform all parties

Project Charter

Project Charter

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management Table 4: Project Definition Phase
Step 1. Convene Project Definition Workshop 2. Brainstorm and categorise issues 3. Determine project purpose or mission 4. Determine objectives and performance measures 5. Determine the Deliverables Breakdown Structure (DBS) 6. Establish scope, assumptions, constraints and limiting criteria 7. Determine result milestones and initial time estimates 8. Determine the responsible entities 9. Determine the project responsibilities 10. Prepare communications plan 11. Perform project risk analysis Description/Comments Convene the Project Workshop on a suitable date and at a suitable venue. Inform all and appoint a facilitator. Brainstorm, categorise and document the issues. Anything not related to the project is put on a parking lot list. A concise statement is drafted, which describes the purpose of the project and acts as a focus for the participants. Document the measurable objectives and performance that must be delivered by the project. This will contain measurables for the project as well as the organisation. Determine the tangible deliverables that the project is to produce. Develop the Deliverables Breakdown Structure (DBS). Establish and document any constraints, assumptions and limiting criteria. Determine the scope, particularly what is in and out of scope. Determine the result milestones and place them in a logical sequence. Determine the best initial time estimates. Determine the core team and other entities that will drive the project forward Determine decision-making power. Determine and document who is accountable for achieving which milestone and who has the responsibility for doing the work. Develop a communications plan or strategy to meet the information and communication needs of the stakeholders. Identify the risks to the project and analyse them in terms of impact, manageability and probability. Formulate responses to the risks identified. Calculate the costs based on the information and data established up to this point. Produce an initial cost estimate (order of magnitude estimate). Prepare all the documents relating to the above steps and collate them into one document. Tool, Technique, Template Project Definition Workshop (PDW) Nomination form Issue lists Parking lot Project Purpose and Objectives Template Project Purpose and Objectives Template

Deliverables Breakdown Structure (DBS) Initial Scope, Assumptions, Constraints and Limits Template Milestone Objective Chart (MOC) List of responsible entities Contact lists Milestone Responsibility Matrix (MRM)

Outline Communication Plan

Risk Evaluation template

12. Calculate initial cost estimates 13. Produce Project Definition Report (PDR)

Cost estimating Cost Estimate template Project Definition Report (PDR)

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

Table 5: Project Planning Phase


Step 1. Organise planning work and convene any planning workshops 2. Determine work involved at detail level 3. Perform time analysis 4. Perform resource analysis 5. Perform cost analysis 6. Prepare quality plan 7. Prepare communications plan 8. Prepare human resources plan 9. Prepare procurement plan 10. Integrate project plan 11. Do cash flow analysis 12. Produce Integrated Plan Baseline 13. Determine control mechanisms, project management information system (PMIS) and key performance indicators (KPIs) Description/Comments Verify who will be accountable for doing the detailed planning work (normally indicated by the Milestone Responsibility Matrix). Convene any required planning workshops. Break down the project work to be done to detailed (activity) level. Construct the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Carry out a time analysis on the project activities using an appropriate method. Allocate resources to the activities and perform a resource analysis. Calculate the costs based on the information and data established up to this point. Produce a detailed cost estimate. Prepare the quality plan Prepare the communications plan Prepare the human resources plan Prepare the procurement plan Ensure that all planning work for all work packages is integrated and all cross checks are performed. Ensure integration of all aspects (cost, time, quality, scope, risk, etc). Project manager takes accountability for the project plan. Prepare the cash flow graphs and perform a cash flow analysis Collate all project documentation as at this point and produce the Integrated Plan Baseline Determine the control methods and mechanisms. Establish and document the KPIs for managing project performance. Ensure that the PMIS can produce management information. Tool, Technique, Template Work Package Responsibility Matrix Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Gantt chart Critical path analysis Activity schedules Computer package Resource analysis Cost estimating Cost Estimate template Project quality plan Project communications plan Project human resources plan Project procurement plan

Integrated Project Plan Baseline S-curve graphs Cash flow schedules Integrated Plan Baseline

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management Table 6: Project Execution Phase
Step 1. Hold kick-off meeting 2. Establish monitoring and control systems and project infrastructure 3. Monitor and evaluate project performance and progress 4. Produce progress, status and performance reports 5. Apply control, feedback and problem solving 6. Revise baseline if required Description/Comments Hold meeting to officially kick-off the execution phase of the project and to ensure that all are aware of what needs to be done. Set up the processes required to monitor and control the project as well as to establish any infrastructure required. All aspects of the project (time, cost, quality, changes, risks, etc) are monitored regularly. The monitored information is evaluated and reviewed on a regular basis. Identify and flag any deviations. Produce regular progress, status and performance reports for the project. Circulate to all who need to know. Act on any deviations to the plan. Address any day-to-day problems. If changes are made to any aspect of the Integrated Plan Baseline, then the document must be updated to reflect those changes. Earned value reports and schedules Cost reports Activity progress reports Key performance indicators As above, attached to a formal progress report Control, feedback and problem solving techniques Integrated Plan Baseline Tool, Technique, Template

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management

Table 7: Project Close-out Phase


Step 1. Plan completion 2. Description/Comments Plan the completion of the work. Tool, Technique, Template Gantt chart Critical path analysis Activity Schedules Acceptance Certificates

This has been taking place throughout the Deliverable Execution Phase. Ensure that all verification (client deliverables have been accepted and acceptance) signed off by the client. Review the measurable objectives and 3. Review performance performance criteria agreed during the criteria Project Definition Phase. Has the project achieved what it set out to do? Release any resources from the project. Advise all resources managers that they 4. Release resources are relieved of their commitments to the project. Ensure that all the contractual aspects 5. Contractual aspects have been settled and that the final and final accounting accounting has been done. 6. Complete all Ensure that all project documentation is documentation collated and filed. Conduct a post implementation review 7. Post implementation (PIR). This establishes what went well, review (PIR) what did not happen according to plan, lessons learnt, etc. Write a final project report summarising 8. Write final project the history of the project and evaluation report of the performance. End the project and archive all 9. Terminate and documentation. Advise all of the archive project completion and termination of the project.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS


Many major software manufacturers have developed software programs specifically designed to assist project managers. These programs combine features of word processor, spreadsheet, and database to ease the organization and tracking process for project managers. All the elements of the project management programs are linked, so that information entered is transferred into a variety of documents, including calendars, financial reports and schedules. Advantages of Project Management Software The main advantage to using project management software is that it eases the complex organization process of a project. Projects are made up of numerous tasks, many of which are inter-related. The software allows a project manager to input these tasks, and the computer is then able to organize them into schedules, budgets, and reports.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-An Overview of Project Management Tied to the above advantage, project management software provides the benefit of a system that records, stores, and recalls all details of a project in one place. This is useful throughout the duration of the project, and also serves as a historical record once the project is complete. Once project information is inputted into the program, the software acts as a tool to analyze information in various ways. Finally, project management software assists a project manager by easing the communication of progress to other parties through reporting features, data sharing and e-mail. Disadvantages of Project Management Software There are two main disadvantages of project management software. First, in order to benefit from project management software, the user must have an understanding of the project management methodology and vocabulary. Most project management software packages rely on this as a prerequisite. Unless the user follows basic planning and task definition steps, the software will not be of any benefit, and may, in fact, complicate the project. Second, the information that a project manager inputs into the software is likely to change throughout the course of the project. Reports and analyses produced by the software are based on the data entered in the planning phase. As problems occur and things do not go as planned, the information stored in the software is no longer valid. Consequently, a project manager using software must enter any changes into the computer as they occur, and re-generate analyses and reports. Some project managers feel that this adds to their workload, and outweighs the benefits of the software. MICROSOFT PROJECT Microsoft Project is among the most widely used project management software. It is accessible to most people, and is considered to be the easiest program to use. Because it is a Windows based application, the basic features of the program are intuitive for most Windows users. Microsoft Project can handle large projects, multiple users, and multiple projects. It can produce Gantt charts and network diagrams, and can assist in critical path analysis, resource allocation, project tracking, status reporting, and so on.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process

THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS


THE PROJECT INITIATION PHASE
The Project Initiation Phase is the first phase of the project management life cycle. It is the start of a process that takes the Project Brief through to the delivery of the projects outcomes back into the business. The most important objectives of this phase are to ensure that: a project manager is selected to lead the project the project manager is briefed on the project by the project sponsor (a sponsor makes resources available to buy the projects deliverables, while satisfying the owners business improvement objectives. The sponsor must have the authority from upper management to deliver the project, and is responsible and accountable for the selection of the best person to lead the project) the project manger accepts accountability for the project authority is given to the project manager to deliver the project all parties are made aware of the project and of the project managers authority.

The major outcome of this phase will be an authorised and briefed project manager who can take the process further. Once the project manager has agreed to accept the project brief, project management authority over the project must be delegated to the project manager. This authority to proceed is contained in a document aptly called the Project Charter. The Project Charter formally recognises the existence of a new project and serves to authorise (grant) the project manager to make use of the organisations resources (rights) such as people, equipment, materials, and funds to deliver the project. The Project Charter document is normally concise and should cover at least the following: the overall project purpose the priority of the project relative to other initiatives in the organisation identification of the project manager and sponsor the extent of the project managers authority important dates and estimated project duration funds available (cost of the project) any other resource limitations.

The Project Charter is normally produced by the project sponsor in cooperation with the project manager and is signed by both parties the sponsor authorising and the project manager accepting. Only after both have signed can it be said that the project has been initiated. After the charter, the project enters the Project Definition Phase. SCENARIO FOR EXAMPLE PROJECT: THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTION OF ZAMBIA (EIZ) NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process


The EIZ holds a national symposium every August of each year. The symposium is organised by the EIZ secretariat. During the past three years, the attendance and quality of these National Symposia has being going down. An assessment has revealed that the main causes for this has been lack of communication, low quality of papers presented, absence of proceedings, and a reduction of paid up members. For this years National Symposium, the EIZ Council has therefore decided to appoint a professional project manager to manage the National Symposium. It is also envisaged that a successful National Symposium would create awareness and contribute to membership building. Project Brief The EIZ contracted the project manager to manage the National Symposium and exhibition to be held over three days during the usual month of August. Specifically, the project manager will be responsible for planning, organising, coordinating and controlling the project. The Institute has allocated an amount of K10,000,000 for initial expenditure, but this has to be paid back out of the Symposium and exhibition proceeds. Companies have been approached for sponsorship and K15,000,000 has been raised. Funding over and above these amounts is to be generated through the Symposium and exhibition fees. The Institute expects the Symposium and exhibition to realise a net profit of at least K50,000,000. To achieve this target, at least 100 Symposium delegates and 20 exhibitors are needed. A minimum of 20 new members are expected to enrol as a result of the proceedings. Over the three-day period, approximately 2,000 visitors are expected to visit the exhibition. To attract both members and non-members, a quality professional programme highlighting nationally-known engineers as well as an international keynote speaker is planned. The project start date is 1 February and it is estimated to take 11 months. The project manager draws up a project charter capturing the above parameters, and the EIZ Secretary, acting as sponsor, approves it. Project Core Team The project has just been initiated and the project manager and sponsor have assessed the highlevel staffing requirements in terms of skill and time required. Four members from the EIZ Publications Committee have been identified. The four team members (Banda, Chola, Moonga and Yeta) are assigned part-time to the project due to existing workloads.

THE PROJECT DEFINITION PHASE


Before a project team does any work, it should spend time ensuring that it has a shared understanding of where it is going. The terms used to define that destination are mission, vision, goals, and objectives. This understanding of the project mission is done during the Project Definition Phase. The Project Definition Phase follows the Project Initiation Phase, and is probably the most important stage in the life of a project, as it is during this time that the foundations of the project are laid. The result of the Project Definition Phase should be a project that is well conceived with stakeholder buy-in. Poor definition often leads to project failure with inevitable stakeholder dissatisfaction and team disillusionment. Most of the Project

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process Definition Phase process is executed as a single facilitated workshop: the Project Definition Workshop (PDW). A neutral facilitator must conduct the workshop. The PDW acts as the kick-off meeting to the planning phase and fixes the official start of the project. DETERMINE THE PROJECT PURPOSE/MISSION The PDW must start by constructing the project purpose/mission. This must be short, clear and to the point. This is the projects primary objective. An effective project purpose/mission statement contain the following elements: identification of the problem or opportunity a proposed solution to the problem a link to the strategic intent of the project.

The project purpose/mission gives the workshop group a clear strategic statement, which forms the basis of further project definition. It serves to focus the groups further discussions.
In order to enhance the value and impact of the annual EIZ National Symposium, the EIZ Council has decided to improve the planning and organisation of its symposia and exhibitions by applying project management process. An effective symposium will also create awareness and contribute to membership building.

Project Purpose/Mission

DETERMINE THE OBJECTIVES AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES Next the Objectives and performance measures must be developed. These add detail to the projects primary objective (purpose/mission). They are measurable results that confirm whether the project purpose/mission has been achieved. The objectives and performance measures must therefore contain two important elements: identification of what final objectives or performance the project must achieve verification that the projects objectives and performance have been achieved.

Effective objectives and performance measures will: focus the entire project team on the final results that must be achieved further describe the project purpose/mission collectively be the most important milestone of the project on which all planning must continuously focus (that is, they are part of the final project milestone) indicate the measurable end of the project.

It is important to note that the objectives and performance measures are related specifically to the project deliverables. Objectives must also not be outside the influence of the project team. The objectives must be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic, Time bound).

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process


Objectives and Performance Measures Hold a successful symposium as indicated by an 80% or more delegate satisfaction level measured off evaluations. Hold a successful exhibition as indicated by an 80% or more visitor satisfaction level measured by exit survey. Realise a profit of K50,000,000 from the entire proceedings. Receive at least 20 new applications for membership from delegates and visitors within three months of the proceedings. Attract at least 100 conference delegates, 20 exhibitors and 2,000 exhibition visitors.

DETERMINE THE DELIVERABLES BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE Once the purpose/mission and objectives have been determined, the initial scope of the project needs to be defined. The precursor to this is establishing the project deliverables. The essential tool used to assist in the development of the project deliverables is the Deliverables Breakdown Structure (DBS). The DBS identifies and displays the deliverables to be produced and/or accomplishments or results to be achieved as well as the sub-elements of the project. If a DBS cannot be developed for a project at this stage then too little is known about the project to achieve it, let alone manage it! The input to the DBS come from the business case, purpose/mission, objectives, analysis of the issues and discussion. The development of DBS assists the workshop group to: further understand and define the scope develop the Milestone Objective Chart (MOC) develop a cost estimate.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process The DBS follows the same concepts and rules for the construction of a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), which a discussed later on. In fact, as more information becomes available during the Project Planning Phase, the DBS is modified and expanded to become the detailed WBS.
01 Symposium and Exhibition 01.01 Symposium 01.01.01 Programme 01.01.02 Handouts 01.01.03 Speakers 01.01.04 Facilities 01.02 Exhibition 01.02.01 Exhibitors 01.02.02 Facilities 01.03 Marketing and Communications 01.03.01 Venue and Date 01.03.02 Mailing List 01.03.03 Brochures 01.03.04 Registration 01.03.05 Recruitment Information Packs 01.04 Funding 01.04.01 Go/No-Go Scenarios 01.04.02 K50,000,000 Profit 01.05 Project Management 01.05.01 Project Definition Report 01.05.02 Detail Plan Baseline 01.05.03 Post Implementation Review Report

ESTABLISH SCOPE, ASSUMPTIONS, CONSTRAINTS AND LIMITING CRITERIA Using the DBS as input, the PDW must develop the initial project scope, assumptions, constraints and limiting criteria (the project boundaries). These will guide and assist the group in defining the project result milestones and detail planning. The scope is the overall description of the project and is often described as what is in and what is out of the boundaries (scope) of the project or, what the project is and what the project is not. Assumptions are details of the project that are not explicitly stated in any previous document or discussion but have been (or will be) used to take decisions. Constraints indicate the restraining boundaries within which the project must be achieved. Limiting criteria indicate the scope limits (quantum) of the deliverables to be produced.

Some typical constraints, limiting criteria and scope boundaries are: time (completion date, holidays, specific events) cost (maximum expenditure, funding method, cash flow) 26

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process resources (source, location, quantity, availability) inclusions (what is included what the project is) exclusions (what is to be excluded what the project is not) policy, rule, or system constraints (standards to be followed) quantities.

The scope, assumptions, constraints and limiting criteria are usually expressed in narrative list form.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Scope, Constraints and Limiting Criteria (What is in scope) 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 1. What is out of Scope (What the project is not) 2. 3. Hold a conference for at least 100 delegates. Create an exhibition area for at least 20 exhibitors. Provide facilities for at least 2,000 visitors. Initial funding of K10,000,000 will be provided by the Institute but must be paid back. A further donation of K15,000,000 will be provided by companies and organisations. Project duration is 11 months. The project start date is 1 February. The symposium and exhibition must not take place later than the end of August. Project team is to be drawn from EIZ Publications Committee members only. Their time will be voluntary. A recruitment pack must be developed and the EIZ must be one of the exhibitors. The exhibition and symposium must be a three-day event. The conference programme must have between 16 to 20 speakers, of which at least one must be an international speaker. The venue to be no more than an hours travel from Capital City. Catering for symposium delegates and exhibition visitors must be organised. Speakers expenses will be paid, but the speakers will not receive a fee. The actual growth in membership will not be a deliverable from the project. This project is not the complete marketing strategy of EIZ. This project will not be the sole contributor to greater market awareness of the EIZ.

DETERMINE THE RESULT MILESTONE At this point in the process, the final objectives for the project have been defined. Two definite milestones are therefore already known: the start (the Project Definition Workshop) and the end (the Objectives). The project objectives and performance measures, DBS, and initial scope information all combine to form the final goal or milestone that the project must reach. The next step is to develop the map, route, or plan of how the project will proceed from start to end. The map or plan must also illustrate how the project will unfold from start to final objective. The tool used for this purpose is the Milestone Objective Chart (MOC). The following points and observations define the concept of milestones as objectives.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process

Milestones describe the state the project should be in at a specific time. Milestones are not tasks or activities. Milestones do not have a duration (time). Milestones describe what has to be achieved and not how it must be achieved. Milestones describe events or states that are natural to the project and to the milestone chart users. Milestones can represent important decisions to be taken. Milestones must be measurable either quantitatively or qualitatively.

To illustrate this, the following milestone could be set for a property development project. When a suitable property for development has been identified and approved by the client. This milestone can be checked against the above observations. This milestone states what is to be achieved (the objective), being property identification and client approval. It does not describe how this is to be done (the activities needed). In a property development project, it is natural to select a property for development. It represents an important decision in terms of the project. It is measurable and controllable by monitoring the progress towards property location and securing.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process Target dates must be set for every milestone (Initial Time Estimates). These target dates must be respected, but not any cost. They must be balanced against the projects other objectives of cost and scope.
Goal Routes M S CS E CS S E M S M M S CS 80 90 12/06 1/07 Milestone Id 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Plan Date 26/02 01/05 06/03 06/03 20/03 05/06 10/06 Description
When the date has been set and the venue located & confirmed When the speakers have been selected and confirmed When the exhibitors have been obtained and confirmed When the mailing list has been prepared and approved When the event programme has been compiled & approved When the brochure has been designed, approved & printed When the brochure has been mailed When speaker notes and presentation visuals have been obtained from the speakers When 50 delegates and 15 exhibitors have been registered (Go/no-go decision) Completion Date Report Date Report

Goal Routes: M = Marketing; S = Symposium; CS = EIZ Council/Secretariat; E = Exhibition DETERMINE THE RESPONSIBLE ENTITIES AND THE PROJECT RESPONSIBILITIES Identify responsible entities involved in the project and then indicate their specific roles and responsibilities on the project. The Milestone Objective Chart provides an overall view of the project. Using the list of entities and the MOC, the PDW needs to organise and coordinate the project. This is done using the Milestone Responsibility Matrix (MRM) as the tool. The following must be considered when organising a project. Functional or resource managers must commit to the project, as they will be providing resources to the project at the required time. The provision of resources to a project by a functional manager is not a favour but an obligation. The role the assigned resource will fulfill on the project and when the resource is required must therefore be formally agreed as early as possible. Levels of authority and responsibility must be clearly defined for both permanent and temporary project participants. Decision-making responsibility must be clearly defined at an early stage. It is also important to ensure that the project does not take away the decision-making responsibility from those who usually hold it. People must not be allowed to make decisions when they do not have the necessary knowledge, skill, or authority.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process The Milestone Responsibility Matrix (MRM) is created by the workshop group through discussion. The parties to be committed to the project must be involved in the discussion. This stage defines the relationship between the individual parties to the project. In the MRM, the rows represent milestones and the columns the responsible entities. The following lists possible roles and responsibility with a single identifying character. X D P C I a d p Q T M H eXecutes the work (responsibility) takes Decision solely or ultimately (authority) manages Progress (accountability) must be Consulted must be Informed available to advise takes decision jointly or partly manages function progress assures Quality provides Tuition provides Mentoring provides Help (coaching)

The following rules apply to the use of the symbols. Each row must contain at least a D, P and X. There can be multiple Xs and ds on a row but only one D and one P. Capital P indicates who has accountability for the planning and monitors the progress and is therefore accountable for the outcome of the milestone. There can be multiple symbols in a cell.

An analysis of the completed MRM can tell much about the project. The horizontal (row) view shows the milestone as an objective (goal) to be achieved and the group and team who will achieve it. The vertical (column) view shows the role that an entity will play on the project. The number of Ds and Ps in a column is an indication of the power and influence of that entity over the project. If a column has no entries, then that entity is not involved in the project. If there are many Is and no Ds, Xs, or Ps then the entity is probably an observer and could cause problems downstream. Too many Xs in a column could indicate a workload that may need balancing.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process

Milesto ne Id

Description

Project Mangr

Mktng (Banda)

Conf (Chola)

Exhib (Moonga)

Venue (Yeta)

EIZ Councl

Food & Bev

Ad Agency

10

20 30 40 50 60 70

80

90

When the date has been set and the D Cd Cd Cd PXd D venue located & confirmed When the speakers I PXd CD have been selected and confirmed When the exhibitors I PXD C Cd have been obtained and confirmed When the mailing list PXD C C I has been prepared and approved When the event programme has been Pd C Xd X I CD compiled & approved When the brochure d PXD C C I C Xdp has been designed, approved & printed When the brochure P XD I I has been mailed When speaker notes and presentation visuals have been Pd I PXD I obtained from the speakers When 50 delegates and 15 exhibitors Pd C Xd Cd Xd D I have been registered (Go/no-go decision) Legend: X=eXecutes the work; P=manages Progress; C=must be Consulted; p=manages function progress; D=takes Decision solely; d=takes decision jointly; I=must be Informed; a=available to advise.

PREPARE THE COMMUNICATIONS PLAN Projects generate information that needs to be communicated to project participants regularly and punctually, and this needs to be planned. The communications plan essentially documents the information needs of the project participants. During the detailed Project Planning phase, a more detailed communication plan is produced. That plans contains a description of the communications tools and techniques which will be used (medium), as well as who receives what information (groups) and when (frequency), and who is responsible for communicating with the specific group. During the Definition Phase, an outline communications plan is developed. PERFORM PROJECT RISK ANALYSIS: Projects are undertaken because the projected benefits are attractive to the owners when compared to the risks of not undertaking the project. Project risks focus on future events that could prevent the project from reaching its stated objectives. Effective management of risks will increase the probability of achieving project objectives. Therefore, an essential and integral part of project definition is the initial risk evaluation. From the perspective of upper management and the client, risk assessment is of the most utmost
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process importance, as a decision to go ahead with the next phase of the project has to be made. From the project participants perspective, risk assessment highlights potential problem areas, the probability of their occurrence, and the consequences/impact on the project should they occur. The risk treatment (how the risk will be handled) is an indication of the thoroughness of the project teams approach to risk management. Risk evaluation is done against a set of criteria that enables risks to be compared and evaluated on a similar basis. Therefore, quantitative evaluation involves comparison of a quantitative level of risk against quantitative criteria. Stakeholder perception and the performing organisations policies, goals and objectives are essential factors to consider when developing the risk evaluation criteria. Criteria are further influenced by the specific and unique aspects of a project, which distinguish it from other organisation initiatives. RISK IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS Comprehensive identification using a well-structured systematic process is essential, as risks that are not identified at the early stages of projects could result in major implementation problems downstream. The identification should include all risks whether they are under the control of the performing organisation or not. Risk is analysed by estimating the likelihood of the event occurring and the consequences or impact of the event if it does occur, within the context of the project criteria and control measures. The aims of the analysis are to prioritise the risks separating the minor, acceptable risks from the major risks and to provide data to assist in the evaluation and treatment of risks. A tool that can be used to assist to assess the likelihood of the risk occurring and consequences/impacts of the risk is the project risk analysis matrix shown in Table 8. The result of this analysis is the severity level. Table 8: Risk Analysis Matrix Consequence/Impact High Medium Low High 1 3 4 Medium 2 5 7 Low 6 8 9

Likelihood of Occurrence

In the matrix, selecting the relevant impact and likelihood of occurrence for a particular risk results in a level between 1 and 9, which is an indication of the severity of the risk; 1 being high and 9 being low. Management is applied irrespective of the risks severity level the severity level simply indicated the intensity of management required. This severity level should be recalculated regularly during the execution of the project and reported on at progress meetings. This provides an indication of how successfully risk management is being applied. The project risk evaluation is prepared during the Project Definition Phase and Project Planning Phase of a project. During the Project Execution Phase, this document is constantly reviewed and updated with any new risks identified or with risks that could arise out of the progress of the project. The result of risk analysis is presented in a Risk Evaluation Matrix.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process

Risk: What can go wrong? Symposium venue could be unsuitable

Occurrence H/M/L H

Impact H/M/L H

Severity Level 1

Risk Treatment Select venue carefully Draw up a criteria list for selection Research which speakers the industry wants Select keynote speaker carefully for maximum visibility Research industry requirements on subject areas Research for current topical issues Draw outlines for speakers Discuss with EIZ members and other organisations that have held similar seminars Develop a list of administrative duties

Quality of speakers not excellent

Symposium administration fails

CALCULATE THE INITIAL COST ESTIMATE A cost estimate based on all the available information (DBS, scope, milestones, risks, responsibilities, etc) must now be prepared. The cost estimate is normally done separately from the Project Definition Workshop and is the last step before producing the Project Definition Report. The cost estimate is usually done by the project manager with inputs and assistance from other project participants. A Budget/Estimate Worksheet can be useful in creating the estimate.
Code 010101 010102 010103 010104 010201 010202 010301 010302 010303 010401 010402 010501 010502 Work Element Description Themes and programme Materials Speakers Prepare facility Exhibitors Prepare site Find location Set date Arrange food & bevages Brochure Registration Run proceedings End-off Contingency TOTALS Eqpt Cost Components (Allowables) ZMK 000 Material Sub-Cont Contig Other 1000 9000 8000 1000 12300 HR 300 21000 2000 1500 550 10000 2300 3000 21850 2000 500 1000 11500 13500 9100 45600 14000 14000 450 250 500 600 1000 17400 Total 1000 18000 12300 1500 300 21000 2450 250 0 18050 1100 21100 2300 14000 113350

1500

The approach is to consider primarily what it will cost to produce the deliverables given in the DBS, and defined by the scope, limits and constraints. The Milestone Responsibility Matrix will provide some indication of the timing and resources required and these must be taken into consideration. Risk areas identified must be carefully considered and the cost allowances made for the actions required to manage the risk. The accuracy of the estimate will depend on the level of detail available up to this point, and depends on the experience of the estimators.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process

PRODUCE THE PROJECT DEFINITION REPORT The intention of the Project Definition Report (PDR) is to: enable all participants to better understand the project in terms of the definition parameters seek approval to proceed with the detailed Planning Phase form the preliminary baseline against which the planning phase development will be measured obtain commitment and buy-in from all participants through signed acceptance of the PDR.

A well-developed Project Definition Report will normally contain at least the following: project purpose/mission objectives and performance measures Deliverable Breakdown Structure (DBS) initial scope, assumptions, constraints and limiting criteria Milestone Objective Chart (MOC) Milestone Responsibility Matrix (MRM) basic communications plan risk analysis (Risk Evaluation Matrix) cost estimate (Estimate/Budget Worksheet).

The following can optionally be included: issues parking lot list Function Responsibility Matrix risk management responsibility matrix more detailed description of the deliverables contact list of all participants.

Once the Project Definition Report has been approved, the project team can proceed with the detailed Project Planning Phase.

THE PROJECT PLANNING PHASE


Following the approval of the Project Definition Report (PDR), the Project Planning Phase begins in earnest. During the Project Planning Phase we fully clarify, plan and evaluate the project. The deliverable from this phase will be the Integrated Project Plan Baseline. The PDR provides the overall view of what needs to be planned. The Integrated Project Plan Baseline produced must operate within the scope and boundaries defined and agreed to in the PDR. Project planning follows a process the output of which is the project plan. There can be only one plan for a project, although it may integrate individual plans for various

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process aspects of the project such as time, cost, quality, risk, human resources, procurement, and communications. There are different levels of plans relevant to projects. These can be broadly categorised as follows. Strategic plans developed by client/management with emphasis on the change the project must bring about. Management plans developed by the management of the project (client, project manager, and functional managers) with the emphasis on the results or deliverables the project must achieve. Such a plan is contained in the PDR. Operational plans developed by the functional departments and integrated to form the integrated project plan. This planning focuses on the activities that must be performed (the operations) to produce the project results or deliverables. This plan is produced during the Project Planning Phase.

Each type of plan leads to the next following the sequence above. The strategic plan in the form of a business case or project proposal forms the input into the development of the management plan. The management plan in the form of the PDR is in turn the input into the development of the integrated project plan. Operational plans are developed by the functional areas of the organisation assigned to the project, as they are experts in the work required to produce deliverables. Although each area develops its own plan, they are all integrated to form a single integrated project plan. Project planning is an iterative process. Planning becomes progressively more definitive with each cycle taken. Each iteration reinforces the viability of the plan. Viability is created by applying various planning tools and techniques within the planning process. Since the project planning process is iterative, it can continue almost indefinitely. The decision to suspend the iteration is a judgement call made by the functional area manager for their areas operational plan and the project manager for the integrated project plan. The rule of diminishing returns applies here the value added to the project plan by an additional iteration is weighed up against the cost and time required to do it. Once the iteration is stopped, it must be understood that the integrated project plan represents the best thinking available at that time. One of the objectives of planning is to create a measurement standard for progress. It is essential therefore to freeze the plan at a point in time and use that base against which to measure progress. This frozen measure is called the baseline, and the plan or component is often referred to as having been baselined which means that a measurement standard has been set. Once a base line has been created, it can only be altered to create a new baseline through a formal change control process. Once the integrated project plan is baselined, it is referred to as the Integrated Project Plan Baseline and is the deliverable from the Project Planning Phase.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process PROJECT PLAN MANAGEABILITY AND VIABILITY The project plan must be physically viable in other words, it must be workable, feasible, and within the bounds of possibility. To achieve this, the project plan needs to be robust, well thought through, and capable of being managed (manageability). Table 9 summarises the areas in which the project plan must be viable and the type of questions to be addressed by any tools and techniques used to assess viability. Table 9:
Viability Aspect

Viability Aspects of the Project Plan

Time

Resource

Cost

Financial

Questions Addressed What is the shortest time in which the project can be completed? In what sequence will the activities (work) be executed? What work can be done simultaneously? How long will each package take? Which activities are critical (that is, if delayed will affect the end dated)? Can specified milestone dates be met? What resources will be needed? What are the optimum levels of the required resources? When will the resources be required? What alternative resources can be used? How much will the project cost? Are the costs within any given cost constraints? Is the plan effective in its use of money? Can we afford to do the project now? What demands will the project make on the resource of money? What funding is required and by when? How will money flow into and out of the project over its duration?

Time viability is assessed using tools and techniques that provide both logic and time analysis, such as the Gantt chart and critical path analysis. Time is not the only restraint on a project plan. The assumption made when doing a time analysis is that resources are unlimited which of course is not true. Under-resource and the work could take longer than planned; over-resource and costs will increase. It is important to evaluate the optimal level of resources required and any possible scarcity. The following questions need to be considered in a resource analysis. What resources are needed? (Allocation) When are they needed? (Scheduling) How much is needed? (Aggregation) Is their use efficient? (Levelling and smoothing)

Cost is another restraint on a project plan. Costs are often referred to as resources sacrificed or foregone to achieve a specific objective (the project). Resources (equipment, staff time, materials, services) are consumed over the duration of the project to produce the work. A project needs to achieve the work set out in scope as cost-effectively as possible within the restraints of time and quality. During the Project Planning Phase, the following questions of cost viability must be addressed.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process What is the most cost-effective way of producing each work package (activities or set of activities)? What will the total project actually cost? Can the project be achieved within the cost limits set by the client/upper management?

These questions require an accurate estimate of costs, taking into consideration the time and resource analyses. Even if the project can be executed within the specified cost and time limits, this does not guarantee that the owner can actually afford to undertake the project. Projects are usually funded from the project owners cash surpluses, or from funds the owner hopes to generate from normal business activities or through loans. The timing of the funds availability is crucial. Work can be planned to be done at a certain time, but if there are no funds to pay for the resources required at that time, work stops. Financial viability therefore addresses certain vital questions. From the performing organisations (contractor) view When the time comes, will there be sufficient funds to do the work? If funding is required, where can it be obtained and how much will it cost in interest?

For the project owner How much funding is needed and when? Can financial obligations to the contractor be fulfilled? If funding is required, where can it obtained and how much will it cost in interest? (Interest on loans is a cost of the project and must be catered for.)

To perform a cash flow analysis, information from the time analysis, resource analysis, and cost estimates is used to produce cash flow schedules and cash flow graphs. These allow the contractor and project owner to determine the financial viability of the Integrated Project Plan Baseline.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGRATED PROJECT PLAN BASELINE Project planning is an iterative process. Figure 12 illustrates the iterative core planning process. The process is shown as a circle to symbolise the iterative nature. After the optimum balance between time, resources, cost and funding is achieved, the plan is then supplemented by, and integrated with, the quality, communication and human resources plans to form an integrated plan. This core planning process can be used to perform the detail planning for project work to be done by functional departments, sub-projects, and projects.

Figure 12: The Iterative Core Planning Process Determine the Work Involved at Detail Level: During the Project Definition Phase, the Deliverables Breakdown Structure (DBS) was produced. This can almost be regarded as an initial or high-level Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). To achieve a useful WBS, to what level is the work broken down? A rule of thumb is that WBS is broken down to the level where time, cost, and resources required for a work package can be determined with comfort. It is essential that all work packages are broken down to activity level, that can be assigned specific costs, personnel, duration, etc.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The WBS definition from the PMI Standards Committees A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge reads The WBS is a deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements which organises and defines the total scope of the project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of a project component. Project components may be products or services. The WBS is a cascaded tree-like structure and is the means of dividing a large project into components or elements called work packages. The lowest level is always the detailed task to be performed. Using the WBS, the planner can tackle one clearly defined part of a project at a time instead of trying to grapple with the whole. The size of the WBS and the number of levels depend on the size and complexity of the project. The most common structure consists of five levels, as follows. 1. Total project 2. Sub-project (deliverables or accomplishments) 3. Work package 4. Tasks 5. Activities

The WBS levels can take on a variety of names depending on industry type, established organisation methodologies and individual project managers preference. Programme level is usually designated level 0. A WBS can, at level 2, be broken down either on a product basis or on a life cycle basis. A well-developed product-based WBS should have the following characteristics. Level 2 defines the major products that the project will deliver, irrespective of which life cycle phase they are in. WBS elements are not listed in any specific sequence. Task and activity schedules, and budgets may be prepared after the work elements have been defined. It must cover all the known deliverables/work required to accomplish the project. The WBS must cover all effort including project management and administration. The tasks should be mutually exclusive and not overlap. When a deliverable/task, or activity repeats in various parts of the WBS, it is useful to group them together at a higher level. This guideline does not apply to the phased approach. The elements of a developed WBS always look obvious after the fact.

In addition, the WBS: Must not be people-oriented it must not indicate who will do the work. Is not the project time plan, as it ignores time. Does not indicate the sequence in which the activities or work packages are executed, except for the phased approach. 39

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The life cycle based WBS has the following characteristics that are different to the above product based structure. It defines level 2 of the WBS in terms of the project life cycle. The deliverables/tasks and activities can repeat in various phases.

A project where there is a different project manager for each phase would tend towards a life cycle approach.
01 Symposium and Exhibition 01.01 Symposium 01.01.01 Themes and Programme 01.01.01.01 Determine programme 01.01.02 Materials 01.01.02.01 Obtain speaker notes 01.01.02.02 Prepare visuals 01.01.02.03 Prepare handout kits 01.01.03 Speakers 01.01.03.01 Determine speakers 01.01.03.02 Organise travel and accommodation 01.01.04 Prepare facility 01.01.04.01 Obtain and test LCD system 01.02 Exhibition 01.02.01 Exhibitors 01.02.01.01 Find exhibitors 01.02.02 Prepare site 01.02.02.01 Partitioning 01.02.02.02 Electrical work 01.02.02.03 Telephones 01.03 Location 01.03.01 Find location 01.03.02 Set date 01.03.03 Arrange food and beverages 01.04 Marketing 01.04.01 Brochure 01.04.01.01 Prepare brochure 01.04.01.02 Prepare mailing list 01.04.01.03 Mail brochures 01.04.02 Registration 01.04.02.01 Accept registration 01.05 Implementation 01.05.01 Run proceedings 01.05.01.01 Run symposium 01.05.01.02 Run exhibition 01.05.01.03 Clear up 01.05.02 Analyse evaluations 01.05.02.01 Final paperwork

PERFORM THE TIME ANALYSIS: Now that the work has been defined down to activity level, a time analysis is needed in order to ensure that the plan is viable in terms of time. To do this, the activities

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process contained in the work packages at the lowest level of the WBS must be scheduled in other words, determine when an activity will take place and how long it will take to do. This means estimating the duration of each activity and sequencing the activities in a logical order of execution or precedence. There are a number of tools used to perform a time analysis, the most common of which is critical path analysis (CPA). If the project has few activities and is not complex, a simple Gantt chart can suffice. Gantt Chart One of the oldest methods of presenting time schedule information is the Gantt chart, developed around 1917 by Henry Gantt. A Gantt chart is one of the most convenient, most commonly used, easy-to-grasp presentations of project activities. It is a twodimensional graphical representation of the activities that make up the project. The vertical axis lists the project activities, one per line, while the horizontal axis indicates time. Once the scheduled start and completion dates for every activity have been determined, the Gantt chart can be constructed. Figure 13 shows one of the acceptable ways to display project information on a Gantt chart.

Figure 13: Gantt Chart An added value of the Gantt chart is that the activities are time-scaled, which provides a perspective not possible with other project charts such as network diagrams. The Gantt chart is a particularly effective and easy-to-read method of indicating the actual current status of activities compared to the planned progress. They provide a clear, simple picture of the state of the project. As a result, the Gantt chart can be helpful in expediting, sequencing and relocating resources to activities, as well as keeping track of progress. In addition, the charts can contain a number of specialised symbols to designate or highlight items of special concern to the situation being charted. A close relationship exists between Gantt charts and Critical Path Analysis (CPA) networks. Generally Gantt charts are derived from CPA networks by plotting the activity from its calculated earliest time for the length of its duration. If an activity has float, then this can be shown as a differently patterned bar at the back of the plotted activity bar.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process The major disadvantage of the Gantt chart is that the relationships or dependencies between activities are not as explicit as in CPA networks, unless connecting lines are drawn on the Gantt chart. Modern computer packages can show these connecting lines if required. CRITICAL PATH ANALYSIS (CPA) Critical Path Analysis (CPA) is a technique that determines the shortest time it will take to complete a project, while considering the logical flow and dependencies between various project tasks. Stated conversely, it is the longest path through a project, which indicates all the work required to complete the project, and therefore determines the earliest time a project will finish. This longest path is also known as the critical path. CPA can be applied to every project, large or small, complex or simple. When and where CPA should be applied is dependent on several factors, as follows. Is the time component of the project absolutely critical to success that is, is time fixed? Is the project complex, involving many organisations and disciplines requiring close monitoring and control? Is the project large (not necessarily complex), requiring large amounts of resources over a relatively short time period? If CPA is not used, will it be possible to control the project efficiently? If the impact of a delay on a portion of the project or the complete project cannot be evaluated what will the consequences be?

CPA Definitions The following definitions are essential to an understanding of CPA. The terms and definitions given are those for the precedence networking method, which is the most commonly used CPA method. Activity: This is a specific task or set of tasks that is required to be executed to achieve the project. Activities consume resources and take time to complete. The time an activity takes is referred to as its duration. In a precedence network diagram, an activity is normally shown as a rectangle (shown on the right) containing a description of the activity and its duration. It is the basic element of a precedence network diagram.

Activity A 6 days

Milestone: A milestone indicates a culmination of a series of activities and events. Milestones are route markers along the road to project completion. A milestone normally has a date attached to it, by which time it must have been reached. Milestone dates are sometimes referred to as plug dates. Dependence links or Logic links: Activities are connected together to form a network. In the precedence network diagram the dependency links between activities are indicated by lines, and can be of any of the following types.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process Finish-to-Start: If activity A is the predecessor to activity B, then activity B is As successor. In a finish-to-start link, the logical link connects the finish of activity A to the start of activity B. This means that activity B cannot start until activity A has ended. Start-to-Start: A start-to-start link means that activities A and B can start at the same time. Finish-to-Finish: This means that activity B cannot finish until activity A finishes.

A start-to-finish link also exists, but although it is logically correct, it is never used and is rarely catered for in computer packages. Lead and Lag: The dependency or logic links can themselves have duration, which is called a lead or a lag depending on whether it is positive or negative. A lag is positive and indicates the number of time periods which must pass before the succeeding event can start. For example, a lag of +5 placed on a finish-to-start link, means that activity B can start five time units after activity A has ended. A lead is negative and indicates the number of time periods that a succeeding event can start before the end of its predecessor. For example, a lead of 5 placed on a finish-to-start link indicates that activity B can start five time units before activity A ends. Activity sequencing: This entails arranging activities in sequence connected by logical links. This is often referred to as the technological sequence. Certain activities may be done in parallel while others may be done in series. An activity sequence list showing immediate activity predecessors and durations is often used in CPA network development. An example of this is given in Table 10. Table 10: Activity Sequencing Table Activity Description Start A B C D E G H J K Finish Immediate Predecessor Start Start Start B B D D A J,G,E K,H,C Duration (weeks) 0 16 20 30 15 10 3 16 15 12 0

Network diagram: This is the visual representation of all the activities defining the project and relationships between them. Networks are usually drawn from left to right.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process Networks are usually drawn from data in an activity sequence table. Figure 14 is the network diagram derived from the activity sequencing in Table 10.

Figure 14: Network Diagram Network path: This is a series of connected activities creating a path through a network. There are usually a number of paths running through a network. Critical path: This is the path of activities in a network which, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project. It is the sequence of critical activities that connects the projects start activity to its finish activity. This gives the duration of the project. Calculating the Critical Path Duration The activity sequence in Table 10 and the network diagram in Figure 14 will be used to illustrate the network calculations. The network calculations will result in a number values being determined for each activity. All the values need to be recorded on the diagram or in a table. If recorded in the network diagram, the values are attached to the activity as shown in Figure 15.
ES EF ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION and DURATION LS Float LF ES = Early Start EF = Early Finish LS = Late Start LF = Late Finish

FIGURE 15: ACTIVITY LEGEND The early start time (ES) for an activity is the earliest time that an activity can start given that all its predecessor activities have been completed. The early finish time (EF) of an activity is the earliest time that an activity can be completed. It is equal to its ES time plus its estimated duration.
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process

The ES time of an activity that has one predecessor is the EF of the predecessor. The ES time of an activity that has two or more predecessors is the greatest of the EF of all its predecessors. To calculate these times, work forward through the network, performing a forward pass. If you perform the forward pass on the network in Figure 14 it will look as shown in Figure 16.

Figure 16: The Forward Pass The late start time (LS) and late finish time (LF) of an activity are the latest times at which an activity can start (LS) or be completed (LF) without affecting the project duration. The LS of an activity is equal to its LF minus its estimated duration. The LF of an activity that has only one successor is the LS of the successor. The LF of an activity having two or more successors is the least of the LS of all its successors. To calculate these times, work backwards through the network, performing a backward pass. Figure 17 shows the network after performing the backward pass.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process

Figure 17: The Backward Pass The critical path is that path of activities where there is no difference between EF and LF or ES and LS. The difference between the times is called the activities float. Therefore the critical path is based on zero float. There are three types of floats, total float, free float and independent float. The most commonly used is the total float, while the independent float is not often used (and has been omitted). Total float: The total amount an activity may move without affecting the total project time is called total float and is calculated as: Total float = Late start time (LS) Early start time (ES) or Total float = Late finish time (LF) Early finish time (EF) Free float: While total float does not affect the total project time, it may delay the start of succeeding activities. The ability of an activity to float without affecting a subsequent activity is given by the activitys free float. Since free float involves succeeding activities, it cannot be calculated from the four start and finish times of the activity. Reference must be made to all immediate successors since it is the float in these that is to be unaffected. The free float is calculated as follows: Free float = Early start time (ES) of the successor Early finish time (EF) of the predecessor

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process Table 11 shows the calculated floats while Figure 18 is the complete network diagram. Table 11: Final Critical Path and Float Analysis Table Activity
Description Duration

Start Times
Early Late

Finish Times
Early Late

Floats
Total Free

A B C J D E G H K

16 20 30 15 15 10 3 16 12

0 0 0 16 20 20 35 35 38

8 0 21 24 20 29 36 35 39

16 20 30 31 35 30 38 51 50

24 20 51 39 35 39 39 51 51

8 0 21 8 0 9 1 0 1

0 0 21 7 0 8 0 0 1

Figure 18: Complete Network Diagram The critical path is determined by connecting all the activities with the least float (in this case the zero float convention has been used as it is the most common in industry). In the above network the critical path is START-B-D-H-FINISH. The project can be completed in 51 weeks. When performing the time analysis, the milestones and dates set on the Milestone Objective Chart during the Project Definition Phase need to be assessed. Other dates too may need to be regarded as milestones, such as contractual delivery dates and dates where another contractor requires access to completed project work so they fulfil their obligations. Holidays and industry shutdowns must also be taken into consideration. The time analysis is repeated until the most realistic set of dates is obtained within the time constraints either those determined during the project definition phase, or those renegotiated in this phase. Ultimately, the MOC dates may need to be changed as a result of the time analysis.

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Determine the activity linkages and then draw the EIZ Symposium Network Diagram showing the Critical Path. Draw a Gantt chart based of the activity early start time.
Activity Id 01010101 01010204 01010205 01010206 01010303 01010304 01010401 01020201 01020204 01020205 01020206 010301 010302 010303 01040104 01040105 01040105 01040201 01050104 01050105 01050106 01050201 Description Determine programme Obtain speaker notes Prepare visuals Prepare handout kits Determine speakers Organise travel and accommodation Obtain and test LCD system Find exhibitors Partitioning Electrical work Telephones Find location Set date Arrange food and beverages Prepare brochure Prepare mailing list Mail brochures Accept registration Run symposium Run exhibition Clear up Final paperwork (Analyse evaluations) Project start Confirm all arrangements Duration (days) 30 30 20 6 30 10 1 20 3 2 1 10 3 10 25 20 3 45 3 3 5 5 Immediate Predecessor

PERFORM THE RESOURCE ANALYSIS: The time analysis provides a clearer picture of how long the project will take, how long each activity will take, and when each activity should start and end. The assumption made while doing the time analysis is that unlimited resources are available. It is now time to formalise the resource requirements of the project and ensure that the project plan is viable in terms of resources. The resource analysis is always performed on the results of the time analysis. The resource analysis involves determining the resource requirements for each activity. There are two reasons for analysing the resource requirements: to determine the effect of the resources required on the project time schedule to provide a basis for the price/cost estimating process.

Resources can be people, materials, equipment and services. Money (expenditure and revenue) can also be regarded as a resource, and it is an important consideration on cost analysis. Resource analysis consists of two steps:

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process allocating and scheduling levelling or smoothing.

ALLOCATING AND SCHEDULING This involves examining each activity included in the time analysis to determine what resources are required to do the work and how those resources are spread over the duration of the activity. The following are the most common spread rules. Straight line or Variable demand: The resource level is divided by the number of time periods it is required, and an equal resource is allocated to each period. It is used when a set amount of work must be done (or resource consumed) on an activity irrespective of the estimated time. Then, if the time is shortened, the resource demand per time period will increase. If the time is lengthened, the resource demand per time period will decrease. Fixed per period or Fixed demand: This method is used when a resource is consumed for as long as the activity continues. The same level of resource is allocated to each time period. Whether the time is shortened or lengthened, the resource demand per time period stays the same. Profile: The level of resource varies by time period. A profile is sometimes expressed in percentages, such as 60% of the resources is needed over the first 20% of the time, and the remaining 40% over the last 80% of the time. The level is then split into the percentages and divided equally (straight-lined) over the corresponding split periods. Start/end: All the resource is taken up or used in the first or last time period of the duration. Up-front expenditures, payments for work done are normally allocated in this manner. Since the activities have been scheduled in time by means of the time analysis, the resources attached to the activities are also now scheduled in time. By now adding up each type of resource required in each time period, the total resource demand for that period can be determined. This demand is normally shown in the form of a resource histogram per resource type. This is needed for the next step. Scheduling is made easier with the use of a Gantt chart. LEVELLING OR SMOOTHING The availability of some resources is fixed at a certain level, meaning that this level per time period cannot be exceeded. This level is known as the clipping level and is particularly relevant if the resource is scarce. A resource histogram will usually show peaks (periods during which the resource level is higher than the clipping level) and valleys (when the resource levels are lower than the clipping level). Figure 19 below illustrates this.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process

Peak

Level

Clipping Level

Valley

Time Periods Figure 19: Resource Histogram or Resource Demand Profile If the availability of a resource is limited (scarce), then the aim of levelling or smoothing is to eliminate the peaks and fill the valleys to keep it on or below the clipping level. In doing this, the time schedule may be affected. There are a number of methods for levelling and smoothing, the more common of which are as follows: Shift the activities around by rescheduling them (time analysis). Activities with the most float are rescheduled first within their float. The last activities to be shifted will be the critical activities. Eliminate certain activities. Substitute activities with less resource consuming activities. Change production rates. Use alternative resources. Split activities (stopping an activity and then restarting it at a later point). This could cause learning curve problems and should only be tried as a last resort.

If any changes are made that could affect the time schedule, the time analysis must be repeated followed by another resource analysis to gauge the effect of the changes. The time and resource analyses continue until an optimum balance of time and resources within the limits of the project is reached. PERFORM THE COST ANALYSIS: The cost estimate is developed using the Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS). The CBS is produced from the detailed WBS by adding cost elements that are not necessarily related to work. Such elements could be provisions for risk (contingencies), interest on loans, licence fees and royalties, and certain administration overheads. The information produced by the resource analysis substantiates and supplements the cost estimate as well as acting as a control. The resource information can be readily converted to money by applying a standard, average, or exact rate per resource unit. If the resource analysis was comprehensive, there should be a clear relationship with the cost estimate.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process The cost analysis will indicate whether the project can be achieved within the cost limits set. If it cannot, the estimates will have to be reconsidered to find ways to reduce cost. This is an ongoing process even if the estimate is within limits. There are many ways to reduce cost, such as cutting time, increasing production rates, reducing the use of resources, alternative resources, more comprehensive resource levelling and smoothing, alternative approaches to doing work, and use of subcontractors. All these options must be investigated and applied if beneficial. This could result in changes to the time and resource estimates. The time and resource analyses will then have to be redone. PREPARE THE QUALITY PLAN: The quality plan adds the dimension of quality to those of cost and time. The quality plan is needed to ensure that the projects products or outcomes meet the specifications or requirements as contained in the scope of the project. The detailed quality plan usually reflects the type of industry the project is being carried out in, and contains at least the quality criteria the project outputs must meet and the testing and validation activities to be adopted. Most important, quality review procedures must be established, and review activities must be defined and resourced. The activities defined to conduct quality inspections, and other functions related to quality, must be integrated into the plan being developed. Quality activities take time, consume resources, and have costs attached, and this all needs to be taken into consideration. The quality plan could therefore affect the time, resource, and cost analyses, and these may need to be redone. PREPARE THE COMMUNICATIONS PLAN: Projects generate information that needs to be communicated to all participants in a timely manner. Channels of communication must be established between all involved. The communications plan essentially documents the information and communication needs of the stakeholders, such as who needs what information, when they will need it, how will it be presented, and in what form or media. Communication activities such as report preparation and meetings must be costed and resourced against the activities scheduled. Once again these elements could affect the time, resource and cost analyses and these may need to be redone. PREPARE THE HUMAN RESOURCES PLAN: During earlier processes, human resources required for tasks and activities were determined. At this point, there should be a good understanding of the type of person required and the level of skills they should have. The following tasks are necessary to prepare the human resources plan. Determine and document how the human resources will be brought into and out of the project team. Create role or job descriptions and people profiles. Identify specific people with the correct profiles to fill the roles. This may involve negotiations with functional managers, individuals, and other project managers. If the resource is not available within the organisation, recruitment 51

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process agencies or individuals outside the organisation may have to be approached. This may require interfacing with human resources and procurement functional departments. Develop and document reward and incentive schemes as well as team-building activities. Plan and schedule any specific training required for the project. Take into account leave and any other reasons assigned staff may be unavailable.

Some factors such as staff availability, training, and incentive and reward schemes will affect the time, cost and resource analyses. PREPARE THE PROCUREMENT PLAN: The procurement plan indicates which project needs can best be met by obtaining products or services outside the organisation. It involves consideration of whether to procure, how to procure, what and how much to procure, and when to procure it. Procurement has an impact on timing. Certain materials may need to be imported or may have long lead times that could affect project schedules. Procurement invariably involves some form of contract and such contracts need to be drafted if they do not exist, or evaluated if they do. Conditions contained in contracts may mean that time, cost and resource analyses need to be considered and redone if necessary. INTEGRATE THE PROJECT PLAN: Although different people, departments, and teams may be working on different parts of the project plan, the project manager still has the overall responsibility and accountability for it. The project manager must ensure that all components fit together to produce an integrated plan. The project manager will be accountable and responsible for executing the plan and therefore must be completely satisfied that it is robust, viable and manageable. If the project manager has any doubt they must be voiced now so that the plan can be strengthened before it is too late. DO THE CASH FLOW ANALYSIS: This analysis is only carried out once an accurate and stable plan has been developed. It entails taking the money estimate and phasing it over the duration of the project in a similar way resource analysis (that is, money is regarded as a resource). For the cash flow analysis, expenditure (outflows) must be separated from income (inflows). The result must be a graph or schedule showing the cumulative outflows and inflows of funds for each time period in the project. The prepared graph is an indication of the funding requirements of the project. The project manager needs to analyse this graph in consultation with the organisations finance manager to determine whether the organisation can afford to implement the project. Acting on the advice of the finance manager, the project manager and the
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process project team may need to smooth and optimise the project cash flow in a similar way as for scarce resources. The strategies for optimising cash flow are similar to those for reducing cost and levelling resources. The process of optimising the cash flow may require changes to the cost, resource, and time components. PRODUCE THE INTEGRATED PROJECT PLAN BASELINE: The Integrated Project Plan Baseline contains all the elements covered under the Project Planning Phase. The Project Definition Report produced at the end of the Project Definition Phase is added to provide a complete overview of the project. The Integrated Project Plan Baseline is intended to form the only baseline (scope, time, quality and cost) against which the success of the project execution will be measured. The Integrated Project Plan Baseline consists of at least the following: fully developed project scope, which includes the specifications for the work to be done time schedules Cost Breakdown Structure and cost budgets project funding details human resources plan quality plan communications plan procurement plan the required project management information system (PMIS) and key performance indicators (KPIs).

The baseline is further supported by at least the following: detailed WBS the results of a time analysis the specifications of what has to be done the results of a resource analysis the results of a cost analysis the results of a cash flow analysis.

The above components should be regarded as the minimum contents. It is essential at this point to consider how the project will be managed and what controls are necessary. Aspects such as reporting standards, progress measurement methods, costing procedures, purchasing procedures, change control and configuration management, and progress meetings need to be addressed, clarified, and documented. The project team must not be allowed to begin implementing the plan without the necessary control mechanisms in place. If the project manager is satisfied with the Integrated Project Plan Baseline and the necessary authority has been obtained, the project can officially enter the Project Execution Phase.

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THE PROJECT EXECUTION PHASE


During this phase and the following phase (close-out), the planned project objectives must be achieved. The Integrated Project Plan Baseline provides the strategies, tactics, and approaches to get there. A poorly developed plan will result in a poorly executed project with accompanying loss of time, cost and quality. The Project Execution Phase has to do with monitoring and control, and applying corrective responses as necessary. The essential functions of the Project Execution Phase processes are explained below. Monitoring Monitoring is the collecting, recording and reporting of information concerning all aspects of project performance that the project manager and others wish to know. Evaluation Evaluation is judging the quality and effectiveness of project performance. Controlling Controlling is using the gathered information to bring actual performance in line with planned performance.

The Project Execution Phase consists primarily of the following steps. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Kick-off the project. Establish the monitoring and control tools. Monitor and evaluate project performance progress. Produce progress status and performance reports. Apply control feedback and problem solving. Revise the Integrated Project Plan Baseline if required.

It is essential to kick-off the project execution phase with a get-together of everyone involved in the project. Depending on the size of the project, this could be a round-table meeting or a seminar/workshop. The purpose of the meeting is to ensure that: all the essential elements are in place the team understands what is to be achieved all participants are motivated and committed to achieving project success.

The meeting also provides a forum for the project sponsor to address the team to show support for the project, and confidence in the team and the project plan. ESTABLISH MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS AND INFRASTRUCTURE During the Project Planning Phase, the project manager would have already considered reporting standards, progress measurement methods, costing procedures, purchasing procedures, change control and configuration management procedures, and progress meetings. The systems and infrastructure required to implement all this now need to be put into place. Systems need to be appropriate for the size and complexity of the project. Efficient monitoring and control systems will enable project participants to receive relevant and accurate information in a consistent and timely manner.
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Project control systems are contained in the project management information system (PMIS). Typically, a PMIS will be a collection of processes, procedures and systems that facilitate the collection (monitoring) of data, the processing of that data, and the reporting of the project information. Most modern PMISs are computerised. An effective PMIS should include: scheduling and network planning: software used to perform critical path analysis and produce reports such as Gantt charts, activity lists, and network diagrams cost budgeting: systems that allow cost budgets to be determined and recorded against a Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) cost control: systems that capture actual costs and other cost information and produce reports comparing it against the CBS budgets, and calculate trends, variances, and cash flow information performance analysis: systems that compute and report on project performance indices, earned value and other aspects of project performance resource management: software functions that perform resource allocation, scheduling, and levelling reporting and graphics: report writers and graphics tools to generate ad hoc user reports, performance and other graphs such as cash flow graphs and resource histograms word processing: to create and print documents such as progress reports spreadsheets: to capture, process and report numerical and other data various: software and systems used to perform functions of a more specific nature such as materials management, records management, equipment management, change control, human resource management, and subcontractor management.

Care should be taken not to overemphasise the importance of the PMIS, lest you end up managing the project control systems rather than the project itself. MONITOR AND EVALUATE PROJECT PERFORMANCE AND PROGRESS Monitoring is the collecting, recording and reporting of information concerning all aspects of project performance that the project manager and others wish to know. Monitoring is measuring and reporting against progress. Control includes monitoring, but it also includes taking timely, corrective action to meet project objectives or goals. Monitoring, therefore, is an essential part of control. Essentially, monitoring reports indicate progress and performance information. As part of the monitoring process, the project manager must continuously estimate the amount of money or work still required to complete the project. This is known as the estimate to complete (ETC). Adding this to the moneys already committed or time already spent, gives an estimate at completion (EAC). These figures allow detailed planning for future time and cost requirements, and also identify any need to prevent budget overruns by replanning, changing production rates, or changes in methods.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process As well as progress, costs, and revenue, the quantity of resources used and the quantity of work units produced should be monitored and recorded wherever applicable. These figures are used to control project performance. REPORTS AND TOOLS Some typical monitoring and control reports and tools: Cost Report: this report should show at least the following against each cost code or work package: budgeted cost committed cost actual cost budget variance estimate to complete (ETC) estimate at completion (EAC).

Marked-up Gantt charts: the project Gantt chart marked up to show actual progress as at the date of reporting. Project performance schedule or chart (earned value analysis): this will show the budgeted cost for work scheduled, budgeted cost for work performed, actual cost for work performed, schedule variance, and cost variance against each cost code or work package, either in schedule form or in chart form. Key performance indicators (KPIs): this will show various statistics and ratios, such as tasks planned against completed tasks and schedule and cost performance indicators. S-Curves: these show actual expenditure or revenue versus budgeted cumulatively over time. This could be supplemented with schedules showing the projects cash flow, both actual and projected. Milestone charts: a schedule listing the milestone objectives, their dates and comments on the progress towards meeting them. Activity charts: schedules listing the activities, dates and comments on the progress towards completing them. Overall Project Performance It is necessary to monitor project performance by integrating time and cost monitoring. This can be accomplished by determining the following figures at project and work package level. Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS): this is a record of the costs originally budgeted to be spent in order to carry out the work scheduled in a particular time period. Simply stated, this is the promise of what the project should achieve at a point in time.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP): this is the budgeted cost to do the work actually completed in a given time period. It is sometimes referred to as earned value (EV). It is what the project has actually achieved or earned at the point in time. Actual cost of work performed (ACWP): this is the cost actually expended to do the work completed in the given time period. It is simply the cost of what has been achieved at the point in time. These figures are normally cumulative. Cumulative figures rather than periodic or incremental figures will tend to smooth out any periodic variations caused by placing good data into the wrong time frame (period). The BCWS, BCWP, and ACWP can be evaluated to assess the performance status of the project. Table 12 shows how this can be done. Table 12: Assessing Performance Status
BCWS (K 000) 1,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 3,000 2,000 BCWP (K 000) 1,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 1,000 ACWP (K 000) 1,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 3,000 1,000 1,000 3,000 Schedule Status On time On time On time Ahead Ahead Ahead Behind Behind Behind Cost Status On cost Under cost Over cost On cost Under cost Over cost On cost Under cost Over cost

The variables BCWS, BCWP, and ACWP can be used to calculate variances that provide more insight into the status of the project. Essentially the variances answer the same questions as the above table except that values are arrived at which can be used for further analysis. Three variances can be calculated: Schedule variance Cost variance Accounting variance SV = BCWP BCWS (Achievement Promise) CV = BCWP ACWP (Achievement Cost) AV = BCWS ACWP (Promise Cost)

Table 12 is redone to include variances, as shown in Table 13. Table 13: Calculating Variances
BCWS (K 000) 1,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 3,000 2,000 BCWP (K 000)) 1,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 1,000 ACWP (K 000) 1,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 3,000 1,000 1,000 3,000 SV 0 0 0 1000 1000 1000 -1000 -1000 -1000 CV 0 1000 -1000 0 1000 -1000 0 1000 -2000 AV 0 1000 -1000 -1000 0 -2000 1000 2000 -1000 Schedule Status On time On time On time Ahead Ahead Ahead Behind Behind Behind Cost Status On cost Under cost Over cost On cost Under cost Over cost On cost Under cost Over cost

CV should not be taken alone, as it could be misleading. SV must also be considered. If SV is positive and CV is negative the project could be ahead of schedule and a cost
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process overrun could easily be justified. If both SV and CV are positive, the project is both ahead of schedule and below cost. By graphing the cumulative BCWS, BCWP and ACWP over time, a Project Performance Chart (sometimes referred to as an Earned Value Chart) can be produced. This is an excellent, compact way of visually indicating project performance. From the data contained in the above tables, two performance indices can be calculated that are used to assess the schedule and cost performance of the project and work packages and the relative size of the variances. These indices provide quick performance indicators that summarise the earned value graphs. Schedule performance index Cost performance index SPI = BCWP BCWS CPI = BCWP ACWP

If SPI > 1.0 then work is ahead of schedule. If CPI > 1.0 then work is under cost budget. A value < 1.0 means the opposite behind schedule or over budget, and a value of exactly 1.0 indicates on schedule or on budget. Table 14: Performance Indices
BCWS (K 000) 1,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 3,000 2,000 BCWP (K 000) 1,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 1,000 ACWP (K 000) 1,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 3,000 1,000 1,000 3,000 SPI 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.5 0.67 0.5 CPI 1.0 2.0 0.5 1.0 2.0 0.67 1.0 2.0 0.33 Schedule Status On time On time On time Ahead Ahead Ahead Behind Behind Behind Cost Status On cost Under cost Over cost On cost Under cost Over cost On cost Under cost Over cost

If the indices are graphically plotted over time they can provide an indication of the changing performance (trend) of the project and work packages. An even more useful graph is to plot the SPI against CPI. This provides a more visual representation of the project performance. Figure 20 is an example of such a graph based on the data for a fictitious project given in Table 15. Table 15: Example of Project Performance Indices
Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SPI 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.75 0.95 1.05 1.15 CPI 1.2 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.7 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2

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Performance Indices
1.3 1.2 1.1 1 SPI 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.9 CPI 1.1 1.3 1.5
5 6 7 4 8 3 9

Marginal

Good
2 10 1

Poor

Marginal

FIGURE 20: PERFORMANCE INDICES Looking at the graph in Figure 20, the performance of the fictitious project started off well for the first two months and then declined, going from marginal to poor then back to marginal again before recovering in months 8, 9, and 10. To know the status of the project, information on the performance of all work packages is needed. Similar calculations and graphs to the example given can be prepared for all work packages, although they are normally prepared at total project level or at subproject level. It is important to focus on both the project level and work package level in order to avoid overshadowing the good performance of some activities and hide the poor performance of others, or to conceal the cumulative effect of slightly poor performance in many activities which could add up to large overruns for the project. Forecasting at Completion As the project moves along, it is necessary to review what has been achieved so far, but more importantly to determine what remains to be done. Depending on the status and performance trend of the project, the expected final cost and completion date might often have to be revised. Monthly at completion forecasts should therefore be prepared. These are forecasts of the time and cost as they will be at the end of the project. COST AT COMPLETION There are fundamentally two methods for forecasting the estimated cost at completion (ECAC).

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process The first method entails re-estimating the cost of the remaining work in the manner originally used to estimate the total project cost. This estimated cost to complete is then added to the actual costs-to-date to arrive at the ECAC. The second method involves the use of performance indices CPI and SPI to statistically calculate the forecasts. The following formulae are used to estimate the cost at completion (ECAC). ECAC = (BCAC BCWP) CPI + ACWP or ECAC = (BCAC BCWP) (CPI x SPI) + ACWP Where BCAC is the original budgeted cost at completion. Although both formulae calculate the ECAC, they will produce different results. Both formulae are widely used, although the first is considered to be the most likely model and the second as the worst case model. It is a matter of choice as to which one is used, but whichever is chosen, it must be consistently applied throughout the duration of the project. Assuming a BCAC of K10,000,000 and the data contained in the previous tables, then Table 16 illustrates the calculations using the above formulae. Table 16: Calculating Estimated Cost at Completion
BCWS (K 000) 1,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 3,000 2,000 BCWP (K 000) 1,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 2,000 1,000 ACWP (K 000) 1,000 1,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 3,000 1,000 1,000 3,000 ECAC (1) (K 000) 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 5,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 30,000 ECAC (2) (K 000) 10,000 5,000 20,000 6,000 3,000 9,000 19,000 7,000 57,000 Schedule Status On time On time On time Ahead Ahead Ahead Behind Behind Behind Cost Status On cost Under cost Over cost On cost Under cost Over cost On cost Under cost Over cost

The estimated cost at completion (ECAC) less the current actual cost status of the project (ACWP) provides a revised estimated cost to complete (ECTC) the project, as follows. Estimated cost to complete TIME AT COMPLETION There are two commonly used methods for forecasting the estimated time at completion (ETAC). The first method entails re-estimating the durations of the remaining work in the manner originally used to estimate the total project time and by recalculating the critical path. ECTC = ECAC - ACWP

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process The second method involves the use of the earned value chart. With reference to the earned value chart, an addition variance can be produced that gives an indication of how far behind or ahead the project is. This time variance is calculated as follows. Time variance In this formula: SD = Status date (time period) BCSP = Budgeted cost at scheduled performance. It is the time period where BCWS = BCWP (promise = achievement) This variance (TV) added to the original budgeted time at completion (BTAC) gives a revised estimate of the time at completion (ETAC), as follows. Estimated time at completion ETAC = TV + BTAC TV = SD BCSP

Calculating the ETAC for a project gives a snapshot at a point in time, and it must be recognised that ETAC is based on several assumptions: that the current time status of a project will remain constant for the remainder of the project any delays will not be recovered work will unfold exactly as planned.

Figure 21 illustrates the forecasting of the completion time using the above calculations.
Estimating Time at Completion
120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 BCWS ACWP BCWP

SD

$000

BCSP

30

TV

Week

Figure 21: Estimating Time at Completion In this case, TV = 3 weeks; BTAC = 19 weeks; ETAC = TV + BTAC = 22 weeks.

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Irrespective of which method is used, the revised completion date must be verified against an evaluation of the activities on the critical path. Besides the cost, time and work progress monitoring and evaluation, other aspects of the project also need to be monitored and evaluated, such as those listed below. Quality issues: the number of non-conformance reports, the amount of rework, etc. Project risks: new risks, changed risk profiles, risk occurred etc. Procurement: orders outstanding, late deliveries, changed lead times, procurement issues etc. Project issues: personnel, political, morale, infrastructure, organisation issues. Scope changes: any changes to any aspect of the project scope.

Whichever method is used to manage the projects activities, progress towards the agreed milestones on the Milestone Objective Chart (MOC) must be reported on. Team members tasked with achieving the milestones must report on the progress towards achieving them. The MOC is the client/upper management view of the project. It is the project managers responsibility to control progress in relation to the MOC. The project manager prepares the progressed MOC by referencing and collating information and data from other project monitoring reports and particularly activity progress information. The progressed MOC is then sent to the relevant parties (client/upper management). Milestone status is reported directly onto the MOC. Apply Control, Feedback and Problem-solving Control is management, not paperwork. Control is about: analysing the situation reflected in the reports deciding what course of action is necessary to recover the plan proceeding with the recovery actions.

The project team meets first, as regularly as required but at least weekly. At this meeting, the project manager should receive a written status report from the leader of each currently active task group. The project manager then creates a summary report for management and/or the client, which is then discussed at a client/management meeting. Having reviewed and analysed the reports, the relevant project participants must take corrective action to overcome any problems identified. The course of action obviously depends on the problem, but will generally be one of the following: rearranging the workload putting in more resources or effort moving milestone dates lowering the level of quality/expectation.

These options are presented in the order of decreasing acceptability. The top one should be tried first, the bottom one last.

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The Project Execution Phase consists of an iterative process, steadily moving the project towards completion. At some point, however, progress begins to slow and it seems that the project will never end. The project team begins to shrink and the motivation of the remaining members appears to have dissipated. When this starts to happen, it can be assumed that the project is entering the final phase: the Project Close-out Phase.

THE PROJECT CLOSE-OUT PHASE


A project must be formally terminated. Formal project closure is performed during the Project Close-out Phase. The Close-out Phase is the most crucial in the life of a project. It determines whether, ultimately, the project is a success or failure. The manner in which the closure of the project is planned, monitored, and controlled will determine how the project will reach conclusion. The way a project closes out is influenced by the reason for its termination. Some reasons for termination are as follows. Project objectives have been achieved. It is more convenient to stop than continue (changing market conditions, skyrocketing costs, depleted critical resources, lost opportunities, changes in need, no longer feasible, change in priorities). Simply by default, perhaps due to unsatisfactory project performance, poor quality or workmanship, violation of contract, poor planning and control, bad management, or customer dissatisfaction with the contractor.

Irrespective of the reason for, and the manner of, the closure, the project manager is responsible for the closure of the project and must carry out this task diligently. The Project Close-out Phase is a stressful time for all involved for the following reasons. The client is taking ownership of the major project deliverables and is being called to take final decisions of quality and acceptance. Resources are being diverted from the project to new projects just starting. There is a shift in client/management attention to new projects, with a resultant lack of interest in the project nearing completion. The project team is being reassigned to other projects. Closing tasks are not always clear cut. The team may lack the motivation to complete the work.

Of these, the last is of most concern, as without the support of a motivated team, the project manager will have difficulty managing the project to a successful completion. A lack of motivation can be caused by a number of factors, such as the following. The project team is experiencing a sense of loss as they realise that the project is coming to an end and with it the end of the team and the relationships built.

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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process Most major achievements and breakthroughs have been achieved by this stage and there is little left to challenge the team. Team members are concerned about what their next assignments will be, or even if there will be a next assignment.

Acceptance and validation performance testing, knowledge transfer to operations, manuals and final documentation, contractual sign-off and final accounting are all important areas that the project manager must deal with. THE PROJECT CLOSE-OUT PROCESS The closure of the project must be planned and scheduled, monitored and controlled. This administrative closure work is carried out in addition to the activities already planned to complete the production of project deliverables. All technical and administrative work to complete the project must be planned in detail. Standard checklists can assist in the development of the close-out plan. The close-out process will involve the following: 1. Verification of the deliverables: The clients final approval of all the projects deliverables signal the projects completion. 2. Review performance criteria: Project closure is when the project teams success is measured. The projects actual performance is evaluated against agreed performance criteria and the final project performance evaluation report is produced. This will be used during the post implementation review. 3. Release resources: All resources, equipment, materials and particularly personnel must be released from the project. In addition, all resource managers must be informed that they are relieved of their commitments to the project. The project manager is responsible for releasing the resources off the project and is therefore morally obligated to ensure that personnel are released in a proper and fair manner. 4. Contractual aspects and final accounting: The project manager must ensure that all the contractual aspects are settled and that the final project accounting is done. The contractual documentation and final cost and accounting reports are used during the post implementation review. 5. Complete the documentation: Projects generate substantial volumes of documentation and it is essential that these are collated and filed for future reference. Certain documents, such as the final cost reports, contracts, and claims documents, only become available during the close-out and this step in the process ensures that these documents are completed and collated. 6. Conduct a Post Implementation Review: Good project management requires that some form of post implementation review or audit be performed to establish what went well, what did not, and what lessons can be learnt from the project experience. In addition, the review can determine whether the proposed benefits of the project were indeed realised. A further benefit of conducting a review is
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Project Management Concepts and Techniques-The Project Management Process that the results can be used to help the performing organisation develop better project management practices. Post implementation reviews can be conducted as a formal audit or as a workshop involving the project participants. Whichever method is used, a written report must be produced, which could form the basis or part of the project final report. 7. Write the project final report: There is one last administrative task the project manager must perform before terminating the project, that is, to write the project final report summarising the history of the project and evaluation of the performance. This is one task which the project manager and the project manager alone must be responsible for. 8. Terminate and archive the project: The project is declared ended and all the documentation is archived. Advice of the termination must be communicated to all who were involved in the project. The project is now officially closed! The completed project has no funds, no purpose, and no resources - all that is now out the door. The project manager is the last out through the door and the last one out switches of the lights.

REFERENCES:
Enzo Frigenti and Dennis Comninos, The Practice of Project Management a Business Approach, Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand, 2001. (ISBN 1-87718104-8) Project Management Institute (PMI) Standards Committee, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), USA, 1996.

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Project management Software Application

PART 2 : PROJECTMANAGEMENT SOFTWARE APPLICATION

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Project management Software Application-Ms Project 2003

USING MS PROJECT 2003 TO MANAGE PROJECTS The sample project that will be used for this manual assumes that you work for a software development company called The Software Factory. All software projects have been handled manually by the different project leaders. You have been put in charge of developing an automated plan for software development using the Microsoft Project package. The plan will eventually be used as a template for other project leaders.

THE PROJECT SCREEN


Although Project is quite different than other applications in its use, many of the screen elements within the program are similar to other Windows applications. Across the top of the window is the Title Bar which displays the name of the application. In the far left corner of the title bar is a small Project icon (referred to as the Control Icon) which is used to access a pull- down menu containing selections for changing the windows size and placement. In the upper right corner of the Title Bar are the three Windows buttons used for minimizing, maximizing/restoring the window, and closing the application.

USING THE MAIN MENU The Main Menu (or Menu Bar) contains all of the Project 2003 menu options. From these menu options, you can access most of Project 2003's features. It consists of drop-down menus and submenus that allow you to select the command you want to execute: Using the Standard Toolbar The Standard toolbar provides quick access to commonly used actions. Each icon represents a particular action. When you point to an icon (without clicking), a descriptive tool tip appears to help you identify it. The following is a list and brief description of the icons on the Standard toolbar:

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Project management Software Application-Ms Project 2003


New Open Save Search Print Print Preview Spelling Cut Copy Paste Format Painter Undo Hyperlink Link Tasks Unlink Tasks Split Task
Out dent Indent Show Subtasks Hide Subtasks Hide Assignments Show

creates new project. opens an existing project. saves the current project. performs a search. prints the project. changes display to print preview. performs a spell check. cuts the selected range to the Office clipboard. copies the selected range to the Office clipboard. pastes the last item from the Office clipboard. pastes formatting from one item in your project over another. undoes the last action. inserts a hyperlink. links selected tasks. unlinks selected tasks. splits selected tasks. makes the selected task a summary task. makes the selected task a subtask. shows subtasks. hides subtasks. hides assignments. allows you to select the level of detail you want to see in

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003

DEFINING THE PROJECT ENTERING START AND FINISH DATES The first step in starting a new project is establishing basic project information. The start or finish date is what you will use to anchor your project. Your schedule will be built around either the start date or the finish date that you choose. The start and finish date information is entered in the Project Information dialog box. TO ENTER PROJECT INFORMATION: To enter project information, from the main menu, choose Project > Project Information. The Project Information dialog box will be displayed: Depending on what you choose from the Schedule from drop-down menu (Project Start Date is the default), either the start date or finish date will be available for you to select: You can either type in the date, or click the down arrow to display a pop-up calendar to select a date. Typically, the other fields (Current date, Status date, Calendar, and Priority) can be left as the default values. Click OK. Project will close the dialog box and save the information for you. This information can be changed at any time throughout your project, and can be useful in trying out "what-if" scenarios in the planning stage.

You can choose to have the Project Information dialog box open automatically every time you start a new project by choosing Tools > Options to open the Options dialog box. On the General tab, check off Prompt for project info for new projects:

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003

EXERCISE ON SETTING PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS Instructions: Start a new project and change the project start date to January 1, 2007. Name the project Software Development Plan. Add your name as the author and make yourself the project manager. Change the name of the company to The Software Factory. Add the following comments: This project is used to keep track of the costs and scheduling required for the development of a new software program. Each project will have the following deliverables: 1. Software Program 2. Reference Manual 3. Quick Reference Manual ESTABLISHING A PROJECT CALENDAR Setting up a Project Calendar Project supplies three basic calendars (Standard, Night Shift and 24 Hours) that you can use as foundations to create your own base calendar. You can make a calendar that indicates general working times for each resource or group of resources. Project will use this information for things like scheduling resources and converting task durations. MAKING A NEW CALENDAR To make a new calendar, from the main menu, choose Tools > Change Working Time. The Change Working Time dialog box will open: Click on New. The Create New Base Calendar dialog box will open: Enter a descriptive name for the new calendar. Use the radio buttons to either create a new base calendar, or make a copy of the type of calendar you select from the drop-down menu. Click OK to go back to the Change Working Time dialog box to customize the new base calendar.

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CHANGING CALENDAR OPTIONS Click on Options to open the Calendar tab in the Options dialog box. Enter the appropriate information to describe a typical workday and workweek. Click OK to close the Options dialog box:

TO CHANGE A CALENDAR: You can make exceptions to the regular schedule set in the Options dialog box by altering working times and working days. In the Change Working Time dialog box, select the calendar you would like to make the changes to from the For drop-down menu. Use the Select Date(s) portion of the dialog box to select a specific date or range of dates.
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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 Use the Set Selected Date(s) to portion of the dialog box to make the necessary changes. EXERCISE CALENDAR EXERCISE Instructions: Edit the Standard calendar and add the following holidays to the calendar for the year 2007: New Years Day January 1 March 12 Youth day April 6 Good Friday April 7 Holy Saturday April 9 Easter Monday May 1 Labors May 25 Africa Freedom day July 2 Heroes day July 3 Unity day August 6 Farmers day October 24 independence day December 25Christmas

TASKS
Tasks are the specific activities that must be completed in order to finish your project essentially, a 'to-do' list. Your task list is the backbone of your project plan. It is essential to create your task list as comprehensively as possible because if a required task is omitted, you may not be able to achieve all of your goals. It is beneficial to create your task list in approximately the same order as the tasks will be performed, although it is not necessary to be completely accurate as there are ways to edit, add, delete, and move tasks. ENTERING TASKS There are a couple ways to enter a new task. The first is to click in the Task Name column in the first row of the Gantt table and enter the task name. The task name will also appear in the entry bar above the Gantt table. Note: The Gantt Chart is the default view in Project. It will be discussed in more detail later:

You can accept the information you entered by clicking on the check mark in the entry bar or by moving to another cell: After you accept the information, the task is assigned an ID number that is displayed in the far left column. The second way to enter a task is to enter the information in the General tab of the Task Information dialog box.
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You can access the icon

Task Information dialog box by clicking on Task Information

on the Standard toolbar OR from the main menu, choose Project > Task Information OR double-click on the task OR press the Shift + F2 key combination:

Entering Task Durations ENTERING TASK DURATIONS Project uses 1 day as the default length for task durations. If your estimate for the duration of your task is different than one day, you can change it. Project uses abbreviations for different time measures. Use these abbreviations when typing in the duration: To change the duration of a task, either type the duration into the Duration column in the Gantt table view OR use the arrow buttons on the right end of the Duration box to adjust the duration incrementally: Note the question mark beside the duration. This indicates that the duration is an estimate. Unless you know the exact beginning and end times, leave it as an estimate so that Project will have greater flexibility in adjusting the amount of time needed to complete a task.
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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 When you manually change the duration of a task, the question mark that indicates an estimated duration disappears. To specify that the changed duration is still an estimate, check the Estimated box in the Task Information dialog box:

Project automatically calculates the Start and Finish dates based upon the basic project information you provided in the Project Information dialog box and the task duration you entered. It is best to leave the dates as Project has calculated them and fine-tune them at a later date.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 EXERCISE ON ADDING TASKS Instructions: Add the tasks and durations shown below: Task Name Duration I Software Design 1wk 2 Software Coding 3wks 3 Testing Phase 2wks 4 Documentation Phase 3days 5 Release to Marketing 1day As you change durations, notice the task bars in the Gantt chart. When you are done, only one of the tasks should be in red indicating a critical task. NOTE: If critical task bars are not displayed in red, use the Gantt Chart Wizard to format the chart accordingly. Add the following task notes: Task Name Note Software Coding Watch this task closely as it is our most critical. We will need several qualified programmers available to be able to adjust the effort as needed. Release to Marketing The target completion date will be set by the Marketing department. Be sure to confirm dates periodically as they have been known to change their minds without notifying us. ENTERING TASK NOTES Notes can be attached to a task to quickly display information regarding anything related to it. Notes can be displayed onscreen and included in printed reports. To enter a Task Note: Select the task you would like to add a note to and from the main menu, choose Project > Task Notes OR right-click on the task and select Task Notes from the drop-down menu OR doubleclick on the task and select the Notes tab in the Task Information dialog box: Use the area provided to enter your notes. You can use the formatting tools provided to format your note. Click OK to save and attach the note to your task and return to the Gantt Chart view. Notice the note symbol in the Indicator column:

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Hover you mouse pointer over the note symbol to read the note:

EXERCISE ADDING TASK NOTES Add the following task notes: Task Name Note Software Coding Watch this task closely as it is our most critical. We will need several qualified programmers available to be able to adjust the effort as needed. Release to Marketing The target completion date will be set by the Marketing department. Be sure to confirm dates periodically as they have been known to change their minds without notifying us.

ASSIGNING MILESTONES
Milestones are used to mark key moments in a project and can help you monitor your progress. Although a milestone is usually a task with no duration, it is possible to make a task that has a duration a milestone. Milestones are marked by a diamond in the Gantt Chart view:

TO CREATE A MILESTONE: Create a new task and enter a null value in the duration field. Project will automatically recognize it as a milestone. OR Double click on the task you would like to make a milestone and select the Mark task as milestone checkbox in the Advanced tab of the Task Information dialog box: Click OK.

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MILESTONE EXERCISE Add the new tasks shown below as milestones: Task 1: Start the Project Task 5: User Approval (add before Documentation Phase) Modify Release to Marketing to make it a milestone. Notice the new markers displayed within the Gantt chart to identify the milestone tasks. EDITING TASKS Tasks can be edited using a number of different methods, although the easiest and most convenient way is to use the Task Information dialog box because all of the task information is readily available for you to review and change if necessary:

DELETING TASKS Occasionally you will need to delete tasks either because they were entered in error or they are no longer relevant. There are several ways to do this. To delete a Task: Highlight the task or range of tasks to be deleted. From the main menu, choose Edit > Delete Task OR press the Delete key on your keyboard OR right-click on the highlighted task(s) and select Delete Task:

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MOVING TASKS Highlight the task or range of tasks that you would like to move. Place your mouse over the ID number of the task until it becomes a move cursor: Drag and drop the task(s) to the desired location OR cut and paste the task to the desired location. An important thing to keep in mind when moving tasks is that when you move a summary task, its subtasks move with it. In order to move a subtask to a new location, you must first out dent it so that it is at the highest possible level.

EXERCISE ON DELETION OF TASKS Instructions: The boss has decided to leave the users out of the loop and doesnt want them involved. Delete the task User Approval from the plan. EXERCISE MOVING TASKS Instructions: It has been decided to move the Documentation Phase after Software Coding so that documentation can begin earlier. Move the Documentation Phase before the Testing Phase. SAVING THE FILE Instructions: Save the file as Software Plan. If you are asked, no baseline is needed at this time.

WORKING WITH OUTLINES


As you begin to enter your tasks, you may find that the project can be broken down into multiple phases or levels of work. Outlining allows you to organize your tasks in such a way as to be able to see the overall structure of the project. Larger tasks, called summary tasks, represent each new phase or level. Each summary task is broken down into smaller detail tasks, called subordinates or subtasks which are indented/demoted.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 Summary tasks have indented tasks beneath them and summarize all costs, work and duration of the indented tasks. The starting date of a summary task reflects the starting date of the earliest subordinate while the finish date of a summary task reflects the finish date of the latest subordinate task. To create an outline, simply enter the tasks or milestones in the order you want, and assign each task to a level by using the outline buttons located on the Formatting toolbar, as shown below. Use this button to indent a task to a lower level. Use this button to outdent a task to a higher level. It can be used to turn a subtask into a summary task.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 EXERCISE ON WORKING WITH OUTLINES Instructions: After reviewing the plan, you realize that the tasks you have listed are too general to actually help in the planning. You decide to break each phase into smaller tasks/jobs so the project can be more manageable. Include the additional tasks shown below and create the displayed outline by demoting the appropriate tasks under their headings. Be sure to save the file when you are done.
ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Task Name Duration

Start the project Software design Orientation meeting Interview users Write Draft Specification Review specification Finalise specification Design complete Software Development User interface Kernels Drivers Libraries Coding complete Testing Phase Alpa test Test user interface Test kernel Test drivers Test libraries Beta test Final test Documentation phase Draft User maual Draft Quick manual Final Draft Final Review Documentation complete Release to market

0 days 15 days 1 day 3 wks 8 days 3 days 6 days 0 days 45 days 45 days 2 wks 3 wks 3 wks 0 days 25 days 25 days 1 wk 5 wks 10 days 3 days 15 days 2 wks 2 days 2 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 0 days 0 days

ENTERING RECURRING TASKS Certain tasks fall into the category of recurring tasks. They could happen on a daily
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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 or weekly basis, or at intermittent times throughout your project. Project allows you to create the task once and then designate both frequency and timing to it. TO CREATE A RECURRING TASK: From the main menu, choose Insert > Recurring Task. The Recurring Task Information dialog box opens: Enter a name in the Task Name box. Enter the duration in the Duration box. Enter the recurrence pattern by using the option buttons, drop-down menus and check boxes in the Recurrence pattern section. Enter the length of time the task recurs by using the options in the Range of recurrence section. Click OK to return to the Gantt Chart view. Notice the recurring task symbol in the Indicator column:

Instructions: The boss would like to be informed each week on your progress. Add a one hour meeting after Start of the Project. Name the task Weekly Review which will occur weekly on Fridays. The meetings will be held for the full duration of the project.

ESTABLISHING DEPENDENCIES
Dependencies are a way to link tasks together in order to describe which tasks must precede or succeed one another - some tasks must start or finish before another task can begin or end. Creating dependencies allows Project to create a flexible time framework relative to the task preceding or succeeding it. There are two types of tasks in a dependency. A predecessor task must occur before another task. A successor task must occur after another task.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 There are four different types of dependencies (or linkages) but only the Finish-to-Start that will be discussed in detail. USING FINISH-TO-START (FS) DEPENDENCIES The finish-to-start dependency is the most common type of relationship. The start of one task begins as soon as its predecessor finishes. The successor can't start until the predecessor finishes. TO CREATE A FINISH-TO-START (FS) DEPENDENCY: There are a few different ways to establish a finish to start dependency. Use the Predecessors tab in the Task Information dialog box. Click on the down arrow at the right side of the Task Name column to select the name of the task you would like to set as the predecessor:

Choose the type of dependency from the drop-down menu of the Type column: Click OK.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 EXERCISE ON LINKING TASKS Instructions: 1. Expand the outline so that all tasks are displayed. 2. Link the tasks as shown in the list below. Keep in mind that some tasks will have multiple predecessors/successors. 3. Save the file once all the links have been checked and review the critical path and ending date of the project.

ADDING LAGILEAD TIME


If you find that you need to add some lag or lead time to a predecessor, use the same method discussed above for changing the link type. Once you have the dialog box, enter the amount of lag/lead required. To add lag time, simply enter a positive number followed by one of the time unit abbreviations, i.e., 5d. To add lead time, simply enter a negative number followed by one of the time unit abbreviations, i.e., -5d.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 ADDING LEAD TIMES Instructions: Drafting the Quick Reference guide is currently scheduled to begin after the entire User Manual has been written. However, you could easily begin working on the Quick Reference before you finish work on the User Manual. The boss has decided that you should start work on the Quick Reference four weeks before you are finished with the User Manual. Change the relationship between the two tasks so that you start the Quick Reference with four weeks of lead time before you finish the User Manual. What is the new ending date of the project? Did it change?

RESOURCES
When you have completed this learning module you will have seen how to: Create a resource list Enter working time Enter costs Enter notes Assign resources to a task CREATING RESOURCES Resources are people, supplies and equipment that you need to use to accomplish your tasks and goals. Project uses the resource information you provide to make the schedule for your project. Typically, the more resources you assign, the shorter the duration of the project will be because a task is completed faster when there are more people or materials assigned to it. TO CREATE A RESOURCE: One of the best ways to enter resources is by using the Resource Sheetview. To open the Resource Sheet view, from the main menu, choose View > Resource Sheet: Enter a descriptive name for the resource in the Resource Name field. This can be a worker's name, a job title, or the name of a material.

Click on the down arrow in the Type field and choose the type of resource. Project allows you to choose either Work (human resources) or Material:

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 Enter the initials of the resource in the Initials field. Project enters the first letter of the resource name as the default, but you can customize it if you prefer. Enter the group name in the Group field if you would like the resource to belong to a group. Remember to spell the group name exactly the same every time you type it. Groups will be discussed later in this chapter. Enter the percentage of working time a resource can contribute to the project in the Max. Units field. For example, if a resource can work full-time, you would enter 100%. If the worker can only work part -time, you would enter 50%, or whatever percentage is appropriate. Project uses 100% as the default in this field: Enter the rate the resource would normally cost in the Std. Rate field. Although Project uses hours as the default, you can also enter the rate in minutes, days, weeks, or years. To change the unit, type the amount, followed by a slash, and the first letter of the unit: Enter the rate the resource would cost for overtime work in the Ovt. Rate field. Once again, Project uses hours as the default, but you may change the unit if you wish. Enter the flat rate a resource would cost in the Cost/Use field. Use this when a resource is not charged on a time-related basis (such as a material cost). Select the way you would like Project to calculate the cost of a resource in the Accrue At field. There are three choices: Start - Project calculates the entire cost of the resource as soon as the task begins. Prorated - Project calculates the cost throughout the project. End - Project calculates the entire cost of the resource when the task is complete: Select the calendar you would like to base the resource's time on from the drop-down list in the Base Calendar field. Project uses the Standard calendar as the default: Enter a code in the Code field if you wish. Later on, it can help you to organize, sort or filter your information.

ENTERING RATES It is important to enter rates for a resource, even if they are estimates, as this allows Project to calculate the overall cost of a project.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 The cost of a resource may increase or decrease during the life of your project, and you need to be able to reflect these changes. Project allows you to enter up to 125 different cost rates for a resource and specify the date at which the new rates takes effect. EDITING RESOURCE COSTS Open the Resource Information dialog box. Click on the Costs tab. Enter additional information in the Cost rate table section of the Costs tab. You may enter 25 rates and dates in each of the five tabs in the Cost rate tables section:

ENTERING NOTES You use resource notes in much the same way as task notes. They allow you to attach readily available, additional information to a resource. To enter a Resource Note: In the Resource Sheet view, choose Project > Resource Notes OR right -click on the resource and select Resource Notes from the drop-down menu OR double-click on the resource and click on the Notes tab in the Resource Information dialog box: Use the area provided to enter your notes. You can use the formatting tools provided to format your note. Click OK to save and attach the note to your resource. Notice the note symbol in the Indicator column of the Resource Sheet view. Hover your mouse cursor over it to display the note:

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ADDING RESOURCES Instructions: 1. Add the resources and their data shown in the list below. 2. Save the file once all the resources have been entered. 3. Leave the Base Calendars as Standard for now.

ENTERING WORKING TIME


The base calendar that you choose for a resource determines its availability. You can customize a resource's calendar if necessary (i.e. Blocking off vacation time). TO CUSTOMIZE WORKING TIME: In the Resource Sheet view, choose Project > Resource Information to open the Resource Information dialog box OR double-click on the resource OR press the Shift + F2 key combination.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 Click on the Working Time tab if it is not already displayed: Adjust the calendar to your specifications.

EXERCISE ON THE RESOURCE CALENDAR Instructions: During the project, the programmers will have to work longer hours than normal. They will be working from 7am to 5pm with a lunch break from 11:30 to 12:30. They will also be working Saturdays. Create a new calendar called Development based on the Standard calendar that contains the above working schedule. Then assign this calendar to all of those in the Development group to reflect the new change in their schedule. In addition, the Senior Programmer will be on vacation for two weeks starting on February 12, 2007. Change the calendar.

ASSIGNING RESOURCES TO A TASK


Assigning with the Assign Resources Dialog Box In the Gantt Chart view, click on the task you would like to assign the resource to. To open the Assign Resources dialog box, from the main menu, choose Tools > Assign Resources OR click on Assign Resources icon on the Standard toolbar

OR press the Alt + F10 key combination. Highlight the resource you would like to assign and click on Assign:

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A check mark will appear to the left of the resource when it has been assigned: Project automatically sets the Units to 100%, but you may assign any percentage of use to the resource.

USING THE RESOURCE LIST OPTIONS There are several tools available to assist you in choosing which resource to assign to a certain task. In the Assign Resources dialog box, expand the Resource list options section by clicking on the plus sign button:

This allows you to filter your resources to meet the criteria you specify. If you check the Filter by box, you can select a filter from a long list provided by project, or create your own filter by clicking on More Filters: If you check the Available to work box, you can enter the number of hours you will need a resource. Project then searches and calculates remaining time for a resource. Resources that are available for the same or greater amount of hours specified will appear in the list: If you click on the Add Resources button, you can select a resource from either an Active Directory or an Address Book:

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ASSIGNING IN THE GANTT TABLE VIEW It is easy to assign resources using the Gantt Table view, although the detailed information in the Assign Resources box cannot be entered. To assign a resource in the Gantt Table view: Select the task you would like to assign a resource to. Click on the down arrow in the Resource Names field. Select the resource you would like to assign from the drop-down menu:

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EXERCISE ON ASSIGNING RESOURCES Instructions: Assign the resources to the tasks as shown below. Also, be sure to assign the right number of units which are indicated within the parenthesis. Save the file once all the resources have been assigned and check the project status. Review the duration and cost information.

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DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT VIEWS


The following table gives a brief description of the available views in Project. View Description Bar Rollup Subtasks overlaid as bars on top of their summary task. Calendar Task information in a monthly calendar format. Descriptive Task information in a flow diagram with more detail than the Network Network Diagram. Diagram Task information in a sheet view (table) with the Gantt chart in the right Detail Gantt pane to display task slack and slippage. Task information in a sheet view (table) in the left pane and the Gantt Gantt Chart bars in the right pane. Leveling Gantt Resource leveling before and after effects. Milestone Date Subtasks rolled up as milestones with task name and start dates on their Rollup summary task. Milestone Rollup Subtasks rolled up as milestones with task names on their summary task. Multiple Baselines Gantt Network Diagram Relationship Diagram Resource Allocation Resource Form Displays bars for each baseline saved. Task information in a flow diagram. Each task is displayed with predecessor and successor relationships. Resource Usage view in the top pane and the Leveling Gantt in the bottom pane. Detailed information regarding each Resource. The type of information can be changed by a right-click and choose the details desired from the short cut menu. Workload of each Resource over a time period. Over allocation is displayed above allocation. This format can be changed by right-click on the graph. Detailed information by each Resource. The type of information can be changed with a right-click on the form. Resource pool. This view is preferred view for managing resources calendars, costs, and contact information. Resource information displayed in a sheet view in the left pane (table) with the graphic of the resource work in the right pane. More information can be viewed in the right pane by right-click and choose more details. Detailed Task information including links, constraints, and resources. Gantt Chart view in the top pane with the Task form in the bottom pane. Preferred view for managing resource assignments and changes.

Resource Graph Resource Name Form Resource Sheet

Resource Usage Task Details Form Task Entry

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 View Task Form Description Task form is for entering and editing specifics about tasks. The type of information viewed can be changed with a right-click on the form.

Task Name Form Task form listed by Task Name. Displays the Task Tables without any graphs. This is the preferred view Task Sheet for printing tables. Each Task is listed with the assignments (resources) for each task with details about work assignment. The type of information can be changed Task Usage by right-click in the right pane. Tracking Gantt Gantt bars that display task information, baseline and current plan. Used to compare planned vs. actual schedule.

EXERCISE ON VIEWS The Scenario: The sample project that will be used for this manual assumes that you work for a software development company called The Software Factory. All software projects have been handled manually by the different project leaders. You have been put in charge of developing an automated plan for software development using the Microsoft Project package. This plan will be used as a template for all the other project leaders. The tasks and resources have already been set by now and you are to review the project schedule and determine any problems. Instructions: 1. Open the file SOFTWARE. 2. Review the various views and make sure you understand the different ways of switching views.

PROJECT TABLES
APPLYING A TABLE TO A VIEW Each view initially opens with a default table. As an example, the Gantt Chart view opens with the Entry table. To apply a different table to a Task view, select the View menu and point to Table and another menu will open with a list of available tables. The same steps are used to open a different table in a Resource view.

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DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT TABLES Task table Table Baseline Constraint Dates Cost Delay Earned value Earned Value Cost Indicators Earned Value Schedule Indicators Entry Export Hyperlink Rollup Table Description Baseline work, cost, duration, start, and finish dates. Task constraints. Cost for each task including fixed cost, baseline cost, actual cost. Information regarding leveling resources. Work and cost comparison information. Analyze Project performance with earned value analysis Analyze Project performance with earned value analysis Used for entering and managing tasks. Exports to an .mpd file for Access. Links assigned to task. Run the rollup_formatting macro to use this view.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 Start and finish dates, late start and finish dates, and free time and slack time. Duration, start, finish, cost, work, percent complete. Actual start, actual finish, percent complete, actual duration, remaining duration, actual cost, actual work. Work, duration, start, finish. Variance of start and finish dates. Work, baseline work, actual work, variance.

Schedule Summary Tracking Usage Variance Work Resource Tables Table Cost Earned Value Entry

Description Resource cost information. Comparison of work and cost. Default table and used to enter and manage resources. Material resource information. Resources Information. Exports to an .mpd file for Access. Links assigned to the resource. Summary fields for the resource. Hours assigned to resource. Work fields for each resource.

Entry Material Resources Entry Work Resources Export Hyperlink Summary Usage Work

The Entry Table is the default table in most of Project views. When you change a table in a view, Project retains this table even when you close the file or project. EXERCISE ON CHANGING TABLES Instructions: Select the different sheets and practice changing tables. Analyze the different data tables and make sure you understand the data. For dual pane views, make sure you understand the difference of displaying a sheet in the top pane versus the bottom pane.

ANALYZING SLACK
USAGE: As you begin to schedule your tasks, you will notice that some tasks may be considered critical and some non-critical. Non-critical tasks can usually be delayed for a period of time before they interfere with the ending date of the project. This period of time is referred to as slack or float time for a task. The amount of slack time by which you can delay the start of a task will, of course, vary from task to task. If a task does have slack time, then it will have two possible starting dates. One will be the normal scheduled start date and the other will be a late start date. The scheduled start date is the date that the task will start on if all goes according to the schedule. The late start date takes slack time into consideration and is the latest you could start that task and still get the project done in time. There are two types of slack time that you can keep track of - free and total slack.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 Free slack time is the amount of slack time that can be used to delay a task without delaying other task. Total slack time is the amount of slack time that can be used to delay a task without delaying a critical task, which if delayed, ends up delaying the entire project. Most managers are interested in tracking the free slack since that tells them how much time they have to play with before they delay the very next task in the project. However, once tasks begin to delay each other, it becomes important to keep track of the total slack time since that can affect the project ending date. You can view the amount of float on the Gantt chart along with the other task bars and symbols, or you can view a table which will display the actual number of days available. As mentioned previously, in order to view different tables, you must first select the Task Sheet or Gantt Chart. VIEWING SLACK IN THE GANTT If you want to see the amount of float time available in the form of a graphics chart, you can use the Gantt chart to display the float along with the actual task bars. Project has a pre-defined Gantt view that you can select which has already been formatted to display the available free float for tasks. This view is called the Detail View and shows among other items, a thin bar trailing any tasks having float. It also displays the actual number of days at the end of the line. EXERCISE ON ANALYZING SLACK Instructions: Change the view to the Detail Gantt and the table to the Schedule table. Find the tasks with float and review the late start/finish dates for the different tasks. Why do the Free and Total slack times differ for some of the tasks?

ADDING FIXED COSTS


As you begin planning or tracking your project, you will come across certain types of fixed costs which cannot be added as a standard resource cost. These costs remain constant even if the task takes more or less time than originally planned to complete. For example, a fixed cost would include a cost estimate for a printing job or may include the materials purchased for a particular task. These costs basically occur once for a particular task. To enter a fixed cost for a task you must display the Cost table while displaying a task sheet, as shown below:

Select the Cost table. The data columns will change to reflect the fixed cost, total cost, planned cost, variance, actual cost and any remaining costs associated with the task.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 Simply type the fixed cost in the Fixed Cost column beside the task. This cost will automatically be added to the Total Cost. Use Fixed Cost Accrual to define when the cost will occur. EXERCISE ON ADDING COSTS The Production phase is being handled by an outside vendor. They have quoted a bid for the duplication of our software. Add the following fixed costs to each task: TASK COST Print Documentation $32,500 Duplicate Disks $13,456 Packaging $21,728 What is the total cost of the Production phase? ______________

ADDING CONSTRAINTS
A constraint is a parameter placed upon a task that limits the start or finish of a task. By default, the As Soon as Possible constraint is applied to every task. The following is a list of all of the constraint types that are available to choose from: As Soon as Possible As Late as Possible Schedules the task to start as soon as the beginning of the project. Schedules the task to end no later than the end of the project.

Finish No Earlier Than/ Schedules the tasks to finish no later or sooner than a Finish no Later Than specific date. Must Finish On/ Schedules the task to finish on or start on a specific date. Must Start On Start No Earlier Than/ Schedules the task to start no earlier than or no later than Start No Later Than a specific date.

To enter a Constraint: Open the Task Information dialog box and click on the Advanced tab: Choose the desired constraint from the Constraint type drop-down menu and enter a constraint date if applicable.

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USING DEADLINES Deadlines differ from constraints in the way that Project doesn't take the deadline date into consideration when creating a schedule. It will however, alert you if the estimated finish date for a task is after the deadline date by flagging the task in the Gantt view with an exclamation mark. TO CREATE A DEADLINE: To create a deadline, open the Task Information dialog box of the task you would like to assign a deadline to. Click on the Advanced tab and either type a date into the Deadline field or use the drop-down calendar to select the deadline date:

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 EXERCISE ON CONSTRAINED DATES Instructions: The users have scheduled the interviews for the 4th and 5th of January. The office has been shut down during that time after which they must get back to work. There is no other time period available to do the interviews. Make sure you schedule the tasks Interview Users to start exactly on January 4th. Assign the VP to the task Approve Draft. This is a milestone so the work will be set to zero. All the VP has to do is sign off on the project so there is no real work effort involved. The VP is going on vacation on February 5. The draft must be approved no later than February 2.

CONSTRAINT CONFLICTS
There are times when setting a constraint can interfere with the schedule. If you happen to finish a predecessor earlier than expected, you may have a lot of float time if the constraint is forced to start on a specific day. However, most problems come from a predecessor that is delayed and interferes with a successor task that has a constraint. If a delay interferes with a constraint and the Planning Wizard is active, the following warning message will appear:

This message warns that a task is running late, but because of the successors constraint, Project cannot reschedule the tasks correctly. You can choose to Cancel the change that caused this conflict or Continue and live with the conflict. If you choose to continue, the only way to solve the conflict is to change the constraint to a more flexible option or to shorten the duration for a predecessor task. EXERCISE ON CONSTRAINED CONFLICTS Instructions: The users have decided they want two extra days for the interview so they are sure that all issues can be covered adequately. Increase the duration of the task Interview Users to four days. Notice the error message that pops up indicating a scheduling problem with one of the tasks. Which task is the problem? Since this is a valid schedule change, you must keep the conflict.

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HANDLING SCHEDULING CONFLICTS


USAGE: As you continue to revise your project plan and change your estimated durations for the tasks, you may run across other scheduling conflicts which indicate that you may not be able to finish certain tasks or even the project itself on time. In that case, you will need to be able to shorten your schedule somehow using one of several methods. You have already learned how to shorten a schedule by overlapping tasks using lag/lead time. Here are some methods that you may want/need to use instead: One method is to simply shorten task durations. If you need to finish the project sooner, make sure that you shorten critical tasks since they directly affect the project end date. Another method would be to add more resources to effort-driven critical tasks which will also shorten the duration of these tasks. Finally, you could add overtime to help shorten the duration. Note, however, that adding overtime to the planning phase to solve a constraint is typically frowned upon. Usually, overtime is added during the project to shorten durations. SHORTENING CRITICAL TASKS The easiest and fastest method of reducing the schedule is to simply revise your original time estimate by reducing the duration. Simply change the duration column in the Gantt chart for the critical task(s) you want to shorten until the desired project end date has been met. ADDING MORE RESOURCES Although you can add more resources to shorten a critical path, you should be aware of several options which affect the amount of work and duration - depending on the number of resources added. By default, Project uses effort-driven scheduling which means that changes made to resources affect the duration but not the total work for a task. For example, if you are digging a hole to be used as a pool in your backyard, it will take you a lot longer to complete by yourself than if you had your friends come over to help dig. However, the amount of work to dig the hole is still the same. If effort-driven scheduling is disabled for a task, the total work hours increase/decrease as resource units are added/removed. For example, if you have a department meeting scheduled for one day (8 hours), the meeting would still take the full day even if some employees did not attend the meeting due to illness, vacation leave, business trips, etc. In this example, the number of attendees does not affect the duration of the task. Although the number of attendees will affect the total work hours involved (8 hours per attendee), it will not change the duration of the meeting.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 EXERCISE ON HANDLING SCHEDULING CONFLICTS Instructions: Check the projects status to determine the current ending date. Ending Date: ______________________ Change the task Interview Users to a fixed task. The interview will be scheduled for the full four days. The marketing department has decided that the product must be shipped by June 1. Add a constraint to Ship Product so that it finishes no later than June 1. Notice the error message. Continue and see if you can recognize the problem(s)! In order to get done in time, we will need to shorten some tasks: Add another programmer to task #10 (User Interface). Check the project end date, did it change? Why or why not? It has been decided that task #11 (Kernel) can be shortened to 5 weeks. Adjust its duration. Did this change meet the deadline? Add another writer to task #25 (Draft Quick Reference). Check the project status and see if the project will be done in time: Ending Date: ______________________

USING OVERTIME
As mentioned, another method for reducing the schedule is to add overtime to resources. If you add overtime to the resource that is working the longest on the task, you will reduce the duration for that resource - which will reduce the duration for the task. To add overtime for a resource, you need to use the Task Form in the bottom pane. This means you need to split your screen to show the two panes. OVERTIME PAY To pay resources a different rate for overtime than for regular time, you must make that change in either the Resource Sheet or the Resource Form. The easiest way to change the overtime rate is to highlight the resource name and double-click on it. EXERCISE ON OVERTIME Instructions: To shorten the schedule of the project even further, it has been decided to plan on overtime work for some of the tasks. Check the project status and note the end date and project cost. Ending Date: ______________ Cost: ____________ Add 120 hours of overtime to everyone assigned to the Draft User Manual task. The Chief Editor gets $60/h for overtime, Senior Writers get $45/h and Writers receive $30.00/h for overtime work. Change the overtime rates for these resources. Check the new project end date and project cost. Ending Date: ______________ Cost: ____________

HANDLING RESOURCE CONFLICTS


USAGE: As you assign resources and change schedules, you may find that a resource is working on too many tasks at once. The resource may be scheduled to work more hours than available. If you have over- scheduled a resource or used more resources than are available, you have what is referred to as a resource conflict.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 IDENTIFYING RESOURCE CONFLICTS To identify a resource conflict, display the Resource Sheet:

Click on this tool to view the Resource Sheet. Any resources listed in red/bold are over-allocated.

:: icon in the indicator column, identifying a conflict. You will also notice the . The Resource Usage view shows the hours and tasks involved:

Click on this tool to access the Resource Usage view. project will display the total hours the resource is working Project also shows the tasks that the resource has been assigned to and the total hours worked per task. The chart (located to the right of the table) breaks down the hours worked by day (or whatever timescale is displayed). You can scroll through the timescale to find the date(s) where the resource has been over-scheduled.

EXERCISE ON IDENTIFYING RESOURCE CONFLICTS Instructions: We need a junior programmer to be assigned to the Test User Interface task for a total work effort of 80 hours. Analyze the project to see which resources are in conflict and which tasks are causing the problems.

RESOURCE OVER ALLOCATION


When resources are over allocated in a project plan, the resource name will highlight in Red font in the resource views. To view the resource allocation to analyze and manage what changes should be made to the project plan, use the Resource Allocation view. View Menu. More Views.

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 Resource Allocation View. Resource Allocation View opens two views on the screen. The top pane is the Resource Usage view, and the bottom pane is the Leveling Gantt. Determine what changes should be made to eliminate over allocation.

USING THE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TOOLBAR Instructions: Using the combination of the Resource Graph and Gantt Chart (or the Resource Allocation view), find the overallocated resource(s) and determine which task(s) are causing the problem. What are some of the options available for resolving the conflict(s)? MANUALLY LEVELING RESOURCES If a resource is over allocated, you have basically used that resource for more than its maximum level of available work. When you reduce the over allocated resource to its normal working level, you are leveling the resource. Manually leveling resources means that you must solve the conflict by adding additional resources, using overtime, allocating part of a resources time to each task or even having to reschedule tasks. Each option has its drawbacks which must be weighed before deciding how to resolve the conflict. For example, adding more resources or overtime will increase the project cost. Having a resource work part time on each task will make each task take longer to complete. Rescheduling tasks could delay the projects end date. Therefore, you may need to try various options before making a final decision. AUTOMATICALLY LEVELING RESOURCES Project offers a simple option to solve the resource conflict. It solves it by delaying or splitting tasks until the resource becomes available. Project takes into account all of the scheduling information to decide which tasks to delay first. This means that a later task may be scheduled before an earlier task in order to resolve a conflict. To change the order by which Project delays a task, you must assign that task a higher priority. Project uses a number system between 0 and 1000 (using 500 as the default setting). The higher the number, the higher the priority, which means lower priority

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Project management Software Application-Defining the Project in Ms Project 2003 tasks are delayed first. If you set the priority to 1000, you are telling Project not to delay that task. To assign a task a higher priority, follow the steps outlined below:

LEVELING OPTIONS There are several options that affect how Project decides which tasks are to be delayed/split. For example, changing the priority of a task does not automatically cause Project to use those priorities as a primary factor in determining which tasks to delay. By default, Project looks at predecessor dependencies, slack, and dates before considering priority. To have Project look at task priorities before considering these other factors, you must modify that option within the Resource Leveling dialog box. EXERCISE ON RESOURCE LEVELING Instructions: There are several resource allocation problems in the project which you probably discovered in the last exercise. Due to the overlap between Interview Users and Write Draft Specification, we have over allocated the number of System Analysts available. It has been decided it is not necessary to have 2 full-time analysts interviewing the users but to, instead, replace one analyst with a senior programmer. Make the resource changes to Interview Users to resolve the conflict with the system analysts. Note that the duration of the task should not change! Check to see if any more resource over-allocations exist. View the project status and remember the project end date. Ending Date: ______________ Use Projects leveling option to level the remainder of the project. Review the changes made to the schedule. Check the project end date. Ending Date: ______________ Has the project end date changed? Why or why not? Review the task Test User Interlace and assign a higher priority. Change the leveling method to use Priority before Standard. Level the project again and review the new changes and project end date. Ending Date: ______________ Which option gives you the best schedule? Select the leveling option with the least amount of delay and/or split tasks.

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SAVING A BASELINE
Setting a baseline creates a benchmark for future reference. The baseline should be set prior to the start of the project after all tasks, task durations, resource, cost, and dates have been entered in the plan. Tools Menu, Tracking, Save Baseline. The save baseline radio button is selected for the Entire project. OK.

BASELINE FIELDS Saving a baseline, copies specific fields into baseline fields as follows: Current Field Name Start Finish Duration Work Baseline Field Name Baseline Start Baseline Finish Baseline Duration Baseline Work

VARIANCE
As changes are made to the current plan, MS Project will calculate a variance for each field by subtracting the baseline field from the current field. This figure will be entered in the variance field Variance Start, Variance Finish, Variance Duration, Variance Work, and Variance Cost. To manage and view the variance for the fields, open the table for that field. As an example, view the Work table for the baseline and variance information for each task. The variance table will view the fields for the Start and Finish baseline and variance.

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PROJECT STATISTICS
While each table will display the variance for each task, the project statistics will display the baseline, current, and variance for the entire project. Project Menu, Project Information. Statistics button located in the bottom of the dialog box.

If a baseline was set too early or if the project plan has changed so drastically since setting a baseline, then use the option to clear the baseline. Tools Menu, Tracking. Clear Baseline .

Choose which baseline plan to clear from the drop down menu. OK. Up to 10 additional Baselines can be set for progress of all baseline fields. Tools Menu, Tracking, Save Baseline. Click in the drop down menu for the Save baseline option. Choose which Baseline to save (dates are entered to right of saved baselines for easy tracking). Click OK.

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INTERIM BASELINE
The Interim plans are different from the Baseline plan and is used to save the current start and finish dates for a task that is in progress. There are ten Interim plan set of dates that can be set in a project file. Interim plans help compare current progress dates to the baseline dates.

This process will now copy the information from the original baseline start and finish fields to the start1 and finish1 fields. These fields can now be used in views and reports to compare the baseline plan to the current plan. EXERCISE ON SAVING THE BASELINE Instructions: Save the baseline and change the top pane to display the Tracking Gantt chart. Change the bottom pane to display the Variance table. Review the chart/table to ensure you know how to read it.

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PROJECT TRACKING IN MS PROJECT 2003

UPDATING TASKS
When you record actual dates, durations, and work for tasks, Microsoft Project uses this data to reschedule tasks affected by the changes. You can see immediately the implications for the project when actual work does not go according to the plan. With this knowledge, you can take corrective steps to correct unwanted consequences. When you enter actual performance data in a timely manner, you can correct problems that may occur early in the project. Updating the project schedule is time consuming and is often neglected by project managers. The level of detail tracked is determined by how much information is required from Project and the time you spend on tracking. A wide variety of views, tables, and forms can be used to enter actual data. As with entering any data in project, information entered in one view will be reflected in the other views automatically. Example of a Gantt Chart view showing the progress bar.

Gantt Chart View with Progress Several views show the progress on a task. The Gantt Chart displays a progress bar in the middle of the task bar for tasks that have begun. The Tracking Gantt view displays the progress bar in a darker color and gives the percentage of completion to the right of each bar. The format of the progress bar can be changed in any of the views. Progress Bar The Tracking Gantt Chart view.

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UNDERSTANDING THE FIELDS USED IN UPDATING


You can enter one or more of the following tracking fields for tasks. Microsoft Project calculates many of these fields when an entry is made in one of the other fields in the list. No one view displays all of these fields with the possible exception of the export table. Actual Start date Actual Finish date Percent Complete (percent of tasks duration) Actual duration (to date) Remaining duration Actual work Percent of Work completed Remaining Work Actual Fixed Cost Actual Cost Remaining Cost Some of these fields are automatic recalculation of other fields. Some are only calculations, and your entries are ignored. The Work and Cost fields are special cases; in that if you are tracking carefully, this information is entered for each resource assigned to the task and is automatically calculated utilizing the resource information. ACTUAL START DATE Prior to having an actual date, the Actual Start field value is NA. When you record actual dates, the current start and finish dates are recalculated and replaced with actual dates. If you enter an actual start date, this replaces the current start date. If you enter a percent of completion on a task, Project assumes it started on the current start date and makes this the Actual start date. ACTUAL FINISH DATE This field displays NA until the task finish date is entered or calculated. You can enter Actual Finish date on the tracking views and forms. If you enter a date in the Actual Finish date field, Project performs the following:

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Moves the Actual Finish date to the current Finish date Sets the Percent Complete to 100% Sets the Actual Start date to the same as the current start date (if no start date was entered as well) Calculates Actual duration and changes the duration field to meet the Actual Duration Sets the Remaining duration field to zero. Calculates the Actual Work and Actual Cost fields based on the actual duration Changes the task to non-critical if it was critical PERCENT COMPLETE After a task has started, you can set the percent of completion (discussed later in this module). When percent complete field is updated, Project performs the following: Sets the Actual Start date to the same as the current start date unless an actual start date is also entered. Enter a start date first if different from the schedule. Sets the Actual Finish date to match the current finish date if 100% complete. First enter Actual Finish Date if different from current finish date. Sets Actual Duration to equal the percent complete figure times the scheduled duration (if a task is 60% complete when the duration was 10 hours, the actual duration field is calculated and set to 6 hours). Sets Remaining Duration field to equal the scheduled duration minus the actual duration (Using above example, this means 10 hours 6 hours = 4 hours). Sets Actual Work and Actual Cost fields to match the percent complete times the scheduled work and cost amounts. Summary tasks sets each of the subtasks with the same value entered for the summary tasks. ACTUAL DURATION This field is found on the Tracking Table and in the Update Tasks dialog box (discussed later in this module). When this field has a value, Project calculates the percent complete and remaining duration fields. REMAINING DURATION When a value is entered in this field, Project assumes the task has begun as scheduled under the current plan. No remaining duration is the same as 100% complete.

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Project management Software Application- Project Tracking in Ms Project 2003 If the remaining duration field is changed, Project automatically adds that to the number of days remaining on the task. This is the same as adding duration to a task. ACTUAL WORK AND ACTUAL COST Work and cost values are calculated by Project for individual resources and summed for tasks to which the resources are assigned. When actuals are entered for percentages of completion on a task or for time spent for individual resources, these fields are calculated. If a task has no resources, you must manually enter the work and cost values when the task is completed. These fields cannot be updated prior to being 100% complete. ACTUAL FIXED COST The Actual Fixed Cost must be manually updated. These are costs accrued above and beyond that of the resources assigned. Total costs will reflect fixed costs and costs (calculated by resource assignment). USING THE TRACKING TOOLBAR The tracking toolbar provides many buttons that you can use to track your progress and update task information. To display the Tracking toolbar, right-click in the toolbar area and click on Tracking. You can also display through the View Menu, Toolbars.

Button Name Button Description Project Displays the Project Statistics dialog box. Statistics Update as Scheduled Reschedule Work Add Progress Line 0% Complete 25% Complete 50% Complete 75% Complete 100% Complete Update Tasks Collaborate Toolbar Automatically updates the selected tasks whose start dates are before the current date. Project records the tasks as having started and finished on time. Reschedules the remaining duration of the selected tasks to continue from the current date. Displays a progress line on the date you choose. Must be in the Gantt Chart view. Marks the selected tasks as 0% complete, indicating they have not started. Marks the selected tasks as 25% complete. Marks the selected tasks as 50% complete. Marks the selected tasks as 75% complete. Marks the selected tasks as 100% complete. Opens the Update Tasks dialog box to update individual task selected. Displays and hides the Collaborate toolbar used with Project Server.

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UPDATING TASKS AS SCHEDULED


If the tasks in your project start and finish on time, you can have Project automatically update the task information. You can either specify a date and let Project update all of the tasks whose start date fall before this date, or let project use the current date and update the tasks. If the scheduled finish date also falls before the date you specify, Project assumes the task is complete. If the scheduled finish date does not fall before the date you specify, Project assumes the task is complete through the specified date, and marks the task as partially complete. USING THE CURRENT DATE TO UPDATE A PROJECT Use the Update as Scheduled button on the Tracking toolbar to automatically enter the actual information for tasks that started and/or finished on schedule. To use Update as Scheduled: 1. Select the task(s) you want updated. 2. Click on Update as Scheduled button on the tracking toolbar.

ENTERING A DATE TO UPDATE PROJECT To update project tasks using a date, you will go through the tools menu, and tracking option. 1. Select the task(s) you want updated. 2. Click on Tools menu, Choose Tracking, and Click on Update Project. The Update Project dialog box opens.

The following table provides a description for the different elements of the Update Project dialog box.

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Setting Update work as complete through Set 0% - 100% complete Set 0% or 100% complete only Rescheduled uncompleted work to start For

Description Specifies the date that project will use for the scheduled start and finish dates for the selected task(s). Sets tasks 0% through 100%. Automatically sets by the dates specified. Tasks are set to 0% or 100% (no in between). Tasks still in progress are set to 0%. Tasks that have fallen behind from the date given are rescheduled to begin on the date given. If tasks have started and fallen behind, the remainder of the task is rescheduled to the date given.

Update selected tasks or entire project. 3. Choose to either update work as complete through or to reschedule uncompleted work to start after. 4. Select Entire Project or Selected Tasks. Warning Entire Project is selected as default. Typically, this is not how you would want to update. 5. Click OK.

UPDATING TASKS AS PERCENTAGES COMPLETE When you specify a percentage of a task that is complete, project automatically enters the actual start date and calculates the actual duration and remaining duration. Project assumes the actual start and finish dates are following the schedule. To update using percentages: 1. Select the task(s) to update. 2. Click on one of the percentage buttons (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%) on the tracking toolbar. 3. The progress bar will appear in the task bar to reflect percent of completion for each task. The Tracking Table is automatically updated.

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Gantt Chart View

Tracking Table with Progress

UPDATING TASKS MANUALLY


When you have tasks that fall behind or that finish early, these tasks should be updated manually to reflect the schedule changes. Updating tasks manually allow for more detailed information. USING THE UPDATE TASKS DIALOG BOX 1. Select the task(s) to update. 2. Click on the Update Tasks button on the tracking toolbar.

The Update Tasks dialog box opens.

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3. Enter the actual task information using any of the three options - the % complete, Actual duration, or Remaining duration. Project will automatically recalculate the other entries. The Actual Start date can be entered here if the task began earlier or later than originally planned. Project will automatically calculate a new current finish date. If you specify the task is complete, Project automatically enters the actual finish date. 4. Click OK.

THE RESCHEDULE WORK BUTTON


Use the Reschedule Work button when work has been halted for a task for whatever reason. It is now time to begin back on the task. When you choose the task(s) and then click on Reschedule Work, the task(s) will reschedule to the current date.

Gantt Chart View with a Rescheduled Task

UPDATING RESOURCES

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Project management Software Application- Project Tracking in Ms Project 2003 Project calculates work based on the amount of work the resources assigned to a project have actually completed. If you are using Project to calculate accurate actual work hours and cost, then the project plan must be updated by resource, not by task. As previously discussed, tasks can be updated using the Tracking toolbar. When this method is used, Project assumes all resources worked on the task exactly as was planned. However, if you want to report exact budgets and have more control over how the actual work hours are reflected, you must update by each resource. This method does not work in all situations of a Project. For example, you use resources from another department, and the only way you can update a task is by giving the task a percentage no matter who the resources or hours for each individual. If you have resources reporting directly to you, you may want to use time cards or time given on each task for a project reported from the resources to update Project. Using this method, you will have more accurate reporting information for budgets and work hours for each task and for the project rolled up. USING THE TASK ENTRY VIEW The Task Entry view can be used to track actual work. This view has the Gantt Chart in the upper pane and the Task form showing resource work (right-click to change this option) in the bottom pane. The top pane rules the lower pane. Whatever task you have selected in the upper pane, reflects the resource work in the lower pane for that task.

Task Entry View The Gantt Chart view gives you the ability to update by tasks using the Tracking toolbar as previously discussed. You can also enter information directly into the Actual column of the work table for each task. You can also update the actual work by each resource in the Task Form in the bottom pane.

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To enter resource work in the Task form, you need to view Resource work in the task form. To do this, right-click in the task form and choose Resource Work. You can then enter the exact time each resource has reported he/she has work on each task.

USING THE RESOURCE USAGE VIEW


The Resource Usage View shows each resource and his/her task assignments. The graph shows by default the number of hours each resource has been assigned to each task in the Work row.

Resource Usage View The timeline can be changed by clicking on the zoom in on the Standard toolbar. and zoom out buttons

The actual number of hours spent on each task can then be entered for each individual resource in the actual work row. By default, this information does not show. To view the actual work row, right-click onto the graph and select actual work from the menu. This will open the Act Work row for each task. USING THE TASK USAGE VIEW The Task Usage view shows each task with all resource assignments. The graph shows by default the number of hours each resource has been assigned to each task in the Work row.

Task Usage View


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The timeline can be changed by clicking on the zoom in buttons on the Standard toolbar.

and zoom out

The actual number of hours spent on each task can then be entered for each individual resource in the actual work row. By default, this information does not show. To view the actual work row, right-click onto the graph and select actual work from the menu. This will open the Act Work row for each task. EXERCISE ON ENTERING PROGRESS
Instructions: Change the current date to February 12, 2007. Select tasks two through six and mark them as complete. The Finalize Specifications task is finished but took a total of 3 days to complete. Manually update this task to reflect the change in duration. Mark Design Complete as being finished. Review the baseline and compare the current progress. Ending Date: ______________

EXERCISE ON TRACKING THE PROJECT


Instructions: Change the date to March 30, 2007. Several tasks have finished early. Manually update the following tasks to change their finish dates to March 30, 2007: o Test Kernel o Draft User Manual To update the remaining tasks, automatically update the project based on percentage complete. Reschedule any remaining work to start as of April 9, 2007. Review the baseline and compare the current progress. Ending Date: ______________ The duration for Final Test has now been estimated at 3 days instead of the original 5. Make the change and check the project status. Ending Date: ______________ Print or preview the Project Summary report. How is the project doing concerning time and cost variances?

PRINTING VIEWS
When printing from Project, the current view is what will be sent to the printer. If the timeline has been changed on a view, you may get 200 pages of Gantt Chart bars accidentally. Take note that what you see is what you get. Never send a Project view to the printer before looking at the Print Preview. The Print Preview can be accessed from the button on the Standard toolbar or from the File Menu. A Project view can be sent to the printer using the Print button on the Standard toolbar or from the File Menu. When using the File Menu, Print, you receive the Print dialog box where you have various options as seen below: From this dialog box, the printer can be changed, print range for specific number of pages rather than all pages, and a specific date range.

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For additional options, you will use the File, Page Set up dialog box. Additional print options are available through the Page Setup dialog box. To access Page Setup options for the current view: 1. File Menu, Page Setup.

PAGE TAB The Page Tab gives orientation options to change from Landscape (11 x 8 ) to Portrait (8 x 11).

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Project management Software Application- Project Tracking in Ms Project 2003 The Scaling option is a great way to scale down from normal size to fit the timeline on fewer pages. You can even force to fit so many pages wide by so many pages tall. Be sure to Print Preview before changing these settings. The Other area gives additional control over the paper size and if the first page should have the page number. MARGINS TAB The margins are .5 (1/2) by default and can be changed for top, bottom, left, and right. The Borders option is also available in this tab. The outer pages option is available with Network Diagram only. HEADER, FOOTER, AND LEGEND There is a separate tab for the Header, Footer, and Legend but all offer the same options.

The alignment window lets you set what is on the left, center, and right side of the header, footer and legend. You can type in the alignment box or use some of the shortcut buttons and drop down menu for assistance. After choosing from the drop down menu, be sure to click on the Add button. The choice will be added to the alignment screen. The Preview window will show what the header and footer will look like on each page. Following is a brief description of the different short cut buttons available.

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Project management Software Application- Project Tracking in Ms Project 2003

Button Name Format Text Font Insert Page Number Insert Total Page Count Insert Current Date Insert Current Time Insert File Name Insert Picture

Button

Description Font dialog box for size, style, color Inserts the number of the current page Inserts the total number of pages in the Project File Current Date Current Time File Name Can add a picture from the dialog box to the header or footer

The button options and the options in the drop down menu will add code to the Alignment area of the Setup window. However, you will see exactly how it is printed in the Preview window. The Legend Tab has additional options: The right side of the dialog box offers options to place the legend on Every Page, a legend Page, or None where the legend will not display at all. you can also change the width of the legend and to format using the Legend Labels button. EXERCISE ON PRINTING Select the views that would represent the projects progress as close as possible

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Project management Software Application- Project Tracking in Ms Project 2003 VIEW TAB It is very easy to become very frustrated when attempting to print Project files. One of the least used tabs in Page Setup can help fix a lot of problems. Remember, that what you see is what you get so if you have a Gantt Chart view to print, and you moved the separator bar to show less or more of the Gantt Chart or the table, this is what you will see when you print.

Print all sheets columns can be turned on so this happens each and every time no matter the changes in the view. The first page will print with all columns. When printing views, the columns will print on the first page only. When there are several pages, it can be difficult to decide which task goes with which task bar on the Gantt chart as an example. Printing a specific number of columns will take care of this. When telling Project which columns, be sure to count the ID column as the first column. Enter a check box on the Print first columns option and be sure to enter the number of columns to print. Print Notes will print all notes on the last page. The note is printed under the ID and Task name for each task with a note. If you do not want Project to print blank pages, take this check mark off. Fit timescale reduces or expands to use all available space on the page. PRINT THE CALENDAR VIEW It is important to note that the Calendar view has a different View tab settings as follows:

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Project management Software Application- Project Tracking in Ms Project 2003

Before printing a Calendar View, you should filter the specific information for the calendar such as Resource.

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Project management Software Application- Project Tracking in Ms Project 2003

REFERENCES
http://www.ezref.com http://pubs.logicalexpressions.com

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This material was prepared and compiled by Dr Levy Siaminwe and Mr. Joseph Mwape Chileshe in the School of Engineering at the University of Zambia for Kafue Gorge Regional Training Centre.

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