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AIM:- To understand the concept of Frequency Modulation APPARATUS:- C.R.O , AM/FM multifunction generator, function generator , probes. THEORY:- In the freq. modulation ,the modulating signal e m(t) is used to very the carrier freq. In these, carrier freq. is changed according to the amplitude of the modulating signal. In a well designed modulation the change in carrier freq. will be proportional to the modulating voltage and thus can be represented as Ke m(t). Where K is constant known as the freq. deviation constant. The instantaneous carrier freq. is equal to Fi(t)=Fc+ Kem Here f =Kem(t) Fi(t)= Fc+ f f em(t) So Fi(min) = Fc-f Fi(max) = Fc+ f f is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. The modulation index of an FM signal is given as m=f/Fm. This is almost always greater than 1. The B.W. of an F.M. wave is theoretically infinite as F.M. produces infinite side frequencies. For all practical purposes the B.W. of an F.M. wave is given by Carsons rule B.W.fm=2(f+Fm). Compare to amplitude modulation, freq. modulation has certain advantages: Signal to noise ratio can be increased without increasing transmitted power. Certain forms of interference at the receiver are more easily suppressed. Modulation process can take place at a low level power stage in the transmitter. PROCEDURE:1) Take the required apparatus and connect the ckt. on bread board. 2) Get the modulating signal input from a function generator and the carrier signal from multifunction generator. 3) Observe the output on the oscilloscope. 4) Change amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal (gradually, one by one ) and observe the o/p. 5) Repeat the above process for carrier signal and note the observations. 6) Also note modulation index for each of your observations. CONCLUSION:-


AIM: - To establish a wireless AM based communication link. APPARATUS: - Radio receiver, antenna, probes,2 function generator for carrier and modulating signal. THEORY:- At the transmitting side the amplitude modulated signal is generated by modulating the carrier of multifunction generator by modulating from a function generator. A probe itself can work as an antenna (of course, a poor one) for a small range. The o/p from a probe is kept near to the receiver. The receiver then, o/p a signal in the form of sound. The sound corresponds to the modulating signal freq. .as the distance increases beyond a few centimeters , the S/N ratio becomes poor and only noise is received by the receiver. When the o/p of the transmitter probe is connected to an antenna, the radiation efficiency increases. The signal can be transmitted now over a distance of few meters with good s/n ratio. If we increase the transmitter power o/p , then also we can extend the range of transmission. So, with this experiment we can appreciate the role of an antenna for efficient transmission. AM radio receiver is a super heterodyne receiver. Its sensitivity is low. Means it cant receive signals from longer distance. The receiver uses an autodyne circuit that provides both local oscillation and mixing in the same circuit. PROCEDURE:1) Take required apparatus and obtain modulated signal with the help of two function generators. 2) Observe the modulated signal on CRO. 3) Now the probe which is connected to the i/p of the CRO, is taken near AM radio receiver. 4) The voice signal is obtained by the receiver and is heard till the probe is at a distance of about 10cm. 5) Beyond that signal is not heard. 6) Now connect the probe to helical antenna. 7) Increase the distance between AM radio receiver and the antenna gradually and find the limit to which the signal intelligibility is fair. 8) Also note the effect of noise by viewing the AM detector o/p on C.R.O. CONCLUSION:-


AIM:- To establish fiber optic based transmitter reception link. APPARATUS:- C.R.O ,function generator ,probes, fiber optic kit, patch cords. THEORY:- The fiber optics communication works on the principle of converting electrical energy into light energy and light energy into electrical energy. Optical fibers are increasingly replacing transmission lies in communication systems. At the transmitting side LEDs are used for electrical to light conversion. While photodiodes are used at the receiving side to convert light into electrical signal. When light enter at near end of the glass fiber . A small part of light will escape through the sides of the wall. Small part will also be lost due to internal absorption. Most of the light will be contained and guided to the far end. Light propagation through fiber is based on total internal reflection that follows Snells law, when light is incident at an angle equal or less than critical angle. The critical angle is sinc=n2/n1. The core material has a refractive index n1,which is little greater than refractive index n2 of surrounding material (cladding). ADVANTAGES:1. The information carrying capacity of a fiber is greater then the microwave radio system. 2. The material used in fibers is silicon glass or silicon dioxide which is widely available and cost is low. 3. The fibers are electrically non-conductive. So, they are free from electrical or electromagnetic interferences. PROCEDURE:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Take the required apparatus. Apply the i/p signal from function generator to FM modulator. Connect FM modulator to the LED driver which amplifies the current. Apply the o/p LED driver to LED. LED emits the light on the photo diode. The o/p from the photo diode is given to the FM demodulator. Observe demodulated signal on CRO and compare it with the i/p signal.


AIM:-To design a series RLC circuit for ___________ Hz. And determine its Q factor and 3-dB Bandwidth. APPARATUS:- Resistor__________, inductor ___________ h, capacitor, bread board, patch cords, C.R.O., function generator, probes. THEORY:- The impedence of a series RLC circuit is given as Z = R+j(L - 1/C ). At resonance, in an RLC circuit the imaginary part in the impedence becomes zero. In a series RLC circuit the freq. of resonance is expressed as =1/LC or f=1/2*LC. From this expression the required value of capacitance is ___________F. The impedance is minimum and purely resistive at series reso. freq... This results in max. current through the circuit at resonance. So, voltage across resistor is maximum at resonance. At any freq. other than reso., the impedance increases as we move away from reso. freq. on either side of reso. freq.. This gives a band pass characteristics (V vs. F) for the circuit. The quality factor Q is defined as the ratio of inductive reactance to the resistance at resonance. The quality factor decides the selectivity of the response.(V vs. F). Higher the Q, sharper the response. The 3-dB band width is the ratio of reso. freq. to Q factor. It is the difference of two frequencies on the response where the voltage is 0.707 times the maximum. The high Q circuits have small bandwidth. At resonance the voltage across the resistor is same as the i/p voltage. While the voltages across the inductor and the capacitor are equal to QV in magnitude but they have opposite signs. So, they get cancelled. PROCEDURE:1) Get the required components and connect the circuit on the bread board. 2) Apply 1Vp signal from the function generator. 3) Vary the freq. of i/p signal from the function generator and measure the amplitude across the combination of L and C. 4) The voltage across this combination will be minimum at resonance freq.. 5) Note the readings for about 15 different freq.. 6) Plot the response and find resonance freq. and 3-dB Bandwidth from it. 7) Compare the plotted reso. freq. and 3-dB Bandwidth with the calculated reso. freq. and 3-dB Bandwidth. CONCLUSION:-

AIM:-To understand the concept of amplitude modulation and measure the modulation index of a modulated wave using trapezoidal method. APPARATUS:-A diode, a 4.7k resi., 2 function generators, C.R.O., probes, patch cords. THEORY:-Modulation is to the shift the low freq. spectrum to a high freq. spectrum to make antenna size feasible for efficient radiation. Amplitude modulation varies the amplitude of high freq. carrier signal in accordance with amplitude of low-freq. modulating signal. In an am wave the information resides in the form variations of amplitude in the carrier signal. The amplitude modulation is also known as linear modulation since the bandwidth relationship of modulating and modulated signal is linear and is given as B.W.AM=2* B.W. of MODULATING SIGNAL. The modulation index for an am wave is defined as the ratio of peak amplitude of modulating signal to the amplitude of the carrier signal. m= Em /Ec. To make the detection simpler the modulation index of an am wave is kept<1 for broadcast purposes. 0m1. The modulation index can be measured on a C.R.O. using so called trapezoidal method. In this method the modulated signal is applied to the vertical deflection circuit of the C.R.O. and modulating signal to the horizontal deflection circuit. When operated in x-y mode the C.R.O. shows a lissajous pattern like a trapezoid. Measuring the two parallel vertical sides of the trapezoid and using the equation m=L1-L2/(L1+L2) where L1=bigger side of the trapezoid L2=smaller side of the trapezoid. gives the modulation index. A low-level diode switching modulator is used here. The diode is switched on/off at the rate of carrier. To ensure this the amplitude of carrier is kept sufficiently greater than that of modulating signal. The switching action results in multiplication of carrier and modulating signal. This results in two side freq. terms. The carrier component also appears in the o/p along with the side freq.. This gives amplitude modulated signal as Eam(t)=Ec sin (2**Fc*t) (m/2)*(sin(2**(Fc+Fm)*t)) + (m/2)*(sin(2**(Fc-Fm)*t)) -

PROCEDURE:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Connect the circuit as shown in ckt. diagram. Observe the modulated wave on C.R.O. Vary the amplitude of carrier signal and see the difference in the waveform. Also vary the amplitude of modulating signal and note the difference in the waveform. Connect the modulating signal to the horizontal deflection circuit and modulated signal to vertical deflection circuit. Keep the CRO in x-y mode. See the trapezoidal pattern and measure the modulation index. Repeat the same for five different values of modulating and/or carrier amplitudes.



AIM:- To design an envelope(peak) detector to detect/demodulate an am signal. APPARATUS:-Multifunction generator, a diode, a pot (10k-100k) or resistors of 8.2k,22k,33k & 82k, a capacitor 0.1 nF, patch cords, probes & bread board. THEORY:- The peak or envelope detector detects peaks of every carrier cycle of an amplitude modulated wave. The points corresponding to these peaks are nothing but our slowly varying modulating signal. Joining these peak points forms an envelope. So, peak detector is also called envelope detector. Thus, peak or envelope detector extracts modulating signal from the i/p AM signal. The diode conducts during the portion of the carrier cycle, when amplitude is increasing. The charging of the capacitor takes place through forward resi. of the diode. since this charging time is vary small compare to the time of a carrier cycle, the charging of the capacitor is almost instantaneous. as the amplitude of the carrier goes below the peak the diode is off. Now, the capacitor discharges via resi. R. the discharge time constant RC is kept sufficiently large compare to the time required for one carrier cycle. This ensures that the capacitor doesnt discharge appreciably. Choice of RC is very important factor for better performance of a peak detector. It should neither be tto large nor be too small. Two types of distortion may occur with peak detection. (1) diagonal clipping or failure to follow the envelope distortion. (2) Negative peak clipping. The former results due to too large RC. While the later is the consequence of loading effect of the next stage to which demodulated o/p is connected. When RC is too large the capacitor is unable to discharge fast enough when amplitude of envelope is decreasing. This results in a shape like diagonal. So, it is called diagonal clipping. To avoid diagonal clipping the following condition must be satisfied. m1/[1+(2**Fm*R*C)]. To avoid negative peak clipping mR1/(R1+R). Where R1= i/p impedance of the next stage to which demodulated signal is to be applied.

PROCEDURE:1) Connect the ckt. as shown in ckt. diagram and apply an AM wave from multifunction generator as i/p. 2) Vary the resi. and see the effect of this on demodulated wave. 3) Stop varying pot. When o/p is almost distortion less at Fm=15 kHz and measure the value of R . 4) Select the best value of R for modulating freq. of 15 kHz and set the same with pot. Compare the amount of distortion for calculated and measured value of R. 5) Also calculate the maximum modulation index to avoid negative peak clipping, considering i/p impedance of CRO as R1. CONCLUSION:-

AIM:-To study the principles of SSB modulation and demodulation. APPARATUS:- EDKITS SSB modulation demodulation trainer kit, 2 function generators, C.R.O., probes and patch cords. THEORY:-SSB is a variation on AM. An AM signal (also called DSBFC) has two side bands and a full carrier component. The real information is in each side band. Means each side band contains the same information. So, it is bandwidth saving if we could transmit only a single side band. Secondly, the carrier it self conveys no information but consumes almost 70% of the total power in an AM wave. So, if we eliminate carrier before transmission we can also save a great amount of power. Thus, removal of one side band and carrier from an AM wave results in SSB. But, the problem with SSB transmission is that the carrier component is not present in the modulated wave. So, at the receiving end, we have to generate a carrier which is same in freq. and in phase with that of the carrier at the transmitting end. This makes SSB detection much complex and costly. So, SSB is not used in commercial broadcast applications. But, used in very special applications e.g. in a police mobile van. The generation of SSB requires balanced modulators. The balanced modulators produce the product of the carrier and the modulating signal. The o/p of a balanced modulator is a DSBSC (Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier) signal. From this signal, removal of one of the side band gives SSBSC. At the receiver , again a balanced modulator( product detector) multiplies the received SSBSC signal with a locally generated carrier. This provides the original modulating signal plus a high freq. component which is difference of twice the carrier freq. and the modulating freq.. the high freq. term can be eliminated by a low pass filter. This detection process is called synchronous detection. In the kit IC 1496 provides a doubly balanced modulated signal. In this IC , mixing of carrier and modulating signal takes place by carrier switching action. The carrier swings the modulating signal between +Am(t) and Am(t) on every half, cycle. This produces an effect as if modulating signal were multiplied by the carrier signal. This results in balanced modulation. A filter removes either LSB or USB from the DSBSC to produce SSB signal. This SSB signal is given as an i/p to the synchronous detector. The o/p of this detector provides the required signal m(t). The high freq. components in the o/p of synchronous detector are rejected by low pass filtering.

PROCEDURE:1) Connect the carrier and modulating signal from function generators to the i/ps of the KIT. 2) Observe the DSBSC signal at the o/p of IC 1496. 3) If required balance the o/p by adjusting the associated pot.. 4) Also note how does the DSBSC differs from the AM. 5) Apply the o/p of IC 1496 to the sideband filter. 6) Guess the wave shape of SSB wave at the o/p of the sideband filter. 7) Is your guessing true?! 8) Apply the o/p of the filter to the i/p of the product detector and observe the o/p. 9) Filter the o/p of product detector with low pass filter and note the o/p of the low pass filter. 10) Compare it with the original modulating signal. EXERCISE:To detect a normal AM wave with peak detector , the modulation index must be less than unity. If we increase the modulation index beyond unity, we loss some part of information due to over modulation. If we use synchronous detection is it possible to extract the information in the modulating signal without any loss of information? Or in other wordsdoes over modulation makes any difficulty in detection if we use synchronous detection? Try this experiment. CONCLUSION:-


AIM:-To make a detailed study of the working of an AM super-heterodyne radio receiver. APPARATUS:- EDKITS -study of radio receiver- kit, multi-function generator, CRO, probes. THEORY:-The modern radio receivers are all super-heterodyne receivers. They all generate beat frequencies (sum and difference of two i/p freq.) above the range of hearing of a human being. Generating beat frequencies is called heterodyning and freq. above the range of hearing is called super sonic freq.. Since heterodyning takes place at supersonic freq., the name is super-heterodyne receiver. The receiver consists of six sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tuned RF amplifier Tuned oscillator Mixer IF amplifiers Peak detector and Power amplifier & Speaker.

The RF Amplifier section is known as the front end of the receiver. It selects and amplifies the required signal from the many signals picked-up by the receiver antenna with very little noise. The bandwidth of the RF amplifier is about 150-200 kHz. This is purposely left much wider since IF amplifiers are going to narrow this bandwidth later. The Tuned Oscillator produces a signal whose freq. is always 455 kHz (=IF) above the freq. of the signal selected by RF amplifier. Selecting oscillator freq. above RF signal requires narrow range of tuning capacitor in the tuned circuit to cover entire band. To make it sure that the osci. freq. is always exactly above RF freq. by 455 kHz, some kind of tracking arrangement is required. This is done by gang capacitor with trimmer, padder or three point tracking correction. The o/ps of tuned osci. And RF amplifier sections are given as i/ps to The Mixer. The heterodyning takes place in the mixer. The mixer mixes the freq.. The mixer is essentially a non-linear device that generates sum, difference and original frequencies of the two i/p signal frequencies .The mixer is designed to give sufficient gain to difference freq. only. This process of producing difference freq. is also called down conversion. And mixer is called the down converter.

The o/p of the mixer is always an AM wave with the carrier freq. down converted to 455 kHz. The IF Amplifier is a collection of stagger tuned amplifiers to amplify the o/p of the mixer. Much of the selectivity and gain of the receiver system is decided by the IF amplifier section. The B.W. of the IF section is slightly more than 10 kHz, The B.W. allocated to each radio station. The o/p of IF section is given to the Peak Detector. It detects the modulating signal from the IF modulated signal. The detected signal is amplified by a class-B push-pull amplifier to raise its power level sufficiently high to drive the speaker. The speaker produces the audio signal. PROCEDURE:1) Generate an AM wave with multi-function generator and keep it near to the receiver. 2) Set the receiver dial to receive the AM signal. 3) Observe the amplified wave at the o/p of the RF section. 4) See the o/p of autodyne circuit.(the autodyne block provides mixing as well as oscillator freq. generation.). 5) Observe the o/p of IF amplifiers & measure its freq.. 6) Observe the o/p of the detector. This must be same as the modulating signal. 7) See the amplified o/p. 8) Vary the modulating signal freq. and note the change of sound in the o/p of the speaker. 9) Check the max. modulating freq. responded by the speaker and approximate the B.W. allocated/ station. EXERCISE:Find the reason behind keeping the IF freq. in the range 450-470 kHz, usually, for MW AM reception. CONCLUSION:-

AIM:-To design an RC phase shift oscillator at _________ Hz, using BJT. APPARATUS: - 3 capacitors each of ________ F, 3 resistors each of _______, base and collector resistors, transistor _______, power supply, bread board, multimeter, CRO. THEORY:-The oscillators can be considered as amplifiers with positive feed back but no external i/p signal. They can also be treated as closed loop positive feed-back control systems without external i/p. for sustained oscillations it is must that Bark-Hausen criterion must be satisfied. That is the loop gain must be 1 and loop gain phase shift must be 360 degree. In the RC phase shift oscillator the frequency determining network consists of three identical sections of RC elements. The frequency determining network is always in the feedback path. While forward path is always frequency independent and sets the required gain. The freq. of oscillation is given as f=2*RC*6+(4*R0/R) where R0 is the small signal o/p resi. of the transistor . the minimum value of transistor gain is found to be =23+(4*R0/R)+(29*R/R0) it can be shown that is minimum when R0/R =2.7 PROCEDURE:1) Determine the required values of R,C,Rc,Rb and for the given freq. of oscillation. 2) Collect the required components and mount properly on bread board. 3) Check the supply voltage with multimeter. 4) Switch on the supply and see the waveform on the CRO. CONCLUSION:-

AIM:- To design frequency modulator circuit using IC 566. APPARATUS:- IC 566, R1=_________, R2=________, R3=________, C1=______, C2=_________, C3=_________, bread board, dual power supply, function generator, probes, oscilloscope. THEORY:- IC 566 is a VCO(Voltage Controlled Oscillator). A VCO can generate FM wave. The circuit connection for IC 566 as a frequency modulator is shown in fig.1. The i/p signal has to be a sine wave with amplitude<3Vpp. The i/p is ac coupled to the IC at pin no.5. The freq. of oscillation is determined by R1, C1 & Vc. It is expressed as fo=2*(V-Vc)/(R1*C1*V). For proper operation it is must that 0.75v<Vc<V. It is also required to set 2k<R1<20k. The voltage divider formed by R2 and R3 sets the required Vc. C2 is used to prevent possible oscillations due to controlled current source inside the IC. C3 connected to pin no.5, eliminates noise. The voltage at control pin (pin no.5) will be the algebraic sum of i/p voltage and Vc. Since the i/p is a modulating signal, its amplitude changes. So, the sum of i/p and Vc also changes. In effect the control voltage to the IC changes. This , in turn, varies o/p freq. and FM wave is generated. With a fixed R1C1 and Vc, the fo can vary over a 10:1 range. The maximum fo with this IC is about 1 MHz. PROCEDURE:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Connect the ckt. as shown in fig.1. Apply the i/p from the function generator. See the o/p FM wave. Vary the i/p amplitude and see the effect. Also see the effect of varying C1 on the o/p. Note down the readings.


AIM:- To design frequency demodulator circuit using IC 565. APPARATUS:- IC 565, R1=_________, C1=______, C2=_________, C3=_________, bread board, dual power supply, function generator, probes, oscilloscope. THEORY:- IC 565 is a PLL(Phase Locked Loop). A PLL is the most sophisticated FM demodulator. The block diagram of a PLL is shown fig.1. It consists of a phase detector, a low pass filter and a VCO. The phase comparator or detector produces a DC voltage which is proportional to the difference between i/p freq. and the VCO o/p freq.. The low pass filter removes high freq. noise from the o/p of the phase detector. This DC voltage is used to control the freq. of oscillation of the VCO. Thus, the VCO freq. is adjusted to match the i/p freq.. The circuit connection for IC 565 as a frequency demodulator is shown in fig.2. The i/p to the IC is an FM wave with 10 mV to 3 Vpp. The i/p can be direct coupled at pin 2 and 3. The +V voltage (12 V) and V voltage (-12 V) applied at pin no. 10 and pin no. 1, respectively. A VCO is there in the feedback loop in the IC. The i/p to the VCO is the demodulated o/p from pin no.7 (internally connected). The o/p of the VCO is available at pin no. 4. This o/p from pin no.4 is connected as one i/p of the phase comparator. The other i/p to the phase comparator is the FM signal at pin no..2 and 3. Pin no.8 is connected to an external resistor R1. While, pin no. 9 is connected to an external capacitor C1. Pin no.s 6,11,12,13 and 14 are not used in this application. The PLL operation goes through three stages: Free-running: This is the stage before i/p is applied. The centre freq. of the PLL is determined by the free-running freq. of the VCO and it is expressed as.. fo0.3/(R1*C1). C1 can be any value but 2k<R1<20k is a must. A capacitor C2 (external) is connected between pin no.7 and 10 to form a low pass filter with an internal 3.6k resistor. As we apply i/p the VCO starts to change and the PLL is said to be in capture stage. The VCO freq. continues to change until it equals the i/p freq., and the PLL is in locked stage. The PLL can lock and track over about 50-60% B.W. with reference to fo as the centre freq.. The lock and capture ranges are given as fL= 8*fo/V and fc = fL/(2**3.6*103*C2)

PROCEDURE:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Connect the ckt. on bread board as shown in fig.2. Apply the required i/p from the function generator. Observe the demodulated wave on the oscilloscope. Vary C1 and observe its effect on the demodulated wave. Note down the readings.


AIM:- To design an IF amplifier for an AM radio receiver using OP-AMP LM 318. APPARATUS:- LM 318, L=100 H, C=______, R1=820 , Rf=________, bread board, function generator , probes, CRO, dual power supply. THEORY:- In an AM radio receiver typically IF=455 kHz and B.W. is 10 kHz for one station. The parallel reso. Freq. of the tank ckt. is given as fp1/2* *L*C for Q(of coil)>10. And the B.W. is fp/Qp. Where Qp(Q of tank ckt.)=Rf||Rp/XL. Where Rp=Q2R and R is the internal resi. of the coil (approx. 20). The gain of the amplifier at reso. is A=|Rf||Rp/R1| R1 is forward resi. and Rf is feedback resi. associated with the OP-AMP. The gain is maximum at reso. and very less at the freq. outside the B.W. PROCEDURE:1) 2) 3) 4) Connect the ckt. as shown in fig.1. Check the freq. and amplitude of the o/p on CRO. Gradually increase the freq. of i/p to check the B.W. performance. See how rapidly the amplitude of the o/p decreases outside the specified B.W..