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ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS:

1. Give the amine and the coupling component that can be used as starting materials for the synthesis of the following dyes:

H3C N

N N

a.

H3C

butter yellow

HOOC H3C N N N

b.

H3C

methyl red

2. Give two possible conditions that could lead to the formation of side products. Write chemical equations for these side reactions.

One possible condition that could lead to the formation of side products is that the temperatures of the solutions were not maintained at the desired temperature which is 5C. For phenyldiazonium chloride, decomposition of the phenyldiazonium salt occurs and this diazonium salt is easily reversed back to aniline. For the -naphthol solution, on the other hand, back reactions occur if this condition was not maintained. The reactions of the two solutions are shown below:

Another possible condition is the maintenance of the acidity or basicity of the solutions. The phenyldiazonium chloride must be acidic so that the OH- would not readily attack the N+ ions which would form a pink side product. The -naphthol solution must be basic so that it would not be protonated.

3. What are the two properties of a good dye? Define each. Fastness and levelness are two good properties of a good dye. Fastness is the property wherein the dye bonds strongly to the cloth fibers and still being in the cloth fibers after washing it for several times. Levelness on the other hand, is the dyes property of uniformity of color with the fiber wherein the fibers are colored evenly.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS:

1. Give the amine and the coupling component that can be used as starting materials for the synthesis of the following dyes:

H3C N

N N

a.

H3C

butter yellow

HOOC H3C N N N

b.

H3C

methyl red

2. Give two possible conditions that could lead to the formation of side products. Write chemical equations for these side reactions.

One possible condition that could lead to the formation of side products is that the temperatures of the solutions were not maintained at the desired temperature which is 5C. For phenyldiazonium chloride, decomposition of the phenyldiazonium salt occurs and this diazonium salt is easily reversed back to aniline. For the -naphthol solution, on the other hand, back reactions occur if this condition was not maintained. Another possible condition is the maintenance of the acidity or basicity of the solutions. The phenyldiazonium chloride must be acidic so that the OH- would not readily attack the N+ ions which would form a pink side product. The -naphthol solution must be basic so that it would not be protonated.

3. What are the two properties of a good dye? Define each. Fastness and levelness are two good properties of a good dye. Fastness is the property wherein the dye bonds strongly to the cloth fibers and still being in the cloth fibers after washing it for several times. Levelness on the other hand, is the dyes property of uniformity of color with the fiber wherein the fibers are colored evenly.