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A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays internal faults in the motor windings.

One type use an electromagnet to operate a switching of electric motor overload protection relay is operated mechanism mechanically. Relays are used where it is by a heating element in series with the electric motor. necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal or The heat generated by the motor current heats where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. a bimetallic strip or melts solder, releasing a spring to A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire operate contacts. A flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable wrapped around a soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a states and can be used to store state information. The movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts The armature is hinged to the yoke and circuit can be made to change state by signals applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or two mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving outputs. It is the basic storage element in sequential contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when logic. Flip-flops and latches are a fundamental building block of digital electronics systems used in computers, the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of communications, and many other types of systems. contacts in the relay is closed, and the other set is open Flip-flops and latches are used as data storage When an electric current is passed through the coil it elements. Such data storage can be used for storage generates a magnetic field that activates the armature, of state, and such a circuit is described as sequential and the consequent movement of the movable logic Sequential logic is a type of logic circuit whose contact(s) either makes or breaks (depending upon output depends not only on the present input but also construction) a connection with a fixed contact. on the history of the input. Flip-flops can be either When the current to the coil is switched off, the simple (transparent or asynchronous) or clocked armature is returned by a force, approximately half as (synchronous) Simple flip-flops can be built around a strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position pair of cross-coupled inverting elements: vacuum A latching relay has two relaxed states (bistable). tubes, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, When the current is switched off, the relay remains in inverters, and inverting logic gates have all been its last state. This is achieved with a solenoid used in practical circuits. Flip-flops can be divided into operating a ratchet and cam mechanism,where the common types: the SR ("set-reset"), D ("data" or first pulse to the coil turns the relay on and the second "delay"), T ("toggle"), and JK types are the common pulse turns it off. ones. A reed relay is a reed switch enclosed in a solenoid. S and R stand for set and reset. It can be constructed The switch has a set of contacts inside from a pair of cross-coupled NOR logic gates. The an evacuated or inert gas-filled glass tube which stored bit is present on the output marked Q. protects the contacts against atmospheric corrosion; The D flip-flop captures the value of the D-input at a the contacts are made of magnetic material that makes definite instant during the clock cycle (such as the rising them move under the influence of the field of the edge of the clock). That captured value becomes the Q enclosing solenoid. Reed relays can switch faster than output. larger relays, require only little power from the control If the T input is high, the T flip-flop changes state circuit, but have low switching current and voltage ("toggles") whenever the clock input is strobed. If the T ratings. input is low, the flip-flop holds the previous value. A mercury-wetted reed relay is a form of reed relay in The JK flip-flop augments the behavior of the SR flipwhich the contacts are wetted withmercury. Such relays flop (J=Set, K=Reset) by interpreting the S = R = 1 are used to switch low-voltage signals (one volt or less) condition as a "flip" or toggle command. where the mercury reduces the contact resistance and associated voltage drop, A solid state relay (SSR) is a solid state electronic component that provides a similar function to an electromechanical relay but does not have any moving components, increasing long-term reliability Electric motors need overcurrent protection relays to prevent damage from over-loading the motor, or to protect against short circuits in connecting cables or