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60 Landmark Years

Tranquebar, now Tharangambadi, 250 kms of south of Chennai, is the rst Danish settlement, which dates back nearly 400 years. A more signicant contribution of the Danes was made by Mr Henning Holck-Larsen and Mr Soren K Toubro, co-founders of Larsen & Toubro Limited, through the establishment of Engineering Construction Corporation Limited (ECC) in 1944. ECC with its Headquarters in Chennai has grown from small beginnings to become Indias largest Engineering & Construction organization, playing a major role in all areas of industrial and infrastructure development, not only in India but also in neighbouring Indian Ocean rim countries. The development and contribution of L&T in the countries encompasses top quality buildings, sports facilities, roads, bridges, power projects, transmission lines & electrical projects, oil & gas pipeline projects, seaports, airports, metallurgical projects, cement plants, water supply, sanitation, etc., thus touching the lives of millions in India and the neighbourhood. The story of this company is the story of development of construction technology and indeed the development of India itself over these sixty landmark years. The success over the years has been built on the core values of technological strength, in-house engineering design capabilities, professionalism, honesty, integrity, quality, timely execution, costeffectiveness and reliability.

60 Landmark Years
2004

60 Landmark Years
A commemoration by

S Muthiah Sashi Nair Ranjitha Ashok

Copyright 2004 L&T ECC Division

No reproduction in any form of this book, in whole or in part (except for brief quotations in critical articles or reviews), may be made without written permission of the publishers.

Concept, cover and endpaper design:

Dr. DUS Valluri

Published by Corporate Communications Department Larsen & Toubro Limited, Engineering Construction & Contracts Division Mount-Poonamallee Road Manapakkam Chennai 600 089, India Graphics by PACE systems & graphic communications Printed by Srusti Ads & Communications, Hyd. Ph: 98850 91119, at Pragati
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Holck-Larsen Centre, ECC Head Quarters, Chennai

Jacket xxxxxxxx xxxxx Title Page xxxxxx xxx Front End Paper xxxxxxxx Back End Paper xxx

Contents

Foreword Preface Authors Note

vi vii viii

The courage to dream and dare


The beginnings From Private to Public Limited The adventure of growth Beyond engineering The legacy of the founders The post-Danish era The 1990s A peoples company

1
4 9 12 20 22 26 32 34

60 landmark years
Early years Beginning to grow Growing tall Merging with L&T The adult 20 years Human resources, its wealth The boom years ECC today World player The strengths of L&T-ECC

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42 44 60 64 64 68 70 72 94 100

60 landmark projects
Going to the Movies in a 4-in-1 For a Glimpse of the Lord The Tools of Power Meeting a Growing Water Need Breathing Life into Desolation

101
102 104 106 108 110
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Contents

Monolith of Trade Temple of Democracy A Flight of Fancy in Abu Dhabi A Mine of Wealth Helping National Development The Taj of the 20th Century Three Prize-Winners on One Campus Dream Hotels in a Land of Romance Diversifying to Cement Relationships An Integral Role in Nation Building Etched in Stone Indigenising the Nuclear Programme Powering Anparas Changing Skyline A Stride Boldly Forward No Bridge Too Far More Power for the Nation Building Divine Landmarks at Puttaparthi Battling the Elements Fuelling the Green Revolution A Form and a Place for the Spirit of Sport Asias Tallest Viaduct Combining Synergies of Fellow Divisions A Learning Challenge in Bokaro A Mount of Knowledge Welcome with a Flourish A Landmark amongst Landmarks Piecing an Engineering Jigsaw Modernity with Indian Roots A Bridge of Friendship

112 116 118 122 124 126 132 138 144 150 154 158 160 162 164 168 170 184 186 190 194 196 200 202 204 206 208 210 214

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Contents

Running the Gamut of Expertise The Worlds Largest Refinery Helping the Automobile Revolution Civil Support for a Greenfield Smelter Raising a City Tall Creating a Swift, Smooth Path Indias Longest Flyover Portals to the Future On Stream at Adani Port Largest Coal-handling Terminal 330 MW in 820 Days Beating the Record-holders Best Way to Travel Expressway to a Concrete Future The Long Arms of Power Projects that Bridge Nations A Temple of Healing The Worlds Longest Pipeline Chennais Millennium Gift An Uphill Task The Sea of Tranquillity Carrying Water to the Masses World-class Knowledge Hub Building a Dream in the East In the Wake of Disaster Making the Nation Proud

216 218 222 228 230 232 234 236 240 242 244 246 250 252 256 258 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280

Appendices
Chronology Index

283
284 289
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Foreword

s a tribute, I have always described ECC as The jewel in L&Ts crown. The jewel has now acquired the

sparkle of a diamond as it turns 60. Of all the activities of the conglomerate L&T, ECCs projects are the most visible to the public eye. Over these six decades, we have turned plots of land into landmarks. We have quenched thirst in arid districts of our country, linked places and people through bridges and highways. In every road that we built we have set new milestones. As we celebrate the 60 years we have crossed, we celebrate yet another milestone. With this book, 60 Landmark Years, we remember and thank our valued customers, friends and wellwishers, and our large fraternity of L&T-ites.

Best wishes,

A M Naik Chairman & Managing Director, L&T

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Preface

ixty years Shashtiabdapoorthi is indeed a remarkable milestone in the life of any person. In South India, this is a birthday of very special significance. ECC, the construction arm of L&T, was incorporated in 1944. This was the year of the Thaarana according to the Hindu Panchangam (calendar). The Hindu almanac is characterised by a 60-year cycle with each year specified by different names. Thus, in 2004, we are back again in Thaarana year and all set to celebrate this memorable milestone which in modern terms is called a Diamond Jubilee. Considering that I have been associated with the company for the last 42 years, ECCs 60-year celebration gives me a feeling of great fulfilment. Keeping in line with the rich cultural heritage of South India, more so Chennai (Madras), where ECC is headquartered, this is truly an event for us in the company to remember and celebrate, while rededicating ourselves to take this organisation in the next 60 years to greater heights of excellence in construction and engineering. It is in this context that we wish to commemorate this Shashtiabdapoorthi with a rare ensemble. This commemorative volume, 60 Landmark Years, focusses on sixty select projects that are representative of the thousands ECC has executed in these six decades in India and overseas. These sixty projects are of great significance and relevance to us as well as our esteemed customers. They have been our stepping stones to excellence and achievement. They have given us technological breakthroughs, even as they challenged us on the time and quality of execution. The L&T-ECC

team, in its inimitable style, conquered several hurdles and, ultimately, delivered each of these projects on time and to the utmost delight of our customers. This is not intended to be a book on the history of ECC. It, however, traces the genesis of ECC, its periods of struggle, stabilisation, breakthroughs and turnarounds. It highlights the way ECC soared to earn a place of pre-eminence as Indias largest construction organisation. The pages that follow are a reflection of the spirit of ECC-ites, their dedication, hard work, innovation, commitment and teamwork. They mirror the intrinsic technological capability of our engineers and tell the stories of fulfilment, achievement and success of Larsen & Toubro and the company, then the division it nurtured, ECC. It is incredible that the wholly owned subsidiary, after 20 years of merger with its parent forms the core of Larsen & Toubros business turnover making L&T truly the Engineering Construction Corporation, and the interchangeability of acronyms L&T and ECC looks appropriate. Many of us, while reading the book, will re-live several moments of project execution. To others, it will be a manifestation of what India has achieved through the innumerable projects executed by Larsen & Toubro Limited through its construction arm, ECC. It will clearly demonstrate why we are acknowledged as Builders To The Nation, bidding fair to become Builders of Nations.

A Ramakrishna
President (Operations) & Deputy Managing Director, L&T

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About the Book

his book, 60 Landmark Years, sets out to be a commemorative volume, not a corporate history, or an institutional biography. The latter demands a place for critical evaluation and judgemental assessments of not only the organisations but also the men and women who contributed to them. A commemorative volume, like this one, records the highlights in the institutions growth and its dreams for the future. In 60 Landmark Years, my fellow contributors, Sashi Nair and Ranjitha Ashok, and I have endeavoured to do just that and have put together a volume which we hope you will find truly commemorative of ECCs splendid record and significant contribution to the nation over the last sixty years.

friends, Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro, who came out to India as Engineers in the 1930s and saw in an alien environment a country with a future and a future for themselves. India may have been the richest jewel in the British imperial diadem, but the two young men from Denmark saw neither British rule nor Indian dreams of an India that would be free before long as impediments to what they saw as a country with virtually no industrial wealth and which was exactly what it would need one day. The company they founded, Larsen & Toubro (L&T), is today an industrial giant, and the top engineering and construction company of India and developing into a world major in their field of specialisation. That international reputation was made possible by the spectacular growth of the small construction company the two friends and two other Danes founded as much to help a Danish civil engineer without a job as to be on the ground with an organisation that could build the factories India would need when the country was ready to industrialise. The story of L&T is followed in these pages by a rather more detailed record of the company it took over from the four partners, Engineering Construction Corporation Limited, better known from Saudi Arabia to Sarawak as ECC. And ECCs story is narrated with a recall of the past, when small construction contracts were its first assignments, a recording of the years of growth, when from building contracts the company began to offer total engineering solutions with the

60 Landmark Years is in many ways a coffee table book, if by coffee table book you mean a book that focusses more on the pictorial element than the text. Here, the hundreds of pictures undoubtedly dominate the book. Many of them are splendid photographs, much more than mere pictures for the record. To the several anonymous photographers who shot such striking pictures of excellence, this book, particularly its major section, the part that focusses on the landmarks ECC has created over the years, owes much. The pictures are as much an indelible record of the structures ECC raised as the constructions themselves that people stop to take a second look at. In the pages that precede 60 Landmark projects, we have briefly recorded the stories of the two school

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support of L&Ts facilities and started exploring overseas sites, and looks at the present when, as an integral division of L&T, it considers no project in India or abroad too big to undertake on contract or, on what it is increasingly focussing, as a partner. In looking at the two stories, the pages that follow look at the work ethic and team culture Holck-Larsen and Toubro and their Danish colleagues fostered, creating a truly peoples company that is today managed entirely by Indian professionals, most of whom have grown in the work and management culture the two Danes with a dream had nurtured. The pages on ECC also look at the contributions of three men who led the company during almost all the sixty years, each laying the foundation for the next step to be taken by his successor. P.H. Mortensen established a hands-on work ethic that targeted completing every job ahead of schedule but at the same time meeting the highest standards of quality and safety. C.R. Ramakrishnan established management systems, paid great attention to the development of human resources, made ECC an allIndia name, and began to get it recognised overseas. And A. Ramakrishna has made ECCs presence felt in much of Asia and saw the companys future in playing a participatory role in national development by becoming a partner in infrastructure projects. From the famed bridge for that all time cinematic masterpiece, Bridge on the River Kwai, to the first cine-multiplexes, from early multistorey construction

to wharves and bridges, ECC took its first steps under Mortensen. Internationally recognised landmarks like the Bahai Temple in Delhi, a specialisation in cement factories and oil refineries, giant bridges in Sarawak, Abu Dhabis magnificent airport, hotels in Samarkand and Bukhara in the then Soviet Union are all symbols of the years C.R. Ramakrishnan headed the company. And in the A.Ramakrishna years, in addition to industrial projects, there have been the huge investments and participation in such major infrastructure projects as the South City housing complex in Bangalore, cybercities and exhibition centres in Hyderabad, roads, seaport and bridge projects all over the country, and, now, the biggest of them all, the Bangalore International Airport. The work the three inspired and which their teams created in rain and sun, snow and slush, jungle and desert are the highlights of this commemoration. Sixty of the best projects by ECC during these sixty glorious years comprise the better part of this volume. Almost all the projects featured are stand-alone constructions or complexes, but, in a few cases, a few projects for a particular industry or a particular client have been grouped together as one project. And so there are presented in these pages more than sixty ECC landmarks treated as sixty outstanding projects completed during sixty memorable years. Truly have they been 60 Landmark Years. Chennai August 2004 S. Muthiah

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Photograph Caption required

the courage to dream and dare

he scent of spices first brought the Danes to India in the 17th Century. It was in Tranquebar (now Tarangambadi) on the Coromandel Coast, 300km south of Chennai, that Denmarks association with India began. On the battlements of the Danish fort here, Dansborg, is inscribed the year 1620, the year Denmark received the grant of Tranquebar from the rulers of Tanjore 20 years before Madras that is Chennai was founded by the British. On the imposing gateway to the town there can still be seen the arms of King Frederik VII (1791) of Denmark. The Danes, however, had a poor stomach for colonial rule. And so, in time, they simply gave up and left selling Tranquebar and their other settlement, Serampore (now Srirampur) in Bengal, to the British in 1845 for Rs 1,250,000. Tranquebar today is virtually a ghost town, whose King and Queen Streets remain much as they were in the 18th Century. Serampore, however, is a quiet college town whose famed theological college still awards degrees under a charter granted to it by the Royal House of Denmark. It was to be nearly a century after the British acquired Denmarks Indian settlements that there was to be established another Danish presence in India. This was a much less official one and a far more successful one. Two young Danes, who had known each other at school and attended the same engineering college, came to India in the 1930s. Soren Kristian Toubro (SKT), a civil engineer, arrived in 1934 to help erect and commission machinery supplied by F L Smidth & Co A/S, Copenhagen, to a couple of new cement factories the Madukkarai Cement Works near Coimbatore and the Rohri Cement Factory in Sukkur, next to the Sukkur Barrage in Hyderabad, Sind. Henning Holck-Larsen (HHL), a chemical engineer, was sent by F L Smidth & Co. the next year to assess the potential of the various cement manufacturing companies in India. His recommendations became the blueprint for Associated Cement Companies (ACC).

Henning Holck-Larsen, and, on facing page, Soren Kristian Toubro.

When Holck-Larsen was asked to stay on in India and open an F L Smidth office, he and Toubro began to pool their knowledge about what they had learnt during their travels in the country. They had learnt that the builder, the artisan or labourer, although valued greatly by Indians, was not admired in the same way as a clever man or a saint, for example. The worker was employed merely as a means to achieving the ends power and wealth. But they also learnt that the ends were unfailingly achieved because the artisan had rare skills and required only guidance in making best use of them.

hard work in a determined pursuit of goals cemented their relationship. A mutual respect for each other made the bonding stronger. What prompted these two Danes to give up the security of comfortable jobs and start business in the uncertain atmosphere of a country that was still striving for its freedom, a country where industry was almost non-existent and where what little existed was, by and large, in the hands of the British rulers, a country whose industrial prospects appeared far from promising for Indians and the non-British? In fact, Danish business at that time knew China better than India. Although the East Asiatic Company had some presence in India, it was in China that it was better entrenched. Smidths itself had considered setting up a cement plant in Madagascar. And the Indian freedom movement, gaining momentum in the 1930s, promised greater conflict than progress. It is recorded that Toubro was inspired by Mahatma Gandhis statement, which he had read in the Bombay Chronicle almost as soon as he landed in India and which assuaged any doubts he might have had about the new India. (I am) not leading a movement to rid India of its white colonial masters in order to substitute them with brown ones, the Mahatma had stated. Both Holck-Larsen and Toubro felt strongly that India offered immense possibilities for those with technical ingenuity and who offered modern manufacturing techniques in a manner that emphasised partnership, not domination. There was a shortage of new technological skills, of modern organisational methods and of innovative technical training. Most manufactured goods were imported from safety pins to knives, forks and spoons, from sewing thread to even cotton and silk. There was a need to change this scene. And it was to help in this process that L&T was started by two men who did not worry too much about their very limited financial resources. L&T neither had the money that the Tatas or the Birlas had nor was it a multinational that many

By 1938, Holck-Larsen, then 31, and Toubro, 32, the more cautious one, sensed opportunity in India for young men who would dare and they decided to leave Smidths and establish their own business. The idea of a Larsen & Toubro (L&T) partnership was conceived in Matheran, a sleepy little hill-station near Bombay, during an Easter vacation in 1937. When his boss at Smidth asked him why he wanted to leave, Holck-Larsen is said to have replied, I wish to have greater freedom and be independent. You will find it is an illusion, he was told. Undaunted, HHL and SKT stuck to their decision. Their willingness to make sacrifices, forego comfort and commit themselves to

perceived it to be. Quite unlike the large business houses of the India of the time, L&T was almost invisible. It was set up to supply, erect, install and manufacture the machines that produced the commodities people bought. Thus, unlike most of the companies that produced consumables and consumer durables, L&T was little known to the man-in-the-street. But what L&T did, it did well from the first, focussing on producing quality products, backed by efficient service. In fact, it gave itself the motto, In service lies success and the companys culture demands to this day that the customer is provided impeccable service. Holck-Larsen and Toubro appreciated that customer confidence did not develop by accident; it had to be built up systematically and through conscious effort. Training was essential, L&T felt from the first, to motivate every new employee and make the person customer-oriented. The company even stressed the need for training customers personnel. And it still does. Once every quarter, personnel from some of Indias leading industrial concerns undergo theoretical and handson training at L&Ts Powai Works on controls and automation systems used by almost all of industry. The training, aimed at providing hands-on familiarity to users of L&T products and technology, ensures better customer service and equipment maintenance. Interaction with customers personnel during the training also proves invaluable. L&Ts philosophy from the first was also to choose carefully the right man for the right job, train him well in the culture and values of the company whose foundations had been laid by Holck-Larsen and Toubro and give him his head to perform, his freedom to meet targets and produce results in the way he thought most efficient. The detached attitude of management has enabled every member of the L&T team to develop in his own way and achieve the goals his assignments commit him to.

The beginnings
Holck-Larsen and Toubros confidence in each other was so great that, initially, the business they founded was based only on oral understanding; no written document was filed till the end of 1940. In May 1938, a month after HHL married Karen Speyer of Denmark, L&T rented from the Western India Match Company (WIMCO) a small room on Nicol Road in Ballard Estate, Bombay. This was L&Ts first office.

Henning and Karen Holck-Larsen on their wedding day.

It was a time when there were still Victorias and gas-lit lamps on the streets of Bombay. Space was so limited that only one of them could occupy the office at a time. There was only one writing table and a telephone. The staff comprised just a typist and a peon. Danish manufacturers and the Federation of Danish Industries paid the firm a modest retainer to help sell their products, which included refrigerating machinery, butter churns, cream separators and pasteurisers. HHL and SKT educated customers in the use of the products, promised instant service and personally looked after the machines long after their sale. It was a customer-friendly attitude to which the nascent Indian market responded quickly, not only by way of repeat orders but with appreciation as well. Indeed, the Danes brought a different and welcome approach to marketing that laid the solid foundations for L&T to grow as it did.

The partners made a profit of about Rs 1,000 by the end of 1939. Even so, they sensed unease, for in India too the rigours of war had begun to be felt. Realising that imports were likely to be in short supply before long, they decided to set up a small workshop on Calicut Street in Bombay to undertake different kinds of engineering assignments and provide service facilities. In April 1940, after Denmark fell before Hitlers blitzkrieg, supplies of Danish products ceased, as did the meagre retainer from that country which had sustained the company through its early years. L&T was now forced to stand on its own feet. To augment the limited quantity of imported pasteurisers, butter churns, cream separators and other machinery that they had in stock, the partners dismantled them, had wooden moulds of the components made and gave them to metal-casters in Kumbharwada, Bombay, to produce L&Ts requirements. After carefully monitored machining, grinding and polishing, the castings were meticulously inspected and then assembled. L&T was in the manufacturing business. Soon, the partners began expanding their range, making other types of dairy equipment. Before long, equipment for ice factories and refrigeration plants using Danish compressor models were added to the manufacturing line, and L&T began to gain a reputation as a reliable fabricator of high quality engineering goods. The

Soren and Grete Toubro.

one-room office, Holck-Larsen and Toubro soon found, was not enough and before long they rented a whole floor, followed by a second, in the JK Building, opposite what was to later become L&T House. Both offices were reflections of the fact that L&T was on its way. But the way was not an easy one, particularly as in those early years L&T faced a shortage of everything except the determination to succeed in a principled manner. There were hardly any industrial training institutes at the time and the firm recruited hands who worked with ingenuity and craftsmanship and trained them to the required standards. The Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute in Bombay became their main source of supply of technicians, for many of whom an exciting life of challenge and assured uncertainty awaited them at L&T. Inventive as they were and committed to strong engineering beliefs, Holck-Larsen and Toubro had another asset, a willingness to take calculated risks. They were convinced that success in business would come only from winning customer confidence through proven performance. However, they had no special qualifications or knowledge to meet the demands of the time, but that was not to stop them. World War II offered them new opportunities. The Royal Navy suggested they could help with ship repair. Since ships had little time to come into port, the partners decided to offer an at-sea service. They bought a captured Italian vessel, Hilda, towed it all the way from the Persian Gulf and anchored it outside Bombay Harbour. Forming m.v. Hilda Pvt. Ltd., they turned the Hilda into a workshop and, using it as their base for operations, HHL, SKT and others would clamber on to the vessels lined up on either side and work as fast as they could. When this work slowed down, the company was wound up c. 1943.

The Navy, however, happy with their work, suggested in 1943 that they could help in another way by degaussing ships, the slow pace of which was holding up shipping. Scores of ships were anchored in Bombay Harbour, waiting to be fitted with degaussers, to protect them against mines at sea. Sent to meet the marine superintendent of the Caltex Texmaco Company, which had contracted for the work, they were offered the opportunity to undertake an assignment no one else seemed to want. The two Danes were hesitant, for they had no previous experience in the field. But the shrewd superintendent made his offer a challenge. And Holck-Larsen and Toubro relished nothing more than a challenge. Rising to it, using the plans and drawings of the electrical circuitry that were provided, and the configuration of the cable that had to go round the hull of a ship, they achieved their first major commercial breakthrough. It was while this work was in full swing that disaster almost overtook L&T. On April 14, 1944, a ship berthed in Bombay Harbour with a cargo of raw cotton carelessly loaded on top of explosives blew up and

Corporate Headquarters: L&T House then (left) and now (right).

devastated the entire area around. Toubro, who was degaussing a ship nearby, was lucky to escape with his life. But L&T lost a lot of equipment. However, the demands of war enabled them to quickly restock. With their reputation for meeting the needs of the War growing, the two engineers found themselves being offered numerous other fabrication opportunities. Machine-gun nests, the protection of ships bridges and gun stiffening were increasingly sought. Soon, L&T put up sheds at Mallet Bunder in Bombay for vital stores of spare parts and materials, a carpentry shop and overhauling facilities. Another workshop with fabricating facilities was set up in Falkland Road. The firm had begun to expand. It also began looking at other engineering projects with an eye to the future. Tatas had been planning to set up a soda ash plant in Mithapur with German engineering assistance but, when war broke out, the Germans working on the plant were interned. Sir Homi Mody urged the Tata Board to give the Danes the contract and the Board gave its nod. Although Europeans in those days travelled only First Class on the Indian Railways, the Danes travelled to Mithapur by III Class

to conserve their resources. But they were equally intent on creating a good impression. So, at dead of night, they got down at a dusty, windswept railway station and got their tickets upgraded for the final lap of the journey. Early the following morning, they stepped out at Mithapur, fresh and first-class, to be welcomed by not the project manager but his assistants. Unfazed, the Danes got to work and erected the equipment for the plant five months ahead of schedule. It was the beginning of a happy relationship with the House of Tata that continues to this day. Also a continuing feature of L&Ts image is this capability of executing orders ahead of schedule. This experience pointed a new way to the partners. They saw that India unbound would grow fast and that commerce and industry would need an enormous amount of construction. It was at this point that there turned up in Bombay another Dane, Gerhard Berg, a civil engineer. He had been working in Iran, where the British had interned him after Germany occupied Denmark. Escaping from the internment camp, Berg had walked all the way to Bombay where HHL and SKT, acting on the business maxim If you have the right man for a business, its a business you should enter into, decided to form a construction company. Holck-Larsen, Toubro and two other Danes, friends of theirs from university and then working with Smidths S Rudinger and E B Mogensen each put in Rs 10,000 (according to John Hover, an early L&T Manager) and Engineering Construction Corporation (ECC) Limited was founded as a private limited company in Bombay in 1944. Put in charge of ECCs operations was Hover another Dane who had joined L&T in 1950. ECC brought about a new direction to L&Ts vision of the future. The years of effort since L&Ts inception had seen the firm making an impact by meeting the challenges of a wide variety of ad hoc assignments. The establishment of ECC, with an eye to the future in India, indicated that Holck-Larsen and Toubro had

L&Ts first shed at Mallet Bunder, Bombay. Top right, John Hover, one of L&Ts early managers, explaining a model of the Powai East expansion to a Minister of the Maharashtra Government.

help he could garner in expanding the firms activities. There were no civilian air services from India and the sea lanes were still far from safe. But the firms contribution to the War Effort enabled HHL to get a seat in a Royal Air Force seaplane. It took him five days to reach London. In London, Holck-Larsen found that, apart from the fact that L&T was not well-known, the economic climate in India, the level of civil strife, the extent of state control and what Indias policy after independence would be, were all imponderables that worried would-be partners. But a few business houses responded favourably to his confident and convincing manner of speaking and began to think that, if they wanted to have a presence in Independent India, they could do no better than team with Holck-Larsen, who had travelled widely throughout the subcontinent and knew it well. He returned to India with agencies for vanaspati (vegetable ghee) plant and machinery from Bamag Limited, for biscuit-making machinery from Vicars T&T, for soap-making machinery from Henry Simon and for glass-making machinery from T Teisen.

begun to think seriously of a strategy for their company. The new firm started its operations in the Bombay area, but soon began discovering the hazards of the construction business. Its engineers were, therefore, encouraged to acquire new skills, as a whole new world of expertise began to unfold. Diversification during this period included the two Danes forming two more private limited companies, Iwacom and Artbangle, to manufacture umbrellas, and plastic bangles and spectacle frames, respectively. Ibrahim Currim and Mansukhani, the umbrella kings, placed large orders for the former, but the first few black umbrellas sold during the monsoon landed the manufacturers in trouble. Black dye from the brollies dripped on white dhotis, staining them. The umbrella project was hastily abandoned and only the handles were produced thereafter. This experience, as much as anything else, made the two Danes feel the need to update technology and for this there was no opportunity in India. Foreign collaborations were necessary. Holck-Larsen decided to visit Europe, where the War was winding down and industrial units would be looking at where they should be in the post-War scene, to find out for himself what

From Private to Public Limited


Back in India, at a seminar in New Delhi, HolckLarsen met V C Capfer, a representative of the Caterpillar Tractor Company of Peoria, Illinois, the largest manufacturer of earthmoving equipment. While HHLs paper was on mechanised dairying, Capfers was on mechanised farming, and the two not only impressed each other but also hit it off. Caterpillar needed a representative for Western India (its previous dealer was a political prisoner) and the Delhi meeting got L&T the dealership agreement in 1945. The firm was now all set to begin a new chapter in its life. The new partnership kicked off a long-range process of transformation in the organisational

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structure as well as in the quality and technique of staying close to the customer. The success of this process found L&T being assigned the dealership for the South as well. Large quantities of Caterpillar equipment, much of it only slightly used, and some still in packing cases, had suddenly become War surplus. These machines could be purchased at attractive prices. However, L&T just did not have the kind of money to spare. Banks were reluctant to advance huge sums. Raising additional equity capital seemed the only way possible. And, so, HHL and SKT started looking around for friends who knew them well enough to back them and for other potential investors. Possible investors like the Tatas and Ambalal Khilachand wanted control of the company, which Holck-Larsen and Toubro were reluctant to offer. A senior stockbroker, D H Vohra, who knew the Danes, introduced them to Mangaldas V Desai, a highly successful barrister whom he felt might be able to advise them. HHL met Desai and his 21-year-old son Narottam Mangaldas Desai, a budding lawyer, in November 1945 and gave them the L&T balance sheet. Why, asked Desai, didnt the partners seek support from the big business houses? They had, but big business wanted control; he and his partner, however, wanted to mould and develop the organisation in the manner they wished. But once it grew and grow it would, they were sure, in a country with a great future in engineering and once it acquired a culture of its own, they would have no objections to diluting their shares. Narottam Desai remembers his father, with his long experience of people and instinct about them, telling him, I think this is a good man, a man we can trust. Narottam Desai recalls that HHL had this uncanny ability to inspire trust and confidence and he was in the years to come to transmit it to others in L&T. Although L&Ts balance sheet was not convincing enough to justify the Rs 7 Lakh investment he agreed

to make on behalf of himself and his friends, Mangaldas Desais decision to invest in L&T was based on intuition and faith. L&T became L&T Private Limited on February 7, 1946, taking over the partnership business founded in 1938. HHL and SKT were the major shareholders and alternated yearly as the Chairman of the new company. Mangaldas Desai and Vissonji Ruttonsey were the other directors. L&T (Management) Pvt. Ltd. was also formed in 1946 to manage the business of L&T as its managing agents. Apart from HHL and SKT, it had two other directors, Ivor Chouls and Narottam Desai, who was to be the Working Director.

Mangaldas V Desai.

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L&T (Management) Pvt. Ltd. marked an important landmark in L&Ts growth and development as a professionally managed company. The managing agency system developed by the British was more commercially oriented than industrially focussed. Holck-Larsen and Toubro, however, saw a managing agency differently. They felt it should be directed towards better professional methods and techniques. They began to develop, by careful selection and training, the professional management expertise that the company would need in the future. Their intention to bring professionalism into management was perhaps a first in India. The two new companies began to do business differently in other ways too. In the past, in times of liquidity crisis, the two Danes would turn to the Multani moneylenders. Now, with Mangaldas Desais reputation, investment and professional connections, L&T achieved a greater commercial and social visibility and could turn to the banks. The money needed for the purchase of the Caterpillar equipment lying with the U S military authorities in India was made available by the Chartered Bank. Once the Caterpillar stock was taken over, it became necessary to expand and develop existing expertise. The shed leased at Mallet Bunder during the War was converted into a service and repair centre for Caterpillar equipment. The new agencies also made it necessary for the company to expand geographically. And this meant further acquisition of property and increased manufacture and service facilities. The company decided to locate all its branch offices close to the sources of potential business. An office in Calcutta became essential for the acquisition and dispatch of war surplus tractors and other equipment, all of which were in eastern India. The Madras branch grew into a major centre thanks to the enormous business generated for Caterpillar

equipment by the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. Both ECC, making its first foray into the South, and the Earthmoving Department were closely involved in this activity. It was a time when India banked on agriculture to survive the deficit in food was so great. Recognising that entrepreneurial talent had to be tempered to the dictates of government policy and that there was a need to closely monitor, interpret and understand the direction in which the prevailing winds, official and political, were blowing, L&T also opened an office in New Delhi. Caterpillars earthmoving and agricultural activities needed vigorous support services, and L&T trained engineers and field staff to provide just that. The company was growing rapidly and its existing facilities were bursting at the seams. Neither the workshop at Calicut Street nor the one at Mallet Bunder was big enough to host L&Ts plans or the Danes vision. It was this vision that inspired them to acquire 55 acres of undeveloped marsh, swamp and jungle land in Powai, near Bombay, in late 1948. There was no road access to the area, but, undeterred, work on developing the area began with a contribution of Rs 50,000 from the partners. Marshes were drained, forests were felled, ground was levelled and roads were built, creating a new landscape. Drinking water was collected from a nearby municipal tank and stored in buckets covered with muslin cloth. A municipal line for drinking water was obtained only in 1951. The nearest bus station was at Saki Naka, three kilometres from the L&T site. The Caterpillar service station was shifted from Mallet Bunder to Powai in 1950. Years later, HHL would describe the acquisition of the land at Powai as a turning point in the companys history.

Caterpillar Service Station, Powai, Bombay.

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To meet the needs of growth, L&T, in December 1950, became a public limited company with a paidup share capital of Rs 2 million. The sales turnover at the time was about Rs 11 million. That making a profit was not something to be ashamed of, but even necessary, was underscored by the rather retiring Toubro in a rare speech he made to the Rourkela Club: Before you begin to hate the idea of making money, show me that you can make a lot of it. Then if you still feel the same way about it, give it away to those who would rather not make it themselves. I think they will always find ways of taking it away from you in any case, through legal processes if they can, by other means if they cannot. But do not scorn the money you have never made. Between the choices of restricting the size of the business and opting for unrestricted growth by going public, L&T preferred the latter route. Professional and competent management was considered far more important than shareholding or voting power. In later years, HHL would comment on L&T going public: L&T never made money. We made profits as there was considerable scope provided by Indias five-year development plans for L&Ts products and services. The companys growth was due to its participation in this larger adventure. Later, of course, 40 per cent of the shares would be owned by Government through its financial institutions.

of piping and insulation machinery. The Amul plant was ready on October 2, 1955, and dedicated to the nation by Jawaharlal Nehru. During the inauguration, Toubro, to whom work came first, was nowhere to be seen; he was busy testing some of the equipment (he was introduced to the Prime Minister later at the reception that followed). That was the sort of professionalism L&T was becoming known for. Another early manufacturing line was that of bottle closures, started in the 1950s. While cork-lined crowns were manufactured in the 1950s, PVC-lined crowns were introduced in the late 1960s when there was shortage of cork. The introduction of the lug cap in the 1990s was an improvement over the screw caps used in the packaging of jams and pickles. L&T was the largest supplier of seals for soft drinks bottles, breweries, distilleries, processed foods and pharmaceuticals, in India as well as in South Asia, West Asia, Africa and the Far East. It also manufactured and

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi and Morarji Desai, with V Kurian (right), at the inauguration of the Amul plant.

The adventure of growth


L&Ts flagship by the early 1950s was its dairy division, which represented at the time some of the leading manufacturers of dairy equipment in Denmark, U K and Switzerland. One of the divisions first major contracts was for the dairy for the Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers Union in Anand, Gujarat. The contract was for the supply and erection

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Bottle closures were one of L&Ts early manufacturing lines.

marketed a wide range of glass bottles, metal closures and metal containers in several factories. A sophisticated glass plant near Nashik, established in technical collaboration with Vetropack of Switzerland, manufactured glass containers suitable for soft drinks, liquor, food and cosmetics. Caps and bottles is a business L&T is no longer in. It was also in the 1950s that Laur-Knudsen, the representative of a Danish company, came to India to size up the switchgear market. In L&T he found a firm not only interested in his products but willing to work with his firm on setting up a manufacturing facility in the country. L&T sent its engineers to Denmark for training, initially in low-tension switchgear manufacture. In time, there began the manufacture of FB fuse switches, ML contactors and air circuitbreakers. The company was the first to go into rural areas to systematically cultivate the market. Soon, the bulk of L&T switchgear sales was for agricultural purposes. Today, L&T is Indias largest manufacturer of low-tension switchgear. While manufacturing facilities for standard switchgear products are located in Mumbai and Ahmednagar, custom-built switchgear is manufactured at the companys works in Mumbai and Faridabad. L&T switchgear has received international recognition and has won the prestigious Good Industrial Design Award at the Hanover Fair, West Germany. As its businesses grew, L&T felt the need for more office space. In February 1956, a major part of L&Ts

Bombay office moved to ICI House at Ballard Estate. Behind the imposing greystone facade were an impressive foyer and an elegant, sweeping staircase that led to the companys executive offices on the first floor. The company was to purchase the building ten years later, rename it L&T House and make it its corporate headquarters. To talk in terms of a corporate headquarters became possible as L&T had begun to expand into other fields of engineering.

Gunnar Hansen, erstwhile Executive Director, seen here laying the foundation stone for the Switchgear Factory in 1975.

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In 1957, L&T received its first large engineering and construction order from the Rourkela Steel Plant, for the erection of its first three blast furnaces and a pig iron casting machine. An order for the erection of the rolling-mill building followed. By the time the project had been completed, in 1959, L&T had emerged as the largest erection contractor in India, demonstrating its ability to handle a skilled workforce of 3,000. Powai too grew. A new building was erected there every year, from 1957 onwards, each to be completed in time for inauguration on Dussera day. The entry into other engineering businesses did not slow down the activities of the dairy division, a division that is still the leader in the country. When, from 1958, Government began restricting the issue of import licences, underscoring the need for

indigenous manufacture, the manufacture of food processing equipment locally was started at the Powai Works, with the manufacture of simple tanks, trolleys, dump tanks and storage tanks necessary for milk processing. Gradually, pasteurisers, stainless steel butter churns, large capacity silo tanks, bottling plants, road milk tankers, spray drying plants and evaporating plants were added to the manufacturing range. After the launch of Operation Flood by the National Dairy Development Board, when the latter dispensed with the concept of turnkey projects and began buying equipment in bulk, L&T received substantial orders for its range.

Clockwise from above: L&Ts single-compartment 13,000-litre-capacity trailer chassis trucks for the National Dairy Development Board, Anand, Gujarat; milk silos in various stages of completion inside L&Ts workshop; the milk chilling section of the Worli Dairy installed by L&T; and a view of a stainless steel butter churn manufactured by L&T.

Blast furnace erection at the Rourkela Steel Plant.

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In October 1960, even as L&T was displaying the rate of growth that Holck-Larsen had predicted when they first met, Mangaldas Desai passed away. He had been a director since 1946. His son Narottam now represented the Desai interests. Meanwhile, Utkal Machinery Limited (UTMAL), L&Ts first associate company, had been established in Kansbahal, Orissa, in 1960, with three German partners to manufacture plant and machinery for the pulp & paper and iron & steel industries. In the wilderness there, L&T developed a model township, complete with all facilities for its employees and their families. Besides the design, R&D, manufacturing and other facilities, a foundry and a rail siding were built, the only L&T works to be so equipped. L&Ts engineering diversification continued with the manufacture of petroleum dispensing pumps, one of its first joint ventures. It began in 1960-61 in collaboration with Gilbarco Inc, USA. About 15-20 pumps a day were assembled in the initial stages. Between 1968 and 1978, L&Ts contribution to the local and African and European markets grew apace. Today, with Indias petrol stations being fast upgraded and growing in number, L&T pumps of the most sophisticated designs are being produced in larger numbers than ever, at the Powai Works. In 1961, Audco (an abbreviation for Audley Engineering Company) India Limited was incorporated (in collaboration with Serck Audco, U K, pioneers in pressure-lubricated plug valves) to manufacture valves for refineries and petrochemical, fertiliser, chemical, cement and steel plants as well as paper & pulp mills. Founded in Bombay, the company later moved to Madras, where the factory was inaugurated in February 1968, across from the ECC campus in suburban Manapakkam. Two more factories have been added one at Kancheepuram and the other at Maraimalainagar, 45km south of Chennai.

Eutectic Welding Alloys of India Limited, a manufacturer of various types of low-temperature welding alloys and fluxes for gas and arc welding, was founded in 1962 as L&Ts third associate company. It was established in collaboration with the Eutectic Castolin group of Germany. The company, now EWAC Alloys Limited, was based on the then unique philosophy of conservation of metal resources. In 1963, Tractor Engineer Limited (TENGL) was born as the fourth L&T associate, to produce undercarriage tracks for Caterpillar crawler tractors. Its factory was commissioned in Powai in 1966. Later, moving from components to systems, TENGL began to supply total crawler chassis and platforms to original equipment manufacturers. Widening its horizons to include some of the best technologies the world had to offer, L&T, by the early 1970s, was listed among the top 25 companies in India, a rapid growth in just 35 years under a restrictive system. But even before it became one of Indias top 25 companies, L&T had, in the short space of 25 years, begun to move into frontier fields of technology. It entered the nuclear field in the mid-1960s, with

Clockwise from right: L&Ts associate concerns aerial view of the Utkal Machinery Ltd. complex at Kansbahal; paper pulp manufacturing equipment made at the Kansbahal Works; the EWAC Alloys Plant; and the Audco factory in Chennai.

Moving into the frontiers of technology facilities for the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay.

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L&Ts pioneering spirit led to its association with Indias space programme in the mid-1970s when it was entrusted with the manufacture of casings for the first and second stage boosters of the satellite launch vehicle (SLV-3) programme. While the high-tensile steel casings appeared deceptively simple to construct, the company had to put in intensive development efforts before the first acceptable rocket motor casing could be produced. The entire programme depended on the ability to successfully manufacture these casings in welded construction design. Even as it was reaching out to the new frontiers of technology, HHL felt that in a developing country like India there were enormous opportunities in more traditional areas of business and technology. construction for the A t o m i c E n e r g y Establishment and t h e Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in Trombay (near Bombay). The company contributed in no small measure to the setting up of Indias nuclear power plants at Tarapore, Kota, Narora and Kalpakkam. It was Dr Homi Bhabha himself, then Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, who had first approached L&T in the 1950s to fabricate critical components for atomic reactors and convinced HHL, a friend with whom he shared an interest in the Arts, that the company could do it. When HHL was asked, with typical L&T frankness, by a junior engineer why L&T should get into this when companies in the US and Germany were losing money on nuclear jobs, HHL replied, Young man, India has to build nuclear power plants. If not L&T, who will do it? This has, indeed, been the spirit of L&T. In 1971, L&T signed a joint venture agreement with McNeil Akron Inc, U S A, to found L&T-McNeil (LTM) and manufacture a wide range of rubber machinery and tyre-curing presses. The manufacturing facilities of LTM are on a 22-acre plot at Manapakkam in suburban Chennai. In 1987, the company joined hands with Gould Inc for the production of sophisticated electronic test and measuring instruments. With increasing restrictions on import of equipment at the time, L&T began looking for an earthmoving machine to manufacture in India. It teamed up with Poclain S A of France in 1973 to collaborate on the manufacture of hydraulic excavators. The initial agreement was for the model L series machines and the first L&T-Poclain LC 80 excavator rolled out of L&Ts Bangalore Works in October 1975. In April 1983, L&T signed another agreement with Poclain to manufacture the 600CK hydraulic excavator in Bangalore. This enabled L&T to meet the demand

John Hover at the signing of an agreement to construct the Atomic Energy Establishments Radiological Laboratory in Trombay. Inset: Facsimile of a cheque received by L&T from AEE.

L&T McNeils plant in Manapakkam, Chennai.

Holck-Larsen, then Chairman of L&T, at the controls of the first L&T-Poclain excavator made in the Bangalore Works (on right). Inset (top right) L&Ts Bangalore Works. Inset (bottom left) HHL at the inauguration of the Bangalore Works with Pierre Bataille (garlanded), President of Poclain S.A., France, and N M Desai.

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for large excavators in the coal and irrigation sectors. Today, L&T partners, markets and provides service support for hydraulic excavators manufactured by L&TKomatsu Limited, a joint venture with Komatsu Limited, Japan, set up in 1997. The company also markets and provides service support for earthmoving equipment, such as loader backhoes and vibratory compactors manufactured by L&T-Case Equipment Private Limited, a joint venture with CNH Global N V, USA, set up in 1997. Similar services are offered for a wide range of high-pressure hydraulic products manufactured by L&T-Komatsu Limited and Poclain Hydraulics Industrie, France.

umbilical links. So, the Awarpur cement plant, one of the largest in India (2.8 MT per annum), was set up in 1983. L&T later set up another cement plant in Hirmi (near Raipur, Madhya Pradesh, now in Chattisgarh) in 1994 and a clinker grinding unit in Jharsuguda, Orissa. L&T is perhaps the only company in India that has had a dual presence in manufacture of cement and in setting up cement-manufacturing facilities for others. Its contribution to the growth of the cement industry since the late 1960s has been significant. Almost 40 per cent of the cement produced in India came from plants supplied by L&T and its collaborator, F L Smidth & Co. L&T gradually developed in-house engineering and design capability, reaching a high level of indigenisation in 20 years. In 1996, when L&Ts Gujarat Cement Works plant with a 1.5MT per annum capacity started production, the company became one of the largest producers of cement in India. Two years later, a 2MT per annum cement plant was set up by the company in Tadipatri, Andhra Pradesh. Apart from cement, L&T, in 1981-82, perceived shipping to be an immediate opportunity to acquire assets and commence a new business in a short time span. Before long, L&Ts five bulk carriers, the m.v. Soren Toubro, the m.v. Holck-Larsen, the m.v. Mangal Desai, the LT Odyssey and LT Argosy, constituted the fleet. The shipping division was sold in 1998 in another measure to focus on L&Ts core business. Yet another diversification was when L&T set up a footwear factory in the late 1980s at Kalol, 50 km from Baroda, Gujarat, to produce shoe uppers for the export market. Indias relatively low manufacturing cost and high human skill made export prospects bright. Indeed, as L&T grew, it entered a variety of unrelated businesses, which were later fine-tuned or merged with related businesses or closed, as happened in the case of the shipping and footwear businesses.

Beyond Engineering
In the late 1970s, two major investment decisions were taken. The first was to go into the manufacture of cement and the second was to enter shipping, both unrelated new business areas for the company, but both areas in which there appeared to be a great future. L&T was already a leading supplier of cement machinery and technology to Indian industry. ECC was the leading civil engineering firm in the country by this time and if it wanted to hold its rank in the field, it needed unadulterated cement in a cement-scarce country. To ensure this, it was decided that ECC would have its own cement supplier with which it would have

The m.v. Holck-Larsen (top) and the m.v. Soren Toubro (bottom), part of L&Ts fleet of ships. A view of the Awarpur Cement Plant.

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The legacy of the founders


Soren Toubro passed away in 1982. From 1946 to 1956, he had alternated as Chairman of the L&T Board of Directors with his friend Holck-Larsen. In December 1962, after having worked for almost 25 years, Toubro decided to relinquish his executive responsibilities and also retired from L&T Management Private Limited, the managing agents. He returned to Denmark, but continued to serve on the Board of L&T and ECC till 1981. Toubro had a great love for India and used to look forward to his annual visit during December-April when he holidayed in Kodaikanal where he had a large home and estate. For SKT, work was indeed worship. Although he was very attached to his family, he spent long hours in office. A stern and hardened exterior hid his largeheartedness, humaneness and understanding. Many knew him as a hard taskmaster, but Toubro never failed to help any staff member in need. His meticulous care for detail was legendary. He would take great pains to go into the details of any problem and not be satisfied till he had found a solution. Recalling their early days in the same Copenhagen college, and their later years together at F L Smidth & Co, in whose service they travelled together from Egypt to Iran to India, HHL, paying a tribute to his friend, said, 1938 saw the birth of L&T and over nearly 25 years a unique comradeship developed. Differences in temperament and opinions were overcome and were never allowed to interfere with L&Ts growth and well-being. Soren was an ideal colleague, in the best sense of that word. His loyalty and devotion to duty, his great capacity for work, his analytical mind coupled with courage and determination, and his interest in his fellow-workers, were an example to all of us. He added: On many occasions Soren Toubro sacrificed personal pleasures for the benefit of the firm, or of an individual, and the same generous spirit

prevailed when L&T became a limited company with Indian partners. Soren took a great interest and pride in healthy Indianisation of the company and spared no effort to convey and explain his basic ideas of sound business and service. It can be truly said that much of the L&T spirit of which we are proud, and which is probably the basis of L&Ts success over the years, is due to Soren Toubros efforts and example. Senior executives remember the pains Toubro took to impress on the staff the importance and value of customer satisfaction. No effort was too great to leave a customer satisfied, was a philosophy he instilled into his young engineers. He took infinite pains to teach, to guide, to motivate and encourage

Holck-Larsen with his Magsaysay Award, by the side of a bust of Ramon Magsaysay.

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the young recruits, emphasising always the concept of service, recalls a former colleague. Throughout his days with L&T, SKT took a lot of interest in the youth of the company and spent a good deal of time and effort in developing them. Many still remember the schoolmasterly attitude Toubro used to adopt when imparting training in sales methods and writing business letters. At one time in L&T, there was a laid-down procedure by which one copy, called the pink copy, of all business letters sent out from the Madras office had to go to him. He always found time to read these and send them back with corrections. If the letter was really well written, he used to comment, Good letter, recalls an old-timer.

Grete Toubro, Soren Toubros wife, died in 1997. But till her death, she was as interested in the people who constituted L&T and their families as he was in its engineering skills and its commitment to service. Meanwhile, a host of honours began to come Holck-Larsens way. In 1976, he was honoured with the Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding. He was the first industrialist in Asia to win what is regarded as the Asian Nobel Prize. There could not have been a better recognition of his contribution to Indias industrial development. In his acceptance speech, he said, The L&T group is now a happy family of over 10,000 direct employees and more than 25,000 shareholders. I, therefore, share

Holck-Larsen with the other winners of the Magsaysay Award, in 1976.

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this unique honour bestowed on me today with all those persons with whom I have had the privilege of working in India as well as with the companys collaborators and customers in all five continents. The Queen of Denmark honoured him with a knighthood in 1977. In 1978, HHL retired as Chairman. He had spent 40 years of his life in building and running the company that bore his name and that of Toubro, his fellow-founding partner. He returned to Denmark where he went to live in a leafy Copenhagen suburb, Gentofte, but he maintained a home in Bombay to which he returned two or three times a year. He also loved Orissa and South India as much as he did Bombay and Copenhagen and tried to visit them whenever possible. In December 1989, HHL was appointed Chairman Emeritus. The Sir Jehangir Ghandy Medal for Industrial Peace was awarded to him in 1980. Official Indian recognition for his contribution to Indian industry came in the form of the Padma Bhushan in 2002. On receiving this national honour, Holck-Larsen said, India has a special place in my heart. With the Padma Bhushan, I am happy to know that I have a place in her heart too. I regard this honour as a tribute to the unique spirit of L&T and the values it has always stood by: its professionalism, its commitment to quality and its concern for the entire community of stakeholders. HHL had a deep passion for contemporary Indian art, a keen interest in theatre, music and world literature, especially Shakespeare. People who knew him say that he had a wonderful sense of humour. Right till the end, on July 27, 2003, his wit never deserted him. He remained cheerful even when unwell, while he was being treated for respiratory problems at the Breach Candy Hospital where he passed away. In accordance with his last wishes, the

L&T management consigned his mortal remains to the flames at the Chandanwadi crematorium in Mumbai. Two things about HHL stood out. One, his belief in the future of the Indian economy and domestic manufacturing capability, especially at a time when the mood among the expatriate business community was one of scepticism, and, two, his intrepid spirit that saw him give up ownership to ensure rapid business growth. When India gained freedom, L&T was barely a decade old and HHL could have easily got out if he wanted.

Holck-Larsen receiving the Padma Bhushan award from President K R Narayanan on March 23, 2002.

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Yet, he chose to stay on, quite unlike several other expatriates who sold out to their local staff and left. That actually helped L&T. Under the British, all major contracts were reserved for the British, but with their leaving, companies like L&T stood a good chance of winning contracts. In fact, the protected economy of independent India was a boon to L&T. At a time when publicly-owned financial institutions had a stranglehold on capital, L&T became a company with a large institutional financial stake. Holck-Larsens pursuit of growth, even at the cost of diluting his stake in the company, saw L&T turning technologically self-reliant in manufacturing for key sectors such as oil refining and nuclear power generation. Whenever and wherever he visited any of L&Ts far-flung construction sites and offices, regard for him bordered on reverence. HHL also enjoyed a devoted following among L&Ts vast network of stockists and other business associates. And they expressed it in many forms when he died in verse, prose, pictures, portraits and even as a personal album. Once, when asked what he would define as the single-most important ingredient of his success as an industrialist in a developing country, HHL replied, If you want to belong to a country, which becomes a nation, you have to keep the economy growing by creating jobs. And you can only do that by investing in tomorrow, and tomorrow is made by people. Holck-Larsen was perhaps the only foreign industrialist to have spent more than 60 years in India. In death, as in life, he remained an Indian at heart. He had insisted on cremation in his will, asking his employees to keep his death a low-key affair. He had also instructed that no flowers be laid on his body and the money instead be donated to a cancer organisation. This was, perhaps, the final tribute paid by the man to India and her people.

The day of his death remained a normal working day at L&T, as the management felt that this was the best way to honour the founder. Hundreds of L&T employees paid their last respects at Rashmi, on Carmichael Road, Holck-Larsens home for two years before his death. It was here that he heard about the proposal to de-merge the cement business and the proposal to set up the L&T Employees Foundation, an employees trust that became a stakeholder in the business. In fact, the L&T Employees Foundation papers were the last documents he signed. HHL was also convinced about the necessity to de-merge the cement business, as a means of freeing considerable investment. Former Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, expressing his sadness at Holck-Larsens passing away, said: He was one of the pioneers of the engineering industry in India. Though a foreigner, this Danish engineer made India his adopted country and developed L&T from a modest firm in the late 1930s into a giant industrial conglomerate with diversified businesses. I recall that I did the pleasant duty of honouring him, in his absence, in his country of birth when I visited Copenhagen last year. I pay my heartfelt condolences to this lover of India who contributed significantly to our countrys industrialisation. The Defence Minister at the time, George Fernandes, represented the Government of India at the funeral. Holck-Larsen has given India what no European has given. Its not L&Ts manufacturing that I am talking about. Its the sense of belonging that he had for the country. L&T was involved with the defence of the country by taking part in the production of some very vital defence equipment, Fernandes said. He recalled that his association with Holck-Larsen went back to those days in 1978 when there was a shortage of cement in India. As Minister of Heavy Industries at the time, Fernandes had sanctioned a one-million capacity plant for L&T.

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Retirement hardly bogged down Holck-Larsens zest for living. Nor did it dampen his spirit. He remained Chairman Emeritus, but that mattered little to him: It means nothing. When they say emeritus, it means you have gone a little gaga. He would insist on visiting every L&T installation once a year. At Powai, he would often make a low-key entry, walk on the shop floor, shake hands with the workers and would even remember the names of some of the old-timers. I think the single-most important achievement of my life has been the creation of L&T and contributing to its development over the years, he had once said. He never regretted the fact that after retirement he would lose control over an organisation that bore his name: We were more interested in the growth of the company and realised that we could not manage that single-handedly. A year before his death, he had indicated a desire to sell his 3,200 L&T shares and give the proceeds to a charitable institution. It was A M Naik, L&Ts Chairman & Managing Director, who stopped the worlds nicest 96-year-old man from doing so. The biggest legacy the two Danish engineers left behind was not the fact that they built a world-class engineering giant but, more significantly, that they created Indias first truly professionally managed company. The company may have been Danish in name, but it was truly the New India in character and global in outlook.

The Post-Danish era


By the time L&T began to diversify and grow, it had to get used to a changing management pattern. In 1969, the Government of India decided to abolish the managing agency system. This resulted in L&T giving up its agencies and Holck-Larsen, Narottam Desai, John Hover and Gunnar Hansen, now executive directors, having to refocus their approach to business. When a dozen banks were nationalised the same year, L&T was faced with further uncertainty. Both

devaluation, as well as governments policy not to encourage the employment in Indian firms of expatriates, also led to an exodus of Danish directors and managers from the various firms, only HHL and SKT remaining. It became necessary for L&T to review its entire operational style. The corporate structure was strengthened by the induction of four Indians. Holck-Larsen entrusted L&T to his successor, Narottam Nicky Desai, in whom he saw much more than family inheritance, social position and gracious personal qualities. By the time Holck-Larsen retired as Chairman in 1978, Desai had worked with the company for 32 years. He had worked closely with HHL for 14 years. In fact, he had joined the L&T Board in 1956. And HHL had seen that Nicky Desais values, sense of responsibility and commitment to the business would only ensure that L&Ts reputation would grow. Fresh from law school, Desai had been introduced to the L&T style of professional management by the two Danes, who took it upon themselves to prepare him to shoulder the responsibility of leading an institution that was unique in the India of the time. As the company grew, Desai, an astute judge of men, and a firm, soft-spoken leader, soon made his presence felt in the business community. Desai himself today feels that it was extremely fortunate that the founders, and many of the others at the helm of departments, in the early decades were Scandinavians. From the first day, they encouraged every newcomer, treating them as equals and not adopting a hectoring attitude. By freely discussing with them their mistakes, the Scandinavians made every recruit a part of a team. This would not have happened if the company had been a British one, with managers from Britain, feels Desai as he looks back.

L&Ts Board of Directors during the 1980s. From left to right: D L Pradhan, U V Rao, M H Pherwani, K S S Mani, S R R Subramaniam, N M Desai, C R Ramakrishnan, S P Kashyap and B G N Patel.

N M Desai, seen here inaugurating ECCs premises at Maker Towers.

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By the time HHL retired, L&T had achieved a turnover of Rs 850 million, medium-size, but promising to become large. Most of its activities had crystallised into products and services involving high technology as well as advanced product development programmes. By upgrading the quality of products through better design and improved technology as well as efficient after-sales service, the company had built up a strong customer confidence. Governments policy of subsidising public sector undertakings by permitting a ten per cent price preference resulted in important orders being lost from time to time. The company also had to contend with severe international competition from reputable suppliers from around the world who were quoting low prices to make use of their unutilised production capacity in the then prevailing recessionary conditions abroad. But these hurdles did not stop L&T from continuing to grow. On November 23, 1981, Larsen & Toubro (Singapore) Pte. Limited was formally inaugurated, with the Development Bank of Singapore as an equity participant. The factory, on Pandan Road in Singapore, began producing aluminium foil capsules and roll-on pilfer-proof caps from aluminium sheets for the beverage and pharmaceutical industries. It was L&Ts first major foreign investment. In 1984, ECC, which itself was growing apace, was merged with L&T with retrospective effect. ECC had, in the 40 years since its founding, grown into Indias premier construction company, having executed several major landmarks. With ECCs handsome turnover merged with L&Ts, Larsen & Toubro would no longer be just a leading engineering company but one of Indias leading business houses and one, gaining international recognition. Another important consideration for the merger was the feeling that the combining of resources of both companies would make it possible to look at the requirements of any industry

anywhere in an integrated manner. Before the merger, ECC had to a c c e p t overseas contracts as sub-contractors to the main contractors or as joint venture partners with international companies. After the merger, it could offer not only design and construction but also a whole range of engineering services; it became a total project provider, something no other Indian construction company was at the time. Much of the engineering support L&T was providing ECC was being generated at the Powai Works. Growth, however, demanded more space for development of new facilities. L&Ts search for an alternate site to the landlocked Powai Works for heavy fabrication took it to Hazira, 19 km from Surat. Here there was a river-front that enabled berthing of barges on which could be loaded large volume products such as equipment for the offshore gas industry and fertiliser plants. The company acquired 80 hectare of riverfront land along the right bank of the Tapi River, and began construction of the first phase in early 1985. By 1988, fifty years after the company had started, the companys spectacular growth reached a turnover of nearly Rs 5700 million. This was based on fundamental business philosophies to play consistently the role of a resource institution for as many technologies that could be brought within the reach of its engineers and to participate in the crucial core areas of Indias development. Company managers were constantly on the look out for opportunities for L&T to step in with the requisite product or technology. Even as a need arose, L&T showed the capability to meet it. And the company would offer products, machines or plants as well as services on a turnkey basis.

The Hazira Works on the banks of the River Tapi, seen from a distance.

Open-yard fabrication of wellhead platforms at the Hazira Works, which has the necessary wharf facilities to enable transport of such construction.

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Meanwhile, even as L&T grew, India was set to grow. L&Ts management sensed that the first steps taken by the country towards liberalisation would soon become a gallop. And those who could keep the pace would be those with substantial resources. For L&T to be in the race, it could need a substantial infusion of additional investment. Another who sensed all this and saw an opportunity to buy his way into L&T was a Dubai-based Indian businessman, Manu Chabria. Desai sought Dhirubhai Ambanis help to counter the threat and at the same time contribute to the investment. Ever since Ambani began his meteoric rise, L&T had played its part in his growth by building several facilities for Reliance and a warm relationship existed between both organisations and their heads. When Desai had turned to him, Ambani responded with the kind of investment Desai had sought and accepted two seats on the Board. But with the purchase of additional shares in the open market, and with the support of the financial institutions, Ambani was soon in control. On April 28, 1989, L&Ts Board of Directors accepted the resignation of N M Desai as Chairman and member of the Board. At a subsequent meeting

later in the day, Dhirubhai Ambani, Chairman and Managing Director, Reliance Industries Limited, joined the Board and was elected Chairman. U V Rao, L&Ts Vice President, was appointed Chief Executive Officer and also joined the Board. Mukesh Ambani became Vice Chairman and Anil Ambani a director. Rao, however, was a strongly independent manager who had imbibed well the L&T philosophy. He found in D N Ghosh, a former bureaucrat who had chaired the State Bank of India for four years with distinction, a kindred spirit when Ghosh was appointed L&T Chairman the next year. Ghosh also had the backing of the financial institutions and was thus able, soon thereafter, to announce new plans for the company investment in new projects, expansion and modernisation. These translated into putting up two more cement plants and a cement-grinding unit, manufacturing facilities for the production of glass bottles and metal cans, expansion in the construction and road-building business, production of hard disc drives, acquisition of more ships and entering the field of housing and real estate development. Ghoshs plans also included significant expansion of production

Clockwise from right: Dhirubhai and Mukesh Ambani at an EGM, in 1989; D N Ghosh, then Chairman, L&T (third from left), at the Manapakkam office in 1990; S D Kulkarni, then Managing Director and CEO of L&T, inaugurating ECCs Canteen complex in 1997; and Kumar Mangalam Birla and Mrs Rajashree Aditya Birla being welcomed to the Board by A M Naik in 2001.

Former Executive Directors being felicitated at L&Ts 54th AGM in Bombay.

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facilities at existing L&T workspots in Hazira and Mysore. Certainly, the Ambani influence had got L&T thinking BIG.

The 1990s
Under Managing Directors U V Rao and S R R Subramaniam, and Joint Managing Director C R Ramakrishnan, the company progressed rapidly in the early 1990s. Results for the period ending March 31, 1992, showed L&Ts turnover had tripled to Rs 17,660 million in five years, with profits at Rs 1450 million. Rao, when he retired on reaching 65 in April 1994, was succeeded at the helm of the triumvirate by S D Kulkarni, L&Ts Finance Director. His equation with the Ambanis was not the happiest. And so, with L&Ts professional leadership going its own way and the financial institutions backing them, the Ambanis began toying with the idea of dropping out of the business. But it was only after A M Naik took over from Kulkarni in 1999 that the Ambanis shed their stake in L&T. On November 18, 2001, Reliance Industries Limited announced the sale of its holding of 2.5 crore equity shares of L&T to Grasim Industries Limited of the Aditya Birla group, for an aggregate sale consideration of Rs 7665 million. This resulted in a reshuffle of the L&T Board. Rajashree Birla and her son Kumar Mangalam Birla were inducted to the Board in place of Mukesh and Anil Ambani. Y M Deosthalee became Chief Financial Officer, J P Nayak was appointed President (Operations) in charge of the cement business, K Venkataramanan was elevated to President (Operations) of Engineering Construction and Projects. Not long afterwards, L&T and Kumara Mangalam Birla came to terms and L&Ts cement business was merged with Grasims. But L&T will retain a small stake in the new cement conglomerate while Birla will have a similar stake in L&T where professional management will run the company. Making this

possible is the L&T Foundation that was founded by the professionals and staff of L&T to acquire that part of the Birla Trust shareholding necessary to allow the Foundation and the financial institutions to have a major shareholding. By the end of the decade, this professional leadership envisages L&T as a Rs 200,000 million company. ECC will contribute more than half of that turnover, feels A Ramakrishna, Deputy Managing Director of L&T and head of ECC as it celebrates its 60th birthday. L&T Finance Limited was incorporated in November 1994 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of L&T. The company aimed at engaging itself primarily in the business of corporate finance, international finance, investment banking and money market operations. Within a span of three years, L&T Finance emerged as one of the leading non-banking finance companies in the country. The same year, L&T incorporated a joint venture company, Larsen & Toubro (Oman) LLC (Limited Liability Company), with Zubair Enterprises LLC, an Oman-based company. The objective was to cash in on the emerging market for construction services in Oman and the neighbouring countries. Having successfully executed a few projects in West Asia (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Qatar, Yemen, Kuwait and Iraq) in the past, L&T considered it prudent to take advantage of the potential construction market in the region. Also looking at opportunities abroad, L&T-Ramboll Consulting Engineers was launched in March 1998 with the inauguration of its offices in Chennai. The joint venture offers international quality engineering services in the infrastructure sector, focussing on ports, harbours, roads, highways, bridges, railways and airports in India and abroad. Back home, L&T began to look more closely at being a joint promoter of infrastructure projects. Airports, harbours, roads, bridges, highrise accommodation and integrated townships, IT parks

At the L&T-Ramboll Consulting Engineers launch ceremony in Chennai. Holck-Larsen and A Ramakrishna are seen with representatives (garlanded) of Ramboll, Denmark.

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and exhibition centres have all been investments that L&T has been making through ECC and contributing considerably to the fast track development of infrastructure in India. Atal Behari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister, said when inaugurating HITEC City in Hyderabad developed through this joint venture route, Truly, Larsen & Toubro has built one of the things that make India proud. In April 1999, A M Naik was appointed Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of L&T. A year later, A Ramakrishna was appointed Deputy Managing Director; he also continued to head the Construction Division of the company, ECC. Soon after taking over the reins of the company, Naik took steps of farreaching consequence and virtually rewrote L&Ts destiny. A central theme running through all this was a renewed emphasis on exports. One operating division that took up the gauntlet was the heavy engineering division. Although the company had a good brand image in the Indian market, a lot of work had to be done to replicate it in the major markets of the world. Such work, however, was only a continuation of the L&T tradition. Denmark has long been known for a committed dedication to quality, a meticulous attention to detail and a strong work ethic. The Danish

founders and their early Danish colleagues bequeathed this tradition to L&T. And those who followed in their footsteps, talented and highly motivated engineers, have helped L&T in a continuous effort to upgrade quality standards to international levels. Several ISO 9001 certifications amply testify to the success of this effort. For excellence in L&T operations, the drive towards Total Quality Management (TQM) was launched in 1994. All this helped the company to develop products to meet the most demanding of international customers. L&T Infotech Limited, established in 1997, is one of L&Ts newest ventures. It has a worldwide network of 2200 professionals who play a critical role in providing comprehensive, end-to-end software A Ramakrishna and Mrs Ramakrishna seen here with Mrs N M Desai (on right).

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solutions and services. Domain solutions are offered to financial services and to the manufacturing and telecom sectors. Other services include creation of enterprise application systems, technology solutions and software services. July 2000 saw the first website being launched in India for global investing. LT Trade.com was the result of L&T and Bluestone Capital Partners, USA, joining together in a 50:50 joint venture for a full service advanced technology financial portal. Four months later, the tractor plant of L&T-John Deere Limited was formally opened at Sanaswadi, near Pune. The company manufactures environmentalfriendly tractors that are designed for more power, enhanced comfort, greater safety and reliability. Manufacture is carried out at three inter-linked factories: transmission, engine and valve assembly. L&Ts association with Deere spans over four decades, through a marketing tie-up for Deeres tractors and combine harvesters in India. In 2001, L&T-Demag Plastics Machinery Private Limited, joint venture (50:50), was formed to manufacture state-of-the-art injection moulding machines. On December 30, 2003, the companys Board appointed Naik, Chairman and Managing Director. He became L&Ts first whole-time executive chairman after N M Desai retired in March 1989. Shortly after his elevation, he spearheaded the move to de-merge L&Ts cement business and played an active part in conceptualising the L&T Employees Foundation to strengthen the employees sense of belonging. In doing so, he was re-creating the dream of HolckLarsen and Toubro 75 years down the line. Today, L&T is a major multi-dimensional conglomerate, ranked among the top five companies in Indias private sector, holding a leadership position in most of its domestic businesses. It consists of six major groups, each of which has several subsidiaries

A M Naik, Chairman & Managing Director from December 2003.

and associate companies that cover a vast range of specialised technology. The groups are: Construction, Engineering Projects, Heavy Engineering, Electricals and Electronics, Information Technology and Diversified Business. In the engineering and construction segment, L&Ts reputation is based on a track record of successes in supplying plant and equipment of unprecedented scale and sophistication to oil and gas plants, refineries, petrochemical, chemical, power and cement plants, and for steel and mining, all critical industries in the national context.

A peoples company
L&T has been an extraordinary company in the Indian context. It was built on strong values a spirit of enterprise and innovation, and an obsession for quality and customer service. A companys culture usually stands out during periods of crisis, trials and tribulations. L&Ts was no different. Crisis tested L&T from its inception, teaching it to adapt, adjust and progress.

Top right: Inside the L&T-John Deere factory. Right: The L&T Infotech headquarters in Chennai.

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The Executive Directors of L&T in 2000. Front row, left to right, J P Nayak, M Karnani and Y M Deosthalee. Back row, left to right, K Venkataramanan, A M Naik (CEO) and A Ramakrishna.

Holck-Larsen and Toubro were men of thrift, who valued the given word and scrupulously performed what they had undertaken to do. Indeed, these qualities constituted in a large measure the stock-intrade of the partners. Since then, every person recruited by L&T is, at some point or the other during his tenure with the company, put through training programmes to imbibe these values. From the first, HHL and SKT identified human resource development as a major strategic input necessary for successful business activity. But one of their earliest policies was that the company would not employ a relative of a director or general manager. HHL and SKT were convinced that this was the way to nurturing professionalism. And the policy continues to this day. L&T saw people as individuals, not as workers, supervisors, rich and poor, literate and illiterate, junior and senior. Merit was always the sole qualification and the company adopted a secular approach to recruitment. In turn, there is a singularly high preference for L&T among young engineers and other professionals seeking scope for their talent and opportunity to work productively. Holck-Larsen and Toubro believed that the contribution by everyone who worked at L&T, the human contribution, must be the main engine for growth; and that belief continues to this day, despite L&Ts growth in hightech. People are our only asset, HLL used to say. And the company still thinks so. It continues to focus on attracting and retaining talent to support its business plans and build the skills of those who join it. The Danes, it would appear, went by the Danish proverb that said, If you treat a child like a man, you will soon have a man on your lap. And the young men they treated in this fashion went on to give the company everything they had and, in their turn, became strong and competent leaders and left a lasting impression in a company that became what Holck-Larsen wanted it to be, A peoples company.

The Management Development Centre at Lonavala.

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The cornerstone of L&Ts recruitment policy has hinged on the proposition tha engineering talent is one of its best assets. Catch them young and help them grow is how L&T nurtures that talent. To encourage talented engineering students to gain familiarity with the company, various opportunities for interaction are provided to them while they are still in college. Training of newcomers is conducted in-house in Powai and at the Management Development Centre (MDC) in Lonavala, about 100 km from Mumbai. The MDC has a faculty drawn from Indias finest

management institutions and runs multiple-training, core development and behavioural training programmes. Self-study and introspection are encouraged. Employees at a number of locations across the country also avail of computer-based self-study centres set up by L&Ts HRD Department. Project Blue Chip was launched in July 1999 to make the company a knowledge-based conglomerate. The L&T Institute of Technology in Powai, widely regarded as one of the finest training institutes of its kind in India, conducts four-year industry-integrated diploma courses in mechanical engineering, electronics engineering and

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computer engineering exclusively for the children of L&T employees. The Directorate of Technical Education, Government of Maharashtra, awards the diplomas. Under an organisational development process, senior managers meet regularly to diagnose critical issues confronting the company in a dynamic business situation and to take remedial action. This collaborative process results in mutual exchange of ideas and sharing of common problems. Arising out of this, systems relating to plant management, electronic data processing, training and development, integrated accounting, reward and motivation have been developed and implemented. Planned safety is the dictum at all L&T factories and establishments. A safety plan is usually drawn before execution of each project. The thrust is on enhanced safety-consciousness and knowledge through continuous education, training and monitoring. L&T believes that a safe and healthy workplace is as important as production, quality and cost-effectiveness. A Safety Policy Review Committee for each factory and Shop Safety Committees are active at the factory and shop-floor level. At all L&T Works, the emphasis is on Total Loss Prevention, which includes prevention of fire and accidents, safety of employees and avoiding damage to plant, machinery and material.

A congenial work environment for its employees has been the L&T tradition since inception. Large libraries, first-rate canteens and medical facilities, recreational opportunities and retirement planning programmes are offered to every member of the L&T family. So too are aesthetics in its numerous workplaces. In its quest to humanise its working environment, L&T has laid special emphasis on extensive landscaping of the grounds of its various establishments. The company has developed extensive ornamental gardens, manicured lawns and even vegetable patches. The company has its own plant nurseries in Powai where the L&T Works took the lead in planting saplings and flowering plants to blend with landscaped lawns and hedges; More than 1,000 rose bushes grow in Powai and form the source of cut flowers that decorate the Bombay offices. L&T is a sterling example of an institution that has been built on the assumption that its true assets lie only in the quality and expertise of its people. And every one of those people seems aware of working with a common purpose, for the larger interest of the company. Building on the motto of the founders, In service lies success, a style of business has been developed that often pushes the concept of service well beyond the range of its commercial meaning. This philosophy is nurtured by the steadily growing number in the L&T family, a family that today exceeds 20,000.

Below: Workers taking a Safety Pledge at a work site. Below left: Senior executives at an L&T Workout on organisational restructuring.

60 landmark years

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wo years before India gained Independence and even before World War II had ended, Engineering Construction Corporation Limited (now known as the Engineering Construction and Contracts Division of Larsen & Toubro Limited and popularly referred to as ECC) was born. In 1944, two Danes, Henning HolckLarsen (a chemical engineer) and Soren Kristian Toubro (a civil engineer), already partners in their own business in Bombay, Larsen & Toubro (L&T), invited two other Danes, Erik Mogensen (an electrical engineer), then heading the Danish firm of F L Smidth & Co in India, with whom the former had worked, and S Rudinger (an F L Smidth electrical engineer working on an India Cements project in the South), to join them in promoting a new company independent of L&T, with construction as its focus. The four knew each other from their college days and in setting up this new venture in Bombay they invested Rs 10,000 or so each. In establishing ECC, they had the vision to realise that, with Independence, any new government would focus on the industrial development of India, and that would offer plenty of scope for construction activity. Little did the four Danes realise how far they were headed when they started ECC, primarily because they felt they had the right man to run it while at the same time helping a fellow Dane, Gerhard Berg (a civil engineer), and his family. Berg had been working with contractors in Iran on the first Trans-Iranian Railway when the British, during World War II, interned him. Berg, however, escaped from internment and, walking through Afghanistan and Baluchistan, reached Bombay where he sought the help of Mogensen, then the honorary Danish Consul. But before that help was forthcoming, he was taken into custody. The authorities, on Mogensens intervention, subsequently agreed to release Berg if he could prove he had a permanent job. ECC was floated and Berg put in charge.

Despite limited resources, both in terms of money and equipment, Berg led the firm well in its early years. Well supported with guidance from L&Ts Toubro, Bendixon and Willy Lindberg who had once worked with Toubro on an assignment in Hetuwan, Egypt he ensured it gained a reputation for quality work. The first jobs were mainly to construct military barracks and water tanks, lay pipelines, and raise cement silos and small and medium-size industrial structures. Western Railway, the Bombay Municipal Corporation and the Associated Cement Company were some of ECCs first clients. The jobs were taken up one after the other, not simultaneously. Bombay was where the central office was, but operating offices were set up close to the worksites which, in any case, were around Bombay. When L&T became a public limited company, in February 1946, it was considered in the best interests of L&T and ECC for the former to acquire the majority of the shareholding in the construction company. As a result, in 1947, Holck-Larsen and Toubro sold their shares to L&T, which then became the managing agents of ECC. In 1959, L&T acquired the remaining shares and ECC, reconstituted as a public limited company, became a wholly-owned subsidiary of L&T. ECC started off in a small way with a few staff and a paid-up capital of Rs 100,000, of which Rs 49,200 was held by L&T. The paid-up share capital was increased to Rs 500,000, with an authorised share capital of Rs 10 million, after it became a whollyowned subsidiary of L&T. The growth of ECC from modest beginnings in 1944 to Indias premier construction company by the 1970s is marked by four stages of development: laying the foundations (1944-50), settling into place (195154), growing and diversifying (1955-70), and taking the lead (1971 onwards). The founders of ECC, Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro. Top right: Holck-Larsen and the N M Desais greet Anker Jorgensen, the then Prime Minister of Denmark, during a visit to the Powai plant in Bombay. On right: Toubro meeting the then President of India, S Radhakrishnan.

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Early years
A cement factory in Kottayam, in Kerala, and another in Mirzapur, in Uttar Pradesh, were the first important construction works ECC undertook outside the Bombay area. Soon it was making hollow blocks for the Damodar Valley Corporation in West Bengal and raising industrial structures for Hindustan Development Corporation, Calcutta. Henry Petersen, another Danish civil engineer, was chosen to succeed Berg, who died of lung cancer in 1948. Petersens first assignment was to look after the construction of the cement plant (complete with kiln foundations, silos, and mill foundations) in Mirzapur. Petersen was, before long, appointed chief executive of ECC but met with a tragic death in an air crash outside New Delhi in May 1953. Sitaram Chadda (UC Chaddha to all, because he had the habit of beginning most sentences with, You see, Mr.) succeeded him and remained in charge of ECC for four years before getting a job in England. But at the time of the Mirzapur project he was L&Ts first Indian site manager. John Hover, yet another Dane, but a civil engineer, who was heading L&Ts industrial plants department, was in Denmark at the time and he was asked to interview staff for the Mirzapur project. He recommended that ECC employ P H Mortensen, a Danish carpenter-foreman, to assist Sitaram as foreman in Mirzapur. Mortensen, who joined in 1951, was, in time, to fuel the growth of ECC and develop Madras as its headquarters. But more of that anon. Through Chaddas efforts, after the Mirzapur project, ECC secured an order for an induced-draught cooling tower for the Madras Electricity Board and SKT requested Hover to oversee the job. The company was beginning to establish an all-India presence, although the jobs undertaken at the time, the early 1950s, were not significantly large. Growth would,

however, be triggered before long by Governments industrialisation policy. Despite the good, medium and large contracts ECC secured in different parts of the country in the 1950s, it required many more contracts to be deemed a success. It, therefore, began to look for work overseas. Lindberg led a team to Colombo to commence civil engineering work on a cement plant in Kankesanturai in northern Ceylon, the islands first. Equipment & Construction Company (E&CC), Ceylon, was formed for this purpose with HHL, SKT, and Lindberg teaming with a Ceylonese entrepreneur. Lindberg and Mortensen (who had now finished work with the Mirzapur project and been transferred to Colombo to assist Lindberg) began to undertake other contracts in Ceylon. Mortensen was involved with the construction of the famous bridge for the film The Bridge on the River Kwai, a Rs 800,000 contract initially. The bridge was actually a steel-frame structure with wooden cladding to make it look like the original in northern Thailand. Its final cost worked out to Rs. 16 lakh. Sam Spiegel, the producer of the Oscar-winning film, did not wish to pay the extra cost. So, SKT went to Colombo to negotiate (he was good at that, according to Hover). However, the meeting ended with Spiegel shouting, You wont get so much as a nickel out of me. SKT retorted, Thats alright, but you will not be able to blow up the bridge as we have got an injunction against it. With actors like Alec Guinness, William Holden, Grace Kelly and Bill Hawkins in the film, Spiegel had no option but to settle with Toubro, although for much less than Rs 16 lakh. ECC, however, had its name prominently featured in the titles of the film.

The famous rail bridge over the River Kwai, constructed for the film, in Ceylon. Top inset: Elephants helping in the movement of material. Bottom inset: Workers at the site. Above: Engineers in discussion seated on one of the transoms of the bridge during construction.

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Beginning to grow
From 1955, ECC began an era of continuous expansion, putting in intense efforts to secure new contracts in India. One of the first fruits of this effort was an order for the construction of an underground water main under the Santa Cruz airport runway. Hover was again asked to supervise the job. Work on it was done continuously, almost on a 24-hour basis, without affecting air services. In June 1955, Hover moved to Madras to take over from H R Steenstrup who had opened the L&T office there in the late-1940s. L&Ts top management was against operational managers remaining in one office or in one location for more than five years. It was a sensible arrangement, according to Hover. You dont grow stale and you carry a lot of experience to the next challenge. When Chaddha left ECC in 1958, N C Bhargava, with a Public Works Department background, was appointed in his place. Sadly, he died of a heart attack suffered during a meeting in London, which he and Hover had attended to conclude a Bombay Port Trust contract. In his short innings, however, he made a mark, introducing ECC to nuclear power and port work. With this experience, and encouraged by the emphasis on industrialisation in the countrys five-year plans, ECC decided to embark on specialised construction work, seeking foreign collaborations and partnerships to enlarge its scope of activities and gain new expertise in such fields as marine and tunnel work, harbour expansion and prestressed concrete. It entered into a collaboration agreement with CITRA, Paris, a part of the Schneider Group, for the construction of a cruiser graving dry dock, wharves and ancillary works for the Indian Naval Dockyard in Bombay. By 1960, the facility was ready for ships like the INS Mysore and the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant.

Simultaneously, ECC had contracted to build the Alexandria Dock for the Bombay Port Trust. The magnitude of the work on the Alexandria Dock and cruiser graving dock in Bombay led to mechanisation of construction work. Large-scale quarrying operations for coarse aggregates were also undertaken. Several ECC personnel were trained in mechanisation in construction as well as in methods of using mass concrete. It was a common sight to see ECC dumpers and other heavy equipment bearing the companys yellow, triangular emblem, and laden with stones and aggregates used in construction work, plying at the worksites. The ECC logo soon gained visibility and symbolised the companys ability to undertake complicated construction work. Another collaboration was entered into with Sentab of Sweden for the Rana Pratap Sagar Project near Rawatbhata, Kota. It was for the construction of a powerhouse and a horseshoe-shaped tunnel 4500 feet long. Sven Olaf Nielsen and H Nielsen, both Swedes, guided the project to its successful completion. But this job and the two docks in Bombay left ECC with deep scars, according to Hover. N M Desai was even more candid. L&T and ECC were too small for this work. The losses were large and ECC could easily have gone under. This was where SKTs negotiating skills shone again. He persuaded the Schneider Group, with whom ECC was a 50:50 partner in the naval dock project, to accept an 85 per cent stake. Even with a 15 per cent stake, ECC lost, but it was more manageable and a small price to pay for the learning experience. India, however, benefited, getting a fine dry dock. Indeed, ECC engineers gained immeasurably from their experience with these specialised assignments and it was this knowledge acquisition that really set the stage for ECCs domination of the construction field in the years to come. In

Work in progress at the Ballard Pier Extension in Bombay.

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Mortensens unmatched organisational skills, his instinctive technical skills, his ability to identify the right sub-contractors and his exemplary employee relations, the contract was completed on schedule in 1961. Mortensen, who was heading ECCs Southern Regional Office, was now offered the position of General Manager, ECC, and that was how, Hover says, ECCs head office came to be set up in Madras. Mortensen made doubly sure of that when he acquired before long 26 acres of land for a song in Manapakkam, a suburb to the west of Madras. That year (1961), ECC had a turnover of Rs 40 million (excluding the Madras Port Trust contract and work which was going on in Gauhati on the oil refinery, where ECC did the complete erection of mechanical equipment, instrumentation and the site fabrication of storage tanks). Mortensen may have been a rough diamond, giving those who didnt know him the impression that he was a stern taskmaster, but he brought a rare work ethic to ECC, tempered by a humane approach to people. Recalling this characteristic of Mortensen, Ranes Ray Chaudhuri, former General Manager Electrical, remembers a morning in Bombay when Mortensen, on a visit there, wanted to meet him. But Chaudhuri had an appointment at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay. Mortensen immediately offered to visit BARC to meet Chaudhuri. Again, when the Engineering Projects Division of L&T was set to merge with ECC (a traumatic translocation and a cultural shock, according to Chaudhuri), Chaudhuri remembers how Mortensen gently persuaded him to join the new team despite his reluctance. It was around the time ECC became a public limited company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of L&T that plans to expand were drawn up. Not satisfied with gaining construction expertise alone, ECC decided to develop technical skills and design capabilities of its

P H Mortensen, and, on left, L&Ts Club House Road office.

Hovers words, it is the belief in the philosophy of making friends out of business and not business out of friends that has helped L&T and ECC. Meanwhile, with the work for the Madras Electricity Board completed, Hover, operating from a house in Club House Road (much later, a proper office was constructed, using leftover precast beams from a textile mill construction in the South) negotiated in 1958 an arrangement with J L Kier Limited, London, Saabye and D Lerche, and A Jesperson and Son, both of Copenhagen, Denmark, to work together on the construction of the Jawahar Wet Docks (to berth eight ships) for the Madras Port Trust, a project worth Rs 80 million. It was during the finalisation of this consortium in London that Bhargava died. S E C Woehlk, project manager of Saabye and Lerche, was appointed Agent in charge of the work and Mortensen, now transferred from E&CC, Colombo, Deputy Agent. Thanks to

Right: The Gauhati Oil Refinery that was built and equipped by ECC and commissioned in 1962; and, right, top, two views of the Jawahar Wet Docks at Madras: during their construction, and in operation.

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own as well as to provide consultancy services to industrial projects. A full-fledged designs division was established in Madras in September 1959. One of the reasons for the selection of Madras for this division was that such a design facility was lacking in the South, leading design consultant organisations in India being confined to Bombay and Calcutta at the time. Erik Kempf, a Danish engineer who had had a brilliant academic record and been a classmate of the stolid Hover, was a specialist in the design of precast concrete structures and members. He had been an adviser to the Oberoi Hotel group, whose flagship hotel in Delhi was the first major precast concrete structure in India. Later, while advising the Hindustan Housing Factory in Delhi, Kempf met Hover and convinced him that ECC would benefit enormously from a design section. He persuaded Hover to bid for the design of a fertiliser factory at Neyveli and, later, a heavy engineering facility in Ranchi. ECC got the jobs and opened an office at each location, housing nearly 100 design engineers and supporting staff. The assignments were an economic disaster, according to Hover. But a number of design engineers exhibiting rare talent emerged from the experience and moved to the design office ECC had set up in Madras. There, Kempf headed three design groups led by A S Krishnan, B K Menon and S R Chokhavatia, all of whom he had trained in Madras. The division initially had 15 engineers and 30 draughtsmen. By the time he left the company, Kempf had passed on his knowledge in prefabrication construction methods, erection and tackle to the others. Two subsidiary sections of the design section were set up, one in Ranchi to oversee the design and consultancy work at the Heavy Engineering Corporation and the Durgapur Steel Plant, the other in Bombay to cater to the needs of Modular Laboratories, Trombay, and Associated Bearing Factory, Poona. The main design office in Madras rendered design and consultancy service for the Neyveli Lignite Projects

thermal power station, briquetting and carbonisation plant and fertiliser unit. There were, however, one or two design failures at the time and it led to some fundamental re-thinking. The 1962-63 change in thinking, calling for a focus on construction, resulted in a re-organisation in the company. In Madras, K S R Malliah headed the construction activity. In Bombay, ECCs head office, N C Bhargava was in charge as chief engineer. The designs division, headed by Kempf, shifted from Khivraj Mansion on Mount Road to the L&T complex where it merged with the construction wing and in 1963 lost its separate identity; in fact, the design division was to all intents and purposes closed. The design office as a separate unit was, in retrospect, ill-conceived, says Hover. Merging it with the construction division was one of the best management decisions of the day, he adds, for it helped ECC to present a united operation for turnkey jobs. ECC could not earlier bid for jobs where ECC Design was the consultant engineer. With specialised experience in precast concrete construction and slipform shuttering techniques gained during the Kempf interlude, ECC began accepting independent design and consultancy jobs, including offering architectural services. Cecilia Isaac, a Swedish architect, assisted by Indian engineers, served the company well during the 1960s. It was during this period that ECC took the decision that it would be best if the design sections services were not available to one and all; Design AND Construction by ECC, it was felt, was the way the company should orient its business. And there now followed some landmark design and construction: the Indian Overseas Bank highrise in Madras, an 864-

Taking the design and engineering route: clockwise from right, the Heavy Engineering Corporation Plant at Ranchi; the Neyveli Thermal Power Station; the first design room which was established in Khivraj Mansion, Madras; and the design office at Club House Road.

The Indian Overseas Bank headquarters, one of Madrass first highrises.

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loom textile mill in Ambasamudram for Madurai Mills, a radiological laboratory in Bombay (believed to be at the time the longest building in Asia), pre-stressed concrete champagne glass-shaped water towers for the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in Trombay, and new homes for L&T and ECC in Madras. The Indian Overseas Bank building on Mount Road, designed by Kempf and Chokhavatia, was an excellent example then of precast concrete construction, with a progress rate of one floor every 16 days. It was talked of as the most modern building of the time in Madras. In 1967, G A Advani, one of the team leaders at L&T, introduced Hover to a friend, an expert in mechanical and electrical erection. With the right man for the right job being available, the Engineering Projects Division was established. Erection tools and tackle were either made or bought and jobs contracted and executed. The first year of the divisions work resulted in profits beyond everybodys expectations. The division head received a percentage of the contract value as commission, and he made enough money to prompt SKT to remark, He makes more money than me. Now, with L&T as manufacturers and fabricators of heavy plant equipment, the Engineering Projects Division as mechanical and electrical erectors involved in instrumentation and calibration, and ECC as builders, it was inevitable that the three divisions met regularly at job sites. Hover recalls that the meetings were not always friendly. Although all were L&T units, the engineers and their workforces often quarrelled and were not helpful to each other. Hover recalls a particular instance of a situation when he and a Regional Manager had to travel to a distant site to pacify the staff after it became apparent that even the client was tired of the three divisions blaming one another and causing delays. Episodes like this led to ECC taking over the Engineering Projects Division and transferring the staff to ECC at Madras.

The youthful 20 years When L&Ts Engineering Projects Division was merged with ECC in 1968, this resulted in a big leap forward, enabling ECC to enter the mechanical and electrical areas of construction activity. ECCs mechanical division undertook specialised work relating to heavy lifts (weighing upto 600 tonnes), intricate process piping for industrial projects, underground and cross-country water supply lines involving sophisticated welding, assembly and erection of equipment that required precision millwright work, and site assembly of heavy towers. ECCs electrical division for its part undertook industrial electrification projects, the setting up of receiving stations (upto 220 kv), outdoor and indoor substations, high and low tension cabling, testing and commissioning of transformers, switchgear and motors. With these capabilities, ECC was in a position to handle turnkey projects involving civil, mechanical and electrical work. The five years between 1965 and 1969 saw major development in all types of construction activity. Some of the bigger jobs undertaken during this period included the Bangalore Water Supply Scheme for the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewage Board involving fabrication and laying of a 90-km pipeline and appurtenances, and Unit 1 of the Madras Atomic Power Project in Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. The company en- tered the field of constructing refinery projects and fertiliser complexes, notable Clockwise from right: Laying of underground piping for the Bangalore Water Supply Scheme; a calandria for the Madras Atomic Power Project Stage II; and erection of equipment at Madras Refineries.

One of the largest cooling towers at the time in India, erected for Madras Fertilisers Ltd.

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among these being the Madras Refineries and Madras Fertilisers projects, both in Manali in the outskirts of Madras, as well as fertiliser projects in Kanpur, Baroda, Goa and Mangalore. The Ballard Pier expansion at the Bombay Port Trusts Alexandria Dock, and the 4in-1 Devi Theatre multi-complex on Mount Road, Madras, were also undertaken. It was during this period that ECCs activity spread further into the eastern region, and an office was established in Calcutta. This office undertook jobs for Hindustan Steel Limited in Durgapur and Barsua, Orissa. In Durgapur, the company was involved in the 1.1 MT expansion of the Durgapur Steel Plant, while in Barsua the job was for an iron ore beneficiation plant. Air India entrusted to ECC the construction of Indias first maintenance and overhaul hangar for Boeing 747 jumbo jets. This hangar at Santa Cruz airport was one of the largest in the world at the time. Constructions of several factory buildings for L&T at Powai, Audco India Limited in Madras, cement and water treatment plants in different parts of the country and the Mangalore bridge were undertaken around this time. So was work on the design and construction of the first pedestrian subway at Round Tana, Mount Road, Madras, and the Aringnar Anna bridge across the River Gadilam in Cuddalore, where the use of coldtwisted reinforced bars in their construction was a first in the country.

The combination of civil, mechanical and electrical engineering technology and the entry into construction activity involving fertiliser plants, thermal and nuclear power stations, petrochemical complexes, marine works and highrises was to help ECC to grow significantly. It was during this period that Mortensen established, on the land he had foresightedly acquired at Manapakkam, the companys main depot and maintenance fabrication workshop to cater to the requirements of ECC job sites spread all over the country. Residential premises at 16 Cenotaph Road in Madras, later converted to the ECC guesthouse, were also purchased in 1969. In the late 1960s, A S Krishnan left the organisation, Menon and Chokhavatia were transferred to other groups of L&T, and S Naharoy, who designed many projects in Ranchi, moved to Madras. He was joined by A Ramakrishna, who had been deputed to East Germany on a Government of India-sponsored scholarship for training. He chose to specialise in precast-prestressed concrete and, after visiting several construction sites in Europe, had returned to India. Ramakrishna had joined the company in 1962 and Neyveli was his first assignment. Today, he leads ECC as President and Dy Managing Director of L&T, but back in the 1960s, on his return to India, he and Naharoy were put in charge of two separate design

Clockwise from right: Facilities at Manapakkam the casting yard for precast concrete elements; the P&M Workshop; and the Fabrication Shop seen from the outside.

Below left: Overhaul hangar constructed for Air India in Bombay; and, below, the Aringnar Anna Bridge over the River Gadilam near Cuddalore. On right: Cenotaph Road Guest House in Madras.

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groups. Naharoy headed the group that dealt with conventional buildings, steel structures and construction methods such as shuttering, slipforms and heavy lifts. P S Raghavan, better known as the Father of Estimation, took care of estimation and contract work for both groups. Buildings for several Danish Mission schools and hospitals were executed at this time. According to P R Varadarajulu, who later headed ECCs design department, some of the major work was the building of textile mills and other factories. Using the precast-prestressed structural method enabled savings in cost and, so, ECC was able to procure contracts from Premier Mills, Lakshmi Mills and Grindwell Norton. Precast elements like foundations, columns, trusses and purlins were used for the first time in these jobs. Shortly after Ramakrishna took charge of the second design group, Mortensen called him in to meet a client who wanted to build a theatre in Madras (Devi) better than its neighbour, Shanthi Theatre. Nanjappa Chettiar had brought the designs with him. Ramakrishna studied the designs and suggested that he would offer an alternative design in a few days which would have two 70mm theatres one above the other. A few days after the design was given to him, Nanjappa agreed that ECC could go ahead and build according to its design. When construction began, he wanted a basement theatre and a preview theatre added and ECC obliged. And a short while later he wanted and got a roof garden. This project was followed by several others where ECC, using its strength in precast and prestressed concrete, offered alternate designs to customers who came to them with building contracts. Anglo-French Textile Mills in Pondicherry and Zuari Agro Chemicals in Goa both benefited from ECCs re-design proposals. And so ECC once again became a Design-AND-Construct company but, with the advantage of having mechanical and electrical divisions and engineering back-up, all of which any major builder should have, it evolved into a company able to undertake turnkey projects.

Several innovative ideas were adopted by ECC in the late 1960s and the 1970s. Before the advent of cold-twisted deformed reinforcement bars in the market, ECC procured and twisted mild steel bars for extra strength at an improvised facility. This resulted in savings in cost. The arched (instead of flat) roof adopted for the pedestrian subway at the Round Tana (Anna Statue) on Mount Road in Madras, precast rib slabs and precast-prestressed girders for the Devi Theatre, and precast columns with holes and projecting brackets at the Ambasamudram loom project were other examples of innovation. Similarly, development of jumpforms and slipforms for chimneys and prill towers and steam curing for precast members (as in the Anglo-French Mills in Pondicherry) were demonstrations of the use of innovative methods. ECC began undertaking complete turnkey projects in the 1970s. One of the first major projects undertaken was the fertiliser project for the Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation (SPIC) in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu,

Right, top row: The Anna Statue Subway in Madras during two different stages of construction. Bottom row: The Anglo-French Textile Mills, Pondicherry, and, far right, inside the new weaving mill.

The Urea and Ammonia plants at SPICs Tuticorin facility, seen by night.

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in 1974-75. ECC was assigned responsibility for certain heavy and intricate structures with large spans. Prefabrication was freely adopted for storage structures. Civil construction and most of the mechanical, piping and electrical work for the plant were completed in record time. Along with L&T, ECC designed and executed zinc, lead and copper concentrator plants for Hindustan Zinc Limited at the Rajpura-Dariba mines near Udaipur in Rajasthan. The coal-handling plant at the Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station was another major turnkey project, new cost-saving design concepts adopted in the project included use of concrete instead of structural steel for the crusher and transfer towers, and economical shapes for the track hopper and tunnels. For the first time in the country, in 1977, a 120m-tall chimney was designed for wind-induced oscillation instead of adopting approximate dynamic wind co-efficients. This was for the Tuticorin Power Station. Plans for what might have been ECCs first BOT (build, operate, transfer) project the Korba Thermal Power Plant in Madhya Pradesh were also drawn up, but the work did not come through. ECC, however, benefited from learning what a BOT project involved, a knowledge that would stand it in good stead in the 1990s.

The floatation plant interior, showing the ball mills erected by ECC for the Hindustan Zinc Limited Plant at the Rajpura-Dariba mines. An aerial view of HZLs concentrator plant.

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ECC, despite the sterling construction reputation it had acquired by now, had still not really opened its account in foundation work. The application of the science of soil mechanics and foundation engineering began sometime in the 1970s in an Electricity Board project in Tuticorin. Success in Tuticorin saw repeat orders being placed with ECC for similar work involving de-watering. Several consultants and designers also began approaching ECC for help in solving de-watering problems and for advice about the correct techniques to be used. Meanwhile, the foundation division was strengthened with additional pile driving equipment and diesel hammers (for the installation of piles). A foundation design team was added to the design section and new plant and machinery acquired. In a short time, ECC became a serious competitor to established foundation and piling contractors in the country. Citing the example of a challenging assignment installation

of stone columns, sand drains and a monitoring system for a fertiliser project in Kandla, Gujarat a former general manager, recalls, The project was successfully executed at a time when such specialised foundation work was new to the field and consultants and customers pinned their hopes on contractors having knowledge of the mechanics of the behaviour of such foundations. ECCs reputation in this was enhanced when it undertook the Reliance project in Hazira, Gujarat, in 1985, where more than 10,000 piles were to be installed. A lot of persuasion and convincing was needed to create confidence in the design consultants, and execution teams, but the over 100 field-tests conducted, succeeded in doing so. Several pieces of imported and indigenous equipment were deployed in the project, during which a record number of 216 piles were driven in a day! Hydraulic pile boring equipment and hydraulic diaphragm walling equipment were now added to

An array of piling equipment at a petrochemical job site.

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the foundation division. A diaphragm wall for the DLF Centre in Delhi was executed against several odds. Meanwhile, a soil mechanics laboratory with sophisticated equipment was set up in Manapakkam to assist sites in soil investigation projects. The hydraulic boring equipment was used for the first time in Chennai, in the Temple Tower building project. Soon, foundation assignments for bridges, jetties and ports were successfully executed with the help of ECCs own design team. ECC by now had 70 worksites operating, with sufficient funds and a new leadership, Mortensens good work being carried forward by C R Ramakrishnan who succeeded him in 1975. Various piling equipment at work at sites around the country: (extreme left) the Bauer Drilling Rig; (above) Diaphragm Wall Equipment performing grabbing operations at the DLF Plaza site in New Delhi; and (left) crushing and screening operations in progress.

Temple Towers in Madras, reflecting a South Indian temple gopuram and representing a unique style in highrise.

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Growing tall
From the mid-1970s, ECC saw spectacular all-round growth in terms of sales and capital resources. In fact, ECC became the name it is today in international and Indian construction during these years under the leadership of Cheyyur Ramaswamy Ramakrishnan, CRR to all, who succeeded Mortensen. This was a time when the Government of India was not encouraging retention of expatriate staff and, first, Mortensen and, then, Hover left. SKT had already retired. When HHL decided to retire in 1978, N M Desai became Chairman and together with his deputy, K S S Mani, they decided that ECC had enough engineers, what it needed was marketing and management. In fact, in many ways, the latter, for under Mortensen there were few streamlined systems; he had installed in ECC personnel excellent site-culture, but paid little attention to the back office. CRR, with his L&T background, would, it was felt, strengthen the back office to which end he sent engineer after engineer to IIMs for training and management courses and at the same time bring in more work.

When he joined L&T in Bombay, in 1947, CRR was one of the first from a traditional land-owning family to enter service. From June 1958 to January 1964, he headed the Delhi and Calcutta branches of L&T. In fact, the Calcutta office was revived by him. CRR was not an engineer in fact, he was an agriculture graduate but at L&T he had developed a fine reputation for marketing, particularly of agricultural and construction equipment Caterpillar made, and man management. He also had strong political and social connections in the South. When he took charge as General Manager in January 1975, there began an era during which ECC took a new orientation involving less ad hocism and more longterm planning by management, keeping in mind the substantial construction opportunity a country that was liberalising offered. No sooner CRR came to ECC than he began to focus even more on contracts overseas. Till then, ECC had only done some work in Ceylon. In Qatar, ECC engineers, foremen and skilled artisans had mainly supervised a workforce that had been recruited by winning bidders of building contracts. Between 1971 and 1975, ECC undertook this work for the Davis Powergas Corporation of the UK, which was erecting a natural gas liquefaction complex for the Qatar Petroleum Company. This was ECCs first work in West Asia and P K P Menon, Chief Engineer (Mechanical), headed the team. Another West Asian contract that materialised was through the Mannai Trading Company, Doha, for the Qatar Fertiliser Project. A couple of other contracts followed in quick succession. By 1973-74, ECCs turnover had crossed Rs 130 million, and the company was ranked 42nd in a list of the 101 top industrial majors in the private sector in India. This ranking was achieved largely because of the overseas assignments of the company. These overseas jobs were carried out under John Hovers direction. G T Shroff was Mortensens Assistant General Manager (Overseas).

C R Ramakrishnan and Mrs Ramakrishnan welcoming Holck-Larsen during a visit to Madras. Top: Holck-Larsen at the Abu Dhabi International Airport site, inspecting progress. Right: ECC personnel and their living quarters at the same site.

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It was CRR, however, who made the big overseas breakthrough when he successfully led ECCs bid for the Abu Dhabi International Airport. This was a contract secured in the face of stiff global competition and ECC was the nominated contractor, chosen by the Japanese Construction Consortium. Nearly 1200 skilled personnel in supervisory cadres as well as skilled workers were deputed for the execution of this Abu Dhabi project. The Abu Dhabi airport terminal contract was valued at Rs 300 million. The construction was in association with a consortium of two leading Japanese firms, Takenaka Komuten Co Ltd and Kumagai Gumi Co Ltd. The project was a big challenge. This was because the lead time for procuring resources was three months and, without proper planning, there would have been a delay. Says CRR, That Abu Dhabi contract in 1976 was our first big break. We took a big risk, as our paidup capital was hardly Rs 7 million at the time. The prime contractors, the Japanese consortium, had to be convinced of our capabilities. Ever since completing the work, we have not looked back. On October 11, 1976, CRR was appointed Managing Director and Chief Executive of ECC. He helped ensure ECC was pre-qualified by international companies such as Snam Progetti of Italy, Bechtel of UK, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Toyo Engineering Corporation and Hitachi Zosen of Japan, and M W Kellogg of USA for projects in West Asia and other countries. Mechanical jobs in Zirku, near Abu Dhabi, and Kuwait were won and successfully executed. The company also supplied prefabricated structures and material for the civil work involved in the Yemen Dairy Project. When some years later, construction work for a urea fertiliser project for the State Fertiliser Manufacturing Corporation of Sri Lanka was undertaken by ECC, the scorching pace of the work surprising Kelloggs, the prime contractors, who at the first review meeting, decided that site supervision was superfluous for ECC. It was the highest recognition accorded to ECCs professional

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management and, that too, in a foreign country, recalls an engineer who worked on the site. The 60m-tall prill tower, built for the project and visible from miles away, was yet another symbol of achievement for ECC. O P Dhir, initially, and H J Amin, later, contributed significantly to this overseas reputation. By 1977-78, ECC had risen to the 27th rank in a listing of all-India industrial majors. The total assets of the company stood at Rs 650 million and the gross block at Rs 90 million. While major jobs were undertaken overseas, even bigger orders were won and implemented in India over the next decade. These included: fertiliser projects in Haldia (West Bengal), Bhatinda (Punjab), Panipat (Haryana), Phulpur (Uttar Pradesh) and Kandla (Gujarat); cement plants in Ariyalur (Tamil Nadu), Rajban (Himachal Pradesh), Yerraguntala (Andhra Pradesh) and Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh); thermal power plants in Ukai and Gandhinagar (Gujarat), Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu) and Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh); super thermal power plants in Trombay (Maharashtra) and Badarpur (Uttar Pradesh); a petrochemical complex for IPCL in Baroda; textile factories in Hosur (Tamil Nadu), Trichur (Kerala) and Surat (Gujarat); buildings for the Bombay Stock Exchange, the new Maharashtra Legislative Council Hall, the Reserve Bank of India in Ahmedabad, the Mahavir General Hospital, Surat (Gujarat) and the Vijaya Bank, Bangalore; heavy water projects in Baroda, Talcher (Orissa) and Tuticorin;

offshore terminal facilities in Uran and Trombay (in Maharashtra) and an LPG crude stabilisation unit for the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation; steel plants in Jamshedpur and West Bokaro (Jharkand) for TISCO; and electrification projects for dairy, sugar, chemical, pharmaceutical, metallurgical and paper plants. To consolidate these gains and to propel growth, CRR led ECC into a vigorous pursuit of policies aimed at the development and adoption of the latest techniques in design, construction and erection, replacement of equipment where necessary and purchase of additional sophisticated equipment, introduction of planned preventive maintenance and proper upkeep of equipment, implementation of budgetary exercises, cost control systems, management reporting systems, computer applications, network programming and strategy planning, and a wellstructured human resources planning structure, including training of skilled craftsmen, introduction of graduate apprentice schemes and sponsoring senior staff for executive development programmes. It was the introduction of an almost entirely new culture in a company brought up on a culture of give us a job and we will finish it come what may, tackling any problem as it arises. Marketing management systems and much greater organisation in ECC have been CRRs indelible contributions. The technical aspects were managed by three Chief Engineers, A Ramakrishna (Civil), P K P Menon (Mechanical) and R Ray Chaudhuri (Electrical). Working as a team, they not only completed contracts on schedule, bringing them in well within the numbers quoted, but they also ensured that the systems introduced proved a success. Together they ensured ECCs rapid growth in an era when India began to be less of a controlled economy.

C R Ramakrishnan (third from right) seen with ECC stalwarts of the 1970s and 1980s. From left, T V Kini, V S Rao, H J Amin, J L Menezes and A Ramakrishna.

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Merging with L&T


ECC had by now developed a high degree of sophistication. Its impressive array of plant and equipment, including a heavy lifting tackle of 600MT capacity, the largest of its kind then in the country, was worth close to Rs 75 million. Most of this was lodged in home base, spacious Manapakkam, on the Madras-Bangalore highway. It was to this address, where the Madras Regional Office and Stores had already been established by Mortensen, that, on May 19, 1981, ECC moved its headquarters from its Club House Road office. During the decade of the 1980s, ECC diversified into railway electrification in the domestic market and ventured into more construction projects abroad. At home, it executed in a very short period 20 per cent of Indias electrified railway network. It was the only company to be given two simultaneous contracts the Kota-Nagda and Jhansi-Bina lines. Overseas, it did several projects in Iraq, took up more work in Sri Lanka and entered into a joint venture with Consolidated Construction Company International Limited for work in Kuwait. And orders for bridges in Malaysia were secured and successfully completed.

ECCs total capabilities and expertise were, by now, well known to leading Indian and international consultants, contractors and industrial organisations. But CRR and his team knew well that there were many more inputs from which the company could benefit. And so ECC entered into collaboration agreements to update its technological competence with Doka of Austria for formwork systems that team modular sections of timber and steel tubes at site to shape the work, with SECTRA of France and with GEA of Germany. Strategies were formulated for further diversification into cross-country pipelines and EHT transmission lines. It was this policy of keeping a step ahead of the rest that helped ECC grow in the 1970s and 1980s, when the country still had a largely regimented administration system, and initiatives of the private sector were not encouraged sufficiently. Competition to construction companies like ECC in those decades came from large public sector undertakings, which had vast resources and government support, including price preferences, or from smaller contracting companies which had the advantage of low overheads and questionable business ethics. ECC therefore had to build its strategies based on the superiority of technological innovation, some of it learnt from partners abroad, and better construction techniques. Not every project was profitable, yet they all highlighted ECCs vast skills and considerable capabilities that were unmatched by any other contemporary construction company in India. They were really the stepping stones for acquiring a reputation as a world-class company in later years.

The adult 20 years


On April 6, 1984, after 40 years of service to Indias construction industry, ECC, which was operating as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Larsen & Toubro, was amalgamated with its parent company and was

SECTRA tunnel forms under fabrication at ECCs workshop in Chennai. The Jhansi-Bina railway line electrified by ECC.

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renamed the L&T Construction Group (L&T-ECC). To exploit the name and goodwill already established, the name ECC was retained to mean Engineering Construction and Contracting. On April 7, 1984, following the amalgamation of ECC, CRR was appointed Vice-President (Operations), and Wholetime Director, continuing to lead ECC. On October 27, 1989, he was elevated to the position of Joint Managing Director, L&T-ECC. Explaining the merger, CRR says, When the mechanical erection and electrical installation activities, once carried out by L&T on a small scale, were transferred to ECC, these two activities grew into a major business for ECC, with more than 40 percent of its revenue coming from these consolidated jobs. The profit margin in civil work was low. But with changing product mix, profitability would improve, we felt. We, therefore, entered new areas such as highvoltage transmission lines. The greater advantage derived by looking at the construction business as a whole led to the proposal for amalgamation. The merger, combining the resources of L&T and ECC, enabled optimum utilisation of resources and better internal economies. It also became possible to look at the requirements of a particular industry in an integrated manner. For instance, L&T engaged in design, engineering and equipment fabrication, while ECC undertook construction work and erection of plant and machinery. This ensured offering turnkey services for an entire plant. The merger also helped ECC to expand its overseas operations, particularly as L&T had an international name and a better Balance Sheet. After the merger, with the equity base exceeding Rs 1,000 million, ECC was able to secure major orders overseas on its own and no longer had to be content with sub-contracting. Another consequence of the merger was that it made it possible for ECC to enter into the field of

manufacture, supply and erection of transmission line towers. A factory for this was set up in Pondicherry in 1988. The first order came from the Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board for the supply and erection of the 220kV transmission line between Cuddappah and Koduru in Andhra Pradesh. Since then, ECC has completed many such contracts, especially in the South. In 1988, ECC also entered the field of pollution control. A technical collaboration with an Italian company was signed for process design, engineering and operation of water, sewage and effluent treatment plants. This new diversification enabled ECC to win a contract from the Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) for the treatment of petrochemical wastes at the LPG recovery plant in Guna, Madhya Pradesh, and another for a water treatment facility for the Durgapur Steel Plant. The Guna plant turned out to be one of the most automated plants in the country treating petrochemical wastes.

CADD work-stations at ECC, Chennai.

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Just before ECC entered the 1990s, computeraided design and drafting (CADD) workstations were introduced. ECC also now diversified into the construction of roads, expressways, bridges and maritime structures. ECCs mechanical division diversified into areas of effluent treatment plants, HVAC and firefighting systems. By the time CRR retired in 1991, ECC had become a better recognised name abroad and, more importantly, was in a better position to undertake major turnkey projects, being able to offer the range of services from design to construction to engineering equipment. The next decade was to see galloping growth that these solid foundations made possible. CRRs 16 years at the helm of ECC were indeed a CRR era. The first Indian to head ECC, he took charge at a time when there was a general lack of confidence in the construction industry, which was considered a risky business. Order bookings were low and so was employee morale. ECC needed a shot in the arm and a new outlook for the changing times. Not only did CRR steer ECC through troubled waters but gradually took it to a pre-eminent position in the construction field. His 30-odd years of experience with L&T helped considerably, as did his PR and marketing skills, indeed, his all-round style. Under him, L&Ts construction business expanded and consolidated to emerge in the forefront of the industry in South Asia. The ECC Construction Group by then was contributing 25 per cent to L&Ts turnover and profits. More than the figures, ECCs geographical spread, diversification and technological leadership were impressive testimony to CRRs vision and drive. When he joined ECC, its operations were confined mainly to the southern and western regions and the accent was on civil construction. CRR was instrumental in establishing a strong all-India presence for ECC,

winning and executing large contracts in eastern and northern India. It was under his leadership that ECC diversified into road construction, bridges, cooling towers, cross-country pipelines, railway electrification, harbours and foundation engineering work. CRR developed, through empowerment and delegation, high morale and a feeling of belonging and involvement among ECC employees. He brought about trust, openness and frankness. At the same time, he ushered in a culture of white-collar discipline, office decorum and nurtured a sense of macro-level loyalty to the organisation that transcended the site or project relationship. Working 15 hours a day was almost the unwritten norm. It was under his regime that the ECC headquarters in Manapakkam acquired fresh dynamism. Graduate and diploma engineers were selected through campus interviews, line managers were developed as faculty for in-house training, and ECC operations were restructured by a professional agency. Site employees were provided better facilities. With increasing collaboration with international consortiums, site employees learnt more, experienced job satisfaction and grew faster in the organisation. CRR himself would visit every ECC site for firsthand information on the progress of a project as well as to inspire those at the site. His visits led to cost-consciousness, good housekeeping, and improved quality, safety and morale. When CRR retired on December 31, 1991, ECCs turnover stood at Rs 4400 million, a giant leap from the Rs 110 million it was in 1975 when he took over. This included a profit of Rs 180 million. In remembrance of his contribution, a staff housing colony, today, bears CRRs name. In many ways, this was most appropriate, because CRR had, following the fundamental beliefs of Holck-Larsen and Toubro, made ECC a peoples company.

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Human resources, its wealth


Under C R Ramakrishnan, a great deal of attention was paid to ECCs human resources development programme. The management was willing to experiment with fresh ideas and strategies as well as augment and strengthen human resources whenever needed. Employees were constantly being trained to meet the changing demands and to work as a team. Indeed, the work environment encouraged employees to give of their best at all times. At ECC, the concern for quality standards has been documented in the quality assurance manual. The division recognises the human element in assuring quality. Structured training programmes ensure that every ECC employee is conscious of his or her role and responsibility in extending ECCs tradition of leadership through quality. One of ECCs challenges, posed by the demands of the construction industry, is to keep up the morale and motivate and enthuse members of the ECC team on a site. Inadequate infrastructure facilities such as housing and transport, lack of proper schooling and recreational and entertainment facilities, extreme weather conditions, strange environments particularly abroad the constant need for rapid mobilisation of resources from one site to another, and numerous other hardships are encountered at scores of sites every day. The managements excellent rapport with the thousands in the ECC familywhich is why ECC does not have a trade union to this day and its wholehearted support in meeting every site requirement encourages those on the job to meet every challenge and overcome it with a deep sense of satisfaction. One system that has proved very successful at ECC is the organisational development process (OD) started in 1983. Senior managers of the group meet

regularly to diagnose critical issues confronting the company in a dynamic business situation and to take remedial action. This collaborative process results in mutual exchange of ideas and sharing of common problems. Arising out of this, systems relating to plant management, electronic data processing, training and development, integrated accounting, reward and motivation have been developed and implemented. The OD has succeeded because of the top managements support and the line managers committed involvement. With L&Ts philosophy of picking them raw, and training and moulding them into the L&T groove, still very much alive, selection procedures for recruitment are paid a lot of importance. Employees are selected only on merit. About 100 diploma engineer trainees are recruited every year by ECC from the campuses and groomed at L&Ts training centre in Mumbai to take up responsible positions in the company. A full-fledged training department updates and strengthens managerial, technical and supervisory skills of ECC personnel and organises full-time residential executive training programmes. An electrical laboratory-cum-training school in Chennai imparts knowledge in testing and commissioning of low- and high-tension electrical equipment and systems. The plant and machinery training centres in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata offer hands-on training in the construction of plant and equipment. These training programmes not only aim to accomplish an attitudinal change towards the concept of productivity but also help every employee identify himself or herself with the corporate mission. The aim is to get everyone at ECC to work together with a feeling of oneness, of belonging to the organisation. Apart from these programmes, ECC has instituted two programmes that reflect its corporate social commitment. A special institute has been established

The CSTI building and (below) some of the Institutes apprentices gaining practical experience on campus.

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for one, and a scholarship and course-content programme drawn up for the other. These initiatives are: Construction Skills Training Institute (CSTI): The construction industry in India is unorganised, though it is the second largest after agriculture. To meet the growing demand for skilled labour and trained construction workers, ECC established the Construction Skills Training Institute (CSTI) in 1995 as a technical training school at Manapakkam, Chennai, on 5 acres owned by ECC. At CSTI, youth are apprenticed to learn basic trades such as masonry, carpentry, plumbing, bar-bending and formwork. Each student is paid a sustenance stipend. Hundreds of apprentices from the economically weaker sections of society have passed out of CSTI. They are given further training through postings at ECCs construction sites and as well as those of other construction companies spread across the country. CSTI encourages them to return from time to time to appear for various certificate-level examinations in their trade. Build India Scholarship (BIS): To enhance the interface between industry and academic engineering courses, ECC instituted in 1998 the L&T Build India Scholarship. This is an M Tech programme conducted at the IITs in Madras and Delhi. It is aimed at nurturing professionals interested in fine-tuning theoretical knowledge to job requirements in the construction field. Forty engineering graduates are selected for this course every academic year after meticulous screening. The BIS scholars receive a monthly stipend for a two-year course. The course content is finalised in consultation with the IITs. On completing the course successfully, the BIS graduates are absorbed in ECC. The total emoluments and sponsorship cost to the company has over the years, run into several crores of rupees.

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The boom years


On CRRs retirement, A Ramakrishna took over and has made his own mark, reflecting CRRs view that one of ECCs strengths is the managements ability to identify people who can deliver. In 1984, following the merger, Ramakrishna was designated Group General Manager (Civil). He became Group General Manager, ECC, in August 1990, preparing him to take charge from January 1992. When CRR retired, Ramakrishna assumed charge of the ECC Group as Vice-President (Operations), L&T. He was also elevated as a member of the Board of Directors of L&T. On the occasion of ECCs Golden Jubilee in 1994, Ramakrishna wrote, (ECC) is the only construction company that can offer turnkey services in the civil, mechanical and electrical engineering fields and has diversified to offer construction services practically in all fields of construction. The recent attempts to enter property development and construction of infrastructure projects like roads, bridges and tunnels are bound to further consolidate ECCs strengths and will also provide further business opportunities in the near future. ECC has placed tremendous emphasis on completion of jobs on time, with quality to the total satisfaction of clients and this has been a tradition through its 50 years. I am sure this tradition will

continue in the years to come. The ECC Group has been a pioneer in bringing the latest technologies to the construction field. The Group is continuously in search of new technology, improving quality of work and giving its best to clients. Writing on the same occasion, H M Desai, then General Manager (Operations), stated that the reason for ECCs leadership in its business areas was the organisations culture. Mostly, we depended on fresh people, recruited and trained by us, with a few specialists from outside. The thrust has been on new people. Training is an ongoing process, Another reason is that we have absorbed the latest technology, at times with the help of collaborators, but we put it into practice and improved on it. ECCs ventures in West Asia, Russia and Malaysia also proved that ECC workers and staff could easily adapt to the host countrys rules and regulations and its ways of working. And K V Rangaswami, a former General Manager (Civil), adds, What makes working with ECC satisfying? It is the operational freedom you get. You have to experience it to believe it. Employees are encouraged to take additional responsibilities. To which A C Datar, a General Manager (Heavy Civil) in the 1990s, adds, Management allows us to experiment on new projects. When ECC bid for bridge construction along the Konkan Railway Corporations new route, KRC was apprehensive about awarding the contract, but the Panval Nadi Viaduct of the Konkan Railway turned out to be one of the finest bridges ever built in the country. ECC also completed six tunnels for the project which it won in competition; it was then awarded three more on a negotiated basis. In Malaysia, when a bridge built by ECC was opened to the public, the Chief Minister of Sarawak said that Malaysian authorities need not look too far to the west for good work; Indians could do an equally good design and construction job.

A Ramakrishna with Holck-Larsen, on HHLs 90th birthday. Clockwise from top right: ECC and expatriate engineers at the Heavy Water Plant site, Baroda; a waste-water treatment plant installed for Bharat Petroleum; and the Mother Dairy plant at Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

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Mechanical erection and erection of heavy lifts were among ECCs strengths over the decades. One of the earliest heavy lifts, of heavy water towers for the Heavy Water project in Baroda, was a landmark, being the heaviest at the time. Another erection landmark was in Neyveli, where seven vertical-type boilers had to be raised for a power project. So too was the blast furnace erected for the Vizag Steel Plant in Andhra Pradesh. It was the biggest furnace then in India and was erected in record time. ECCs first fully turnkey project was the modernisation of the Durgapur Steel Plant with the installation of two twin-strand continuous casting plants. Other notable turnkey jobs undertaken by ECC were wastewater treatment plants for BPCL in Mahul (near Mumbai), for the Gas Authority of India Limited in Guna, for ONGC in Navagam, Gujarat, for the Calcutta Port Trust in Haldia, and for Hindustan Petroleum. ECC also undertook dairy projects for the National Dairy Development Board.

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To undertake such work, ECCs strength is the back-up it assures its project teams by way of equipment. Quick equipment mobilisation, involving transportation, erection and commissioning of plant and machinery in the shortest possible time, is a skill ECC has perfected. ECCs plant and machinery, worth nearly Rs 7350 million, include a fleet of 200 cranes as well as 400 other lifting tackle, including winches, passenger hoists, passenger-cum-material hoists and EOT cranes, 100 loaders and excavators, 40 bulldozers and graders. Other plant and machinery comprise three hot-mix plants of 100MT capacity each, four asphalt paver-finishers each of 530MT per hour capacity, crushing and screening plants, piling equipment, slipform hydraulic jacks, pneumatic and welding machinery, a diaphragm walling equipment and 30 concrete pumps of various makes. A 300MT boom derrick, imported from the US, provided ECC the edge over other contractors in procuring business. Most of the 10,000 pieces of equipment with ECC are continually on the move through the length and breadth of the country at any given point of time today, meeting the needs of ECCs numerous job sites, 350 in its Diamond Jubilee year. Another reason for L&T-ECCs success is the teamwork between divisions. It wasnt always so, but over the years men like Hover and Mortensen and CRR evolved the culture of teamwork, strengthened through an organisation development process initiated by Prof Somnath Chattopadhyay. A third reason for ECCs success is ingenuity. This is what ECC has demonstrated time and again, not letting challenges hold up its progress. ECC will find a way, client after client has confidently stated over the years. Holck-Larsen, who regularly visited ECC sites across India, once described this characteristic as the indomitable spirit of the ECC team.

ECC today
ECC today has a centralised fabrication shop (in Kancheepuram) where a variety of precast concrete elements are made and steel structures fabricated. Supplementing these facilities, ECC sets up on-site workshops and other facilities whenever it undertakes a major project, deploying its men and construction equipment to job sites across Asia. ECC has its own fully mechanised stone metal quarry and crushing plant near Chennai. Crushing plants are also installed at major job sites. And it has a full-fledged, centralised R&D laboratory in Chennai where material testing of cement, aggregates and fresh hardened concrete is carried out. Today, the ECC Division of L&T is the largest construction organisation in India. It is also the largest division of L&T, contributing more than 50 per cent to the groups nearly Rs 100,000 million turnover. E & C contributes another 20 per cent through its EPC projects. ECC ranks 67th among the worlds top 100 contractors, according to a recent survey published in International Construction, a renowned UK-based journal. If the distortion due to currency conversion rate is corrected and the entire construction and project activity of L&T is considered, it would be fair to say that L&T would be among the top 30 contractors in the world. The ECC buildings in Manapakkam are themselves symbols of construction excellence. Three of them are prize-winners and are a part of what is acknowledged as an outstanding corporate campus. The buildings are set amidst 26 acres of scenic surroundings that create a campus that is eco-friendly, offering ample greenery, spacious parking lots and broad roads. Lush lawns, waterbodies and cascading fountains add to the aesthetic delight. The electrical division has a fabrication unit in Pondicherry, which undertakes manufacturing and

The Construction Workshop at Kancheepuram. Inset: Inside the Workshop.

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galvanising of transmission line towers and other structures for use in power sector projects and railway electrification work. ECC has several firsts to its credit. It was the first company in India to introduce: precast, prestressed concrete construction for largespan storage structures and factory buildings; slipform techniques of continuous construction for highrise structures, vertical silos, chimneys, prill towers, RCC pylons and octagonal bridge piers; design and construction of natural draft cooling towers using Doka automatic climbing forms; design and construction of slipformed boiler support pylons in RCC in place of structural steel; and construction of industrialised system housing, using tunnel and large area wall forms.

ECC was also the first company in India to: erect 50, 110, 210 and 500 MW boilers, including the once through tower type 500 MW boilers; string a 1200 kV UHV experimental transmission line system with ten-bundle conductors or moose (a first in Asia as well); build bridges through incremental launching of prestressed box girders; and swing launch bridge girders and introduce precast segmental construction. Today, ECC is Indias largest construction organisation. Many of the countrys prized landmarks some of its handsomest buildings, tallest structures, largest industrial projects, longest flyovers, highest viaducts have been built by it. Leading-edge capabilities cover every discipline of construction: civil, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation. The spectrum of projects covers every sphere of industry and infrastructure that touches the lives of people everywhere in India and in many parts of Asia. ECCs expertise and wide-ranging experience enable it to undertake large-scale turnkey (LSTK) construction with single-source responsibility. LSTK assignments are executed using stateof-the-art design tools and project management techniques.

C R Ramakrishnan being shown around the Transmission Line factory in Pondicherry by R R Chaudhuri, after its inauguration in 1989.

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To achieve this, ECC Division has been organised itself into five Business Sectors that enable it to access in-depth technology and develop business more fruitfully, keeping in view the growth envisaged in the companys Strategic Plan. The five Business Sectors, based on five core technology fronts, are: Buildings and Factories Civil and Transportation Infrastructure Hydel and Nuclear Power Industrial Projects and Utilities Electrical and Instrumentation

Minerals and Metals Bulk Material Handling Water Supply and Effluent Treatment L&T-ECC Workshops Electrical & Instrumentation Electrical, Instrumentation and Communication Transmission Lines and Railway Electrification In addition to the 16 SBUs mentioned above, there are three more, namely, Development Projects, Building Products and Resources & Supply Chain Management. Domestic and international operations fall under the single head of Operations. The Global Operations are carried out through four geographical zones. Currently, ECC is operating in 16 countries. The zones focus on field marketing, project operational support and monitoring. The project execution is monitored by Regional Offices and executed through various sites in the respective geographical areas, while the Global Resources & Supply Chain Management Unit aims at ensuring that projects are completed with quality, safety, speed and economy, yet meeting international benchmarks of quality. To achieve this, it not only manages to get the right plant and machinery to the right place at the right time, but also manages resources and identifies local, Indian and international vendors/sub-contractors who will meet the standards required for the work. From the 1970s, before the development of the Strategic Plan, and since the Plan, ECC functioning in the broadly delineated Business Sectors, has set several records while building many of modern Indias new landmarks. Just a few of the more noteworthy ones are mentioned in the following pages.

There are 16 Strategic Business Units (SBUs) that are part of the five Business Sectors. They are: Buildings and Factories Institutional and Commercial Buildings System Housing and Industrial Structures Engineering Design and Research Transportation Infrastructure Ports, Harbours and special Projects Bridges Roads, Airports and Runways Hydel & Nuclear Power Hydropower and Irrigation Projects Nuclear Power, Space and Defence Projects Industrial Projects & Utilities Thermal and Nonconventional Power Hydrocarbon Construction and Pipelines

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Buildings and Factories ECC, from its earliest days, has built a variety of buildings, including commercial and residential highrises, international class hotels, superspeciality hospitals, theatres and auditoriums, sports stadiums, educational institutions, religious structures, factories and industrial housing. Shipping House, built by ECC in 1967, was one of the first multi-storeyed buildings at Nariman Point, Bombay. Kanchanjanga Apartments, a 28-storeyed building with garden terraces, and Cooperage Tower, a 14-storeyed building, both in Mumbai, followed. More recently, Arihant Majestic Towers, a 17-storeyed, 312-apartment mega housing project, was completed in Chennai. It is the tallest building in the city.

Among the many noteworthy projects ECC has undertaken for the Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust are the design and construction of pilgrim quarters in Puttaparthi in Andhra Pradesh in a record time of 180 days and the Sathya Sai Nigamagam multipurpose auditorium and Kalyana Mantapam, which won an FIP award. Some outstanding housing projects completed are the 466 staff quarters for the Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project in Andhra Pradesh, two residential tower blocks, each of 24 storeys, in Khandivili, an industrial suburb near Mumbai, for Oberoi Construction, and a 300-home earthquake rehabilitation housing project in Mathak village in Bhuj and in Bhachau Taluq in Maharashtra. Construction of 1,376 flats for the Delhi Development Authoritys Dwaraka Mega Housing Project is in progress as this volume goes to press.

Clockwise from right: Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex, Punjab; Referral Hospital, Sikkim; The National Stock Exchange, Mumbai; Arihant Majestic Towers, Chennai.

Below: Mani Kanchan Gem & Jewellery Park, Kolkata; and, below left, The ITC Grand Maratha Sheraton, Mumbai.

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The most eyecatching of buildings built by ECC include the Bahai Temple in New Delhi, the Stock Exchange Tower in Mumbai, towering over adjoining buildings and acoustically designed to absorb the din generated during trading hours by 3500 people, the almost invisible Tata Theatre of the National Centre for the Performing Arts, where advanced technology for acoustics ensures that everybody in the auditorium sees and hears the performance on the stage with undiminished clarity, the ultramodern premises of the new Maharashtra Legislative Council Hall, and the Hare Krishna Temple in Juhu (Mumbai), an ornate structure that blends the new and the old.

Offices and factories Clockwise from right: Infosys, Chennai; inside the ITC-Sunrise factory, Bangalore; Teaktek Industries, Palakkad, Kerala; and the Godrej GE Appliances factory, Mohali, Punjab.

Below: Inside the Vivekananda Memorial & Cultural Centre, Kolkata; and bottom: Golden City, Dhyana Vihar, Tada, Andhra Pradesh.

Various sites under construction Above right: The Lotus Temple in New Delhi; right, the national emblem being installed atop the Maharashtra Legislative Council Hall, Mumbai; and below, the DLF Centre, New Delhi.

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Transportation Infrastructure From the Mortensen days, ECC has developed construction expertise in the field of transportation infrastructure. Harbour and airport facilities, roads and bridges have been built not only in different parts of India but also in West and Southeast Asia. Starting with building docks in Bombay and Madras, ECC went on to build the Abu Dhabi airport, bridges, Coimbatore Bypass Road and the Hosur-Bangalore Road. ECC has gone on to make a major contribution to the national Golden Quadrilateral Project.

Top: The Konkan Railway Bridge, Halladi; Above: The Vasista Bridge, Andhra Pradesh. Left: The Yamuna Bridge, New Delhi; Left top: Highway in Punjab.

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Hydel and Nuclear Power The Karnataka experience and superior construction technology helped ECC to complete the 2x500MW Tarapur Nuclear Power Station in Maharashtra in less than 48 months and four months ahead of schedule. ECC made a name for itself in the thermal power field sometime earlier. Major thermal power stations, like the one in Tuticorin, have been the result of ECCs comprehensive engineering services. Other major thermal power projects to which ECC expertise contributed are Dhuvaran and Koradi in Maharashtra, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, Badarpur (near Delhi), Panki,

Construction underway at the Tarapur Atomic Power Plant.

The Raichur Thermal Power Plant by night.

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Uttar Pradesh (the first 110 MW boiler), Bhatinda, Punjab, Ukai, Gujarat (the first 220 MW boiler), Kota, Rajasthan, and Trombay (the first 500 MW boiler). Work for these projects included massive turbogenerator foundations, piping, equipment erection, structural steelwork, electrical control and power systems, and high-tension installations. The 220m-high RCC chimney constructed at the Raichur Thermal Power Stations Unit III in the early 1990s is the tallest structure in Karnataka. An important feature of the chimney is that the casting of external platforms at every 45m level was taken up simultaneously with shell slipform, thus saving time, money, labour and risk. Large-scale water supply projects in urban and rural areas have also been undertaken by ECC. Thanks to ECC, 1.4 million hectolitre of River Kaveri water flows upwards against gravity over a 457 metre height and reaches homes in Bangalore, 90km away. Another ECC project has made it possible to pipe 90 million litres of water a day from the River Narmada to the people of Indore. Water supply schemes have also been implemented by ECC in Tirupur, Tamil Nadu, Anantapur District in Andhra Pradesh, and at Tirumala.

Industrial Projects and Utilities ECC pioneered precast concrete construction in India and has used it successfully in industrial parks, glass, dairy and other food processing plants, textile mills and weaving sheds, large-span storage silos, godowns and product warehouses, factory buildings and workshops, and clustered factory sheds. Complemented by L&Ts integrated engineering services, ECC offers total solutions for cement plant construction, which had resulted in construction of over 60 cement plants. It constructed Indias first prestressed CF silo for cement, raw metal and clinker and was the first to slipform a rectangular preheat structure, while raising L&Ts cement plant in Awarpur, Maharashtra. It also built much of the L&T Gujarat Cement works at Kovaya and the Sanghi Cements in Kachch, Gujarat, two of Asias largest cement plants.

The 2x250MW Budge Budge thermal power station of the Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Limited.

The Tata-Bhivpuri Hydroelectric Power Project under construction.

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ECC has also made a significant contribution to almost all major fertiliser projects in India, Sri Lanka and West Asia. It has constructed several urea, ammonia and phosphatic fertiliser plants with urea prilling towers, large bulk storage silos, cooling towers and material handling systems, has fabricated and erected steel structures and process piping on site, and supplied all electrical and instrumentation requirements. The slipform shuttering technique has helped ECC to race against time and stay ahead in the process of building prilling towers, silos and chimneys. ECC has built over 350 structures, with an area of 1,400,000 square

metres using this technology and should be one of the top rankers in this technology in the world. Mining projects as well as metallurgical industries have also used ECCs engineering expertise. For example, ECC carried out the erection work for the concentrator plant, the heart of the Kudremukh Iron Ore Project in Karnataka. Concentrator plants for copper and zinc were also designed and constructed by ECC for Hindustan Zinc. Installation of steel plants was carried out for steel projects in Bhilai, Madhya Pradesh, and Rourkela, Orissa, and for a TISCO project in Jamshedpur, Bihar (now in Jharkand). ECC also built

Clockwise from below: The Jindal plant at Tornagallu, Karnataka; Reliance |Industries naphtha plant at Hazira; NFLs Plant at Guna, Madhya Pradesh.

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for Jindal the first Corex technology steel plant to be set up in India, at Bellary in Karnataka. It also transplanted from Germany and re-erected in India steel plants for ESSAR in Gujarat and for the Ispat Group at a site near Mumbai. Other assignments have included installation of the iron ore beneficiation plant at Barsua, Orissa, and supply, fabrication and erection of structural steelwork and coal handling structures for TISCOs coal preparation plant in West Bokaro, Bihar. Indias first sponge iron plant was built by ECC in Keonjhar, Orissa. It also constructed Indias second largest blast furnace at the Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant in Andhra Pradesh. Other constructions include Indias largest alumina complex for the National Aluminium Company, in Damanjodi, Orissa.

The blast furnace at the Vizag Steel Plant.

Left: Blast furnace at the Rourkela Steel Plant; Extreme left: Sonia Vihar Water Supply Pipelines, New Delhi.

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Electrification & Instrumentation Since 1980, ECC has energised more than 2500 kilometres of railway track. Services have included route survey and design, erection of traction overhead equipment, switching stations, trackside transformer stations and 2 x 25kV AC traction substations.

The portal corridor on the Egmore-Tambaram metro line in Chennai.

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ECC now has the resources to construct and execute 400kV transmission line towers on a turnkey basis. These include every facet of design, fabrication, supply, installation and commissioning of single-, double- and multi-circuit transmission lines. A major achievement was the construction of Asias first 1200kV UHV transmission line for the Central Power Research Institute in Hyderabad. Instrumentation panel at Rajpura Dariba mines complex.

Below: 220kV switchyard at Kavas; below right: 330kV line at Abu Dhabi.

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Developmental Projects As the Indian economy liberalised in the 1990s and public-private partnership became acceptable, A Ramakrishna saw an opportunity in such joint investment for ECC in a country demanding speedy infrastructural development. The L&T Board reacted positively to these views and the Development Projects Unit was established to combine with L&T Finance Limited and draw on ECCs traditional strengths and wide-ranging experience to execute projects through Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) and Joint Ventures (JVs). ECC indicated its willingness to work with either the public sector or organisations in the private sector in India and abroad or both on projects based on only such principles as Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT), Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT), Build-OwnLease-and-Transfer (BOLT) and Build-Own-OperateAbove: The AhmedabadMehsana Toll Road Project; Left: The Watrak Bridge, Gujarat.

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Share-and-Transfer (BOOST). Each such project could typically be promoted by a consortium comprising private and public sector companies, financial institutions and multinationals. The range of projects targeted included highways and expressways, bridges, seaports/terminals, airports, ropeways, water supply and sanitary engineering schemes, bulk material handling facilities, power transmission utilities, infotech and industrial parks/estates, petro parks, public car parks, gas/oil pipelines, hydel generator and non-conventional energy installations. Several SPVs and JVs have been formed since the decision was taken in the late 1990s on this route for business development. They have been in such fields as road- and bridge-building, airports and seaports, IT parks and exhibition centres, water supply projects and housing, some of these projects are : Roads and Bridges L&T Transportation Infrastructure Limited (L&T-TIL) was formed to design and construct a 28km Bypass Road in Coimbatore and an additional twolane bridge across the Noyyal river at Athupalam. This was the first private road project executed on a BOT basis in Tamil Nadu. The concession period, including construction time, is 32 years for the bypass and 21 years for the Athupalam Bridge, commercial operations commencing in December 1998 and January 2000 respectively. Ahmadabad-Mehsana Toll Road Limited (AMTRL) was set up to construct a 51km four-lane toll road (plus two service lanes on either side for almost the entire length) from Ahmadabad to Mehsana, and the Kadi-Kalol spur road (11km). The SPV was promoted by the Government of Gujarat and Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services (IL&FS)

with L&T as a shareholder. The project was implemented on a BOOT basis. L&T, after completing the road-building in February 2003, remains the operations and maintenance contractor. GVK Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway Private Ltd was established to construct a 90.4km six-lane expressway between Jaipur and Kishangarh on National Highway 8. The project scope involves flyovers and interchanges at major junctions and provision of a stateof-the-art highway traffic management (HTM) and toll systems. L&T is the contractor for a 40km stretch and is responsible for the installation and commissioning of the toll systems and the HTMs. Construction is in progress as this volume goes to press. Narmada Infrastructure Construction Enterprise Limited (NICE) was formed by L&T for design, construction, maintenance and operation of the second Narmada bridge at Zadeshwar on National Highway 8 in Gujarat. The project, undertaken on a BOT basis, involves construction of a 1.4km-long bridge adjacent to the first bridge and 4.6km of approach roads. Commercial service began in November 2000. The concession is for a period of 15 years, including the construction period. L&T Western India Toll Bridge Limited (L&TWIT) was set up to construct a two-lane 335m bridge across the Watrak river, near Kheda, in the AhmadabadVadodara section of National Highway 8. The work included the construction of 9.2km of approach roads and the strengthening of 10km of existing road. This BOT project was completed in March 2001. Second Vivekananda Bridge Tollway Company Limited (SVBTC) was constituted to finance, design, build, operate and maintain a 6.1km long six-lane stretch of National Highway 2 crossing the Hoogly River near Kolkata. The BOT project included the construction of all 880m-long 31.1m-wide extradosed, cable-stayed bridge and six-lane approaches

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on both the Howrah and Kolkata ends with several exit ramps. The concession agreement is for 30 years, which includes a 3-year construction period. Airports and Seaports Bangalore International Airport Limited (BIAL), established in ECCs Diamond Jubilee year, is a JV company, in which the Karnataka State Industrial & Investment Development Corporation (KSIIDC) and the Airports Authority of India (AAI) hold 26% of the equity. The balance is held by Siemens, L&T and Unique (Zurich Airport) of Switzerland. The first phase of the project, including construction of a 4000m runway, a terminal building and other infrastructure needed for a modern airport, will begin shortly. The airport will cater to an expected traffic demand of

4.1 million passengers a year in this phase. The overall investment will be Rs 12,400 million. International Seaports Pte. Limited was incorporated by L&T in Singapore with participation from Precious Shipping Public Company Limited, Bangkok, and SSA Asia Inc (USA). L&T holds 33.33% equity in the company which is to provide an integrated set of services that include designing, developing, building and operating seaport terminals in South Asia and South East Asia. The company has formed a wholly owned subsidiary in India, International Seaports (India) Pvt Ltd. Kakinada Seaports Limited is a special purpose company formed by ISP Singapore to develop and operate the Kakinada Deep Water Port in Andhra Pradesh. L&T holds a 26% stake in it. An artists impression of the Bangalore International Airport.

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The Dhamra Port Company Limited is a joint venture of L&T and TISCO (50:50) formed to develop and expand Dhamra, a minor port in Orissa, into a modern, all-weather deep water port on a Build, Own, Operate, Share and Transfer (BOOST) basis. International Seaports (Haldia) Pvt Ltd is a special purpose company formed by ISP India for construction, operation, mangement and maintenance of a multi-purpose berth at Haldia Dock Complex. L&T holds 22.31% equity in the company. IT Parks and Exhibition Centres L&T Infocity Limited (LTIL) is a JV of L&T and Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Limited (APIIC) to develop in a phased manner, over 8-10 years, the Hyderabad Information Technology Engineering Consultancy (HITEC) City.

HITEC City, to be built as an integrated technotownship over 158 acres, will comprise office area, commercial space, hotel and convention centre, clubhouse and all infrastructural facilities for software companies and engineering and consultancy firms. The first and second phases of the project, Cyber Towers and Cyber Gateway, have been completed and are occupied by global IT players and leading commercial enterprises. LTIL, in a joint venture with ASCENDAS (a Singapore-based business space solutions provider), is developing an IT complex in the third phase of HITEC City, Cyber Pearl. This will offer 5 lakh square feet of business space when construction is completed this year. LTIL is the lead partner in L&T Infocity Lanka Private Limited (LTILPL), which is promoting an IT facility for the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank in

The then Prime Minister of India, Atal Behari Vajpayee, inaugurating Cyber Towers in Hyderabad, in the presence of the then Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister, Chandrababu Naidu.

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Colombo. It will also render project management services. LTIL is also the principal consultant to the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) for its IT Park in Shastri Park in New Delhi. Apart from undertaking a feasibility study with financial analysis, LTIL is rendering engineering and design consultancy (along with EDRC), as well as marketing and O&M consultancy. Cyber Park Development & Construction Limited has been formed to jointly develop, with Software Technology Parks of India (STPI), Cyber Park, a state-of-the-art IT park in Electronics City, Bangalore. The Park, built over 4.46 acres will, when completed, offer a built-up area of 45,539 square metres. Phase 1 of the phased development of two identical blocks varying in heights is to be completed this year. Hyderabad International Trade Expositions Limited (HITEX) is promoted by LTIL, the National Academy of Construction (NAC), the Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA), the Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation (APTDC) and the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH). It is developing in a phased manner a modern, air-cooled trade exposition centre on a 100-acre plot near HITEC City in Hyderabad. The first phase was inaugurated in January 2003. Water Supply Schemes Vizag Industrial Water Supply Company Limited (VIWSCO) was formed to augment water supply to a Yeluru Left Bank Canal (YLBC) and, thereby, spur the entire industrial development of Vishakhaptnam. The work involved laying a pipeline from the Godavari River at Rajamundhry, and regular maintenance and phased rehabilitation of the YLBC. The 56km-long pipeline is nearing completion. The operation and maintenance of the pipeline and canal

are to be taken up thereafter. The concession period is 32 years. To undertake this wide spectrum of work, ECC has a host of supporting facilities that are capable of providing the back-up necessary for the biggest of the projects. The key departments include the following: Engineering Design and Consultancy ECC has the largest and best equipped in-house design department in the Indian construction industry. The Engineering Design and Consultancy (EDC) Department was set up in 1955 to offer comprehensive civil and structural engineering design and consultancy services for cement, thermal power, metallurgical, fertiliser and industrial plants, petrochemical plants and refineries, water and effluent treatment plants, bridges, maritime structures, public buildings and switchyards. At first, it accepted consultancy work, and provided designs and drawings if thats all clients wanted, as in the case of Neyveli Lignite Corporation. Now, the department concentrates on design only for ECCs construction projects. While one group in the design office focusses on precast-prestressed structures, another group develops design of formwork, erection schemes, heavy lifts, conventional buildings and large-span structures. From 1975, the department has moved from designing isolated structures to concentrate on turnkey projects undertaken with other groups of L&T, for example, the zinc ore beneficiation plant at the Rajpura-Dariba mines, near Udaipur in Rajasthan, for Hindustan Zinc Limited. EDC has also diversified into the design of heavy civil constructions such as maritime structures. The open sea jetty for Finolex in Ratnagiri and the cryogenic jetty for Reliance Industries in Hazira are notable achievements.

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The Engineering Design & Research Centre (EDRC) EDRC has evolved from the erstwhile EDC Department. EDRC is housed in the EDRC building in the ECC headquarters campus. The building, inaugurated in 1999, has since won the international fib Award for Excellence in Construction, 2002. EDRC provides a broad spectrum of engineering, design and consultancy services, ranging from concept to commissioning of all types of projects covering all the core sectors. EDRC offers designs for specialised and complicated structures like large-span pre-cast, pre-stressed concrete constructions, highrise buildings, long-span bridges, large storage silos, prill towers, RCC pylons, systems, housing, such as IT parks, hotels and hospitals, tall chimneys, natural and induced draft cooling towers, erection schemes for heavy lifts, effluent water treatment plants and all types of geo-technical engineering solutions.

EDRCs Construction Methods Planning Cell (CMPC) complements site activities with economical formwork and erection schemes, method statements and project planning. As a part of Research and Development, EDRC strives for continuous upgradation and advancement in construction technology. It has concrete, soil and asphalt technology laboratories in Chennai and a state-of-the-computer-age office. L&T Formwork ECC entered the field of fabrication and supply of formwork systems for various applications in technical collaboration with Doka Formwork and Scaffolding Company, Austria. Today, formwork systems marketed by ECC include large area wall formwork, column formwork, flex system for RC floors upto 4.5m height, heavy duty towers for heavy floors and units above 5m height, scaffolding systems for finishing work, and automatic climbing formwork systems. Formwork greatly helps speed up construction. Housing for TISCO in Jamshedpur (using tunnel form) and for the Sathya Sai Trust in Puttaparthi are good examples of the benefits of using formwork. Ready Mix Concrete L&T Concrete is produced at ready-mix-concrete (RMC) plants in Mumbai, Pune, Ahmadabad, Chennai, Coimbatore, Tirupur, Madurai, Delhi, Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, Vishakhapatnam and Kolkata. The custom-designed concrete mix is delivered to construction sites in transit mixers (wheelmounted drums that are in continuous rotation to prevent premature setting of the concrete). Service to pump concrecte directly to the work is also offered. L&Ts experience in the cement industry both as a leading manufacturer and major consumer for all its projects ensures that the technology used and the quality of concrete are of international class.

Inside the Soil Laboratory in ECC, Chennai.

Right: Quarrying operations by ECC; Extreme right: Ready-mix L&T Concrete; Extreme right top: Doka columns and framework.

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L&T Concrete, has established itself as leader in Ready Mix Concrete business with a market share of over 31 per cent. L&T ECC workshops ECCs modern fabrication shop known as L&T Construction Works, which was in Chennai and now in Kancheepuram is geared to manufacture equipment for various process plants. Quarry To ensure that it has a captive supply of highquality aggregates, the Quarry Services Department was established in the 1960s. The department has extended its services to include controlled drilling and blasting for heavy civil foundations and excavations, tunnelling, and producing graded stones for multipurpose construction projects, including breakwater and marine work.

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Information Systems Department The Electronic Data Processing Department was established in Madras in 1983. Two years later, ECCs first mainframe, VAX 11-750, was installed. It was the first digital-processing machine from the second largest computer company in the world and was designed for engineering applications. The departments Enterprise Information Portal was launched in 2000. The portal serves as a central repository of up-to-date information on projects executed by ECC across the country and abroad, and facilitates availability of the right information for effective decision-making. Today, the group has a worldwide global connection through VSAT satellite communication, independent of cables. Drawings are no longer sent by courier. Corrections are carried out online. Online business operations, like transfer of funds and project management through data network and portable satellites, have also been successfully implemented. World Player ECCs construction capability, ably demonstrated in India, was, before long, to secure acceptance internationally. Its activities today extend beyond the Indian subcontinent into West Asia, South and Southeast Asia, Central Asia , Russia, Africa and the Indian Ocean islands. While working on these projects, ECC teams have contributed considerably to the host countries, but they have also learnt much. As already recorded, the Abu Dhabi International Airport Terminal complex was the first major overseas contract won by ECC. But before it was finalised, U V Rao and O P Dhir had to negotiate for long hours with the Japanese, who went into every little detail. When the negotiations reached the final stage, neither Holck-Larsen nor N M Desai was in India. Since it was the largest order for ECC and L&T till then, Rao

telephoned them in Switzerland and was advised by HHL to call the other directors of L&T for an informal briefing session and seek their blessings. The meeting was called at short notice and Rao made a presentation of the proposed contract. All the directors present agreed to L&T entering into it. I remember very clearly that the ICICI nominee director, the late Kumara Sundaram, went out of his way to say that even if we did not make any money, we must not miss this opportunity to gain experience in executing such a large overseas job. Of course, in the end, we did make a profit that pleased the Board, recalls Rao. The ECC team, in turn, learnt much from the Japanese engineers supervising the work for the contractors. Their meticulous planning and followup, noting down every spoken word at site meetings and reminding the engineer concerned about his commitments, were an exhibition of thoroughness the ECC team had not come across before. Both the Japanese and the French (airport design consultants) were full of praise for the Indian artisans who were able to produce such a perfect shape for a concrete structure and for the beautiful ornamental inlay work inside the building. In fact, the Japanese wanted ECC to execute the rest of the infrastructure, such as the runways and tarmac as well. As it needed heavy investment in plant and machinery, L&T decided that it could not afford to make such an investment. Not long after the Abu Dhabi Airport project, ECC for the first time took a step into what was then the USSR. It successfully bid for three major projects in an USSR state that is now an independent country, Uzbekistan. ECC undertook the turnkey construction of a 500-bed international-class hotel in historic Samarkand, a similar 440-bed hotel in ancient Bukhara as well as refurbishment and modernisation of a tobacco factory in Tashkent, the capital.

Right: After the signing of the Zernograd agreement; Extreme right and top: The Zernograd project.

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Building a five-star hotel in one of the most earthquake-prone zones in the world was not an easy task. ECC began construction of the multi-storeyed hotel in Samarkand, a first of its kind in the region, based on Russian architect Wakhidovs design and the architectural and structural drawings of the consultants, Gherzi Eastern. The hotels in Samarkand and Bukhara were designed according to the Russian code of construction (SNIP) to withstand very high seismic forces. It was ECCs design team headed by P R Varadarajulu that provided seismic analysis and helped Gherzi Eastern to interpret it to meet the demands of the SNIP code. The project was not only a prestigious one but was also laced with challenges short delivery time, quality norms (when quality was not much of a buzzword in Asia), finding the right vendors and working in temperatures as low as minus 20 degrees. The successful execution of these projects led to one in Russia itself, a massive project funded by Germany. A 601-apartment township was to be developed in Zernograd to accommodate Soviet soldiers returning from Germany where they had been stationed since the end of World War II. When the

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ECC staff landed in Zernograd for the first time, they were greeted with snow and temperatures of minus 34 degrees. The extreme climatic conditions, the logistics, and the Russian environment of uncertainty where muscle and gun power thrived made this one of the toughest overseas assignments for ECC. At the same time, the ECC team was struck by the work ethic of the Russians who felt that whatever job they did, they needed to do it well. ECC teams have had to work in totally different climatic and working conditions in what has now become familiar territory to them, West Asia. In Qatar, ECC was involved in equipment erection, process piping and electrical installation for a fertiliser project, stripping plants, NGL plants and gas-gathering stations. It installed equipment and piping for a distillation unit on Zirku Island, designed, supplied, erected, tested and commissioned four sub-stations and carried out modifications on existing sub-stations at Ras-Al-

Khaimah, designed, supplied, erected, tested and commissioned 33kV double circuit transmission lines across 75km, and a submarine cable between Al Mirfa power station and Abu Al Abiyad Island in Abu Dhabi. In Oman, a shopping complex was built at Al Khuwair, Muscat. ECC also provided project management services to the Yemen Dairy Development Project in Hodeidah. Construction of a multi-storeyed police headquarters building, a 25,000 seat football-cumathletics stadium in Amara, a Customs complex at Safwan on the Iraq-Kuwait border and a 12-storeyed office complex in Baghdad were turnkey projects that were undertaken in Iraq. And they were completed in difficult conditions. Because of the Iran-Iraq war, there was shortage of food and other essentials. Onions and potatoes had to be procured from places hundreds of kilometres away. There were blackouts every day. And rockets landed near the ECC worksite. Elsewhere, in West Asia, ECC erected equipment and

Various projects in West Asia include, clockwise from right: the Salalah Power Plant, Oman; a gas gathering station in Kuwait; Sports Stadium, Qatar; and the G-100 Hospital, Saudi Arabia.

The Indian Embassy building, Kuwait.

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pipelines connected with gas collection centres, a crude oil stabilisation facility, desalination and dehydration plants, and a glass factory in Kuwait. The Indian embassy building in Kuwait is also by ECC. Closer home, after erecting Sri Lankas first cement plant, ECC designed and constructed a urea storage silo and prill tower for a fertiliser complex and raised in Colombo a 26-storeyed building, the Islands tallest at the time. In Nepal, civil and structural work for the rehabilitation and upgrading of the TrishuliDevighat Power Plant, civil work for augmenting irrigation water supply for the Sunsari Morang Irrigation Project, and construction of the International Gateway Telephone Exchange building complex in Kathmandu were successfully completed. Moving into Southeast Asia, ECC built the 468m bridge over the River Kinabatagan and the 210m bridge over the River Segama in Sabah, Malaysia. It also built the 500m-long bridge across the Sungai Limbang at Kampung Batu Danau, the 300m-long bridge across the Sungai Sarawak at Batu Kawa, and the 175m-long bridge across the Sungai Sarawak at Batong Sadong, all in Sarawak. Other ECC constructions overseas include a resort project in the Maldives.

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Two other landmarks abroad: Extreme left: A 26storeyed building in Colombo, Sri Lanka, the Islands tallest then; and, left: a holiday resort in the Maldives.

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The Strengths of L&T-ECC


Wherever ECC has worked, in whatever conditions, it has had two fundamental strengths to rely on: teamwork towards which the entire group could be depended on to contribute, and a commitment to supplying work of the best quality in the shortest possible time. Customer after customer has, over the years, had the confidence that ECC would always contribute these two strengths to any project undertaken for them. It is a confidence that makes celebration of six decades of service in India and many a country abroad

most satisfying. On April 27, 2004, ECC completed 60 years of service in engineering construction. ECC has undergone many remarkable changes during these years and achieved notable successes and growth. The result is there for all to see: The countrys largest and leading engineering and construction organisation and the one best known internationally. Holck-Larsen and Toubro did indeed lay solid foundations on which Berg and Petersen, Hover and Mortensen, CRR and A Ramakrishna and their teams have built a landmark that thrives and continues to grow. L&T-ECC is now a name to reckon with in the international construction industry.

ECC a peoples organisation, where every attention is paid to the safety and well-being of every member of its team.

60 landmark projects

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For a Glimpse of the Lord

gallery. The surface was then finished with screed concrete using weld mesh as reinforcement. The lower gallery was formed by earth fillings, topped with PCC. Passages connecting the different compartments were cut out of the core walls. Conventional water-proofing methods were dispensed with, and the latest concepts in chemical waterproofing adopted instead. The complex, built keeping in mind the enormous rush of pilgrims, has successfully served to relieve the tedium and hardship pilgrims underwent in the old days, willing as they were to face anything in order to gain a glimpse of their Lord. ECCs involvement at Tirupathi goes back to the 1970s. It all began with the construction of Q-Complex-I and Q-Complex-II. This was followed by the construction of the administration building for the TTD. Since then, L&T-ECC has also constructed the Asthana Mandapam, a huge auditorium used for various religious programmes and capable of accommodating 1500 people. A shopping complex has been provided in the basement of this building for pilgrims.

aith its endurance and eternal power to draw people is witnessed daily in the Tirumala Hills, as millions of devotees arrive and wait patiently in queue for a darshan of their Lord, their eyes fixed on the gleaming Rajagopuram as they inch closer, step by step, to their destination. The long, winding queues are a familiar sight at the temple, and have been so for years. L&T-ECC was called in by the Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanam (TTD) to construct a modern queue complex at Tirumala that would also serve as a comfortable waiting area. The structural design by the Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Chennai, was in the form of a semi-circular stadium, comprising 17 compartmental waiting areas in bottom and top galleries. Each compartment contains a reading room, canteen and other facilities for 400 devotees at a time. The top gallery is made of 323 pre-cast, prestressed concrete channels, with a roof of 206 10mlong pre-cast concrete shells, placed on pre-cast RC roof beams. The hyperboloid shells have been placed longitudinally, with gaps, varying in width, left between them to facilitate natural lighting. The gaps are covered with 3mm thick fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) domes specially moulded to suit the profile of the structure. The pre-stressed channels are supported on brackets projecting from the RCC core walls in a step-like fashion and form the upper

The Asthana Mandapam.

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The semi-circular pilgrims waiting complex at Tirumala.

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Going to the Movies in a 4-in-1

he concept of multiplexes gathered momentum in urban areas what with the retail boom, and the rising cost of real estate in urban localities, especially in the hearts of cities. These multiplexes also proved that they did pay in the long run because of their commercial viability, prompting several State governments to provide incentives to encourage their construction all over India. Urban tastes underwent change, and the concept of going to the theatre grew to include a multitude of activities, not just that of watching a movie. While multiplexes are built around a primary anchor, the movies, a typical multiplex usually involves at least three theatres seating at least 1000 each, and includes other commercial and entertainment facilities, restaurants and shopping malls. It yields rich revenues through box office collections, rent from display systems, restaurant rentals, food and beverage collections, product launch rentals and promotions by companies. Multiplex complexes are not new to the city of Chennai. In 1967, nearly four decades ago, the Devi Theatre Complex, a multilevel twin auditorium, was built by L&T-ECC. The art of constructing a multiplex is very different from constructing a cinema theatre at ground level. Large unobstructed covered spaces coupled with heavy load intensities have to be constructed, posing special problems demanding innovative technology, superior quality and safety at every stage of construction. There are five floors in the Devi complex. It houses two large auditoriums, Devi and Devi Paradise, placed one above the other, and a terrace garden. Each auditorium seats 1200. The complex also

Looking up to Paradise! has two mini auditoriums, named Devi Bala and Devi Kala. Access to the higher levels is provided by three staircases, two lifts, and one ramp. The construction of this structure involved a total area of 9100m2. The precast scheme was adopted for the central area. The central portions of the stage and the auditorium were made of prestressed and precast concrete. The area was then surrounded by in situ reinforced frame on the sides and in front. Two basements were constructed, one in the rear for the airconditioning and power equipment, and one in front. The entire auditorium was covered by precast concrete channel slab units resting over 22.45m long precast prestressed girders. These girders were spaced out, resting on brackets cast at different levels. This served to give the required slope for seating arrangements. The girders were cast on site. The openings provided in the web of girders reduced self-weight, and provided for airconditioning and other service ducts above the false ceilings. A flat roof was preferred because it could be used for a terrace garden, or a roof-top restaurant. The multiplex was a challenge in construction, as its design and execution were both complicated processes. The end result however serves to provide the movie-goer with a literally multi-faceted experience.

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The Devi Multiplex in Chennai.

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T h e To o l s of Power
The coal-handling jetty stretching into the sea. coal handling systems. This involved laying 70,000m 3 of concrete, of which 11,000m3 was precast. The total quantity of steel used was around 6700MT. The project contained several highlights, and, as always with L&TECC, a few firsts. Precast construction was adopted for the first time for underground construction. Ribbed wall panels were The cooling-water intake bay at precast and erected for the 2.5km- TTPP, Tuticorin. long concrete channel, which was completed in 12 months. An indoor switchyard in completely precast, prestressed concrete an elegant building that catches the eye of visitors was designed and constructed for the first time by L&T-ECC. For the first time too, slipform techniques were employed to build the tapering 122m-tall chimney. The cooling water system uses a 2.5km tunnel to bring in sea water. Construction also included the building of pressure tunnels, the pump houses and outfall structures to let out hot water from the turbines. L&T-ECC had to solve serious de-watering problems thrown up by the soil strata through a two-stage de-watering system. An external coal handling system comprising a 2km jetty stretching into the sea was constructed. It was supported on 900mm dia marine piles, with superstructure consisting of precast, prestressed concrete girders launched into position through modern construction methods. The internal coal handling system also posed a few serious de-watering problems as some of this work had to go as deep as 14m. Pressure tunnels were cast in one massive block. ECC adopted structural steel tunnel shuttering, which was moved forward on rails, enabling speedy operations.

uring the darkest hours of World War II, Winston Churchill is said to have exclaimed, Give us the tools and we will finish the job. Given the perennial power shortage many States in India experience today, Churchills cry, could, for many industrial units in India, translate into: Give us the power and we will deliver the goods. Paucity of power has been one of the major bottlenecks on the path of boosting industrial and agricultural production in the nation. Power development in India is therefore an area which is given top priority, with ambitious plans being constantly drawn up to increase power supply. L&T-ECCs involvement with these plans is over three decades old. L&T-ECCs services to the power sector have comprised civil construction, mechanical equipment erection, piping, boiler erection, electrical installation and instrumentation as well as transmission. Thermal power stations where L&T-ECC has made a significant contribution include Gandhinagar, Koradi, Vijayawada, Kota and Patiala. In the early 1970s, L&T-ECC executed one of its earliest power projects. The commissioning of two units of 210MW each at the Tamil Nadu Electricity Boards thermal plant in Tuticorin proved a valuable learning experience. As the major civil contractor, ECC was entrusted with the civil works pertaining to the cooling water system, the indoor switchyard, a 122m-tall chimney, and the internal and external

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230kV Indoor Switchyard at the Tuticorin Thermal Power Plant.

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Meeting a Growing Water Need

angalore is one of the fastest growing cities in India, with a population expected to cross 7 million and an area that is projected to cover 594km 2 by 2011. Water supply demands of the city are therefore on an exponential rise. The Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) was constituted in 1964 to meet the water supply and sewage disposal needs of the city. The Board implemented a comprehensive Cauvery Water Supply Scheme in three stages. However, due to rising demand, Stage IV was also planned and work is underway. L&T-ECC has been associated with the BWSSBs Cauvery Scheme from its very inception. Back in the early 1970s, L&T-ECC executed the laying of transmission lines, fabrication, laying and testing of some 33,000MT of steel pipes. This was a pioneering scheme in India at the time, of immense magnitude, and for L&T-ECC, it was a matter of great pride to be associated with it. Today, L&T-ECC continues to be part of the Scheme, participating in the ongoing Stage IV, in two areas. One, valued at Rs 212 million, includes construction of clear water reservoirs and pumping stations at T K Halli, Harohalli and Tataguni, 83km, 40km, and 19km respectively from Bangalore. The major components of the project are the raw water transfer from Shiva Anicut to the T K Halli works; the installation of a water treatment plant of capacity 270mld at T K Halli; and the transfer of the treated water to the city reservoirs. Other associated works include site development, switchyard compound, valves, site grading, and fencing works and pavements at all three locations. The second project, valued at Rs 130 million, involved the construction of balancing reservoirs at Kothnurdinne, Kodichikkanahalli

Top: Pipelines being laid and cured. Above: A green carpet covering an underground reservoir. and Hoodi and the supply and erection of electromechanical and instrumentation items. The contract work for Scheme IV involves major quantities of excavation, concrete shuttering and reinforcement. Pacific Consultants International, Japan, Matt Macdonald, UK, and Tata Consulting Engineers, India, are the consultants for the project.

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The lifeline that supplies potable water to Bangalore the Cauvery Water Supply Scheme.

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Many site records were set, including the laying, welding and testing of the Horton Sphere (Ammoniasphere), weighing 330MT, in a record eight months. The scope of civil work was vast, including a bagging and bag storage building, a urea silo with conveyor arrangements, a di-ammonium phosphate silo, a raw water reservoir, chimneys and the urea prilling tower. The project consumed 16,000MT of cement, 48,000m3 of concrete, 5000MT of steel, and 200,000m2 of shuttering. L&T-ECC deployed 2500 workers, both skilled and unskilled, at the peak of activity, and used the slip-form shuttering technique, pioneered by them in India. Speed was of the essence, as this was a project in a hurry, with SPIC maintaining a count-down calendar. The L&T-ECC staff did not need a calendar they were in speed-mode right through. When ECCs engineers first visited the SPIC site in December 1971, the environment appeared forbidding. It took L&T-ECC a mere 30 months to change the face of this area into a throbbing industrial complex, its skyline and profile transformed forever, besides providing employment to the local populace. On April 14, 1974, SPIC commemorated the completion in record time of the largest urea facility in the world, and acknowledged L&TECCs stellar role in the project.

Breathing Life into Desolation

uticorin. A coastal city steeped in antiquity, marked by cultural fusion, situated near the promontory of Peninsular India. Earlier famous for the priceless pearls from the nearby waters, the glory faded over time, leaving little besides minor commerce and trade. Until SPIC and L&T-ECC stepped in and transformed the city. Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation Ltd. (SPIC) promoted a Rs 890 million joint sector enterprise at Tuticorin to produce, in the first phase, 363,000MT of ammonia and 528,000MT of urea per annum. Both the plants are the largest in India. The magnitude of the project notwithstanding, SPIC decided to use indigenous equipment, technology and construction facilities as far as possible. L&TECC, with its leadership in civil construction, electrical and mechanical erection, instrumentation and process piping, was the natural choice for SPIC to entrust the project to. For L&T-ECC, this was their very first turnkey project. The project included various challenging tasks. Steam-generating units supplied by BHEL were erected, as also the utility and auxiliary boilers weighing 1638MT. Equipment for the urea and ammonia plants, which included moving machinery, and 50% of the ammonia piping totalling 75,000inch-metres, were erected too. L&T-ECC also erected the primary reformer, the heart of the ammonia plant, using sophisticated welding electrodes made of incoloy, an alloy designed to withstand high temperature. The crystalliser was assembled at site using cladwelding. And the sophisticated machinery for the ammonia and urea plants was erected by ECC, calling for extensive welding and alignment checks.

The Horton Sphere at Tuticorin.

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The SPIC Tuticorin Plant, seen by night.

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Monolith of Tr a d e

n March 12th, 1993, a series of bomb blasts ripped through the bustling metropolis of Mumbai, Indias commercial capital, in an attempt to strike at the very psyche of a confident, spirited city and the nation at large, destroying many innocent lives in the process. Among the buildings that were torn apart in the carnage was the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) on Dalal Street. Thankfully, however, the tower block of the building was structurally unaffected, due entirely to the buildings design specifications regarding wind velocity, dead weight and seismicity, which provided the core strength to the tall structure. Damage there certainly was, as was only to be expected, but the building survived, testimony to the quality of construction by L&T-ECC, who had built the BSE in phases. The ease with which the shocked and stunned share-broking fraternity resumed their work on the second working day after the explosion was a tribute to their resilience and courage. The repair work entrusted to L&T-ECC was a tribute to their work quality and speed of execution. The Bombay Stock Exchange building, constructed to commemorate the Exchanges centenary and named Jeejeebhoy Towers after its erstwhile chairman the late P J Jeejeebhoy, is a towering edifice, breathtaking in form and character. In an area known for its architectural variety, with Gothic and contemporary styles abounding, it appears, at first glance, like a bird soaring high, to touch the sky, with its 35-storeyed 110m-tall tower, its slipformed central core, and the Trading Hall, comprising nine floors and two basements. L&T-ECCs association with the BSE began in the mid-1970s, when Phase I was constructed. The tower was slipformed in just 35 days.

A view of the tower from within the oval shaped Trading Hall. As always, safety on site was a major consideration for L&T-ECC, and it was with great pride that they could designate this too as an accident-free zone. This is particularly remarkable given that downtown Mumbai is characterised by the most frenetic levels of activity. There were also severe restrictions on the movement and storage of material, and on the actual construction activity itself, given the thousands of commuters swarming all over at all times of the day. Consequently, most of the work was done during the night. Day-work, such as the structural steel fabrication, was undertaken with utmost circumspection, with the surrounding areas shielded by nylon safety nets, reducing the chance of mishaps and allowing the free movement of vehicles carrying material. In 1975, BSE Chairman Jeejeebhoy expressed appreciation for the speed and skill displayed in the execution of Phase I and complimented L&Ts then Chairman, Holck-Larsen, for ECCs magnificent achievement.

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The Bombay Stock Exchange Building, Mumbai.

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Phase II was undertaken in 1990-91, the Trading Hall being the main construction. Rather like a truncated cone in appearance, the circular hall, with a capacity for 3500 people, is nearly 14m high, with straight walls zooming to the first floor level, then gradually inclining inwards as they head towards the fourth floor. The hall has a columnfree area of 95.05m2, with a diameter of 9m at the top and 30m at the base. RCC columns, shaped like capsules, rise to the third floor, then Y-shape up to the fourth, providing support. A fibre-glass dome allows natural light to stream through, in addition to the artificial lighting provided. The plaza on the third floor is striking, providing a refreshing respite to harassed brokers from the noise and crowd inherent to their work. The plaza is a stilt area, with supporting colonnades. This allows for cross-ventilation. Phase II also included offices for over 500 stock brokers and a share market vault.

Stock exchanges are auction markets for the purchase and sale of shares, a cacophonous activity, with over 75,000 transactions being recorded in a day. The trading hall has therefore been acoustically designed to absorb the din generated during trading hours. L&T-ECC undertook all the civil and structural work for Phase II. The cost-effective Doka system was used during construction, eliminating the need for bends and sharp corners, and allowing for fast and easy construction. The quality of concreting was so high that plastering of the surface was totally eliminated, considerably reducing the cost of the project. The structural work was completed three months ahead of schedule. With Phase II, the construction of the trading hall, considered Asias biggest, L&T-ECC can take pride in having once again been associated with a landmark.

A closer look at the fibre-glass dome in the ceiling of the Trading Hall.

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The marvellously engineered Trading Hall at the Bombay Stock Exchange Building.

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the Legislature and Secretariat. In 1965, it was decided that a new building would be constructed for the State Legislature.

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of

Given the fact that this project was to consist of buildings with certain special architectural features, a high-level consultative committee was set up, comprising a team of eminent architects. It was decided that the New Council Hall would be situated off Mantralaya, on reclaimed land at Nariman Point. The work began in 1973. L&T-ECC executed the civil and structural work for this structure in the 1970s. Today, the building stands out among Mumbais highrise towers.

Democracy

onstruction is an elemental part of civilisations progress; and Man, through the centuries, has built monuments that stand witness to significant landmark moments, and as symbols of mankinds own need to scale new heights. For years, L&T-ECC has been engaged in translating dreams and visions into concrete reality, keeping human welfare and cultural needs in mind at all times. M a h a r a s h t r a s New Council Hall complex at Nariman Point, Mumbai, is yet another such landmark. The original Council Hall was built in 1875 as a Sailors Home. The then Bombay State acquired this building for the Bombay Legislative Council in 1928. With time, the building was found to be inadequate for the day-to-day working of An aerial view of the Complex.

The project was divided into five different parts: The diaphragm wall and excavation; the basement floor of 10,558m 2 ; the superstructure for the ancillary portions; the superstructure for the central circular portion; and the superstructure for the tower block, an area of 13,912m2. The central circular portion of 5175m2, the council hall proper, is a 35m-diameter, 42m-tall dome structure. The external circular wall is of folded plate construction, giving the building a unique appearance. The dome is supported on 24 columns. Grid slab construction was adopted to provide a clear span without intervening columns. The building has three visitors galleries, for which 6m to 9m cantilevered, prestressed, precast RCC trusses have been provided. The circular portion consists of a ground floor and a first storey structure. The ground floor accommodates the Assembly Hall. The second and fourth floors contain the Council Chamber and the Central Hall respectively. The circular structure was designed by the Structural Engineering Research Centre, Roorkee, while the complex was designed by the Design Circle of the Government of Maharashtra. The structure, when new, had the largest basement for car parking in Mumbai approximately 11,000m2. The 79m-tall tower block consists of a mezzanine floor, a ground floor and 21 storeys. It provides accommodation for the Legislative Secretariat, committee rooms, the library, lounges for MLAs and MLCs, and the canteen. There is also an annexe, a 22-storey block. The entire project involved the use of 15,000MT of cement and 6000MT of steel.

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Maharashtras New Council Hall complex at Nariman Point, Mumbai.

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A flight of fancy in Abu Dhabi

The terminal complex has six main sections the traffic building (arrival and departure lounges), a state reception building, a control tower, a satellite concourse, prepassage ways and a link gallery. The airport is designed for the simultaneous parking of eleven aircraft, including five jumbos, with telescoping gangways connecting the aircraft with boarding and disembarking galleries leading from the satellite. Incoming aircraft are contact parked to the satellite building through its five prepassage ways. The satellite building is a unique piece of architecture both in concept and execution. It is located 250m from the centre of the traffic building, and the airport facility is the centre of activity, with embarking and disembarking passengers. Shaped a little like a mushroom, it has a diameter of 72m. Starting from a small round pond on the ground floor, a column rises, widening and spreading radially to a height of ten meters, returning with a smooth curve line to form the first floor level. Blue and green ceramics were used on the column, continued on the vault and on to the first floor level funnel-shaped gallery. The satellite core symbolises the gushing of oil, given the primary source of wealth in this land. Very little heat and light were allowed in from outside, thus creating a cool, bright green-blue cave. Landscaping and greenery, belying the overall presence of the desert, surround the airport. Arriving passengers get a first view The big dome under construction.

aul Andreu, Chief Architect, Aeroport de Paris, had a dream of a tired traveller, resting between journeys under a large green and blue vault, shimmering with lights, as the peace of the desert gently engulfed him. That dream grew into the New Abu Dhabi International Airport, designed by Aeroport de Paris, renowned for their architectural excellence, translated into reality by L&T-ECC. For Paul Andreu, it was imperative that when the traveller left the airport, an image would forever be imprinted in his mind, and Abu Dhabi would never again be an abstract name on a map, but a place with a soul. Extensive research was done from the beginning into the background and history of Arabian architecture, keeping climatic and functional restraints in mind, and the need for suitable beauty. An architectural landmark was thus created, in which the functional needs of modern air travel were blended with local colour, culture and tradition, and the desert landscape, creating a harmonious whole. When L&T-ECC took on this project in 1976, it was its largest single order till then, valued at 121 million dirhams (Rs 280 million). The order was placed by the Japanese joint venture of Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd. and the Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., the prime contractors. While the contract ran for three years, effective mobilisation of resources paved the way for efficient operations at site and the successful and timely completion of this prestigious project. The facilities, keeping the needs of millions of passengers, both transit and regular, in mind were designed with such foresight, that they would prove current much beyond 2000 AD.

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A birds-eye view of the International Abu Dhabi Airport.

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close personal bonds being forged between the L&T-ECC staff and the others, forming an international community of sorts. The operational facilities included workshops, warehouses, stores, carpentry shops, an ice plant, a batching plant, four tower cranes, a precast yard, cement godowns, a conference hall, a power supply shed among others. There were also additional facilities such as roads, cable routes, fencing, sewage disposal and water supply, and a quality control concrete and soil testing laboratory which was considered a centre of excellence and the most comprehensive of its kind in the entire Gulf area. The mosque at the airport. of interior gardens, and can locate those come to receive them even before dealing with disembarkation formalities. Moving paths and escalators take passengers right to where taxis await them. The airport has parking facilities for 1750 cars. It also has a mosque with a capacity for 200 people. The state reception building creates another vision of the desert the oasis and proves a warmly inviting area for receiving State guests and dignitaries. The control tower looms high at 35.7m; the rest of the structure maintains a low profile merging with the desert landscape, in keeping with the beauty of the extreme simplicity of earth, with its almost single colour blending with the sky, expressing calm and serenity. L&T-ECCs contribution involved export of India engineering services and expertise, Indian materials, and also plant and equipment used in the construction of the terminal and the creation of the site infrastructure. The construction personnel, numbering more than 1000 during peak months, were sent from India. An entire campus of modern, standardised housing units on modern lines was created for both staff and workmen, complete with community hall with recreational facilities, offices for the staff as well as for those from amongst the Japanese joint venture partners, French consultants, and the French contracting firm, France Technique. ECC was called upon to also build additional living quarters and offices for the use of the foreigners working on the constructions. This led to Huge amounts of construction tackle were amassed, including hydraulic cranes, tractors, trailers, excavators, soil testing machines, laboratory equipment, cement silos, land rovers and fork lifts. Many of these were fabricated in India, then shipped to Abu Dhabi Artisans work on glazed tiles at in knocked down condition, then Bombay before despatch to Abu Dhabi. re-assembled on site. The mock ups of the precast equipment to be used were first cast and tried out in Mumbai with the approval and under the supervision of the Japanese and French collaborators. As phases of the project were being completed, L&T-ECC took measures to repatriate its men and materials. Infrastructure facilities installed for structural work were also carefully dismantled at the end of the work. The smooth manner displayed in the mobilisation, execution and demobilisation activities during the entire project from start to finish earned the respect and appreciation of both clients and authorities. This project was the first major overseas project by L&T-ECC. It exhibited ECCs international capabilities to the world. In turn, ECC personnel learnt to work as a team with international concerns. L&T-ECC was instrumental in shaping an architectural dream and creating history in the desert through this monument.

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The Abu Dhabi airport under construction with the Control Tower in the background.

The passageway from the lounges to the aircraft.

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A of

Mine Wealth

n the picturesque environs of the Kudremukh-Aroli-Gangamula range of the Western Ghats, in the southern State of Karnataka, are the Kudremukh iron-ore mines, 64km from the port of Mangalore. The Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOCL) was established in April, 1976, as a Government of India enterprise administered by the Union Ministry of Steel and Mines. At the time, Kudremukh was the biggest mining project under implementation in the world and was poised to make a decisive contribution to the economic development of India. It was also the largest single-term contract in value and time in India, with KIOCL being the biggest public sector mining enterprise in the world. KIOCL was given the task of running, beneficiating and transporting the ore as slurry to Mangalore and shipping the concentrated ore to Iran. Canadian Met-Chem, a subsidiary of U.S. Steel Corporation, served as mining associate and engineer constructor for the plant under the overall supervision of the KIOCL. L&T-ECC was among the leading Indian enterprises involved in the construction phase of the Kudremukh project. The scope of work included mechanical erection of heavy equipment like autogeneous mills, ball mills, thickeners, scalping, sizing and screening equipment, primary and secondary magnetic separators and apron feeders, all totalling 9500MT. It also included structural steel fabrication and erection of conveyors, chutes, ventilation ducts and stagings to the tune of 2000MT, as well as fabrication and erection of 2500MT of complex piping systems. The contract was valued at Rs 22 million, and the project was expected to be completed by December 1, 1979. The most critical part

The four autogenous mills being installed at KIOCL.

of the assignment was the mechanical erection for the concentrator plant, considered the heart of the Kudremukh Project. A building 120m wide and 126m long, with a maximum height of 50m, had to be built for the crushed iron ore conveyed from the mines. The ore was to be beneficiated and the concentrate and tailings sifted in this building. L&T-ECC, with its multi-disciplinary expertise, was also awarded the electrical contract for the concentrator, thickeners and the Bhadravathi river pump house. ECCs Rs 4.5 million contract included the setting up of substations, extensive cabling, testing and commissioning of motors, associated grounding and lighting work for the concentrator building. L&T-ECC spared no effort to complete the work on schedule and commercial production began as planned in May 1980, with the first shipment of iron ore concentrate leaving for Iran on August 23, 1980, as scheduled. Exports from Kudremukh have earned the country millions in foreign exchange ever since.

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Floating Water Pump House at the Kudremukh Iron Ore mine.

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10

Helping

National

Development

&T-ECC has been consistently called upon to exercise its engineering capabilities and expertise in the execution of projects that play key roles in the progress and development of the nation. The Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited (IPCL) Complex at Baroda, Indias first integrated petrochemical complex, was one such project. It was set up by IPCL in the 1970s for its Gujarat Olefins Project. In April 1974, ECC was awarded contracts for equipment erection, which include piping and steel structures, mechanical work, and electrical work. The equipment erection work included alignment, grouting, testing and commissioning of 2243MT of equipment like columns, vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, trays, pumps, and other equipment like air drivers, mixers and filters. Columns reaching up to 72m were fabricated in three sections, each weighing between 50MT to 80MT, then aligned, clamped in vertical position and welded, ensuring simultaneously that these columns would be able to withstand very high pressures. The piping work involved was complex and involved transportation, prefabrication, erection, aligning and welding. The system also involved radiography, stress relieving, chemical cleaning of pipes, testing and commissioning. Around 130km of piping, of diverse diameters and specifications, was involved. Structural fabrication included erection of steel structures like platforms, ladders and stairways on the vessels and sliding plates for the heat exchangers. The mechanical work included the erection of Horton spheres, site assembly of columns for the Olefins Project, and erection of equipment and piping for the Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Project. A battery of stainless steel aeration silos at the polyethylene project for IPCL at Baroda. ECC erected, fitted, aligned and welded with continuous pre-heating arrangements two each of propylene and ethylene Horton spheres, supplied by Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels Limited, Vishakhapatnam. These spherical storage vessels were made of 44mm and 52mm steel plates and designed to withstand high pressures and cryogenic temperatures. The weld seams had to stand the test of panoramic radiography. The LDPE project required erection of equipment, machinery, piping, and steel structures for the plant,and involved alignment, grouting, testing and commissioning of vessels, drums, silos and hoppers of carbon steel, aluminium and stainless steel. The electrical work included installation of main power transformers, switchgear, cabling and street lighting, as well as flameproof installations for the acrylate plant expansion project. L&T-ECC successfully completed all contracts on schedule, meeting stringent quality requirements. IPCLs Gujarat Olefins Project was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India, Morarji Desai, on March 31, 1979.

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The Detergent Alkylate Plant of IPCL at Baroda.

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11

class monument, which today acts as a magnet for all those interested in aesthetics, spirituality and construction, who see the mystical connection between these factors. It took 18 months to translate the concept into structural designs and working drawings, the first task being to computer-generate geometrical patterns on which to base layout and structural dimensions. The specifications conformed to international standards, but also took local construction techniques and materials available in India into account. The temple, built of in situ reinforced concrete throughout, does not have a single straight line in its design; everything is in double-curved shells, which made re-creation in concrete one of the most daunting tasks undertaken by ECC. The lotus, as seen from outside, has three sets of petals, all of which are made of thin concrete shells. The outermost set of nine petals open outwards and form the nine entrances all around the outer annular hall. The next set of nine petals point inwards. The entrance and outer petals together cover the outer hall. The third set of nine A close up of the Temple by night.

T h e Ta j of the 20th Century


his weighty title sits lightly on The Marble and Concrete Lotus, the beautiful Bahai House of Worship in New Delhi. Says an ECC-ite, who was closely involved in the project, ECC may have constructed many projects of great complexity, but never before had we built a monument that the common man and the expert alike look at with wonder and say What a marvel! Seventh in a chain of houses of worship built to girdle the globe, this Bahai Temple is the largest and most expensive, and has been designated the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent. It is built to a nonagonal plan the form symbolising unity of the teachings of nine great religious prophets and takes the shape of a half-opened lotus, the sacred flower of the East that is hailed as a symbol of purity and tenderness. The Temple, thus, represents the manifestation of God. Architect and Project Manager Fariburz Sahba, a London-based Iranian, says that the deep respect for the lotus that is intrinsic to Indian hearts everywhere, their loving attachment to this beautiful flower, ensured that he could not possibly consider any other design. L&T-ECC, the main contractor, was assigned the daunting task of converting Sahbas vision into reality in 1980. Accepting the challenge, ECC has created a world

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The illuminated Lotus Temple seen here in the wondrous shades of dusk.

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fountains in them, also help to cool the air that passes over them into the hall. petals, the inner petals, appear to be partly closed. Only the tips open out, somewhat like a partly open bud. This portion, which rises above the rest, forms the main structure housing the central hall. Since the lotus is open at the top, a glass and steel roof provides protection from rain and facilitates entry of natural light into the auditorium. Below the entrance and outer petals rise nine massive arches in a ring through each one of which is a row of steps leading into the main hall. This hall has a seating capacity of 1200, which can be increased to more than 2000 when required. The temple superstructure functions as a skylight, allowing light to filter through in the same way it passes through the inner folds of lotus petals. Set midst nine pools that represent the green leaves of the lotus plant, the design helps create the impression that the whole building is but a flower floating in water. The pools, with An internal view of the roof, with the opening for ventilation. Since the climate in Delhi is very hot for several months in the year and the degree of humidity varies, the only solution for ventilation is airconditioning. However, costs of installation and maintenance make it unviable for a temple of such dimensions. Therefore, the methods of ventilation used in ancient buildings have been adapted to meet the ventilation needs of the temple. This could, in a way, be called Natural Ventilation. With openings in the basement and at the top, the building acts like a chimney, drawing in cool fresh air from the basement and expelling warm air from within the hall through the top of the dome. Moreover, air passing over the opening in the top of the dome at high speeds acts exactly like an expeller, evacuating the air from within and causing fresh air to be drawn in, from below, into the hall. Thus, a constant draught is created of cool air passing over the pools, through the basement, into the hall and out through the opening at the top. This ventilation is complemented by exhaust fans in the dome and fans that funnel air from the auditorium into the cold basement. This air, on being cooled, is recycled back into the auditorium. The building, from the main entrance level, has a height of 40.8m with the inner dome 28m high and having a diameter of 34m. The spherical interior dome is patterned after the innermost portion of the lotus flower. The interior dome is made of 54 ribs with shells in between, also rising from the arches. Both outer and inner surfaces are covered with white marble panels fixed to the concrete with specially designed stainless steel brackets and anchors. 10,000m2 of marble was quarried from the Mount Pentilekon mines of Greece and sent to Italy, where each panel was cut to the required size and shape, before being transported to Delhi for the panelling.

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The Bahai Temple in Delhi, with one of its nine pools that provide beauty as well as help cool the inside. The pools represent the leaves of the lotus.

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Several problems were faced by L&T-ECC during the cladding work and overcome. Experts in marble fixing from Rajasthan, working under the supervision of a French expert, found themselves unable to maintain the required profile of the petals. Several marble panels were broken in the process. L&T-ECC came up with the novel idea of using carpenters to fix the marble cladding; carpenters used to fixing formwork panels quickly learnt the new skills. The absurd idea met with tremendous success, with the carpenters finishing the entire marble work ahead of schedule, entirely with ECC supervision. L&TECC also solved the problems of maintaining mandatory temperatures for concrete at time of placing at 30oC during the scorching Delhi summer by pouring crushed ice into the mixer. Blowing cool air into the aggregates in the storage bins helped pre-cool them. Sometimes even the mightiest of construction giants resort to the simplest of solutions to achieve results, and therein lies a measure of their expertise. The whole process of construction has been described by a wellknown architect as a labour of love. Calling it perhaps Delhis most beautiful post-Independence building, he adds, With its fantastic marble work and joinery of facades, this concrete lotus is a textbook lesson in perfection. This Taj of the 20th Century was completed in 1986. When the Federation International de la Precontrainte (FIP) held its 10th Conference in New Delhi that year, over 2000 engineers from all over the world who attended the conference also visited the Bahai House of Worship. A marvel of architecture was their unanimous comment. Around the Temple will in time come facilities for pilgrims, education and medicare, as well as a library.

A view of the internal dome. The pictures on these two pages show the extent of the marble cladding work involved.

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Visitors crowd the Bahai House of Worship, New Delhi.

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12

T h r e e P r i z e -W i n n e r s on One Campus

he Engineering Construction and Contracts (ECC) Division of Larsen and Toubro (L&T) is the largest construction organisation in India. ECC is also the largest division of L&T, Indias leading engineering and construction conglomerate. Together, as L&T-ECC, it represents what could easily be the nations most formidable blend of expertise and professional skills. L&T-ECCs landmark structures dot skylines in India and abroad. The company brings an unmistakable touch of class to all its projects, be they temples, offices, educational institutions or industrial complexes. Many have won both national and international awards. And these include its own buildings, three of them on the ECC campus in Chennai being prize-winners. ECC is arguably the only construction organisation to have international award-winning structures within its own campus! The ECC Headquarters, also known as the Administrative Office Building (AOB) at Manapakkam, Chennai, received the prestigious Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte (FIP) Award for the Most Outstanding Structure of prestressed concrete at the 12th Quadrennial Congress of FIP held in Washington, USA, in 1994. The four-storeyed ECC Headquarters building is unique in both design and form. Designed in 1980 on clean, tidy lines, the building exudes efficiency and professionalism, leaving no room for doubt or lack of clarity. Four principal core shafts, supported on deep-well foundations anchored to subsoil rock 13m deep, lift the

The unique design of the Administrative Office Building. entire building high above ground level, leaving the entrances completely unobstructed, and give the impression of a building floating in the sky. Each core shaft or pillar can carry a maximum load of 5000MT and supports an inverted, four-sided, hollow pyramid on which in turn rise four superstructures, each of them a 21.6m square and overlapping one another by a quarter of its own length. Each pyramid base cantilevers out by 10m, supporting its own weight and that of the upper floors, whose loads, in turn, are transmitted down through a generous complement of window mullions. There are 84 types of pre-stressing cables, each with a different geometry. Each pyramid is post-tensioned by a veritable maze of cables. Each floor is made up of precast concrete waffle slabs, each a 1.2m square module, topped with in situ concrete, offering maximum flexibility. Another unique feature in this particular construction is that apart from a few partition walls in the service core, there is no brickwork at all anywhere in the building. The creator of this unique structure, which houses the Corporate Office, the Strategic Business Units and the Common Service Departments, was the late Piloo Mody, well-known architect and Parliamentarian.

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The FIP award-winning Administrative Office Building at ECC Headquarters in Manapakkam, Chennai.

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In 1998, FIP became fib, after being renamed the Federation Internationale du Beton (International Federation for Structural Concrete). fib has continued the practice of presenting annual awards to outstanding structures. And in 2002, in Osaka, Japan, L&T-ECCs Engineering Design and Research Centre the EDRC won fibs Special Mention Award for an Outstanding Structure. The entire EDRC structure in Manapakkam rises like a tree, the design concept being the Tree of Knowledge. The engineers in the building are the leaves of the tree, while the branches are the floors of the building, connected in turn to the main trunk or column which spreads through the first floor level in the shape of a triangle with curved sides. This is a tree that reaches for the sky in terms of achievement and confidence in its teams abilities. At the same time, it is a nurturing tree, caring for all those who are within its shelter. The subsequent three triangular floors are alternatively rotated to provide overhangs that give the building its unique form. This also helps form terraces, providing areas

for green landscaping at each floor level, creating veritable gardens in the sky, further facilitating the aura of greenery. The EDRC has a built-up area of 8686m2 in its ground and four floors. It is designed as two symmetrical wings on either side of a service core, augmenting the image of a huge tree, with branches spread equally on both its sides. Each wing is supported in turn on 24 cast in situ concrete piles that emerge as a 4m-dia column that carries the load of the upper floors. Each floor has continuous windows at the periphery. The geometry and dimensions of the floor plans allow for adequate light to enter and reach even the innermost recesses of each floor. This is a tree that lets the sun shine through. The service core in the centre serves as the access unit for the wings. It also houses toilets, wash areas, a pantry, a service basement, AHU, the helical stairway, fire escapes, an overhead water tank and two capsule lifts. All structural elements are in concrete, with the architectural forms so skillfully blended in that the entire structure becomes a rare feast for the eye. M/s Srinivasan Ranganath & Associates, Bangalore, provided the basic architectural concept for the building.

The columnless workspace inside the Engineering Design and Research Centre, Manapakkam.

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L&T-ECCs Engineering Design and Research Centre the EDRC in Chennai, showing the gardens in the sky.

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around the entire building, complete with landscaping, water bodies and fountains, providing a visual treat. The interiors are no less appealing in appearance and design. Two helical stairways rise up to the first floor of the main building and two decorative curved ramps connect the adjoining blocks in dynamic ambience. The ground floor, which is both spacious and column-free, serves as a dining hall with a seating capacity for 400 persons. The Convention Hall on the floor above has all facilities and seats 1000. One of the other blocks has the VIP dining hall on its first floor, while the other hosts the Business Development Centres on its first floor. Training halls are on the second floors of both buildings. The uniquely designed ECC Convention Centre. The third prize-winner on the campus is ECCs Convention Centre, a multi-purpose complex constructed along unique circular lines. Designed by ECCs architectural team, it won the Indian Concrete Institutes ICI-McBauchemie Award for the Most Outstanding Concrete Structure 1997. ECC completed the entire structure in a record 245 days. The complex comprises three blocks, with the 27m dia main building in the centre, with two stilt elevated blocks of 16m dia each on either side. The complex consists of a ground floor circular slab with peripheral columns supporting the first floor and the shell roof above. The entire complex is centrally airconditioned, and finished in decorative patterns with glossy marble and Kota stone. The conical roof comprises truncated cone segments and is finished with curved terracotta tiles that appear, at first glance, like lacy frills, lending a touch of lightness to otherwise earnest workspots. A road runs The Convention Centre has another very unique feature. It serves as a museum-cum-gallery for the works of the famous painter-sculptor, the late D G Kulkarni, also known as DIZI. This is perhaps the only Indian Corporate Centre to have an art gallery of this nature, replete with 187 works of art by a contemporary Indian artist under one roof. People are L&T-ECCs chief source of strength and constitute the most glittering jewel in the Companys crown. ECC therefore, ensures its employees comfort at work, both on and off sites, providing them well-appointed premises, equipped with state-of-the-art facilities. The headquarters campus is a scenic and eco-friendly 35 acres, with ample greenery, broad roads, lush lawns and a host of water bodies, including sparkling fountains, and generous parking facilities. This must certainly rate as the Most Outstanding Corporate Campus in its entirety. With two of the structures here winning fib awards, L&T-ECC may very well be the only Indian organisation to have so many award-winning structures within the same campus.

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Looking up the helical stairway inside ECCs Convention Centre.

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13

Dream Hotels in a Land of Romance

amarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan names surely made for romance, names synonymous with myths and heroic tales, with exquisite carpets, bazaars, madrassas, and minarets. Samarkand is the city of legends, the home of Timurlane. Bukharas architecture displays the influences of legendary rulers and conquerors Alexander the Great, Arabs, Samarnides all who left a mark. It was in these ancient cities with their remarkable blend of unique beauty and grand monuments, that L&T-ECC was entrusted with the task of building the Hotels Kuk Sarai and Fokhira, the former in Samarkand, the latter in Bukhara. The 500-bed Kuk Sarai was L&T-ECCs first breakthrough into the hospitality industry abroad. This was in the 1980s, the era before perestroika and glasnost. The political atmosphere was to change by the time the project was completed in the early 1990s, when, with the break up of the erstwhile Soviet Union, Uzbekistan became one of the CIS nations. The projects were originally signed with M/s. Goskomintourist, and later, after revision for additional work, with Inter Aloka, the foreign trade association of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Uzbek Tourism, Tashkent. The design concept of the Kuk Sarai was based on the courtyard theme so evocative of Central Asia. Various blocks at varying levels were placed around the central courtyard, taking into account that this is a highly seismic zone, prone to severe earthquakes. Different architectural features were brought in, care being taken to maintain a low architectural

Landscaping around the pool at Hotel Kuk Sarai. profile, retain the graceful touch of the regions ancient building formats, and making sure the new construction in no way overshadowed the neighbouring monuments. The area lived up to its tradition of ancient lore and romance. Even as excavation began, traces of an ancient monument hitherto unheard of appeared as if by magic. Work was stopped at once, and local officials and archaeologists summoned. Made of brick tiles, the find appeared at first glance to be a basement structure of an ancient building. Upon study, it proved to be a unique piece of architecture belonging to the 14th Century Timurid period. It was part of a basement floor of a house belonging, perhaps, to a rich military leader. The house was located within the boundary walls of a citadel built by Timurlane in 1370-71. In one room, several items like metal rings, plates, protective chain armour, metals parts of quivers and weapons such as spears and arrowheads, and parts of bridle, stirrups and saddles were found. Three copper coins, minted in 1384, and an even older silver coin from the 13th Century, were also discovered. This was treasure indeed, not merely in a tangible sense, but in that history had peeped out and shaken hands with the present.

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The Hotel Kuk Sarai, in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

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For over two months, a debate raged over what needed to be done to make sure the interests of this discovery and the construction already begun were both served. It was then decided that the layout of the Kuk Sarai would be so revised as to include the monument, creating a completely unique environment, giving each visitor an opportunity to view a blend both past and present. And so, when night falls over the Kuk Sarai, hotel guests in the Night Bar have the opportunity to gaze at the ancient monument in the centre and dream of long-forgotten, far-off days. The Kuk Sarai is equipped with the most modern of facilities, including the circular Night Bar with central dance floor and stage, health club, sauna, a two-level restaurant with an atrium, where the lower level has an Indian ambience and the upper level is Uzbek in character, two Hotel Kuk Sarais reception lobby.

banquet halls, and a temperature-controlled open swimming pool. The main lobby and reception area have been provided with a hard currency shop, bank, and post office. A 300-seat auditorium, provided with a synchronous translation system, is a welcome addition to the main structure. A chaikhana adorns one corner under a large pergola, recapturing the charm of an old world teahouse, where once even time stood still for a cup of aromatic tea. The guest rooms are placed at different levels, creating an unusual skyline. Tower blocks have viewing galleries offering visitors uninterrupted views over the surroundings. Gold coloured ceramic tiles line the exterior, with silver grey, copper and brick colours adding beauty to the elevations. Summer terraces and large parking areas add to the worth of the property. For L&T-ECC, execution of the work proved challenging, as it required many outside arrangements, including manpower mobilisation, and extensive transport of material by sea and surface. Extremes in climatic conditions had to be countered. Problems that arose due to differences in language, culture, lifestyle, and, above all, the changing political situations had to be solved. Getting people of different cultures to work harmoniously together was a task that needed both attention and care. Computers and the talents of committed in-house personnel served to help bring about the successful completion of the project. Constructed with a structural stability built to withstand seismic activity, the interior design combines both Uzbek and Indian styles.

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The Night Bar of the Kuk Sarai built around the remains of an ancient monument uncovered at the very site of construction.

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In Bukhara, the Hotel Fokhira looks like a large silver cake suspended over a mass of granite in a valley of flowers. The Fokhira has a carpet area of 25,800 sq.m. and consists of highrise and lowrise parts. Its nucleus is its 42m high atrium, with a seating capacity for 104 persons; the lounge on the second floor receives natural light through the skylight roof on the 14th floor. The tallest part of the hotel is the central lift block covered in glazed marble. From the top of this structure, a cascade of sparkling water springs forth, flowing down in a step-like pattern. Each step has three fountains. The lobby lounge is truly beautiful, with brass handrails and gleaming gold ceilings. The interior decoration concept of the lobby was based on the tradition of the famous Bukhara carpets. The flooring is a blend of coloured granite and marble. Walls are ornamented with cascades, mirrors, stained glass panels, hanging flower pots, and natural black and brown granite. Brass lights, stained glass lights and brass canopies decorate the ceilings. Facilities like a barber shop, beauty salon, expresso bar, souvenir shop, art boutique and newspaper kiosks, are located in a manner reminiscent of a bazaar. The Night Bar has a beautiful brass handrailed stairway leading to it. The ceiling of the bar is of curved gypsum, and its walls are decorated with silver painted columns, mirrors and canopies. A huge restaurant block comes with a chaikhana, with seating for 60 in the ancient Uzbek style, its walls are covered with local artwork and mirrors.

The second floor has a restaurant done up in Bukhara style, extending to an area that is done up in both Uzbek and Indian styles. The second and third floor restaurants are connected by a fully glazed marble staircase. The second floor has a disco, complete with lights and music. The hotel has two large banquet areas, embellished with a large number of exquisite chandeliers. The floor here is in white marble. A centralised vacuum cleaning system covers the full hotel, in a network of pipes and valves. The 440-bed Fokhira, like the Kuk Sarai, has every safety feature, from seismic-proof construction, to abundant evacuation staircases, smoke shafts, sprinklers and fire fighting equipments. Truly are these new monuments in a world of ancient monuments.

The plush interiors of the Hotel Fokhira.

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The Hotel Fokhira, a modern attraction in Bukhara, Uzbekistan, and, on right, a view of its banquet hall.

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Diversifying to Cement Relationships

L&T began work in 1980 on setting up its own first cement plant at Awarpur in Maharashtra, with an initial capacity of 1.1MT. The plant went on stream on October 19, 1983. Since then, it has set up several more plants and raised capacity to 14.5MT. Three of the plants are located in Gujarat, two in Maharashtra, and one each in the five States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The Awarpur Cement Works, L&Ts first integrated cement plant, in Awarpur, 200km south of Nagpur in Maharashtra, was commissioned on October 1, 1983. Today it has grown into a sprawling complex with two plants, with an aggregate capacity of 3MT. The second plant was commissioned in October 1987. Madras Cements plant at Jayanthipuram.

&T diversified into cement manufacture in the early 1980s, as ECCs construction portfolio grew. In the last twenty years, L&T built up a capacity of 16.5MT, inclusive of its subsidiary, Narmada Cement, and had the highest share (11.24%) of Indias total cement capacity. In 2003, however, L&T decided to demerge its cement business and relinquished its cement manufacturing and marketing activities. But the plants it built stand proud testimony to the days when it was the countrys largest and most renowned manufacturer of cement and cement plants. ECC played the plant-building role, for both wet and dry processes of cement manufacture, from almost its inception in 1944. Its first project was the construction of a silo at Porbunder for Associated Cement Companies Ltd. Since then, most cement plants in India have drawn on the considerable civil, construction, mechanical and electrical installation and instrumentation skills of L&T-ECC. Whether it is setting up of new integrated cement manufacturing plants, a grinding or crushing unit, supply and erection of cement machinery and unit equipment, or any cement plant requirement from silos to conveyors to bulk cement terminals, L&T-ECC has executed them all. In the last few decades, ECC has helped with the construction of Sri Vishnu Cements in Hyderabad, Madras Cements in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, Raasi Cements at Wadapally near Hyderabad, Durga Cements at Durgapuram, Raymond Cements in Bilaspur and Satna Cements in Satna, both in Madhya Pradesh, Modi Cements at Modigram, Raipur District, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat Cements in Veraval, and the J.K. and Shriram Cements in Rajasthan. ECCs Engineering Design and Research Centre has played a significant role in the design of large integrated cement plants, warehouses, prestressed 65m dia concrete silos, mill buildings with large dynamic loads and tall structures like preheaters upto 120m high.

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The 90m-dia limestone storage structure at L&Ts Awarpur cement plant. Inset: A closer look at the structural steel dome.

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The Hirmi Cement Works was commissioned in 1994, and is L&Ts second integrated plant. It is located at Hirmi, 64km south of Raipur in Chattisgarh, and has a capacity of 1.9MT. It is a natural location for feeding markets in Eastern and Central India, and for export of cement and clinker to Nepal and Bangladesh. The Gujarat Cement Works is L&Ts third integrated plant, with a capacity of 5.2MT making it Indias largest single location plant. It is located at the Kovaya village in the Amreli district of Gujarat, and is a coast based plant. It has its own state-of-the-art captive jetty for export and coastal movement, facilitating the despatch of bulk cement to L&Ts three storage terminals in Mumbai, Mangalore and Sri Lanka,

L&Ts cement factory at Tadipatri.

L&Ts Gujarat Cement factory at Kovaya.

along with the import of coal for the plant. Gujarat Cement was commissioned in 1996 with a 2MT capacity. In April 1998, one more line with an additional capacity of 2MT was added. This plant has its own de-salination plant, capable of generating 2000m3 of potable water in a day. Its captive limestone mines are 2km away, and the crushed limestone is transported to the main plant by a conveyer system. The covered clinker store, with a storage capacity of 2.5 lakh tonnes, ensures that the clinker quality does not deteriorate with age, and is a unique feature in the Plant. The A P Cement Works (APCW), L&Ts fourth integrated plant, was commissioned on October 1, 1998, with a capacity of 2MT. This was its first entry point into South India. Located at Tadipatri in Andhra Pradesh, 360km south of Hyderabad, it is the only plant to have an OHSAS 18001 certification among all L&Ts integrated plants. The plant is equipped with a 680m-long railway platform to facilitate dispatch of cement by rail. The location is unique in that it is 80m down a hillside. Conveyer belts transport cement from mills to silos and the packing plant. The loading jetty terminal at L&Ts Gujarat Cement plant.

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L&Ts Hirmi cement plant.

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The conveyor belt at L&Ts Bagging Plant and Jetty at Mangalore. APCW and a grinding unit at Arakkonam in Tamil Nadu together have a capacity of 3.1MT in South India. These two plants enabled L&T to market its cement in the four southern states of India. ECC set up L&Ts very first overseas bulk cement terminal at Colombo in 2000, launching a joint venture company in Sri Lanka called Larsen & Toubro Ceylinco (Pvt) Limited, in association with Ceylinco Insurance Company Limited, a group company of Ceylinco Consolidated, one of the largest conglomerates in the Island. Till the recent demerger of its Cement Business, L&T was Indias largest exporter of cement and clinker, reaching out to countries in South and South East Asia, West Asia, Africa and Europe.

The cement plant at Arakkonam in Tamil Nadu.

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The cement grinding unit at Jharsuguda, Orissa.

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the power plant consultant while Howe India Private Limited engineered the port facilities. ECCs scope of work at Damanjodi began with the construction of the single-flight, single-drive, multi-curved 14.6km cable belt conveyor system, the very first of its kind in India. Built to transport bauxite to the plant, the conveyor follows the natural contours of the land, requiring bridges to be built across the valleys and gorges. The structural steel bridges cover around 4km, with spans ranging from 19m to 52m. L&T-ECC executed the civil, structural, mechanical and instrumentation work on this conveyor system. A massive 35,000MT alumina storage shed was built, one of the most striking structures on site. Dwarfing everything at Damanjodi is the 150m tall chimney for the steam generation plant built using the slipform technique under a Rs 100 million contract. This is the first time that a chimney with a wall thickness tapering from 600mm at the bottom to 250mm at the top was built in India. Special equipment to automatically reduce the thickness of the slipform was imported from Sweden. The 150m-tall chimney at the steam generation plant, and an inside view of the chimney.

An Integral Role in Nation Building

he National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO) is a national asset, and a money-spinning public enterprise. Beginning with the laying of the foundation stone for the first complex in 1981 by the then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, NALCO is today at four locations, three in Orissa in Damanjodi, Panchapatmali and Angul and one in Andhra Pradesh, Vizag Port. Its refinery at Damanjodi, set in panaromic environs, is the largest in Asia. L&T-ECC constructed vital segments of this Rs 24,090 million project in Damanjodi, Orissa, and Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, using state-of-the-art technology from Aluminium Pechiney of France, who provided both process know-how and basic engineering for the alumina and aluminium plants in the mines. Detailed engineering and project management were handled by Engineers India Limited, while the execution of extensive civil, structural, fabrication and erection work was by L&T-ECC. Development Consultants Private Limited was The hydrate storage building at Damanjodi.

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A part of the 14.6km-long cross-country cable belt conveyor for NALCO at Damanjodi. Inset shows the conveyor belt under construction.

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ECC also constructed the 45m-tall, 4-storeyed secondary crusher house and the 65m-tall bauxite grinding unit, which supports three massive 1000MT silos. The foundation work for three slurry settling and 14 washing tanks were also undertaken. This project required very complex structural steel work for process pipe racks. At Vishakhapatnam Port, L&T-ECC executed a Rs 41 million contract for the construction of port handling facilities, including two RCC alumina storage silos, conveyor galleries and transfer towers. In 1999, L&T-ECC was back at Damanjodi to execute Phase II, the expansion of the NALCO refinery from 800,000mtpa to 1,575,000mtpa of calcined alumina. L&T-ECC also carried out expansion work on facilities in the Panchpatmali Mines. The scope of work here included design engineering, procurement, supply, protective painting, tests, and commissioning all of which was accomplished in just 12 months. NALCO promptly placed orders for other work.

In Phase III, L&T-ECC, towards the end of 1999, launched NALCOs major Smelter and Captive Power Plant (CPP) Expansion Project at Angul. This Rs 69.90 million order was for the execution of structural fabrication, erection and civil works for the Anode Baking and Storage Shop. This package snowballed into over a dozen packages, 15 times the original order value. Orders included construction of an extremely critical furnace wall; the fabrication, erection, testing and commissioning of 181 pot super structures designed by EDRC; civil works for the auxiliary building; foundations for the turbo-generator and auxiliary equipment for the CPP Unit 7 and ash pond augmentation. The most professional and dedicated of planners cannot foresee everything. However, the true worth of an organisation shows up in the manner in which an emergency is tackled. In Angul, a breach occurred in the dyke or wall of the Ash Pond, in December, 2000. This was a natural calamity, with great potential for environmental harm. The leakage would contaminate ground water, posing a threat to several villages situated in the area. A large portion of the ash pond gave way, and ash slurry water rushed through, taking concrete structures and heavy ash slurry pipes with it, as terrified villagers fled for their lives. The nearby Nandira river was instantly flooded with ash. L&T-ECC immediately rushed to the rescue, indicating their own level of commitment. The L&T-ECC team worked tirelessly through the night and arrested the damage, using pipes, placing manually-made cofferdams, plying excavators, tippers and other equipment, and pressing an 800strong task force into service. Working round the clock, the team restored control in 120 days, without even a temporary shutdown of NALCOs power plant being required. The L&T-ECC teams prompt action prevented large-scale eco-damage. NALCOs projects are indeed yet another feather in the caps of L&T-ECC. All delivery schedules have been met, as were the high quality requirements. And 9 million accident-free man-hours at site was a safety milestone.

The alumina silo at Angul.

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The conveyor gallery from the silo to the ship-loading point.

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Etched in Stone

ong arms of metal gleam gold against what appears at first glance like finely powdered silver, as L&T-ECCs crushing plants go about their work. This was first seen in the late 60s, when L&T-ECC began quarryingcrushing in a small way to meet the demand for timely supply of quality boulders and aggregates required for its civil projects in and around Chennai. Some of the landmark projects constructed with ECC quarry production during 1968-72 were Madras Fertilisers Ltd., Madras Refineries Ltd., the Devi Theatre complex, and the Adayar Gate Hotel (later the Park Sheraton). Crushed stone aggregates of consistent, good quality are major requirements in all civil construction projects. What began as a small step into a new line has grown over the decades, taking on countrywide ramifications. L&T-ECCs quarry production has now crossed 7 million MT, almost 100-fold increase over the aggregate production in the 60s. To achieve this, L&T-ECC set up a separate technical services cell in 1981, Quarrying-Crushing, to oversee the setting up of crushing plants for specific jobs. This cell is manned by multi-functional engineers drawn from various disciplines, like quarrying, crushing, screening and electrical. With the opening up of massive power, road and infrastructure development projects all over the country in the 90s, L&T-ECCs quarry activities took a quantum leap, providing specialised services like open pit mining and rock quarrying operations, including precision controlled rock blasting, tunnel blasting and armour stone quarrying for breakwaters. The Khandla-Bhatinda Pipeline, the atomic power project at Kalpakkam, the Mumbai-Pune Expressway, HITEC City are but a few

One of L&T-ECCs crushing plants in action. of the hundreds of project sites that have benefited from ECCs specialised blasting techniques and services over the years. One of L&T-ECCs most notable quarrying exercises was their crushing operations at RPL Jamnagar, the worlds largest petroleum refinery. Eight crushing plants, ranging in a capacity from 50tph to a massive 300tph, were set up to source the aggregate requirements. Several boulder crushing records were established during this time, including 269,504MT of boulder being crushed in one month! Stone is the bulwark of breakwater operations. For the Seabird Project, a breakwater construction on the Karwar coastline for the Indian Navy, over eight million MT of rock was quarried from Aligadde Hillock. Rocks weighing up to 1000kg were used to produce the filter and inner core material of the breakwaters. The highly versatile Tamrock Ranger hydraulic drilling machines were imported for this project. The HCL-Malanjkhand Project, a large-scale open cast mining operation was yet another project that showcased L&T-ECCs all-round expertise. This work was executed not as an in-house service but for an external customer, Hindustan Copper Limited, on two occasions. The first was in 1990, where the project called for rock excavation and removal of overburden at Asias biggest open cast copper mines the Malanjkhand Copper Project. The Rs 148.50 million order was for the removal of 3 million bank m3 of rock and earth in the North Hill of

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A crushing plant set up by L&T-ECC, seen here by night.

Rock segregation in progress at Project Seabird (breakwater construction).

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At the Seabird Breakwater Construction Project.

the project site. In 1999, the order was for the removal of another 3 million BCM, this time to the south and south-west of the mines. The scope of work included rock excavation by drilling, blasting, removal of over-burden from the semihard and hard formations of granite and quartz, and the loading and dumping of rock and incidental ore at pre-determined locations. Valued at Rs 408.10 million, the work was executed in 21 months, three months ahead of schedule. L&T-ECCs crushing plants, fitted as they are with the latest of sophisticated equipment, are versatile, easy to set up and dismantle. These mobile plants are low on maintenance and high on productivity, and are easy to move from site to site. The story goes that L&T-ECC can operate their crushing plants in the middle of nowhere, and then disappear so effectively when work is done that no trace is left behind of huge machinery having once operated there. In all operations, L&T-ECC ensures strict pollution controls, like de-dusting systems to prevent the site, and the surrounding area, from suffering from dust pollution. Constant water sprinkling is also effectively used to control dust.

The Hindustan Copper Project at Malanjkhand.

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Seabird project breakwater construction: Barge-mounted cranes in operation

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Indigenising the Nuclear Programme


he Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) operates 14 nuclear power plants at different locations today, and has plans to construct several more. However, back in 1970, it was early days yet for nuclear power in India, with only two fledgling atomic power plants in the country. ECC extended a helping hand to the nuclear power field almost from the beginning. L&T-ECCs first venture into this field was with the then greenfield Madras Atomic Power Project (MAPP), coming up near the sleepy fishing village of Kalpakkam. L&T was entrusted with the fabrication and supply of critical equipment for the 235 MW project as well as the construction of the reactor and turbine buildings for MAPP-I & II, a Rs 95 million contract. The reactor building raised was 40m high and had a 45m inside diameter dome. L&T supplied the calandria for the reactor, end shields, steam generating equipment, bleed condensers, bleed coolers, condenser heat exchangers and standby coolers all manufactured to international standards. A demineralisation plant, PHT purification buildings, a centralised waste management facility, a fast breeder test reactor building, radio-metallurgical and radiochemistry laboratories, the active control fuel assembly building, and the 100m-tall free stack and the 75m-tall, and 65m-tall, ventilation stacks were all built by ECC.

An overview of the Kalpakkam plant. The containment structure, a pre-stressed wall 40m tall and 45m in diameter with a pre-stressed concrete dome, was the most vital part of the reactor building. This was a complex construction that provided a learning experience for all involved. A 34m-tall double containment wall in random rubble masonry was also built for the first time in India. L&T-ECCs contribution to electrical works in the complex began in 1975 with the 33kV switchyard, catering to the entire power requirements of the reactor research centre. It was also associated with similar work for the research laboratories, commissioning them in January 1977. The fire detection and alarm system and central control panel were also wired, tested and commissioned by L&T-ECC. Over 6000 engineers, technicians and construction workers toiled day and night to build the Madras Atomic Power Plant. When the first unit of the countrys first indigenously designed and built nuclear power station at Kalpakkam was switched on by the then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, on July 23, 1983, a new milestone was reached in the indigenisation of the nations nuclear programme. MAPP, the third nuclear power station in the country, has two nuclear reactors supplying steam to two turbogenerators, each with an installed capacity of 235MW.

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The reactor buildings at the Madras Atomic Power Plant in Kalpakkam.

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Powering Anparas Changing Skyline

&T-ECC has played a consistently signal role in augmenting the power requirements of the nation.

As far back as in 1985, L&T-ECC moved into the field when it executed major civil and structural works in Anpara in Uttar Pradesh (about 200km from Varanasi), at the 2 x 500MW Super Thermal Power Station, known as Anpara B Plant. The turnkey project was handled by a consortium which included Mitsui and Company, Toshiba Corporation and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan and Bharat Heavy Electricals. The Central Electrical Authority was the principal consultant for the project. L&T-ECC was chosen to execute the civil works, and initially received a contract for civil and structural work valued at Rs 1130 million, to which electrical work and HVAC system valued at Rs 31 million was later added. The project had to be completed in 40 months. The project provided L&T-ECC a vast scope of activity, ensuring its presence in almost all the areas involved from the turbine generator to the boiler and stack areas to coal handling, pipe racks and plumbing, besides general building works. Apart from civil construction, work such as waterproofing, insulation, flooring, tiling and painting were handled in fact, practically no aspect of the project was left out. Particularly critical areas were the flue stack, track hopper and the turbogenerator, the heart of the project.

L&T-ECC executed a twin flue chimney 275m in height with an inner diameter tapering from 30m to 20m over a height of 110m. One of the civil engineers on the project points out that this was the first chimney of Inside the powerhouse building. its kind in India where sophisticated laser beam and optical plumb technologies were used to check chimney alignment. ECC also, for the first time, used 12MT capacity imported jacks to lift the slip form assembly it had designed and fabricated. Coal used for generating power would be brought inside the plant by railway wagons and directly unloaded into the track hopper, an underground RCC structure running 200m in length, with a coal-holding capacity of 16MT per meter-length. The hopper is hung from the top beam at ground level, with roofing provided over its entire length. Considering the load and vibration aspects, the turbogenerator foundation is one of the most critical structures in any power station. At Anpara, 650m3 of RCC were poured in a continuous motion to achieve slabs of safe bearing capacity a challenging job. Around 100MT of staging material were used to support the slab. L&T-ECC slowly phased out its conventional methods and brought in the newer Doka technology into its formwork culture. This was one of the first sites in India to use computers extensively. To support a project of such magnitude, necessary infrastructure was provided in record time. Colonies for 200 staff members at peak period and a 3000-strong workforce were constructed swiftly, with sports, library and entertainment facilities. All these became a part of the rising structures that changed the skyline of Anpara.

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The water treatment plant at the Super Thermal Power Station at Anpara, Uttar Pradesh. And,on left, the 275m-tall RCC multiflue stack.

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A Stride Boldly Forward

hen L&T-ECC was in the 1980s asked to construct the shells of four Natural Draft Cooling Towers for the Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) at Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, it was faced with significant challenges, since construction of such towers by conventional methods would be slow, difficult and risky, due to their size and shape. New methods had to be adopted and that needed courage, conviction and confidence. L&T-ECC had at the time just entered into collaboration with Doka of Austria, world leaders in formwork technology, hailed then as a more modern, safer and faster method of construction. Hence, Dokas automatic climbing formwork system was adopted for the construction of the shells, since the towers had to be slender, yet sturdy. The Doka system, with its simplified, repetitive activities, achieved work targets very effectively. It also ensured a superior quality finish. The 124m-tall towers, with diameters ranging in each from 94m to 54m, were built with a shell thickness of 250mm, proportionately equivalent to one-third the shell thickness of an ordinary egg! L&T-ECC was also entrusted with designing the towers. They tied up with German firms for thermal and structural designs, using stateof-the-art techniques. A close look at one of the Cooling Towers.

Lignite fired steam generation units at the Neyveli Thermal Power Station. The project commenced in July 1986 with the groundbreaking ceremony and was completed in 50 months. The overall completion time was drastically reduced, from 10 months per shell to 5 months. In addition to the NDCTs, L&T-ECC built for NLC two single flue RCC chimneys, each 220m high. Several new techniques, like, electricallyoperated geared winches, remote-controlled rope-guided hoists, and Space Clima Tractel platforms, were used to ensure speedy construction with maximum built-in safety arrangements. Three 210MW lignite-fired steam generators, arguably the only ones of their genre in the world at the time, were also built. (Four more were added in Phase II.) L&T-ECC completed the work at a pace which set a record for speed. In a letter congratulating the team upon work completion, Ernst Rock, President, Osterreichische Doka, lauded ECC for being prepared to make that enormous technological leap from conventional, labourintensive methods to the technically highly developed European standards. This leap also meant widespread innovation in many other areas such as bringing about changes in constructional details, and the use of lifts and central tower cranes. He pointed out that, instead of introducing the new methods tentatively in stages, L&T-ECC implemented them throughout the site. Acknowledging ECCs adoption of path-breaking technology in the construction of the cooling towers, the Maharashtra India Chapter of the American Concrete Institute awarded it a Certificate of Merit. By boldly using such innovative techniques, L&T-ECC set the trend of reducing project execution time drastically, in addition to enhancing both safety and quality.

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Four natural draft cooling towers and, inset, a row of chimneys at the Neyveli Thermal Power Station.

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No Bridge To o F a r

The Segama Bridge is 210m long with an approach length of 1.7km. This bridge consists of structural steel girders with a composite concrete deck. The approach road was built on earth embankments constructed mainly from imported fill. L&T-ECC carried out extensive structural steel fabrication work at a facility set up at the Kandla Free Trade Zone. The fabricated steel was then shipped to the sites from Kandla Port. As the two rivers are perennial, and could not be obstructed, even temporarily, the task of assembly, launching and final closing of the bridges was a challenging one for L&T-ECC. The cantilever method of launching was considered most suitable. The Segama Bridge was opened to traffic in August 1989; and the Kinabatangan Bridge was formally declared open in June 1990. Impressed by L&T-ECCs performance, the Government of Malaysia awarded it further bridge contracts valued at Rs 530 million. The contract for the design and construction of the Limbang Bridge was awarded in 1991, and those for the Batang Sadong Bridge and the Batu Kawa Bridge in 1992. All three sites were in the island of Borneo, in the Malaysian State of Sarawak, which experiences heavy rainfall almost daily. Other challenges included poor ground conditions, remote locations and an alien ambience. The bridge constructed for the film The Bridge on the River Kwai.

&T-ECC has a long and successful association with the building of bridges, both in India and abroad.

It was ECC who built the famous bridge that was the star of the movie The Bridge on the River Kwai. The facsimile of the bridge was built in Ceylon, although the true-life World War II incidents had occurred in Burma-Thailand. This was the forerunner to what developed into a long-running affair with bridges. L&T-ECC has an impressive bridging record. It includes St. Marys Bridge, across the Buckingham Canal, in Madras, the first bridge to be constructed by ECC, back in 1966-67; the Gadilam Bridge in Cuddalore; the Gurpur Bridge in Dakshina Kannada; the Budameru Bridge in Andhra Pradesh; the Tata Trombay Bridge; and the Kinabatangan and Segama bridges in Malaysia; to name but a few. L&T-ECCs bridge-building continues apace as a Strategic Business Unit. It includes numerous contracts for pipeline bridges, viaducts, flyovers and railway bridges of landmark proportions. Building bridges abroad began with a Rs 275 million contract from Malaysia in 1986. L&T-ECCs assignment was to construct approach roads and bridges across the Rivers Kinabatangan and Segama in Sabah, in the thickly forested island of Borneo, Malaysia. The Kinabatangan Bridge is 468m long, with a 3.5km-long approach road. It is a continuous steel warren truss of three middle spans with plate girders for the approach spans. The approach embankments were stage-constructed on the soft alluvial deposits of the river valley. The bridge is supported on concrete tubular piles of 800mm diameter driven to a depth of around 50m through soft, silty clays, sand and mudstone.

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The Kinabatangan Bridge in Sabah.

The Segama Bridge, Sabah, East Malaysia.

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The Limbang Bridge is Sarawaks second longest bridge, and L&TECC was the first Indian contractor to operate in the region. This site was so remote that personnel transport could only be by air, and material could be transported only in barges, and that too only when the monsoon was not too heavy. Logistics was hence a major challenge. The bridge is supported on eight 50m spans with a central river span of 100m, and has a 12m two-lane deck, with 2m-wide walkways on either side, and 50m-long approach roads on either ends. No cross beams have been used, and the two RCC columns that comprise each pier therefore appear very slender, enhancing the bridges aesthetic appeal. The unique technique of launching the girders simultaneously from both ends, deploying the inner, central and outer cradles for support, was adopted for the first time. The Batang Sadong Bridge is a two-lane road bridge constructed along the Kuching-Sri Aman highway, about 60km from Kuching, the capital of the State of Sarawak. ECCs design was completely in-house, and was chosen as an economically attractive proposal. The bridge has three approach spans on either side, and three main spans. 126 precast prestressed spun concrete sleek piles of 45cm

diameter were used. The pile caps and piers are skewed to match the water flow. The soil being mostly soft clay upto a depth of 8m, bakau (timber) piles were driven for support. Retarding compounds were added to cement to extend setting time as it had to be transported from about an hour away. The entire launching scheme was devised by ECC Chennais CMPC division. The contract period, including soil investigation, was 24 months. The Batu Kawa bridge was constructed across the River Sarawak, in Kuching. The bridge is 292m long, with 73m of approach slabs and embankments. The foundations are built for four-lane traffic. Four of its seven piers are located in the river, using 96 steel tubular pipes. The river pile caps, the soil for which was below the water level, were constructed by sand filling of the cofferdams, and dewatering with 85HP pumps. For the first time, load testing for the piles was done using rock anchors, instead of the more conventional PL 75 kentledge blocks. The girders used were fabricated in the ECC workshops in Chennai and then transported to the site. All the bridges stand today as handsome testimonials in a foreign land to the careful planning and timely execution of the entire L&TECC team. The Limbang Bridge, Sarawak, Malaysia.

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The Batang Sadong Bridge in Malaysia, one of the many bridges built there by L&T-ECC.

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the complete civil and structural works for Units 1 & 2 of the Kaiga Nuclear Power Project. Kaiga is in the virgin hills of the Western Ghats, 55km east of Karwar in Karnataka. Not only was the area at the time totally lacking in infrastructure, it was also very isolated. L&T-ECC had to view this as a greenfield-project, and set up facilities accordingly. It also had to contend with Kaigas average rainfall of 3500mm, the area also annually bearing the brunt of the southwest monsoon. L&T-ECC met the challenge and the 2 x 220MW Kaiga nuclear plant, dedicated to the nation in February 2000. ECCs work included construction of two double-walled nuclear containment structures, several other ancillary buildings, subsoil tunnels, a drainage system and in-plant roads. L&T-ECC were also asked to put in place the water cooling system, electrical installation and lighting. Several special construction methods and innovative techniques had to be brought to bear by ECC to meet the very stringent safety standards. High performance concrete was used for the inner containment dome in the reactor building, whose double containment walls and calandria prevent radiation leakage. A special formwork-supporting structure was designed to support the formwork of the inner containment dome of the building. The entire structure was pre-assembled at ground level and erected into position in eight parts using a 650MT heavy lift crane. The project required extensive work both above and below ground level, necessitating construction of several underground tunnels. The entire quantum of work was immense. It involved 542,777m3 of all types of soil excavation, 321,750m3 of hard rock excavation, 9628m 3 of heavy concrete, 223,180m3 of normal concrete, 1922MT of pre-stressed cables, 2557MT of embedded parts and 2064MT of structural steel fabrication and erection. Many special techniques were adopted by L&T-ECC to ensure quality standards were maintained, particularly keeping in mind that radiation leakage is a very real, everpresent fear in nuclear plants and has to be guarded against. ECC has also been involved in nuclear power plants such as Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu, and the Tarapur Atomic Power Project, nearing completion.

More Power for the Nation

he gap between demand and supply of electric power has been steadily widening over the decades in India, making capacity addition in power generation essential. And India, with 6% of the worlds coal resources, substantial hydel potential if the monsoons dont play truant, and vast reserves of thorium, has the potential to develop the additional capacity required, particularly through new thermal and nuclear power plants, with the latter expected to add a projected 20,000MW by 2020. Towards this end, the Nuclear Power Corporation of India, which operates and maintains the six nuclear power stations in the country, entrusted L&T-ECC, in 1988, with The reactor dome under construction.

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Reactor buildings under construction for the Kaiga Nuclear Power Project, near Karwar, Karnataka.

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Building Divine Landmarks at Puttaparthi

ver the past 15 years, L&T-ECC has answered the call of Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba, the legendary founder head of the Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust, on several occasions. Work with the Trust began with the construction of a plethora of prestigious landmarks at Prashanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi in Andhra Pradesh, the abode of the Bhagwan, in 1990. These include: Pilgrim Quarters: L&T-ECC designed and built 192 community flats, each 41.85m2, in six four-storeyed blocks, in just 183 days, handing them over to the Trust ready for occupation by the 65th birthday celebrations of Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba in November 1990. Over a hundred more were added later in this phase. Eventually, in three phases, ECC constructed around 1000 flats for pilgrims in Prashanthi Nilayam, 679 of them being built in the second and third phases. The Hanuman Statue: To mark Babas 65th birthday, an imposing statue of Sri Hanuman was designed and built on the hill. With its 45m height, the towering statue presents an impressive sight even from afar. The statue is a composite structure of steel and concrete. Artificial Waterfall: ECC later executed the design, supply and commissioning of an artificial cascade at the foot of the Sri Hanuman statue. A 30m3 water tank with pump house was constructed at the foot of the hill. A method was devised by which water would be pumped all the way up to the foot of the statue and supplied through six spray nozzles, spreading it over a width of 12m. With two artificial spillways placed at two levels, a smooth sheet of water cascades down the hill, to all appearances like a real waterfall. Ensuring no wastage, the spilled water is collected in a storage tank and recirculated. Sri Sathya Sai Airport: Puttaparthi was placed on the airline map of India on November 24, 1990, when the Sri Sathya Sai Airport went into

A section of Pilgrims Quarters.

operation. L&T-ECC constructed this 1520m-long, 23m-wide airstrip within 90 days. This was a breakthrough by any standard. The runway was subsequently extended to receive Airbus A320s. The Sai Kulwanth Hall: This large darshan hall, built in phases, is where devotees receive Babas divya darshan. A beautiful Greek arch, in the shape of a lotus petal, adorns the entrance. The ceiling is covered with decorative gold foil. An eye-catching polycarbonate roof offers skylight. The hall can accommodate 20,000 devotees. Sri Pedda Venkamaraju Kalayana Mandapam: This wedding hall was donated to the public by Sri Sathya Sai Baba. It has a built-up area of 750m2, including kitchen and dining facilities, and can seat 300. Decorative sthapathi work enhances the aesthetics of the building. The Hill View Stadium: The Vidyagiri Stadium, more popularly known as the hill-view stadium, is on a 36,423m2 plot of land, and is used for the annual sports meet by the students of the University. The playground has a cricket pitch of international standards. The ground has a main stage with two pavilions, and an L-shaped gallery with seating in ten tiers. The stadium accommodates 2000 spectators, who are offered an obstruction-free view. Canteens: Devotees come to Puttaparthi from all parts of India. To meet their needs, two canteens were constructed.

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The imposing Hanuman statue that stands atop the hill at Sri Sathya Sai Babas Prashanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi.

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The Music College Complex: The 3025m2 Museum, home to musical instruments across centuries, is crowned with a 40m dia, 9.7m tall dome, shaped in the form of a cymbal a thaalam. A mini-dome above this represents the handle of the cymbal. Two huge trumpets placed on either side of the entrance portico welcome visitors, and are supported by columns in the shape of veenas and guitars. On either side of the buildings, two huge stair-rooms, shaped like tablas, complete the picture of an Indian orchestra, creating an ambience of peace and musical harmony. The cymbal-shaped roof is a column-free reinforced concrete shell structure with a double curvature in varying thickness. The roof springs from a tension ring beam supported on 22 columns founded on isolated footings. The flooring is a combination of marble and granite. School of Dance and Music: The school, in a 3820m2 complex, stands adjacent to the Museum. The school of music is on the first and second floors, and a circular block to the rear houses the school of dance, with an aesthetically designed stage, and an open court in the centre to house the audience. The flooring is a combination of granite and ceramic tiles. All these projects were inspired by Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba and were born out of his inspirational leadership and sustained pursuit of excellence. In the years to follow, the Bhagwan inspired several other major buildings and projects which L&T-ECC successfully completed for Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust. The Administrative Block of the School of Dance and Music.

The North Indian Canteen. The 2000m2 South Indian Canteen is a two-storied building built in just five months. Its four halls can cater to 2000 people at a time. A central kitchen supplies the four halls. The 3000m2 North Indian Canteen has two octagonal halls, catering to 500 people at a time. The kitchen is located at the rear of the building. Two decorative helical stairways lead to first floor conference halls. Boys Hostel: A part of The Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning campus, this is a three-storeyed structure with a built up area of 4520m2 and 64 rooms. It also has a large prayer hall and dining and kitchen facilities. Shopping Centres: A two-storeyed, C-shaped building, with a built-up area of 2790m2, houses a variety of shops catering to the daily needs of devotees. With the increase in the number of devotees over the years, an additional shopping centre, three-storeyed Z-shaped structure, with a central atrium that illuminates the insides, has come up. The decorated sloped roof enhances the beauty of the building. This complex is three times the size of the old one. Book Trust Building: The multi-level 2500m2 Sanathana Sarathi Book and Publication building is built in perfect tune with the natural ground profile of this hilly terrain. In the building are bookstalls, Trust office areas and a library, located on the uppermost level, called the silent zone. The building has an excellent outdoor terrace area for the Sayankhaal Adhyayam.

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The Music College complex.

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Symbol of Speciality
In 1991, L&T-ECC executed the design and construction of the 280bed super-specialty hospital of Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences on a turnkey basis. In a remarkable achievement, the entire project was completed within ten months at Puttaparthi, a name that has, over the years, become synonymous with the word healing providing balm and solace for body, mind and soul. Designed to represent a human form with folded arms, symbolising the love, affection and care it promises to all who seek shelter within it, the hospital building is truly unique.

It has the classic appearance of a palace, with arched windows and long corridors running almost the entire length of the hospital on the ground and first floors. It is topped with a domed terrace. The building is designed as a framed structure, while the dome is a shell structure. It consists of conventional beam and column framework, with expansion joints provided by means of brackets in the main beams, thereby avoiding twin columns. The construction of the main dome, near the entrance, was a challenge in itself. Springing from a height of 10.9m, the 24m diameter dome shaped like a lotus bud reaches up to 26m from the finished floor level. It is supported on eight beams, which spring from the ring beam at the 10.9m level and are interconnected by another ring beam. It tapers upward from 450mm to 300mm, smoothly forming an arc on the horizontal plane. The ornamental lotus on the tip of the dome weighs 10MT. Beneath it, inside the central hall, hangs a beautiful chandelier, weighing 2MT. As the radius of the curvature for the shell varies at every given plane, the shell was divided into 90 horizontal planes at 300mm intervals along the vertical curve and the radius of the curvature for plane then calculated. The centreline of the dome was inaccessible due to the staging and cross bracings. The shortage of time was also a factor to be considered, calling for ingenuity and quick thinking. To overcome these problems, the ordinates of the curve were calculated from a fixed distance from the outer face of the curve. The Doka heavy duty staging was adopted in its construction, which took just three months, an achievement in itself. There are twenty other domes in the building. The hospital, on two floors, each 4.6m in height, houses 13 operation theatres and four intensive care units, besides all the standard needs of any large, modern hospital. The American Concrete Institute (Maharashtra-India Chapter) awarded a Certificate of Merit for this building for its excellent construction. The construction was completed on November 6, 1991, in time for the inauguration on November 23, coinciding with the birthday of Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba.

Interior view of the central dome at the Puttaparthi hospital showing the 2MT chandelier.

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The Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences at Puttaparthi.

A side view of the hospital.

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An Answer to a Prayer
For millions in Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh, it was as if the world had forgotten about them. They were resigned to a life where a basic necessity of all life pure drinking water appeared to play no part. They would trudge for hours in search of this treasure, often in vain. Then, in November 1994, Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Baba reached out to these abandoned people and the Sri Sathya Sai Water Supply Project was born. Today, the project provides water to over 3.5 million people in 700 villages who have lived their entire lives in drought and despair. The pots of water they carry rejoice in a riot of colours, but even their glow fades in comparison with the radiance on the faces of the people, as they watch life-giving water surge from pipes, and know that endless worry and drudgery is finally at an end. For L&T-ECC, this was one project that became a spiritual journey, one which defined its own role in the Universes scheme of things. Epic in magnitude and demanding speed of execution, the project required coordination of the highest order. ECCs sites were spread far and wide all over the Anantapur District, known for its dry barrenness. L&T-ECC personnel often had to travel 150 to 200km a day in the blazing sun, coping with the absence of even basic communication facilities. Sand and water for construction had to travel great distances. To top it all, the time schedule given was one year. L&T-ECC adopted several methods for water tapping, one of them frequently used being deep infiltration wells in river beds to access lower level water tables. The water was then conveyed to an adjacent collection well, and then pumped to a balancing reservoir at a higher altitude. From there, sheer gravity conveyed the precious liquid by pipelines to villages. The scheme called for 20 such reservoirs on hillocks with capacities ranging from 300,000 litre to one million litre. The construction of these reservoirs on the hillocks proved perhaps the toughest challenge of all, as the hillocks were very steep. All construction material had to be carried up manually. Huge summer storage tanks were also constructed, and were one more feeder source to the balancing reservoirs, the largest of the tanks occupying an area of about 40 hectare. These storage tanks accumulated rainwater during the monsoon, but also received water from the Tungabhadra High Level Canal whenever possible. Another method used was that of digging deep bore wells and constructing storage tanks nearby to store water. 290 villages benefit from these bore wells today.

An overhead tank under construction.

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A section of the Sri Sathya Sai Water Supply Project, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh.

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A very important segment of the project was the laying of more than 2000km of pipeline using mild steel and PVC, across valleys, mountains, hills, canals, highways, railway lines even private property. This was one work area that experienced an uncharacteristic slackening of pace because of the sheer difficulties in land acquisition. L&T-ECC had to use every bit of its persuasive powers to finish this work. The ultimate destination of this pipeline was the more than 100 precast concrete cisterns installed at points of use, each of 2500 litre capacity and with four taps. L&T-ECC also installed 25 sumps with capacities ranging from 100,000 litre to 250,000 litre and 125 ground-level reservoirs of capacities between 20,000 litre and 80,000 litre each. L&T-ECC has also been involved in bringing water to the droughtprone areas of Medak and Mehaboobnagar Districts of the Telengana region in Andhra Pradesh, again teaming with the Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust and the Government of Andhra Pradesh. A Ramakrishna, L&Ts President (Operations) and Deputy Managing Director, stated that Anantapur would go down in history as a model for such projects in the future. What was an area of endless pain is now an area of happiness, Anantapur (endless city) being transformed into Anandapur (city of joy). Here, water captured, stored, filtered, pumped, conveyed and again stored in 275 overhead tanks now gushes out of taps. Villagers fill their plastic pots and their lives. No one here need go thirsty again. Five years later, the Bhagwan had another gift for his disciples and devotees. Water gushing out where no water had reached before.

A long stretch of pipeline.

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A panoramic view of the summer storage tank, a part of the Water Supply Project.

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Unique Fusion of Cultures and Styles


Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Babas 75th birthday was also marked with the construction of a building destined to house the life and mission of the Bhagwan. Such a building needed to be of exceptional design and quality. Chaitanya Jyoti, the museum at Puttaparthi, more than fulfills these expectations. Built on a hill, the location chosen as befitting the purpose, the building exudes the right mix of colour and grandeur, tempered by a serene ambience. Designed by Goh Say Tong of Malaysia, the unique structure is a fusion of many cultures and architectural styles, reflecting the concept that devotees from all over the world throng here. The roof is the biggest Chinese roof outside mainland China. Reminiscent of a Chinese emperors palace, it is flanked on both sides by two domes of titanium metal, distinctly Moorish in appearance, that top the semi-circular towers adorned with Gothic arches. The two lift shafts have Japanese style roofs. A Koi fish pool, designed by a specialist from Singapore, is sited in front. The stone balustrades and the giant stupa are from China. The leveled site has a 65m frontage and a 60m depth, and is 4m above road level. The building is 22.5m tall and has a covered area of 6000m2. The apex of the roof is 27m above road level. The front view is indeed impressive, blending a myriad colours brilliant reds and golds and greens among others and styles. At the same time, quiet, yet powerful notes of devotion and spirituality are struck on the ground floor, where, away from the riot of

A close look at the gazebo on the roof. A closer view of the Oriental roof.

The rear view of the Oriental roof.

Chaitanya Jyoti, Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Babas museum at Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh.

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A view of the driveway to the entrance.

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colours outside, a benign Ganesha sits, while a portrait of the Bhagawan adorns a back wall. Foundation excavation began on November 16, 1999. Rock breaking was started simultaneously. When the hard granite strata underlying the top layer proved too much for the mechanical rock-breakers, permission was obtained for controlled blasting. Given the fact that only one year was available to make the building functional, a radical approach to construction sequence had to be adopted. All levels were tackled simultaneously and the entire building was constructed proceeding sideways from right to left. Another innovation was to anchor the reinforcement bars of columns directly into the hard granite rock wherever such rock was encountered. By using templates with surfaces that exactly matched the drawings, the proper curvature of Chinese roofs and gazebos was maintained. To maintain uniformity, all mortar for plaster was mixed in concrete mixers. The special flooring required a wide variety of material ceramic tiles, polished granite, Jaisalmer marble tiles and white glazed tiles. As the sand available in the area was coarse, plastered surfaces were treated with Plaster of Paris to which acrylic emulsion paint was applied. Flat surfaces in the building reveal extensive sthapathi work, vastly improving aesthetics. Lighting is from various sources halide lamps, fibre optic lights etc, all of which greatly enhance the beauty of the decorative reflected ceiling. The building is very complex, set in a picturesque yet difficult site. The clients, as represented by Col S K Bose (retd), went on record to state that the task, in the time specified, looked impossible when first confronted, but the L&TECC team, with its cohesive methods of working, made it all appear so easy. This is indeed an achievement to make L&T-ECC proud, he added. Chaitanya Jyoti was inaugurated on November 18, 2000 by Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba himself.

The Gothic arches in elevation.

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A 1.2m thick in situ concrete deck provided over four piles constitutes the mooring dolphin, which houses a 50MT capacity cast iron bollard on each dolphin. All the overhead piles used in the jetty are of 1300mm dia and cast in situ . They were socketed into the hard basalt rock which lies immediately below the seabed. The piles were specially designed to cater to horizontal forces such as pipe friction, traction caused by vehicle movement, seismic shocks, water currents, mooring and berthing forces, and, above all, the ceaseless wave action. This was an engineering feat in itself, with L&T-ECC adopting a number of piling techniques. The project provided an opportunity for innovation and invention. L&T-ECC successfully designed and erected a jack-up platform, a unique in-house development, designed to operate in water depths of 10m, enabling uninterrupted piling operations by ECC, unhampered by water level variations due to tides and waves. The jack-up platform measured 15m x 18m x 2m and weighed 165MT. Apart from housing the piling rigs, it also accommodated winches, compressors, concrete mixers and storage space. The platform floated like a barge on the water, and was manoeuvered to the required pile location. The platform legs were then lowered to the sea bed, anchoring it in place. At the end of the operation the entire platform was raised over the spuds hydraulically all of this using a single control panel. Approach and jetty head precast beams, pile muffs, walkway trusses and dolphin shuttering elements were all erected using this floating platform. L&T-ECC resorted to extensive precasting, almost completely eliminating cumbersome shuttering operations in mid-sea. The weight of all precast elements was restricted to facilitate transport. Many challenges were faced by ECC during the project. The jetty site was in itself unique, being next to a 50m vertical cliff, making approach very difficult. Open sea conditions brought their own problems, especially delays during inclement weather, with the monsoon bringing the work to a virtual halt altogether. The subsoil stratum was difficult, and ECC had to pound its way through the denuded hard rocky bed to get even a foothold. As always, however, work was completed and commissioned ahead of schedule with absolutely no compromise on either quality or safety measures. Like a lone sentinel, the jetty now extends into the sea, standing firm against the water as it surges around it, sometimes playful, sometimes menacing.

Battling the Elements

&T-ECC set a precedent in marine construction, with the design and creation of an open sea jetty in Pawas Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. Work on the project started in 1991. This marine facility of Finolex Pipes Limited was built to handle liquid ethylene cargo and other chemicals for its PVC plant. The jetty, with its minimum draft of 10m during low tide, can directly host large ocean-going ships.

Specially built refrigerated ships bring liquid ethylene to the jetty at a cryogenic temperature of 104oC. This cargo is pumped to the storage tanks on shore through insulated pipelines using an unloading arm on the jetty that has been designed to automatically adjust to variations in tide levels and the movement of ships. L&T-ECC had to battle rough waves and weather and work in rough terrain to meet stringent schedules. The jetty comprises of an approach bridge 170m long and 10m wide, leading to the jetty head platform, which is 30m x 17m. The jetty head is flanked by two berthing dolphins (13m x 10m) and four mooring dolphins (7m x 7m), two on either side. These dolphins are connected by a 1.5m wide structural steel walkway. The approach bridge has a central carriageway for light traffic and utility/process pipe-racks. The large jetty head accommodates unloading arms for handling cargo as well as a near-transparent cabin, firefighting units and a turnaround for vehicles. 12 piles support this deck structure. The jetty has certain special features. Since raging waves relentlessly batter the structure, care had to be taken to ensure that wave forces were reduced. A two-level berthing dolphin was designed over nine piles to minimise the onslaught of constant wave-action and the full berthing impact of ocean-going ships. These split level decks allow the waves to flow right through during high tide. Reduction of the effect of these wave forces on the structure results in overall economy.

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A closer view of the pipelines on the jetty.

A vessel docked at the jetty to unload liquid ethylene.

The Finolex open sea jetty at Pawas Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra.

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Fuelling the Green Revolution

&T-ECC believes that its projects, indeed, the entire process of construction, is not just about work execution according to schedules, but contributions to the betterment of the nation. This is no better demonstrated than in ECCs presence in each of the six fertiliser plants along the HBJ gas pipeline of the Gas Authority of India Limited. One of these was the Babrala Fertiliser complex put up by Tata Chemicals Limited. Several agencies, including many from Italy and Denmark, were entrusted with the responsibility of carrying out basic engineering work, supervision and procurement of equipment. L&T-ECC, however, had the responsibility of executing the construction work. The complex, near Babrala in Uttar Pradesh, has two main plants a gas-based nitrogenous fertiliser plant to produce ammonia and a urea plant. They have the capacity to produce 342,500MT of ammonia and 742,500MT of urea a year. The main feedstock is natural gas from the South Basin and Bombay High gas fields. However, to provide for any short supply of natural gas, Tata Chemicals planned facilities for storage, handling and processing of naptha as alternative fuel in the captive steam and power generation plant, and also as feedstock in the ammonia plant. The plant takes liquid ammonia feed from two sources either directly from the ammonia plant or from the ammonia storage. The two streams have a common prilling tower. This tower, 120m in height, is the tallest structure in the plant. The utilities in the complex include a gas/naptha-fired gas turbinebased co-generation steam and power plant, a series of tubewells for the supply of raw water, plants supplying inert gas, one for water demineralisation, and a closed system for the supply of adequate cooling water both for ammonia and urea plants. Top: The ammonia cooling tower at Babrala. Above: Gas turbines installed at the captive power plant at Babrala. The civil works for the offsite facilities included the construction of road culverts, warehouses, effluent treatment plants and railway culverts, among other structures. This work involved massive quantities of excavation, concreting, earth-filling and brick-laying. The bagging plant, to which the urea produced is taken directly for packing and despatch

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Urea plant at the Tata Babrala Fertiliser Complex, Uttar Pradesh.

Inside the Control Room.

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either by road or rail, is a unique feature of the complex, having no product store. A beautiful, well-appointed township comprising 100 houses added to the scope of the project. In the mechanical works section, L&T-ECC achieved a maximum fabrication rate of 600MT in a single month during the peak of the construction of the urea and ammonia plants. Huge carbon steel and mild steel tanks were fabricated and erected on site, involving sand blasting and painting. About 110,000m of process piping were fabricated and installed. Over 3,400MT of both static and rotary equipment were also erected. The primary reformer, involving nearly 3000MT of erection, was a unique achievement for ECC, since 100% repair-free radiographicquality welding of pigtails was ensured. The Babrala Fertiliser Complex, work on which was started in 1991, went on stream by the end of 1994. L&T-ECC also made a major contribution to another fertiliser plant along the HBJ gas pipeline route. It provided the urea prilling tower, the urea storage silo and the cooling water system for Chambal Fertilsers & Chemicals Limited (CFCL) at its plant in Gadepan, approximately 40km from Kota, Rajasthan. Work commenced in 1991. The prilling tower is one of the most important structures in a fertiliser plant. Snamprogetti Spa of Italy was consultant for this particular work. The structure comprises a 37m-dia raft, 2.5m in height, with a shell of 26m inner diameter raft and a height of 104m. The strata on which the tower was raised included soft and hard rock soils and the work involved excavation, done manually in the soil portion and with rock-blasting when required. Among the structures many features are RCC slabs and a cantilever slab. The slabs at 87m and above are supported on two heavy structural steel girders, each of them being 450mm wide and 7500mm deep. The construction of the tower involved a great deal of study, especially in the case of the girders. A scheme was prepared by L&TECCs CMPC cell in Chennai, special care being taken to avoid any horizontal thrust on the tower walls during the erection process. This involved use of heavy tools, tackles, plant and machinery, and called for detailed engineering, due to the heavy weight of the girders. They first served as permanent members of the structures, and were later encased in cement. This was the first time this form of girder was used for supporting RCC slabs in a prilling tower. Anti-corrosive lining was provided on the inner walls of the structure.

A close look at the Chambal urea prilling tower. L&T-ECC also designed and constructed an arch-shaped urea storage silo at Gadepan, using precast concrete. It is 240m long, 55m wide, 28m in height and has a total storage capacity of 40,000MT. The work included major quantities of excavation, formwork and waterproofing. It is provided with walkway slabs on the precast conveyor, and access through a precast staircase. The silo has a storage basin inside, surrounded by retaining walls. Toyo Engineering India Limited, Bombay, were consultants for the cooling system, which consisted of an ammonia basin, urea basin, pipe rack foundation with structural steel pipe racks, chlorination building and concrete pavement with rubber soiling. The time taken to complete this work was 18 months.

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The urea storage silo and prill tower at Chambal Fertilisers plant in Gadepan, Rajasthan.

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A Form and a Place for the Spirit of Sport

vision so essential for the purpose, only the outer two rows of columns were taken up to roof level. The maximum portion of the upper gallery was cantilevered out. Roof elements too were cantilevered out for the same reasons. As can be imagined, the scope of the entire project was massive. 764 piles support the entire superstructure. A veritable army of 4500 workers was mobilised, together with hundreds of managerial and supervisory personnel and a fleet of sophisticated plant and machinery. A record number of 62 subcontractors were engaged for the project. The work involved 26,000m3 of concrete, 90,000m2 in situ shuttering, a built-up area of about 5 acre, 60,000m2 of plastering, 66,000m2 of painting and 13,000m2 of tiling. L&T-ECCs commonsense, practical approach, combined with its distinct innovative skills, was in evidence in all the efforts made to keep the speed of progress steady. Work was divided into eight sectors, all sectors working simultaneously. ECC took the following course of action to win this breathless race against time: mobilising resources, planning parallel activites, defining construction schemes well, and ensuring a motivated staff to provide efficient administration. A special squad comprising designers and construction engineers was formed to sustain quality on all work fronts, making sure that in the haste to meet a deadline, quality did not suffer. As A Ramakrishna, President (Operations) & Dy Managing Director, L&T put it succinctly: Quality comes more from the mind of man. It is an attitude. It is an attitude that L&T-ECC has always had. Safety was always a top priority area. And all the precautions taken resulted in a record of 7.5 million accident-free man-hours during the execution of the project. ECC were awarded the RoSPA Merit Award in 1999 by the Royal Society for Prevention of Accidents, Birmingham, UK, for this record. Although football was meant to be the main game for which a football ground was laid to international standards with natural turf, an eight-lane synthetic track was also laid around it and other facilities developed for athletics.

here is probably little to equal the sound of a packed sporting arena erupting into a full-throated roar cheering its heroes. When that roar springs from the collective throats of 40,000 sportslovers in the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Chennai, a part of the applause ought to be for the L&T-ECC team, for having constructed this mammoth yet aesthetic edifice in an unbelievable time schedule of 260 days. The international class stadium was inaugurated on January 18, 1993, in time for the Nehru Gold Cup Invitation Football Tourney kick-off. Designed and built keeping the comfort and convenience of both players and spectators in mind, the stadium is said to match the best in all Asia. The Rs 4000 million project was awarded to L&T-ECC on a turnkey basis. For ECC, the size of the project was not crucial the deadline was. Architect C N Raghavendra of C R Narayana Rao, Architects and Consultants, incorporating all the modern features as required by the Federation of International Football Association (FIFA), designed the layout of the 28m tall stadium. The stadium was designed as a framed structure on pile foundations. This meant that the entire gallery units, staircases, roof-supporting beams and roof elements were all precast, saving at least 50% of the time normally required. The precasting also ensured consistently higher quality of concreting. L&T-ECC adopted the steam curing method, which imparts 70% strength in an eight-hour cycle, achieving in 24 hours what would usually take 7 days. In order to achieve better aesthetics and the uninterrupted

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The galleries, synthetic track and turf, and lighting, at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Chennai.

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The entrance to the Stadium.

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The gallery has a two-tier arrangement with a roof. The stadium is divided into eight sectors, with an exclusive area for VIPs, complete with lounge area, cafeteria and a conference room, able to accommodate 500 people at a time. The VIP sector offers foolproof security, and has two large elevators. Facilities for the media include a large airconditioned work area and a telecommunications centre equipped to send messages worldwide. The match facility area, used primarily by the players, referees and officials, includes a medical centre, and separate vehicle lanes to allow the easy movement of ambulances in case of emergencies, a laboratory for drug tests, well-furnished changing rooms, and a well-equipped indoor gymnasium for the players, who are protected from the public. A separate conference room built to accommodate about 100 players during training programmes is also part of the match facility. Its lighting is one of the outstanding features of the Nehru Stadium. Sleek and elegant, it is designed to CIE specifications and meets all international standards. Tubular steel frames rise above the roof on four sides, and are an engineering feat worthy of note. Different sports demand different levels and kinds of illumination, and this has been taken into account here. It is small wonder that the Nehru Stadium was adjudged the Most Outstanding Concrete Structure in India by the American Concrete Institute (Maharashtra India Chapter).

The Stadium as viewed from the stands.

Flood lights turning night into day.

A birds eye view of the Stadium while under construction.

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A s i a s Ta l l e s t Viaduct
A view of the viaduct from the river bed.

he Panvalnadi viaduct, spanning the Panvalnadi valley near Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, ranks as one of Asias tallest, and is an engineering marvel. L&T-ECC started work on this 420m-long viaduct for the Konkan Railway Corporation Limited in 1992. ECC undertook five other viaducts for the Corporation as well. This one, however, was technically different from the other work along this vital rail link between Mumbai and Mangalore. The viaduct is supported on hollow, tapering, octagonal pylons, some of which are 60m in height, rising from the lowest point of the valley. These pylons were constructed using the slipform technique, resulting in majestic monolithic structures that appear to stretch towards the sky, while towering over the earth below. These pylons, of outstanding quality, were completed in unimaginably short periods of time. The superstructure is made up of a single cell, continuous span box girder spanning a distance of 30m between abutment and pylons for the end span and 40m between pylon to pylon for the internal spans. The prestressed concrete box girder was precast in 20m long

segments in a casting yard under controlled conditions. The previously cast segments were then each incrementally raised by 20m at a time. This technique of bridge-building is popularly known as the incremental launching method and was used here in India for the first time. It is considered most effective in locations which are inaccessible by land or water. Given the conditions prevalent in the Panvalnadi Project, set as it was in a deep valley, this method proved the best choice in terms of design and construction techniques. L&T-ECC upgraded the very concept of bridge-building in India with this change to continuous spans as against the more conventional, simply supported span concept. Wayss & Freytag, Germany, having built similar bridges before, was associated with this project to proof check the system and stresses for the box girder while launching. L&T-ECCs rate of progress over these piers created a record in its slipform history. The Panvalnadi viaduct also won the award for Most Outstanding Concrete Structures in India for 1994 in the category of highly specialised massive structures intricate with utmost skill and excellence from the American Concrete Institute (Maharashtra-India Chapter).

Work on the viaduct pylons proceeding through the night.

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One of Asias tallest viaducts is this one across the Panvalnadi, on the Konkan Railway line near Ratnagiri, Maharashtra.

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Combining Synergies of Fellow Divisions

mong the many advantages to being part of the L&T fold is that any one of its divisions can draw on the strengths of other divisions at any time for help and support. Group synergies form a common pool, providing benefit for all. Given that L&T, with its country-wide spread, has factories and offices located in all regions of the country, and through its numerous international links has offices and joint ventures in many parts of the world, no division is ever quite out of reach of a helping hand. L&T-ECC has, over the years, integrated its strengths in engineering, equipment fabrication, procurement, project management, erection, construction and commissioning. A striking example of this integrated effort was seen in 1992 when L&Ts Group II received a contract for the design, manufacture and installation of wellhead platforms and associated submarine pipelines at Bombay High from the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC). The platforms were part of ONGCs programme to enhance oil recovery through additional wells at Bombay High. The platforms, designed to handle oil and associate gas, included facilities for water injection and gas lift, and would help add a 2.2 million tonnes per annum to the countrys oil production. L&T had every reason to be pleased with the order. This was, till then, the largest contract (valued at Rs 3720 million) which ONGC had offered an Indian company in the teeth of international bidding, and it was also the first such order for a private sector company in India.

The scope of the order was truly immense and included design, engineering, procurement, fabrication, transportation, installation and pre-commissioning of four platforms, each of which comprised a deck and a jacket. The jackets were for the erection on the sea bed, while the decks (also called topside) were mounted on the jackets. L&T, as prime contractor, handled the project with an international team, including contractors with specialised skills for the engineering of the jackets and the offshore installation work. All procurement of material and equipment was handled by L&T, and routed to various work-centres under the project for construction about 22,000MT in all. The jackets were subcontracted to McDermott-ETPMEast Inc (MEEI) for fabrication at Jebel Ali Yard in Dubai and were installed at Bombay High in 1993. The fabrication of the jacket structure, 72m in height, was very complex, involving 12,000MT of total fabrication, and requiring the adherence to the strict dimensional tolerances as per ONGC specifications. Later, prior to loadout, detailed analysis and procedures, sea-fastening and transportation were all critically reviewed by ONGC, to ensure stability of the structure and the barge during transit to Bombay High, especially in severe sea weather conditions. Criteria established by marine surveyors appointed by insurance companies had also to be satisfied. ECC fabricated the four decks at L&Ts Hazira Works, near Surat, Gujarat, commencing January 1993. The Hazira facilities were planned and built by L&T on the waterfront to enable load-outs and transportation of equipment packages for the process industry and topsides for the offshore programmes. This was a scorching round-the-clockoperation carried out at different work stations, but progressing at the same breakneck pace and being completed simultaneously. Each deck weighed around 800MT and measured 26.62m x 20.16m x 21.2m (in height). The detailed planning ensured that all major lifts were erected in a record time of six weeks, with no technical deviations at all. The pre-fabrication of about 2600 piping spools was done separately, and the spools were erected on the deck structures. Critical equipment for each deck,

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Wellhead platforms at Hazira Wharf.

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like test separators, inlet manifolds and gas separators, were also fabricated separately and later erected on the decks. Painting was a crucial area, as it needed to ensure protection against the severe corrosive sea weather conditions and high monsoon humidity. Surface preparations through massive sand blasting and the painting of the deck structures, covering an area of nearly 40,000m2, therefore required precision planning. L&T-ECC pressed 34 compressors into service to complete the entire operation in the shortest possible time. Achieving the anchor patterns of the blasted steel surface and the thickness of each coat of paint, keeping to ONGCs specification, was a daunting task. It involved many trials, and even the training of painting contractors. A close watch was constantly maintained by quality control teams from both L&T and ONGC, as well as the technical representatives of the paint manufacturer. This was followed by the hydrotesting of piping on all four decks and the performance tests on all the critical deck equipment. There were 28 mechanical, electrical and instrumentation systems on each deck. After completion in January 1994, all four decks were loaded on to a barge and transported to Bombay High in a single voyage. This was a complex operation requiring the highest degree of safety for both equipment as well as personnel. All procedures and engineering analysis for the complete load-out, sea-fastening and transportation were worked out in detail before hand. They had to also ensure that the barge did not get grounded while sailing or during load-out, and that it did not drift due to tidal currents and wind. Transfer bridges and gangways were installed between the jetty and the barge to facilitate transfer of the decks, which were then hydraulically lifted on board, positioned and sea-fastened. A month earlier, four helidecks had been sent through another barge to Bombay High for installation of the deck platforms. The hook up and commissioning of platforms completed the execution of the order, which was carried out within the stipulated schedule, with no compromise on quality. Proof of customer satisfaction was offered when ONGC immediately placed orders for additional wellhead platforms. Helideck fabricated for ONGCs well-cum-water injection platform at Bombay High. Below: A view of the helipad on the platform.

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Wellhead platforms loaded on barges being transported from the Hazira Works for ONGC.

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A Learning Challenge in Bokaro

ECCs scope of work amounted to Rs 4410 million, and included 8500MT of mechanical equipment, 4500MT of material handling equipment, 4000MT of technological structures, 1700MT of utility services, and 6000MT of refractories and consumables. All the work was based on VAIs basic engineering, ECCs task being to execute the contract by coordinating all activities with regard to detailed engineering, supplies, erection and commissioning. L&T-ECC, thus, not only handled supply of technological structures, but also played a vital role in installation as well as in civil and structural engineering. The very complexity of the project lay in the fact that the nature of the work on hand covered almost all disciplines of engineering. Recognising that the project required various areas of expertise and knowledge, ECC drew upon the substantial capabilities of L&Ts other divisions. They were called upon to supply mechanical and material handling equipment, hydraulic and other systems, laboratory and repair facilities, and refractories and consumables. L&Ts Kansbahal Works was used as the major manufacturing base for executing all this, as well as ladle turrets, strand guide segments, ladle transfer cars and cranes, two of which were particularly special. At 450MT, these ladle cranes are the largest ever manufactured in India and were erected by L&T-ECC at site. Not only was manufacture and delivery subject to stringent time schedules, a major challenge lay in the first-time manufacture and installation of highly specialised items like the strand guide segments, ladle turrets and ladle transfer cars. In a way, L&T-ECC underwent a process of learning on this project, gaining precious experience. All this demanded meticulous planning and a high degree of project management skills. A task force that was a combination of synergies was formed, made up of a team of dedicated engineers handling design, project engineering, project planning and also material management activities. Together they completed on schedule a complex assignment of giant size.

994 was a landmark year for L&T-ECC, entering as it did a new era in project management.

Together with Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH (VAI) of Linz, Austria, and ABB, it received from SAILs Bokaro Steel Plant its single largest turnkey order, valued at Rs 7000 million. The order was for a twin strand slab caster to produce 2.6 million tonne of finished slabs per year. Three major units were to be supplied, a Steel Refining Unit, Caster-I and Caster-2.

The giant electrically operated travelling crane.

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Ladle turret supplied and installed at SAILs Bokaro Steel Plant.

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A Mount of Knowledge
Inside the central atrium in the ground floor of the Library.

bout 40km from ECC Headquarters at Manapakkam is the ancient town of Kancheepuram a town renowned for its spiritual core, epitomised by its Sankaracharya as well as for its exquisite silks.

The library is 202 ft long, with each wing in three levels, integrated by open spaces in between, providing an unobstructed view of the entire library. One wing of the library houses books on Hinduism. Another is devoted to the other religions of the world. A third wing is allotted to cultural heritage, like ancient music, art, architecture and law. A part of the fourth wing accommodates audio and video tapes, microfilms and a computer library, along with the necessary listening and viewing facilities. The library also has a mini-auditorium that can seat 150 people and four conference halls, each for 20 persons. The library possesses ninety carrels, or individual study centres, providing private reading areas for scholars. That carrels are an integral part of all modern libraries is well-known - what is not so well-known is the fact that they existed centuries ago. Evidence of this is found in the Sri Kailasanatha Temple, Kancheepuram, in the 60 Dhyana Mandapas, the ancient version of carrels, found in the periphery of the terrace. They have been adapted into the design element of the library. Reading halls for 300 scholars are provided in the three levels. The library can hold close to 500,000 volumes of books and monographs, in addition to manuscripts, including palm leaf scriptures, which are in specially air-conditioned areas. Padgro Consultants Private Limited was the architect. The structural system involved a pile foundation, RCC columns and grid beams, ensuring a column-free internal space. The construction of this monumental structure began in January 1994, and was completed in March 1995. At night, the lights within the structure help to create the impression of a mountain top literally awash with the glowing light of knowledge.

Historically, the Ghatikaasthaanam, or University, of Kancheepuram was a prominent seat of learning. In existence even before the Pallavas of the Sixth Century, whose capital Kanchi was, it trained some of the greatest scholars and teachers of the renowned universities of Nalanda and Kashi. The passage of time served to dim its glory. During the historic centenary year of His Holiness Paramacharya Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi, his two spiritual descendants decided to revive the university and restore it to its former prominence. Believing firmly that libraries play a stellar role in helping to preserve a society's cultural heritage, they had the magnificent Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi International Library built at Enathur, near Kancheepuram. L&T-ECC took great pride in being associated with this project, conceived and executed for the Sri Kamakoti Trust. The unique building symbolises a harmonious blend of modern technology with the ancient Hindu Sarvatobhadra order of Vedic architectural styles. The structure consists of ground and two floors, with a basement, totalling a substantial 4824m2 in all. The central atrium, landscaped with a central cascade, embellished by a capsule lift, is the focal point. Its shape is derived from the snow-clad peak, Maha Meru, said to be the abode of Lord Shiva, and the very fountainhead of knowledge. The Maha Meru in this case is made of fibre-reinforced plastic, and permits the smooth flow of natural light through the day. From the atrium, the library disseminates light, symbolising the spread of knowledge through the four cardinal directions.

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A panoramic view of the magnificent Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi International Library at Enathur, Kancheepuram.

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Welcome with a Flourish


The entrance to the New Delhi airport.

hey say first impressions matter. A heavy responsibility then rests on the Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi, the portal through which tens of thousands of visitors enter India. Situated in the nations capital, it is not only one of the busiest airports in the country, but has a stream of foreign dignitaries flowing through it at all times. It was imperative therefore to provide in it the infrastructure that would showcase India. In order to prevent overcrowding, and to enhance aesthetic value, the Airports Authority of India (AAI) decided to build a new lounge for visitors, the first of its kind in the country. L&T-ECC was entrusted with the designing and building of this aesthetically conceived, twofloor lounge, covering an area of 10,500m2, and built to accommodate 2500 people. The contract also involved the expansion of an existing flyover to a length of 150m and a width of 18m. Extensive modifications, running to 18,000m2 of roadwork, were also to be carried out on the car-park. The project was valued at Rs 188 million. The lounge is a remarkable piece of architecture and construction. The lower floor has facilities for parking vehicles of incoming passengers, a waiting area and a shopping complex, making the dreary prospect of waiting around airports pleasant. The upper floor houses a restaurant and a waiting area for visitors seeing off passengers. The visitors lounge is connected to the departure wing of the international airport through a covered walkway. The arrival section of the fully airconditioned lounge has a covered portico, and the departure section on the first floor was provided a new 18m wide lane, alongside the already existing 16m wide one. The number of lanes now became six, as against the earlier three.

To ensure that the lounge was at all times user-friendly, it was provided with state-of-the-art facilities, including closed circuit television, public address systems, flight information, car calling, passenger elevators taking 20 at a time, and firefighting systems like smoke detectors, fire alarms and sprinklers. The project required meticulous planning, quick mobilisation and close monitoring. At all times, it had to be kept in mind that the airport could not suspend operations even for a minute, even to help construction processes. The widening of the flyover and the construction work on the building could not therefore be undertaken simultaneously. The ground floor slab of the lounge was first completed, traffic diverted through this area, and the RCC framework of the flyover then taken up. The ground floor was taken up for completion after the flyover was complete. Working under such circumstances was both difficult and hazardous, yet L&T-ECC accepted the challenge and kept the airport working smoothly throughout construction. The quantum of work was immense, involving 28,500m 3 of excavation, 16,650m3 of concreting, 36,000m2 of formwork, 1320MT of re-inforcement, 10,000m2 of painting, 10,859m2 of flooring, 8200m2 of false ceiling and 1420m2 of polycarbonate roofing. Despite all the constraints and challenges, ECC completed the project in record time, between September 1995 and September 1996 and its on-the-spot team was selected by the L&T-ECC management for the Team Award for 1996 for contracts valued above Rs 50 million. Subsequently, ECC was entrusted with the resurfacing and strengthening of the 3810m main operational runway at IGI, New Delhi.

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The runway and, below, the lounge at the Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi.

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An inside view of the stadium.

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A Landmark amongst Landmarks

he Kanteerava Indoor Stadium, Bangalore, with its elliptical dome-like concrete roof is a cynosure of all eyes in a city that has its share of landmarks. L&T-ECC began work on this project in March 1995, completing it in 1996 for the X National Games. The 10,800m2 stadium is unique not only for its concrete roof, instead of a fibreglass one as in most other stadia, but also for the fact that it is a free-standing structure with no columns of support. As a result, it presents a large area of free space, offering completely unobstructed viewing of boxing, basketball, volleyball, chess and carrom events for the 4000 spectators it is built for. The domed roof stands on 24 arch columns supported on a group of bored cast-in-situ piles. Keeping Bangalores weather patterns in mind, the tension beam at the bottom has provision for the collection and disposal of roof rainwater. Waterproof polyurethane spray has been used on the outer surfaces of the folded plates. These plates have hinged joints at the lower ring beam and monolithic connections with the top compression ring beam. Each element weighs around 50MT. The structural steel catwalk to support the internal lighting system is suspended from the folded plate roof. The massive structure is almost 95% solid concrete. The total concrete poured was around 7300m3, excluding the concrete used for piling! Steel reinforcement for the entire construction was 1600MT and structural steel 210MT.

For L&T-ECC the roof proved the most challenging part of the construction by any standards. The elliptical shape meant that each roof element was of different length and profile. These intricacies ensured that in situ casting was not an option. L&T-ECC chose precasting instead, with the precast portions placed one by one. Computer mapping greatly reduced the number of different types of elements to a mere six, and thus greatly reduced the complexities of the work. ECC used shutters with scissor-action spindles at an inclination to loosen the formwork, enabling easy removal of the roof elements from the mould. This hastened the rate of progress, and proved far less labour-intensive. After the roof elements were erected, aligned, welded and had permanent ties installed, the compression ring on top, the radial beams and the central hub were cast in a single pour. When the required strength had been achieved for the central ring beam, it was progressively lowered until the roof became self-supportive. The intricacy of lowering the central support was yet another challenge successfully met. One of the outstanding features of the project was the fact that by using steam to cure the roof elements, the desired strength was achieved in 24 hours, instead of the more usual 28 days a remarkable achievement. The stadium required positioning of 443 bored in situ piles, including piles of 400mm diameter, 600mm diameter and 750mm diameter of lengths varying from 12m to 18m. Speed of construction being as much a concern for L&T-ECC as perfection of execution, twelve tripod rigs were pressed into service to complete this massive piling work within the shortest possible time. The playing arena, which is vacuum dewatered enabling a hard but smooth playing surface at all times, is yet another eye-catching feature of the stadium, truly a showpiece. No wonder this landmark won the FIP award in 1998.

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The Kanteerava Indoor Stadium in Bangalore which won the FIP Award in 1998.

Erection of the precast roof element in progress.

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Piecing an Engineering Jigsaw

smaller units. The packing was checked and re-checked to ensure seaworthiness as well as proper documentation. Specially treated timber from Russia was used for the packing. To maintain the line, level and orientation of each dismantled piece at the time of re-assembly, suitable match marks were made, both with paint and by punching, to ensure that nothing was erased during the long ocean voyages and storage time at Dolvi. Each of the 54,000 dismantled items was assigned a 9-digit number, by which it could be tracked from the drawing to storage and re-erection through the computerised material identification and tracking system. Patented items were refurbished by the original manufacturers in Europe and shipped separately. Then, when shipping began, the team had to keep track of each item as it made its way to India. This proved to be one of the hardest tasks during the project. Extensive computerisation was used to cope with the situation, but this proved no substitute to the endless trips the members of the team made to the storage yards, battling wind and snow in sub-zero temperatures. It took six shipments to complete the transportation of the furnace from Germany to India. The entire process was an amazing example of planning and execution, the greatest challenge being the sheer logistics involved in the transportation of various materials in the proper sequence, from different storage areas to the location of installation with minimum damage at all stages. ECC also undertook the enormous task of refractory installation in the blast furnace as well as other new erection. It all added up to a tonnage of 16,500MT. The task was executed by L&T-ECC within eight months. The blast furnace, originally built in 1960, was thoroughly modernised in 1985, shut down in 1992, then dismantled in 199596. It was re-erected in Dolvi and successfully blown-in in May 2000. A member of the team that left for Gemany in 1995 to commence dismantling points out that the furnace was designed and built in the transitional era of technology, with improved performance and operability, but, more importantly, it had built-in potential for upgradation in the future. These were the precise attributes that made the relocation such an attractive proposition. Today, it stands tall, mute testimony to L&T-ECCs versatility.

n 1995, L&T-ECC accepted the challenging task of uprooting a blast furnace along with its auxiliaries from German soil and transplanting it to Dolvi, in Maharashtra. The procedure involved dismantling the whole plant, transporting it 8500km over land and sea, and assembling it again. L&T-ECC executed this prestigious Rs 415 million project for Ispat Metallics India Limited (IMIL), who were setting up a large Integrated Steel Plant at Dolvi. The original owner of the blast furnace was Thyssen Stahl AG, in Duisburg, Germany. Since the late 1980s, with the steel market in Europe beginning to saturate, many European steel producers decided to reduce operating cost by shutting down blast furnaces and offering them for sale to buyers around the globe. When IMIL decided to buy the furnace, it chose L&T-ECC to relocate the furnace in India and get it working. L&T-ECC sent a hand-picked team of engineers and technicians under R Anbalagan to oversee the dismantling of the blast furnace. The project took on the ramifications of a giant jigsaw puzzle, the magnitude of which becomes apparent when you discover that the dismantling resulted in 54,000 separate items spread over seven storage yards separated by several kilometres! The primary task of the supervising team was to ensure that each piece of the furnace plant was properly identified upon dismantling and marked in the relevant dismantling drawings. The slightest mistake or slip-up would have had consequences of nightmarish proportions. The composite structures and modules were dismantled with the aid of 1000MT and 500MT capacity cranes, but were still too large for cost-effective transportation. So they were broken up still further into

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Putting together the blast furnace brought from Germany in 54,000 pieces, at Dolvi, Maharashtra, for Ispat Metallics India Ltd.

An inside view.

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Modernity with Indian Roots

any architectural visions remain mere drawings on drafting boards, or, worse, go completely awry in the process of translation from concept to concrete reality. L&T-ECC ensured that this did not happen during the building of the eye-catching Parliament Library on Raisina Hill in Delhi. ECC remained steadfast to every expectation of the architect, Raj Rewal, who, appreciatively described how thrilled he was when he saw the first sandstone columns of the Library going up. What was only an idea till that moment now became a reality, he said. L&TECC, he was confident, would complete the project without any major design modification, and in the six years (1996-2002) that it took to complete the project, ECC unfailingly stayed true to this commitment of constructing a modern building with Indian roots. The Library is a spectacular building, representing a myriad combinations of various ethnic Indian construction styles. It is a splendid example of an ingenious blend of hand-craft skills honed over generations working side-byside with cutting edge equipment, design and planning. A huge team comprising engineering talent, skilled labour and craftsmen had to be mobilised for this purpose, and it had to be ensured that they worked together as a team. This achievement of ECC was the result of man management at its best. The aesthetics of the construction blend completely with Parliament House, the mother complex. In deference to the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha, the height of the Library

A view of the entrance hall to the Library. structure is restricted to the podium level of Parliament House. ECC has been instrumental in creating the superstructure and the novel domes that rise over it. In order to do this, L&T-ECC brought into play its formidable range of civil, structural, mechanical, electrical procurement, engineering and project management skills. Given the fact that this entire project was placed within a high security zone, there were severe curbs on men, material, working space and noise levels allowed during Parliament sessions.

The bubble roof of the Parliament Library, Raisina Hill, New Delhi, seen here with the Parliament House in the background.

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The Library is an enormous structure. It has a plinth area of 54,903m2, and is a four storey (two floors below ground and two above) hi-tech building with 12 domes and nine distinct blocks forming the superstructure. The wall lining comprises various materials like teak and cedar wood besides marble, granite and ceramic, and is designed in an acoustically-friendly fashion. White and pink sandstone have been used in many areas in the Library. The flooring is bright and varied, using geometric and rangoli patterns, in combination with various types of marble, kota and granite. There is plenty of woodwork, and a variety of false ceilings, where stainless steel, Burma teak, gypsum board and sandstone have been used. Skilled artisans handled the fine chiselling of the mullions and windows patterns off-site. The human touch was given its due and was, in fact, preferred for finishing the exposed stone surfaces. A similar fusion of age-old practical knowledge with state-of-art technology took place in the case of 2436 circular tapering columns, which had to be erected, and clad with thick red sandstone. L&TECC invented a lathe based on the kharath machine used in villages to provide the required finish to these columns. A unique funicular train, battery-operated to avoid noise and air pollution, was developed to speedily transport material across the site. The building comprises the library with space for 3 million books, reading room, committee hall, Parliament museum, archives, VIR training, utility blocks, and an 1100-capacity auditorium. All of these are interconnected by corridors, surrounded by green landscaped courtyards at ground level, terrace gardens and atriums. The 12 domes are glassand-fibre reinforced light concrete space roofs. Each dome is a complex symmetrical bubble placed over a cast frame structure. Daylight reaches inside all the structures, and the glass brick paving adjoining the structure all around allows diffused light into the basements. The plush interiors are a blend of steel, woodwork, stone and marble. ECC has also constructed a three-tier underground parking lot to accommodate 225 cars. Architectural gaiety from floor to roof in a corridor in the Library.

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Over 70 contractors and agencies worked with L&TECC and the CPWD in a splendid team-effort. They handled nearly 1,100,000m3 of stonework, 12,000m2 of sandstone surface cladding and 32,000m2 of wall lining using a variety of materials. Together they worked on a Rs 2000 million project, the largest building work executed by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD) in the last 80 years. That it is considered perhaps the best modern building in the cityscape is due as much to the design as to its execution. It recently won the ACCE Sarvamangala Award-2004, from the Association of Consulting Civil Engineers, Bangalore.

The steel supports for the bubble roof of the Library.

The stage within the auditorium. An inside view of the 1100-seat auditorium.

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A Bridge of Friendship

The massive Second Nizamuddin Bridge is an impressive 13-span, 551.2m long prestressed concrete I girder bridge with a full width of 22.6m. It has a four-lane carriageway of 15m width, two cycle-tracks and footpaths of 3m. The bridge has two reinforced cement full height abutments with pile foundations and 12 piers with reinforced cement caisson foundations. The technical knowhow and expertise of both nations were brought together. In well-sinking, there are three negative forces that act on the caissons, which form the foundations of the piers. They are skin friction, soil reaction and buoyant forces, causing the caisson to sink by its own weight whenever it is more than the sum of these negative forces. To combat this, three Japanese methods were used, the air jet, water jet and jackdown methods. Six hydraulic jacks of 200MT capacity resulted in sinking the caissons faster into the ground. The bridge superstructure has been made of one 169.4m-long 4-span connection girder and three 127m-long 3-span connection girders. L&T-ECC created an elaborate infrastructure to facilitate the construction process. For precasting 130 PCI girders, a separate precasting yard was set up in level with the bridge deck slab top. To achieve a workshop type production, two motorised gantries of 10MT capacity each were utilised to handle reinforcement cages and steel formwork panels. The finished girders were then shifted to the locations on wheel trolleys running on 90lbs rails pulled by 10MT capacity electric winches. Care had to be taken that the River Yamuna was not disturbed or polluted during the entire process. The river was bunded across with sand and soil, making for stable working platforms and ease of approach. Two channels of 25m connected by a steel bridge were provided to ensure water flow during the work. The Yamuna is known to flood her banks quite spectacularly during the heavy monsoon rains. To enable uninterrupted work during the floods, a suspended hammock system was used as a safe working platform. L&T-ECC also carried out other works like concrete barrier kerbs, crash barriers, expansion joints, lighting facilities, handrails and approach slabs. Due to the international significance of the project, the construction schedule was broken down to daily activities and monitored on a day-to-day basis at constant meetings with the clients. This ensured timely mobilisation of all resources.

he Second Nizamuddin Bridge is a fitting monument to the power of bridges structures that stretch over divides, defeat distance and separation, and bring lives together. In the case of this bridge, it stands for friendship and cooperation between two great and ancient civilisations Japan and India. Constructed over the mighty River Yamuna, which cuts Indias capital, Delhi, into eastern and western halves, the bridge fulfills a long-felt need for more connectivity between the river banks. With residential areas springing up rapidly as the city of Delhi expands, the five already existing bridges, including the Nizamuddin Bridge constructed in 1968, were found inadequate, and time-consuming traffic jams on both sides, especially during peak hours, were routine. In February 1994, the Government of India approached the Government of Japan to discuss the construction of a second Nizamuddin Bridge under Japans Grant-in-Aid Scheme at a new site just 38m from the already existing bridge. In 1995, the two Governments decided to implement the project. Nippon Koei Co, Ltd in association with Katahira & Engineers International, Japan, entered into an agreement for consulting services with the Ministry of Surface Transport (MOST), and the Obayashi Corporation signed the contract with MOST in January 1996 for the construction of the bridge and approaches. L&T-ECC was awarded the project, with the stipulation that the construction of the bridge, valued at Rs 195 million, be completed within 24 months. Concrete re-bars, PC strands and jackdown systems were provided free of cost by the Obayashi Corporation.

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The second Nizamuddin Bridge across the Yamuna in New Delhi.

A close-up of one of the piers of the bridge.

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Running the Gamut of Expertise

both fabrication and erection of auxiliaries, and the construction of off-site structures. Survey, engineering, supply, fabrication and erection of transmission line towers across 8km also came under the purview of L&T-ECC. Within a year of successful operation, MRPL decided to expand the facilities. Impressed by the speed, safety and quality of work in the execution of Phase I, MRPL entrusted the task of expansion also to L&T-ECC, a project valued at Rs 870 million. Phase II expanded installed capacity three-fold. L&T-ECC commenced work in 1997, successfully completed this phase by the dawn of the new millennium. This plant has a state-of-the-art continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) unit to produce unleaded petrol for the first time in the country. Major works on part of L&T-ECC in this project included civil, structural and piping works for the crude/vacuum distillation units, and the Naphtha splitting and hydrocracker units; the design, engineering, supply and erection of the 110k switchyard; and the erection of atmospheric and vacuum columns, designed by Engineers India Limited, and manufactured at L&Ts Hazira Works. The 73m-long atmospheric column weighing 405MT was the tallest column erected in India, at a height of 18m.

&T-ECCs association with the building of refinery complexes in India, dates back to the 1950s. Almost all refineries in India bear an L&T-ECC mark. Its very first such project was the Assam Oil Refinery in Guwahati. Other refineries that L&T-ECC has been associated with include the Barauni and Mathura refineries of the Indian Oil Corporation Limited; the Madras Refineries Limited, Manali; the Cochin Refineries Limited, Ambalamugal; the Vizag Refinery of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited; and the Mahul Refinery of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited. The Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL) was the first of its kind, being a joint venture between the public and private sectors, promoted jointly by Hindustan Petroleum and the Aditya Birla Group. This grassroots refinery, the fifth in southern India, was raised in an area of 740ha in hilly terrain on the outskirts of Mangalore, in the lush, evergreen Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka. It has a refining capacity of 9 million tonnes per annum. The main plant, power plant, tanks and certain facilities are built on the upper plateau, 60 to 78m above mean sea level. The raw materials facilities, product tanks, and marketing terminal are on the lower plateau, 6 to 14m above mean sea level. L&T-ECC played a crucial role in setting up Phase I of this project, which was commissioned ahead of schedule in March 1996. The scope of work included turnkey construction of the co-generation plant, the design, engineering and construction of raw water pipeline with pump house, and foundations for major equipment. The project also involved

Sections of the MRPL Refinery.

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The MRPL Refinery, Mangalore, seen by night.

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The Worlds Largest Refinery

or most, the very thought of constructing the worlds largest refinery in a little over 24 months would prove daunting and appear impossible. Not for L&T-ECC, which tackled the job in the sprawling 3000 hectare Reliance Petroleum Limited (RPL) site in Motikhavdi village near Jamnagar, Gujarat. About 100,000 workers, 3000 supervisors and scores of engineers worked around the clock to complete the work ahead of schedule. The location, on the western tip of India, has the strategic advantage of being the nearest port from the OPEC nations of West Asia. It also has such advantages as wellThe regenerator being positioned connected pipeline networks and links to the oil processing facilities in Kandla. vertically at site. Many records were set during the project. This is the worlds largest single stream grassroots refinery. This was also one of the largest construction sites in the world. With an investment outlay of Rs 220,000 million, it was the single largest investment by a private sector group at a single location anywhere in India. Project managers Bechtel, France, left the actual construction to L&T-ECC, which played multiple roles in the process, involving three L&T divisions. L&Ts Unit Equipment Division fabricated and supplied the largest fluid catalytic cracker regenerator ever designed or built

in the world one more landmark in the project. The massive 1200MT regenerator, the heaviest pressure vessel to be delivered in a single piece, was erected in Jamnagar in an operation that, itself, showcased several impressive skills. L&Ts Electrical Division supplied the switchboards for the entire refinery complex. And ECC executed the construction work for a major portion of the refinery, marine tank farms and infrastructure. The sheer size and complexity of the construction set the project in a Another view of the erection in progress. class by itself. L&T-ECC decentralised all its operations, and created a central project office to act as coordinator maintaining overall control. There were nine such areas at RPL Jamnagar to be managed during the project implementation, each with its own managers and engineers. As early as 1996, ECC laid the groundwork for infrastructure by constructing a 36km boundary wall, establishing the quarry and raising a residential colony for 35,000 workers of all categories, skilled, unskilled and highly skilled. The facilities included water treatment plants, dispensary, a shopping complex and a childrens school and playground. A separate staff housing facility was also established providing accommodation for 348 bachelors and 564 families, all within a self-contained township. L&T-ECC also constructed 23.5km of main roads within the refinery and 12km of road in the township in record time to facilitate movement. A jetty and causeway were constructed and made operational before civil works at the refinery were completed. The 2.8km shore link to the jetty has a storage back-up area of 13,800m2 and is made up of a central core fill surrounded with armoured protection. The area being cyclone prone, special care was taken in the construction of the causeway, ensuring that the causeway top is at least 0.5m above the maximum height of water at high tide.

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Erection in progress of the worlds largest and heaviest Fluidised Catalytic Cracking Regenerator for Reliance Petroleum at Jamnagar, Gujarat.

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ECC was the largest contractor at Jamnagar, handling about Rs 6000 million of the work at the refinery, including excavation, reinforced cement concrete, structural fabrication and erection, piping and equipment erection. Non-plant structures, such as a central laboratory and central control rooms for various plants and a materials management centre were also completed on schedule. The port facility, constructed by ECC, is the largest private sector port in India, and has been designed to receive three or four supertankers a week. The Herculean task of erecting the pipe racks was accomplished with the help of 14 cranes and to very intricate designs from the Engineering Design and Research Centre of ECC. The pipes were erected fault-free, eliciting the appreciation of Bechtel, who stated that L&T-ECCs work was even better than world standards. The Project Manager perhaps expressed the achievement best when he said, India will not see another project of this kind in the next ten years. Concrete pipe racks at site, and, on facing page, sunset seen through them. 14 cranes were used to erect them.

Housing complex constructed at site for 35,000 workers.

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Helping the Automobile Revolution


The Assembly Line at Marutis plant.

&T-ECC, in keeping with its long tradition of being associated with pioneering endeavours, has played a major role, and made substantial contributions, to the growth and development of the automobile industry in India. Over the past two decades, L&T-ECC has been associated with almost every giant in the Indian field Maruti Udyog, Ashok Leyland, Mahindra Ford, Motor Industries Corporation (MICO), Toyota-Kirloskar and Hyundai Motor (I) Limited. It all began in 1985, with ECCs successful erection and commissioning of Indias first tri-axis 2000MT Transfer Inside Ashok Leylands plant at Hosur.

Press for Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) in a record timeframe of five months, a feat comparable to the best that the West had to offer. Commending their work and success, Maruti Udyog went on to make a repeat offer in 1987, involving the erection and commissioning of its Press Line, comprising one 1500MT/700MT double-action press and four 500MT single action presses. Against a schedule of eight months prepared by Japanese experts, L&T-ECC completed the job within three months, despite intricate pre-assemblies and drive units thanks to deployment of the 100MTcapacity Goliath gantry. The heaviest single piece erected was the crown of the double action press weighing 77MT. In 1994, L&T-ECC executed the civil, structural, mechanical and electrical works, including all finishing items, for the massive 10,000m2 side-member building for the new Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) cargo unit of Ashok Leyland at Hosur. Given the stringent six-month schedule, execution of the project involved meticulous planning and innovative construction. A delighted client entrusted L&T-ECC with yet another order almost at once for the erection and commissioning of a state-of-the-art, 5000MT capacity hydraulic press, complete with sophisticated component and dye handling systems, that turns out the vehicle body. L&T-ECC employed its 120MT Goliath crane, and imported heavy capacity rollers.

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Inside Marutis factory at Gurgaon.

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India Ltd then set up a modern, integrated manufacturing facility near Chennai. L&T-ECC was chosen to construct MFILs new, integrated plant, including new office buildings, at Maraimalai Nagar, a southern suburb of Chennai. The Corporate Office and the Employee Facility buildings, about 3000m2 each, are architectural delights, linked by a glass-roofed, colonnaded walkway that serves as a corridor. The structures are visual treats, but are equipped for efficiency and productivity, with open-tosky landscaped courtyards, a mall, dining and kitchen facilities, a crche and a medical centre. Press machines at the Ford factory. A noteworthy feature of this assignment comprising considerable material handling was that none of the structures or roofing was kept under hold during the erection of press components. Care was taken to provide a dust-free environment, and the exacting quality standards set by the German suppliers were met with ease, with work finishing more than six weeks ahead of schedule. In 1995, Ford Motors and Mahindra & Mahindra Limited established Mahindra Ford India Limited (MFIL), a 50-50 joint venture. In November 1998, Ford received government approval to increase its stake in the JV. Ford The $65 billion Hyundai Group of Korea set up its second largest car manufacturing facility in India, 4km from the Rajiv Gandhi Memorial at Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, opposite the Madras Motors Sports Trust race track, which was also built by ECC. L&T-ECC designed and constructed the administrative building and ancillary structures such as the paint, press, body, assembly and engine shops, erected the body assembly press and laid the roads and drainage network. The project also included the construction of buildings for Mando Brake Systems (I) Limited and POSHyundai Coil Centre, two ancillary facilities. Beginning with a Rs 12 crore order from Hyundai in 1997, L&T-ECC accumulated orders worth Rs 162 crore by May 1998, which included structural, mechanical and

Hyundai car factory at Sriperumbudur near Chennai.

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The corporate office building of Mahindra Ford, Chennai.

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electrical installations in addition to civil works. The pilot production of Santro cars began in June 1998. L&T-ECC, for the very first time, executed work of the paint shop facilities in an automobile factory, which included erection of 350MT of tanks, tunnels and oven modules, 1400MT of structures, 150MT of ventilation ducting, 80MT of air supply units, painting booths and piping networks. All fabrication was carried out in the ECC workshops, with erection involving 2900MT being completed in 12 months. 626,000m3 of excavations were completed in a record time of 105 days. The top management of Hyundai, Korea, upon visiting the site, lauded L&T-ECCs efforts in completing the project well on time, without compromising on quality and workmanship. Holck-Larsen, L&Ts Chairman Emeritus, was as pleased when the first batch of Santro cars rolled off the assembly line. Paint shop in an automobile factory.

A birds eye view of Toyota-Kirloskars car factory at Bangalore.

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L&T-ECCs tryst with Indias growing automobile industry continued, recording success after success. In 1998, it received an order to construct a new automobile factory for Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited at Bidadi, near Bangalore, Karnataka. The project included civil, structural and architectural work valued at Rs 44.49 crore, and mechanical work totalling Rs 2.5 crore. ECC also constructed road drains, culverts, internal sanitary and plumbing work, and external sewage systems. The scope of work was vast and varied, and involved fabrication, supply, installation and commissioning of the paint shop structures for both the pre-treatment system and the electro-coat system. L&T-ECC next constructed the tractor factory building for L&TJohn Deere Limited at Sanaswadi, 30km from Pune in Maharashtra. This order, valued at Rs 45 crore, was executed in a mere 12 months. Among the early automobile ancillary projects have been three for the Anand Group of Companies, Pune, Maharashtra, comprising a

shock absorber plant for Gabriel India Limited, an axle plant for Spicer India Limited, and a piston rings and gasket plant for Perfect Circle Victor Limited. As part of this contract, L&T-ECC constructed factory buildings, infrastructural facilities like water supply, sewage treatment plants, transformer yard with DG unit, cooling towers, boundary walls, electrical power networks, and central airconditioning systems. Precast folded roof elements, with their many inherent advantages over cast-in-situ reinforced concrete construction, were provided for in all three plants, much to the appreciation of the client. With 60 years of experience to draw upon, L&T-ECCs multi-faceted expertise and unmatched technical competence is reflected in the manner in which no task is ever considered too complex to handle, no matter what the industry petrochemicals, refineries, power generation, cement, steel or automobiles. The entrance to Perfect Circle Victors office.

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Civil Support for a Greenfield Smelter

L&T-ECC set up a well-equipped structural shop for fabrication and sand blasting. Extensive quarters were built for a workforce of over 1000. Thirteen large labour sheds were also constructed. Water was brought in by tankers on a daily basis from Bharuch 54km away a massive exercise in management in itself because no potable water source was available at site. ECC erected a 100,000tpa capacity 520MT flash-smelting furnace comprising reaction shaft, uptake shaft and settler supplied by Outokumpu Engineering, Finland. Innovative erection techniques were employed for this purpose. The refractive lining of 800MT was then carried out under the supervision of Radex, Australia. A 12,700m3 capacity, 520MT waste heat boiler, supplied by Oschatz, Germany, was also erected, an elaborate process which involved prefabricated supporting structure, pressure parts and high-pressure piping of 10,000 diameter. L&T-ECC also undertook the erection of various machines for anode preparation, anode scrap washing and cathode stripping supplied by Wenmen, Finland, in the refinery plant. ECC carried out tank-house-crane erections for which main girders were specially manufactured and supplied by its workshop in Chennai. During the course of structural work, L&T-ECC were offered a particularly challenging task that of erecting the stainless steel and mild steel stacks. This involved the fabrication of three stainless steel and mild steel stacks of 78m height each, inside the 75m-tall and 8m-dia ROC chimney constructed by another agency. The 300tpd oxygen plant, a turnkey project executed by L&Ts Heavy Engineering Division, based on technology from Praxair, USA, was yet another substantial area involving both civil and mechanical work. The total structural work was a huge 288MT, with the main fabrication being the cold box, weighing 112MT. This was a landmark, and the entire erection work was finished within a remarkable timeframe of six days. L&T-ECC, with its sustained emphasis on speed, coupled with quality, safety and productivity, created immense confidence and goodwill in the client, collaborators, and consultants, resulting in the generation of additional orders.

ahej, in the Bharuch District of Gujarat, is the home of Birla Copper, a member of the Aditya Birla Group. Its premier custom copper smelter has a capacity of 100,000MT a year, and commenced production in March 1999. In 1996, L&T-ECC was entrusted with all the major constructions work in connection with this prestigious greenfield project. The scope of work was, as always, extensive, including complete structural works, metacolour and polycarbonate sheeting, fabrication and erection of imported flash smelting furnace and refractory, fabrication and erection of equipment and piping in both the smelter and refinery plants, civil and structural erection, piping and commissioning of a 300tpd oxygen plant, and fabrication and erection of 78m-tall multiflue stainless steel stacks. L&T-ECC undertook to handle the structural steel work for the smelter building, refinery building, raw material storage shed, copper concentrate rod plant among others. The time schedule was a mere ten months.

The illuminated air separation unit at the Dahej Plant.

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Complex network of pipes inside Birla Coppers Dahej plant.

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Raising a C i t y Ta l l

includes such facilities as a gymnasium, party hall, jacuzzi, sauna and steam bath, library and card room, and a billiards room. It also has its own telecom network. A stand-by power supply ensures the smooth and uninterrupted working of both passenger and service lifts. In fact, every comfort a resident requires has been anticipated and ensured right from the planning stage, creating homes that meet the most exacting demands. South City is being developed from 1997 in a phased manner in a 34 acre site. The current phase, launched in October 2003, will be ready for occupation by mid-2005, when there will be built-up area of nearly 100,000m2.

ne of the most attractive and inviting self-contained, residential complexes in the country is South City in Bangalore. The residential area occupies a mere 15% of the total acreage, the rest being left open for verdant parks, swimming pools for both adults and toddlers, and play areas for children. South City has the tallest residential buildings in South India, with each imposing 76.2m tower comprising one ground floor, 19 upper floors and basement parking at two levels. Every possible modern convenience is provided in 2360 apartments in the complex. Keeping in mind the requirements and interests of the upwardly mobile urbanites of today, South City

Completing such an extensive project in less than five years has meant finding new ways to ensure fast construction. The modern technology of a tunnel form system has been used in this project, reducing the time required for the casting of one flat from a normal 12-day cycle to a mere 1 days and making project completion possible in less than five years. In this method, floor and wall slabs are cast in a continuous pour, including quick fixing, stripping and removal of forms in a mechanised way. An accelerated curing technique that reduces the curing cycle from 28 days to a mere 10 hours was also introduced by L&T-ECC. ECC has from the planning stage itself laid emphasis on landscaping, arboriculture and floriculture, to ensure an ecofriendly area that is well supported by such infrastructure as a network of roads. This is what makes South City a complete home experience for body, mind and soul. Its environment and resident-friendly planning and the speedy completion of a modern construction with the appeal of classical styling makes South City one of the countrys most prestigious addresses. The complex has been developed and promoted by L&T-ECC in association with Dinesh Ranka & Associates.

South City, a 2360-apartment residential township in Bangalore.

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Landscaping is a special feature of South City, Bangalore.

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Creating a Swift, Smooth Path

ustling Coimbatore, with its concentration of industry, has heavy traffic movement in and around it at all times. The Salem-Cochin National Highway (NH47) passes through a thickly populated, heavily congested area in and around the city for nearly 30km, causing endless bottlenecks and traffic jams. A bypass to alleviate traffic congestion was suggested as far back as in the 1970s. But it did not see the light of day until 1995, when the Government of India liberalised its policies and opened key sectors to private enterprise. In September 1995, the Government of India sought private sector assistance to finance and implement the construction, operation and maintenance of the Coimbatore Bypass. The construction of an additional twolane bridge at Athupalam, at the junction of the Coimbatore-Pollachi road with NH47, was also mooted to make the project more viable. L&T-ECC was awarded the Build, Operate and Transfer project, the first of its kind in Tamil Nadu, after a tripartite concession agreement was entered into by the Government of India, the Government of Tamil Nadu and L&T-ECC in 1997. The bypass, about 28km long, reduces the distance by 2km for users. It consists of a 7m wide two-lane carriageway, 1.5m wide paved shoulders and 1m wide earthen shoulders on either side. Construction of road overbridges and railway crossings, a major bridge over the River

Noyyal, over/under passes and drainage works were all part of the project. Improvement works at two major junctions as well as at 11 other road crossings were included. Retro-reflective road signs, thermo plastic road markings, crash barriers and other appropriate roadside furniture were also part of the work-plan, ensuring that this bypass would exude a very urban, state-of-the-time aura. Wayside amenities like public conveniences, parking facilities, service stations, drinking water, telephones and first aid facilities, snack bars and kiosks at suitable intervals have been added to emphasise that, for L&T-ECC, a road is not merely a means to get from one point to another; the travellers comfort is equally important. Southern Railways, soon after the construction commenced, proposed a road overbridge instead of a level crossing across its metre gauge railway line at Chettipalayam and this increased the scope of the project. The old Athupalam Bridge was becoming a hazard with its narrow width and crowded surroundings, with bus stops near the junctions and other encroachments causing both traffic jams and accidents. With the additional twolane bridge of 7m width with 1.5m-wide footpaths on both sides, crowding and constraints have been removed. The people of Coimbatore now have a four-lane, wellmaintained bridge with several improvements at the junction ensuring a smooth flow of traffic. Another bridge constructed as part of the project, an aesthetic bowstring girder one, is over Irugur railway crossing between Nilambur and Madukkarai. Macalloy bars have been used in this bridge for the first time in India. Maintenance of the bypass is facilitated by the collection at four toll plazas of prescribed toll fees, a first in Tamil Nadu in a private sector infrastructure project. The Athupalam Bridge will be L&T-ECCs responsibility for 20 years and the bypass itself for 30 years.

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The 28km-long Coimbatore Bypass Road.

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Indias Longest Flyover

nce, Bangalore was a pensioners paradise, replete with cool green lawns, broad roads, quaint granite buildings, and endowed with a salubrious climate and a very leisurely lifestyle. Then came the 1980s and the city exploded into the fast lane of commercial growth, especially when the mantle of being Indias answer to the Silicon Valley fell upon its shoulders. With the globalisation of the next decade, the Garden City was pushed even further along the superhighway of technology and witnessed unprecedented growth and lifestyle shifts. With this transformation came the inevitable flip sides and fall-outs, the quantum leap in traffic being one of the more unattractive side-effects. Those who know Bangalore will recall the eternal glut of traffic on the Bangalore-Mysore Highway, a chaotic mix of 8000 vehicles a day, all belching pollution and causing interminable delays. When the Bangalore Mahanagar Palike, the municipal corporation, decided to do something about the situation, it focussed on commissioning a flyover in the heart of the city which could take on at least 50% of the traffic. L&T-ECC was given this Rs 940 million turnkey contract in 1997 to construct an acoustically safe, aesthetically pleasing structure. And UKbased design consultant Dar-Al-Handasah came up with the design for the flyover that begins 170m west of Sirsi Circle and runs above the Mysore Road to descend at Silver Jubilee Park, near the Town Hall, a distance of 2.65km. This makes it Indias longest urban viaduct and it was built in record time. And that is not its only record. The Sirsi Flyover is a world class landmark in eco-friendliness, aesthetics, complex road geometry, and unique technology featuring a long-line match-cast segmental construction technique, employed for the first time in India. Another remarkable feature is that there were no diversions or road clutter disrupting the stream of life and traffic flowing below even as construction progressed at a frenetic pace above, a rare phenomenon

indeed. This was due to the state-of-the-art, tremendously timesaving operations employed, such as precast technology which reduced the structure of a segment to 10 days as against 90 days if more conventional methods had been used. Using A view below the flyover. Note the sleek the Titanic overheadcentral piers with fluted design. launching machine also helped save time and gathered admiring crowds of sightseers every time this magnificent machine with its awesome power was put into operation. The main flyover comprises 853 precast deck segments, mounted on 67 single piers. These piers, 2m diameter at the base and upto 6.5m in height, were designed as sculptural monoliths with fluted designs, which help reduce noise pollution. Casting of the piers was done in situ in a single pour, using a Schwing concrete pump to place the concrete. The segments were manufactured in two designed-toperfection casting beds. The segmental construction was pioneered by L&T-ECC to the design of Dar-Al-Handasah. L&T-ECC survived many challenges successfully during this project. For operational effectiveness, work had to be synchronised with mathematical precision between the constantly advancing flyover erection and the factory-like construction site that was the nodal area of activity. This was situated in what was formerly a lake, which had, in fact, to be dredged and backfilled before it could be put into effective use. The site comprised a huge concrete batching plant, a reinforcement bay for cutting steel, storage spaces for both precast elements and machinery spares, a material testing lab, a survey station and the site office. The flyover is 16m wide and has a dual, four-lane superstructure designed for a cruising speed of 45km, four times the prevailing speed on the road below. Its alignment follows the geometry of existing roads, allowing users to make gentle transitions on sharp corners should they wish to get off/on the flyover at certain points. Driving on the viaduct is a pleasure, say the citizens.

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Bridge Launching using Segmental Construction Method

The 2650m-long Sirsi Circle Flyover in Bangalore.

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Portals to the Future

he world has witnessed many different forms of revolutions through history. Irrespective of differences in origin, motives and manner, they all have one effect in common they change forever the world, and the very essence of thinking and living for the particular generations they engulf. The Silicon Revolution is no different. It wrought seachange upon global perceptions and world-views never before experienced. As it rolls on today, the search for prime software locations, for technoparks that offer upfront and on-line support systems that IT firms need, gains momentum. This is of particular relevance in India, fast emerging as a major software base in the world. Today, almost every player of global significance in this field has a presence in India. Thus it was that L&T Infocity Limited, a joint venture of L&T (89% equity) and the Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (11 % equity), was formed in 1997 to develop the Rs 15,000 million Hyderabad Information Technology Engineering Consultancy (HITEC) City at Madhapur in Hyderabad. HITEC City will, when completed, provide an impetus to software, hardware, engineering consultancy and financial services all in one integrated township. Unique and awe-inspiring in concept and execution, this project has the additional feature of possessing a builtin ability to morph and grow, adapt to every change in technology or progress in business, making it completely malleable and development-friendly. Seeing that it serves the business and social needs of corporates and like organisations, the township has already

attracted the attention of many IT giants. HITEC City is emerging as a major commercial and IT hub in India. Built on 64 hectare of land, in close proximity to schools, colleges, hospitals, and with a fairground of international standards, HITEC City offers every conceivable infrastructural facility ever imagined office space, production areas, shopping centres, communication facilities, a hotel, convention centre, recreational zones and clubhouses, four- and two-lane roads, and street lighting with photo sensor controls. World-class data and voice communication facilities are within easy reach through the multiple service providers located within the techno-township. L&T-ECCs engineering wing, the Engineering, Design and Research Centre (EDRC), based at ECC-HQ, Chennai, has provided the conceptual and detailed design for this techno-township. The master plan caters to a plotted development with focus on providing world class infrastructural facilities to the occupants at their doorstep. The project has been divided into phases, with ECC in the vanguard of the construction activity. Cyber Towers, the first phase, constructed by L&T-ECC, is now fully functional. The cylindrical 10-storied building has an imposing faade, with an entrance lobby which offers a certain glitter, but is at the same time clean and clear, entirely free of any fuss, reflecting the spirit behind the purpose of the City. Developed on 2.4 hectare of land, it offers 48,825m2 of world-class IT infrastructure with office space. The structure is equipped with intelligent building automation systems, a centralised airconditioning system with a stand-alone dedicated system for server airconditioning, uninterrupted quality power through two feeders originally belonging to the Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board, backed by a DG Plant, and seamless data and voice communication facilities with voice wired up to the workstation for ready-to-plug-in operation. L&T Infocity is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the project. The renowned facility management agency, GB Richard Ellis, is in charge of maintaining Cyber Towers, which was inaugurated on November 22, 1998.

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Cyber Towers, Phase I of HITEC City the Prestigious IT hub at Hyderabad. Engineering Design is by EDRC. Architectural concept is by R. Chakrapani & Sons. Cyber Towers won the Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India) Billimoria Award for Excellence in Construction.

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Cyber Gateway, Phase II of HITEC City, seen here by night.

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Buoyed by this success, L&T Infocity entrusted ECC with the second phase of the project, Cyber Gateway, whose foundation was laid during the inauguration of Cyber Towers. The work was launched in August, 2000. Cyber Gateway is designed to house information technologybased companies, offering around 80,500m2 of built-up space for corporate offices. Spread over 3 hectare on the main entrance axis of the site of HITEC City, it is located on a site whose terrain is both rocky and undulating. Comprising two blocks, of 6 and 5 floors respectively, the buildings are made of pre-stressed slabs with a large column-free space. Like Cyber Towers, it is equipped with state-of-the-art facilities. The building is white, against which the greenish blue structural glazing offers a pleasing, soft contrast. The staircase core is clad with a textured mosaic surface. Built with an inclined profile, clad with structural glazing, its simplistic rectilinear form is in sharp and aesthetic contrast to the dry and rocky surroundings. The entrance lobby of Cyber Towers. Landscaping and ventilated corridors add environment-friendliness to Cyber Gateway. The building contains a landscaped courtyard, complete with fountains, water bodies and greenery. Its inclined profile is tied at the top with pergolas. This helps create a sense of a gateway, even as it provides a controlled environment within that space. Cyber Pearl, Phase III of HITEC City, is now under construction by L&T-ECC, with subsequent phases spread across the 64 hectare also under development, all of which are to house customised facilities meeting the specific needs of corporates.

An artists impression HITEC City, a techno-city, is the city of of Cyber Pearl Phase III. tomorrow. It is a one-stop solution for all the business and social needs of the IT sector and its allied industries. Its uniqueness lies in the fact that it is a wholly integrated concept with a facility for expansion commensurate with requirements. Inside an office in L&T Infocity Ltd.

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44m. Unforeseen soil conditions required part of the PSC piles of the western berth and a majority of the eastern berth to be converted into steel piles. The eastern berth, along with the eastern approach jetty, was completed in the unbelievably short span of 9 months. In keeping with the L&T-ECC tradition, many innovative techniques and methods were successfully adopted during the execution of this project. Sprinkler type curing allowed used water to be re-cycled, ensuring that potable water was not unduly depleted. The selfbuoyancy of the full-length fabricated steel piles was put to good use by plugging both ends, enabling them to be floated and shifted, achieving both economy and speed. A survey computer programme was developed in-house for the complicated survey of pitching and driving of piles during high tidal variations. L&T-ECCs penchant for setting benchmarks continued. For the first time in India, thin-walled, hollow P50 piles were cast in a single length at site. Again, for the first time, self-locking lifting scissors were designed to lift huge loads in maritime construction, friction clamps for huge loads were designed and executed, and a 55m span feeding gantry with a lifting capacity of 60MT was used as was a huge rolling gantry with a 225MT crane for pile driving. The same gantry was re-erected mid-sea, its stability being tested during the supercyclone in 1998. L&T-ECC commenced work in 1997, completing the entire project in a breathtaking 39 months. The port was dedicated to the nation on January 23, 2000, by the then Home Minister L K Advani. Marine piling with barge-mounted piling rig.

On Stream at Adani Port

dani Export Limited, a leading trading house in India, involved in a variety of imports and exports, operates from Indias western ports. One of the ports used was Kandla, an extremely busy port, where the waiting periods for loading and unloading were inordinately long. To alleviate such problems, the Adani group was granted permission to set up its own private port at Navinal island near Mundra in Gujarat, about 75km from both Kandla and Bhuj. At present, the port is being utilised for the import and export of bulk and dry cargo and the import of liquid cargo. With L&T-ECC having considerable experience in working in opensea conditions, and achieving a list of firsts each time, they were awarded the Rs 596 million contract for the construction of multipurpose jetties and other facilities for the Adani Port. The National Institute of Ocean Technology and the Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, were consultants on the project. The scope of work was immense, and involved the design and construction of the 12m-wide, 572.5m-long main approach jetty consisting of 1,200mm diameter prestressed concrete vertical piles with a spacing of 10m, and a superstructure with precast prestressed hollow deck planks. It also included design and construction of the 2163m western berth, the 164.5m eastern berth, the 204.5m long eastern approach jetty, nine mooring dolphins connected by structural steel walkways to the main jetty, the construction of a mid-sea threestoried pump house and a 7m wide and 80m long barge berth. L&T-ECC imported a floating pile-driving unit the Ramlift VI from Christiani & Nielson Limited, UK, on a rental basis for driving the precast P50 as well as steel piles. Pile lengths varied from 25m to

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The Adani Port near Mundra in Gujarat.

Operations at the Port in full swing.

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Largest Coal-handling Te r m i n a l

aradip in Orissa, an ancient cultural and commercial centre, is today one of the ten major ports in India. The port is connected to the rich Talcher Coal Fields of Bihar, 200km to its west, through a network of roads and railway. The coal shipped from Paradip Port is received at the new port in Ennore, a Chennai suburb. In order to meet the coal requirement of 20 million tpa for the existing as well as the proposed coal-based power projects in Southern India, a new coal handling terminal was built at Paradip, enhancing its handling capacity from 2mpta of coal to 20mpta, making it the countrys largest coal-handling terminal. L&T-ECC transformed the idea into reality in 1998. BHPE-Kinhill JV of Australia, consultant to Paradip Port, was Project Manager. All operations were so designed as to create an integrated conveying and storage system of coal-handling, including unloading, receival, transfer, tracking, reclaiming, weighing and loading. L&Ts Kansbahal Works manufactured and supplied the conveyor system, while ECC executed the civil, structural and mechanical erections, testing and commissioning, including electrical installation works. This involved the setting up of a high profile, totally mechanised coal-handling system, 9km long, to handle the targeted coal despatches. The project is designed to handle a peak load capacity of 4400tph and an operational capacity of 4000tph. L&T-ECCs scope of work was, as always, vast and varied, including several constructions and installations, including the rail receival station with diaphragm wall support for wagon loading. An automatic water spraying system for dust suppression was provided, its run-off water being taken to a settling pond, where it

Bucket-wheel reclaimers seen in action at Paradip Port. could be re-used as fire water and fire hydrant. A large pond was also provided for retention of water to use during dry months. The entire area chosen for the project, was low-lying, swampy land with a network of creeks. Kalis and Dredging Corporation of India filled the stockyard area with sand by dredging sand from the nearby sea basin and creating a huge sand stockpile. Since the volume of sand was enormous and the time schedule very tight, L&T-ECC mobilised a fleet of excavators, tippers and levelers. A major hurdle faced by L&T-ECC was a super cyclone that hit the Paradip coast in October 1999, destroying individual and company property and costly equipment. Thanks largely to the precautions taken by the site management, the site personnel were saved. After two days of flood havoc, the project team began working round the clock to set the site in order. In two weeks, normalcy was restored. The ECC-ites also played a major role in helping the worst-hit villages, bringing first-aid to them and organising swift clean-up operations. ECCs Paradip site became famous by clocking fifteen million injuryfree man-hours, and its comprehensive approach to safety, health and environment was recognised when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) awarded the site the prestigious RoSPA Gold Award for Occupational Health and Safety. The citation made a special mention of the role that the Paradip site team had played in handling the super cyclone. Paradip Port now bids fair to become the biggest coal-handling terminal in Asia.

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A panoramic view of Paradip Port Trusts coal-handling terminal.

A closer view.

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330 MW in 820 Days

he row of towering, gleaming steel naphtha storage facilities stand like sentinels on parade at the 330MW Combined Cycle Power Plant in Pillaiperumal Nallur (PPN), a coastal town near the famous temple town of Thirukadaiyur in the Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu. This is the first major independent power plant (IPP) set up in the State. Work on it commenced in 1998. The consortium that promoted this project comprises the Pillaiperumal Nallur Power Generating Company, Marubeni Corporation, Japan, Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG Global), USA, and El Paso Energy Corporation, USA. The construction of the entire project was executed under the leadership of the Marubeni Corporation, the EPC

Aerial view of the housing quarters at the PPN township.

(Engineering, Procurement and Construction) contractors, who contracted L&T-ECC to handle the entire project on a turnkey basis. L&T-ECCs comprehensive engineering services in civil, mechanical, and electrical and instrumentation areas, its experience and its construction capabilities, have all been demonstrated here. ECC completed the entire work and started delivering power to the TNEB grid from March 2001 taking in all just 820 days from commencement. The dual fired (naphtha and natural gas) power plant, at present generating power on naphtha, will switch over to a mixture of naphtha and natural gas when work on offshore gas wells is complete. A gas turbine (230MW) and a steam turbine (100MW) with the highest quality safety standards have been built into the plant by L&T-ECC. Another striking feature of this project is the architectural and structural design of the PPN Township, a self-contained residential area that was completely designed and constructed by L&T-ECC for the staff. Occupying 62 acres, this township is divided into three zones: residential, commercial and recreational. Neatly laid out in symmetrical rows, each house has its own garden, ensuring privacy and green, cool open space. The commercial zone contains amenities like restaurants and medical centres. The recreational zone is complete with an open-air theatre designed to accommodate 1000 people, play-courts, gymnasium and library. The landscaping of the 200-acre project site promises to create in time a model, environment-friendly, industrial township. The open-air theatre at PPN that can seat a thousand people.

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Naphtha storage facility at the Combined Cycle Power Plant at Pillai Perumal Nallur, Tamil Nadu and inset, a view of the 330MW PPN Power Plant.

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to offer L&T-ECC as working space for the CRM. This meant that the existing facilities had to be dismantled and relocated, the circumstances making the speedy execution of civil work a Herculean task. ECC was also given the responsibility of erecting and commissioning the coupled pickling line and tandem cold mill, a key component of the main plant. L&T-ECC added several specific construction methodologies for this project. To avoid the risk of earth slides, ECC employed trench excavations combining the foundation work for the building columns instead of opting for individual foundations. This proved more economical too. Better inventory control was introduced by using structural steel drawn from TATA Steel on a returnable basis for certain formwork. The mechanisation of concrete work meant speedy progress and ensured concrete pours even in unapproachable locations. Safety being a prime concern, the Doka access scaffolding was used for all masonry and finishing work. The supply of concrete was unhampered throughout the project, with deployment of an optimum number of transit mixers and clearly planned routes for them. Through meticulous planning, which included a well-tailored monsoon plan that ensured sufficient stocks of construction material, and effective execution on the part of the dedicated team, the construction schedules stayed smooth, despite the constraint of space. In completing this assignment, L&T-ECC set up several records in structural steel fabrication and concreting. Such as: * The highest volume of concrete poured per day touched 1,022m3 on July 29, 1998, and per month 8436m3. * The project, as on September 8, 1999, achieved 7 million accident free man hours a remarkable feat. Most outstanding of all was that ECC set a global benchmark for supply and commissioning of the plant in a world record time of 27 months, a whole month ahead of the previous record for a similar plant held by POSCO of South Korea. Another global benchmark was to be set by L&T-ECC four years later when it undertook another project for TATA Steel.

Beating the Record-holders

&T-ECC and the Tata Iron & Steel Company (TATA Steel) at Jamshedpur share an association imbued with mutual support and respect going back more than 25 years. It was therefore no surprise that, when TATA Steel decided in 1998 that setting up a Cold Rolling Mill (CRM) plant was of topmost priority in the face of a global recessionary steel market, it would choose its long-time associate, L&TECC. L&T-ECCs role in setting up the Rs 1600 crore, 1.2 million tpa plant included erection, commissioning of a coupled pickling line and tandem cold mill, along with civil, structural and underground piping work, equipment erection and commissioning of the CRM. ECC worked with Nippon Steels, Hitachi Limited and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Limited of Japan, during the implementation of the project. Other utility packages were supplied by various international agencies. For L&T-ECC, this Rs 5.75 million project was unique from the point of view of the number of multifaceted contracts undertaken. Schedules for the supply and erection of equipment were inflexible. This meant that the time taken for civil and stuctural work had to be reduced. Apart from rigid time schedules, L&T-ECC also had to work around land shortages. Due to continuous capacity upgradation and plant modernisation, TATA Steel had hardly any land

A view of the Cold Rolling Mill.

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TATA Steels Cold Rolling Mill at Jamshedpur.

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A Successful Reconstruction
When L&T-ECC successfully completed the upgradation and total reconstruction of the 43-year-old Blast Furnace F for TATA Steel at Jamshedpur, it set new global benchmarks and standards both for others and itself. This feat was achieved in May 2002 by a consortium comprising L&T-ECC and Paul Wurth SA of Luxembourg, regarded as world leaders in blast furnace technology. Given the global recession prevailing at the time, it was only to be expected that the steel industry preferred revamping to new purchase. L&T-ECC won the countrys first blast furnace revamp contract in the teeth of international competitive bidding. The engineering, procurement and construction contract called for upgradation of furnace capacity from 0.66 million ton a year to 1.00 million ton a year. This was achieved in a record time of just 16 months. Tata Steel had set very stringent terms: dismantling, upgrading and rebuilding of Furnace F within a shutdown period of just 150 days, with a mere 10 months of pre-shutdown time for engineering, planning and procurement. The achievement was remarkable, especially because the critical shutdown works were carried out in just 105 days as against the expected 150 days. R P Singh, Executive-in-charge (Engineering Services & Products), Tata Steel, expressed the view that there were lessons to be learnt by all who watched the L&T-ECC team at work. It demonstrated leadership quality, individual involvement and teamwork. To meet the consequences that arose from the reduction in shutdown time, L&T-ECC did much of its work even before furnace blow-out. The staff braved the gruelling environment typical to running blast furnaces: molten metal tappings, live rail tracks, and relentless air and noise pollution. Working round the clock, they succeeded in meeting demands of both speed and precision. Working with the design and technical support from Paul Wurth, L&T-ECC fabricated over 3000MT of technological and building structures, over 60,000 inch metres of piping, and 3000MT of refractory installation, electricals and automation. It also did

8500m 3 of excavations and 4500m 3 of concreting. Operation shutdown was itself an arduous one, involving fire quenching, controlled blasting to bring down stubborn scab, foundation demolition, innovative use of jacks for shell support, welding, concreting, electricals, instrumentation and automation. A new foundation and new refractories had to be put in place. Finally, the old was indeed replaced by the new, rebuilt and upgraded furnace. The furnace, once supported on a mantle ring, is now an aweinspiring freestanding one with modern features like a compact bell-less top charging system and dense plate cooling system. The revamp enhances the furnace volume from 1392m 3 to 1587m3 with 24 tuyeres. It also provides automation of stock house and conveyor, and of stoves with hydraulic actuation of valves and high-pressure operations. Now that a blast furnace has been rebuilt and upgraded for the first time in India, L&T-ECCs pioneering efforts will open the floodgates for more such revamps and opportunities. Working on the revamp of the furnace.

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Revamp of TATA Steels Blast Furnace at Jamshedpur under way.

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Best Way to
A section below the Metro line.

Railway Stations, and the crowded Chawri Bazar. The work included the construction of a tunnel for the Metro trains to pass through and six underground stations. The novel technology used in the construction of the Channel Tunnel linking England and France was adopted here. The tunnel was lined with pre-cast concrete segments consisting of six parts and weighing 16MT each. The segments were then joined by bolting and grouting. Twelve steel moulds were imported from France for the work. Each underground station, 300m in length and 20m in width, was constructed using the cut and cover method. While in most cases the bottom-up approach, involving initial extensive excavation, was used, the top-down method was used for the Chawri Bazar and the Central Secretariat stations. This method, which causes least disruption to traffic and surroundings, was preferred as both Chawri Bazaar and the Central Secretariat are crowded areas, involving in the case of the latter, high levels of VIP movements. The Chawri Bazaar station was also the most complicated geologically and proved a logistic challenge. It was surrounded by structurally weak buildings, with extremely poor ground conditions for work. A secant pile wall was used for constructing the two 288m long station caverns and L&T completed this wall construction in a record 45 days. The underground stations and passenger amenities for the Delhi Metro were constructed by cutting trenches. In the case of Delhi Main and the New Delhi Stations, L&T constructed diaphragm-walls, and, in a joint venture with Bauer of Germany, employed a state-of-the-art trench cutter for the very first time in India. The Slurry Trench technique, developed in Europe, was used for this work. The trench cutters took just four to six hours per trench, using special attachments on patches of rocky strata. Each station consists of three levels, top slab, concourse, and platform. These levels are connected to one another through stairs and escalators. While the honour of being Indias first Metro goes to Kolkata, the Delhi Metro has the edge in scale, speed, and new technologies used for the first time in India. The Kolkata Metro took 25 years to build; the Delhi Metro is scheduled to be complete in a total time of seven years, although it is four times longer than the Kolkata Metro. The latter is geared for trains every eight minutes during peak hours; the Delhi Metro is equipped to handle trains every three minutes.

Tr a v e l

ll large metros everywhere in the world share a common nightmare traffic. For most commuters, the process of getting from point to point is both complicated and tortuous. New Delhi is no different. An extensive study undertaken by the Government of India in the 1990s showed an imperative need to provide a Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) for the city. It was recommended that a rail-based network of 198.5km was required to meet New Delhis traffic demands by 2021. In 1996, the Government approved Phase 1 of the MRTS, comprising 11km of Metro corridors and 44.3km of rail corridors. The project was started in 1998, and is slated for completion in four stages by 2005. It is a marvel of engineering ingenuity and is being built at breathtaking speed. The civil work for the 11km underground corridor was done in two sections, MC-1A and MC-1B. L&T-ECC, in joint venture with four other companies Dywidag International, Germany, Samsung Corporation, South Korea, IRCON International, and Shimizu Limited, Japan executed MC-1B. The joint venture was named International Metro Civil Contractors (IMCC). This 6.6km corridor runs below some of Central Delhis most important, high-usage areas, including Connaught Place, the Central Secretariat, the New Delhi and Old Delhi The Delhi Metro on the move.

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Inside the tunnel in an underground section of the Delhi Metro.

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Expressway
The early stages of construction.

to a Concrete Future
hile Mumbai is the commercial capital of India, Pune is the cultural capital of Maharashtra and the emerging industrial hub of the State. Given the daily movement of traffic, providing safe fast access between the two cities has long been of paramount importance. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the answer and its development was one of the most prestigious projects undertaken by the Government of Maharashtra, one in which L&T-ECC proved itself a leader in the field of hi-tech highway construction. This is Indias first modern expressway to have concrete paving and six lanes. Designed and built to international standards, the expressway is provided with state-of-the-art facilities and road furniture. Much thought has gone into including beautiful landscaping and keeping the benefits of eco-construction in mind, so that the entire drive becomes a pleasant experience through a picturesque route. The sheer scale of the project was designed so that a daily traffic of 100,000 passenger cars travelling at a speed of 120km an hour would be assured smooth movement. The expressway reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai by one and a half hours a massive difference, conferring all benefits upon the traveller. The Government entrusted the construction of the expressway to the Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC) on a Build-Operate-and-Transfer basis. To make execution of the project smooth and easy, the MSRDC divided the 95km expressway, from

The Expressway near the Kusgaon interchanger. Kalamboli Junction to Dehu Road, including Panvel bypass, into eight sections. L&T-ECC was entrusted with two of these and an allied project. They were: 1) The 23km Section C between Kusgaon at the Mumbai end and Ozarde at the Pune end, 2) The 8.4km section of the Khandala-Lonavala Bypass, and 3) The Kamshet 1 B twin tube tunnels falling within Section C, the client being the Konkan Railway Corporation Limited. All three were successfully executed, with Section C being opened to traffic on July 27, 2000, and the Khandala-Lonavala Bypass going into operation on May 1, 2001. The Kusgaon to Ozarde stretch has a dual three-lane carriageway, 12.45m wide in each direction, with pavement quality concrete, black topped shoulders 2.50m wide and earthen shoulders 1.50m wide. Work on the Khandala-Lonavala Pass included making improvements to the already existing road on NH-4 between Long Tunnel and Khandala and also the ghat portion of the Khandala Valley. The road stretch in this section is 6150m, with four underpasses, seven overpasses, and 15 cross drainage structures. The scope of the project was immense, as can be judged by the many significant structures on the expressway. On Section C, they included two major bridges, 34 slab culverts, one rail overbridge, eight underpasses, two overpasses and 33 hume pipe culverts. The Kamshet twin tube tunnel is said to be one of the worlds largest in diameter, having an overall dimension of 17.6m x 9.8m, and finished parameters of 17m x 8.8m. Each tube of the tunnel is capable

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A birds eye view of the Kune viaduct on the Khandala-Lonavala Bypass.

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Entrance into a twin-tube lined tunnel at Kamshet, on the Mumbai-Pune Expressway.

Inside the Kamshet tunnel.

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of handling four-lane traffic. They have been provided with stateof-the-art facilities like lighting, ventilation and firefighting and control systems, all of which match with the very best in the world in terms of quality. It was imperative that work be completed on time and worldclass quality maintained at all costs. In order to ensure this, all resources at all levels had to be matched. The project demanded speedy mobilisation of men, materials and machinery to meet tight schedules. The project also called for very extensive civil work, including excavation of soil and hard rock through blasting whenever required, building embankments and viaducts, ensuring road alignments, engineering and procurement. L&T-ECC had to manage a logistic supply chain for providing 2.5 million MT of aggregate and 300,000MT of cement over a 3-year period, a huge challenge met with characteristic efficiency. Modern crushing plants of a combined capacity of 800 tonnes per hour were mobilised to meet the aggregate requirement. Cement silos with a combined storage capacity of 2000MT were erected at various locations. The Cement Division of L&T provided the necessary infrastructure and the facilities for transporting cement in bulk from Kovayya in Gujarat to Mumbai by ship and then further on down the road to the project site with a speed that matched the speed of the concrete paving. ECC provided for two concrete paving teams for laying dry lean concrete and pavement quality concrete. The single most important requirement here was that the pavers were fed with concrete, matching their laying speed at all times, since any stoppage while paving would affect the road-riding quality. To achieve this, high capacity automatic batching plants were imported and transportation was organised through heavy-duty Tata dumpers. Such detailed long-sighted arrangements meant that 1000-2000m3 of concrete a day were laid with ease, enabling completion of 23km of paving of Section C in just 18 months. With this knowledge and experience, L&T-ECC continues to play a very significant role in the development of Indias transportation infrastructure. Another view of the Khandala-Lonavala Bypass

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The Long Arms of Power


The Baspa-Jhakri line running across the mountains of Himachal Pradesh.

hey stand tall, these towers of power, silhouetted against a sky the colour of golden apricots, testimony to Mankinds eternal efforts to enhance the quality of life. Power, and the harnessing of it, is crucial to this need. The construction of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines is a major area of operation for L&T-ECC. The companys ISO-certified towermanufacturing facilities in Pondicherry and Pithampur provide highquality products and services, not only for the Indian market, but also for niche areas in West Asia, Southeast Asia and the SAARC countries. Among several challenging projects for the construction of 400KV double circuit transmission line towers undertaken by L&T-ECC, two have been in Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. The first was the Sasaram-Allahabad Transmission Line, executed for the Power Grid Corporation of India Limited. The line connects the Eastern Power Grid with the Northern Grid, diverting surplus power from the latter to the former. The line, cutting 218km through Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, is one of the longest transmission lines in the country. It crosses the River Ganga, with a span of 180m, at two locations, a feature that increased the element of challenge in this project. The river crossings required the designing, building and erecting of special towers. Factors such as the long span and sag, high flood levels and navigation heights were considered during the design process. From anchor to anchor, the river crossing towers span over 91m and are an awe-inspiring 124m tall, as against the average tower-height of 50m. Each river-crossing tower weighs 200MT, while other towers weigh 17.75MT. It took 25 days to erect each of these tall giants, even with a workforce of 45 a day.

An impressive 583 towers were erected for this project. The work, which began in April 1999 and was completed on October 2001, involved 181,666m3 of excavation in various types of soil, 22,588m3 of concreting, 1692MT of reinforcement, 10,617MT of structural steel and 10,318MT of structural erection. The entire line is designed to carry a load of 500MW. The second project was a 400kV double circuit transmission line for Jaiprakash Industries Limited. The line, running 54km from Baspa to Jhakri, is meant to evacuate power generated from the 3000MW Baspa, Stage II Hydroelectric Project in Kinnaur District, Himachal Pradesh. The power is to be transmitted to the Jhakri switchyard of the Nathpa-Jhakri Power Corporation (NJPC), a joint venture between the Government of India and the Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board, for sale to the National Power Grid, North Zone. Himachal Pradesh is perhaps one of the most picturesque states in the country, with breathtaking valleys and narrow gorges cutting through the mountains. The heart-stopping beauty however does not disguise the fact that this is among the toughest terrain, not just in India, but in Asia as a whole. L&T-ECC, who accepted the turnkey project as a challenge, had to construct the entire transmission line at altitudes ranging from 2000 to 6000m. At times, the work was carried out in truly difficult, even hazardous, conditions in sub-zero temperatures and through heavy snowfall during winter. The work, started in February 1998, was completed in March 2002. L&T-ECCs EDRC business unit provided design and detailed engineering for the towers. ECCs TLT-Pithampur Works manufactured and supplied the galvanised towers for the project.

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The Sasaram-Allahabad transmission line.

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Projects that Bridge Nations

Dzonkhag and comprises a 92m-high concrete gravity dam across the River Wangchu, three power intakes taking off from the right bank, and three de-silting chambers. A head race tunnel, 22.9km long, had to be constructed, work including both excavation and lining. Penstock shafts, an underground power house cavern and switchgear room, a main access tunnel, an access tunnel to the transformer cavern, emergency exits, cable ducts, bypasses, surge tanks, and tail race tunnels were all parts of the project. The Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Limited (WAPCOS) provided the necessary consultancy, while the design was provided by the Central Water Commission, New Delhi. The project began on October 1, 1998, and was scheduled for completion by March 31, 2004. The projects civil works were divided into five packages. One of the packages, which called for building a 4.4km-long head race tunnel through a 965m long adit was awarded to ECC. Being a fast-track project, fully mechanised tunneling methods were planned. State-of-the-art machinery like boom hydraulic drill jumbos and 10m3 capacity off-the-highway low profile dump trucks are but a few examples of the machinery that was deployed. The workforce, a highly skilled crew of 600, worked under the supervision of a permanent 40-member staff of ECC, brought in from all over India for the project. Tunneling is an art in itself, and doing so through the Himalayan ranges was a daunting and challenging experience. Cutting through the virgin rock there revealed varying characteristics, showing Mother Earth in many, often capricious, moods. The rock type changed constantly, requiring that engineering sense was applied at all times, with strict control being maintained over supervision, quality and safety. Bad ground conditions, water ingress, high stresses, and late dilation served to add to the hurdles, at times flummoxing even the most experienced professionals in the team. The head race tunnel posed many challenges. The geology being so unpredictable, blasts were designed very carefully, as were supports, which were planned and placed quickly each time. Other reinforced back-up systems of support were also used. In August 2000, the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan experienced its worst floods, and the entire project was thrown out of gear. The site was cut off and schedules slipped by over 100 days, including a 15day work-loss. However, lost time was soon recovered with quickthinking innovations and ECC completed the work ahead of schedule.

t is infrastructure that builds a nation, and L&T-ECC is renowned for being involved in projects engaged in this task. In recent times, with its growing prominence in overseas operations, L&T-ECC has attained another substantial dimension that of building projects that build nations and bring countries together in a fellowship of mutual help and support. The 1020MW (6x170MW) Tala Hydroelectric Project in Bhutan is a fitting symbol of this spirit. This prestigious, mega project is a joint venture of Government of India and Royal Government of Bhutan, under the banner of the Tala Hydroelectric Project Authority. The project was totally funded by the Government of India with 60% as grant and 40% as soft interest loan. Bhutans hilly terrain makes hydropower generation the ideal choice for its power needs. The Tala project is located in the south western part of Bhutan in Chukha

The Adit Portal at Tala, Bhutan.

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The collapsible formwork used to line the tunnel under construction for the Tala hydroelectric project in Bhutan.

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This was a work area fraught with obvious and hidden dangers for the work force. It is therefore with great pride that L&T-ECC achieved one million safe-working man-hours twice over, with merit certificates being awarded to the site. The site also maintained quality standards confirming to ISO 9001 of BVQI. Work on in full swing inside the tunnel at the Chilime project, Nepal.

Residential colony for ECC-ites at the Tala Project. In Nepal, ECC completed a Rs 538 million underground civil engineering work for the 20MW Chilime Hydro Electric Project (CHEP). One of the most comprehensive civil engineering packages for a hydel project, it included excavating and lining 2.36kmlong head race tunnel, excavating and back-filling Penstock Shafts and designing, fabricating and erecting 640m of steel penstock, an underground power house cavern including a 3-storey control room building with transformer cavern and switchgear room, and constructing a main access tunnel. Lengthy import formalities, poor logistic support, falling rock, tunnel collapse and extremely cold winters were all challenges that had to be surmounted with innovation and grit. Being in an insurgency-prone zone, security was always on high alert leading often to disruption of work schedules. Not the least of the problems was communication. The saving grace of the agonisingly bumpy and dangerous 134km drive from Kathmandu to Chilime was the exquisite picture-postcard-perfect scenery of step-cut tree-clad hills and dales, rushing brooks and pristine waterfalls.

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Inside the 20MW Chilime Hydroelectric power project tunnel in Nepal.

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A Te m p l e o f Healing

Envisioning such a temple of healing, while keeping in mind that people come here broken in body and spirit, and that the process of healing has to take every facet of the human persona into account, the aesthetic side has been given importance. With its emphasis on landscaping and horticultural work, the hospital provides balm for the soul. The hospitals modern yet regal faade is dignified and imposing, instilling a sense of confidence in its capabilities at first sight. Its very structure is designed to create an atmosphere and environment charged with love and hope, sanctified by divinity. The main temple hall exudes a sense of compassion and serenity, and holds out a gentle, yet firm, promise of healing, not merely of the body, but of the mind and spirit as well. The architects for the Project were Ravi Associates, Bangalore, and Sai Architects, New Delhi. A view of the central lobby in the hospital.

hagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba celebrated his 75th birthday on November 23, 2000 by gifting to his devotees, disciples and all who needed its services the Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences. L&TECC created the gift. Offering the best of multispecialty facilities, this 330bed hospital, with 12 operating theatres, is a veritable temple of healing it provides high-quality medical and surgical treatment free of cost, including cardiothoracic vascular surgery and neurosurgery, to the poor and needy. It also provides training for nurses and paramedics. Located in Whitefield, this super-specialty hospital, a new landmark in Greater Bangalore, is designed in a manner reminiscent of the Vidhana Soudha, home of Karnatakas legislature. L&TECCs Knowledge Centre, the Engineering, Design and Research Centre (EDRC), co-ordinating with BNA Agencies, medical gas agencies, medical equipment suppliers and medical consultants, created for this masterpiece a complete and comprehensive design involving all aspects of structural, electrical, water, and hygiene factors, and fire-fighting systems. ECCs vast range of capabilities in civil, mechanical, electrical and instrumentations work was utilised to the maximum in the project, in which electro-mechanical services help make buildings intelligent and special attention has been paid to state-of-the-art water supply, sanitation, security and surveillance.

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The Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Whitefield, Bangalore.

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Haryana, and 30 railway and road crossings. All this involved such activities as Right Of Use clearances, trenching, pipeline stringing, pipe joint welding, radiography, marker fixing, back-filling of trenches and restoration. Temporary and permanent cathodic protection systems had to be laid for crosscountry pipelines. Strong undercurrents had to be overcome while the pipeline was being installed across the 1200m wide Hadkiya Creek in Gujarat. The LPG Transportation Network comprised the trunkline, spur lines and the associated facilities of despatch and receiving stations, intermediate pigging and pumping stations, and a 66kV switchyard. 49 Sectionalising Valve Stations and a 66kV switchyard were designed and constructed to the specifications of Engineers India Limited. To handle as expeditiously as possible this wide range of activity that included civil, electrical, mechanical and instrumentation work, L&T-ECC set up site offices at Jaipur, Delhi, Jamnagar, Abu Road, Ajmer and Samakhiyali, ensuring smooth uninterrupted work. That work also included laying 756km of optical fibre cable along the pipeline route. Meticulous pre-planning and teamwork enabled this demanding engineering assignment to be completed ahead of schedule.

The Worlds Longest Pipeline

56 km of the worlds longest Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) pipeline system (1270km) were laid by L&T-ECC in 2000-01 for the Gas Authority of India (GAIL). It will transport 2.5 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) of LPG from the Reliance Petroleum and ESSAR refineries in Jamnagar to Loni in Uttar Pradesh, and to bottling plants in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi. Keeping in view the national importance of the project, L&T-ECC advanced resource mobilisation by three months and employed innovative construction methods to meet the tight 18-month execution schedule of the Rs 1900 million contract. The total pipeline construction was divided into five sections. L&T-ECC worked on three of them from 1999. They were: (I) 230km of 6"/14"/16" diameter pipes from Jamnagar to Bhimasar, (II) 230km of 16" diameter pipes from Bhimasar to Abu Road, and (V) 300km of 12" diameter pipes from Jaipur to Loni. The crosscountry pipeline-laying was through some of the most difficult terrain imaginable, through the rocky stretches of Jamnagar and Abu Road, the soft marshes of the Rann of Kutch, the restricted forest areas of Gujarat, the dry barren sands of Rajasthan, and the fertile fields of Haryana. The project included 12 major river crossings in Gujarat, Rajasthan and

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The Jamnagar-Loni pipeline being laid across the deserts of Rajasthan.

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Chennais Millennium Gift


Escalators leading to the upper floors. Given this schedule, L&T-ECC swiftly created parallel work fronts, deploying heavy equipment like three tower cranes, three batching plants, 25 transit mixers, seven concrete pumps and 20,000MT of L&T Doka formwork materials to expedite construction. The quantum of work was immense, involving 112,500m3 of excavation and 96,500m3 of concrete. ECC completed 108,270m2 of block work within 12 months, by accomplishing a 9-day cycle time for every slab with 24 hours working time. Every project is regarded as a platform for innovation. This one was no different. L&T-ECC introduced new formwork systems like the Frami system for columns and Table Form for slabs. 100 staff and 5,500 workmen were deployed to complete the complex 12-storey structure, with two basements and a built-up area of 123,250m2. The ground, first and second floors accommodate the business centre as well as an auditorium that can seat 650 and which can double up as a conference/exhibition/banqueting hall. There are three seminar halls with video conferencing facilities, shopping facilities, a health club, two restaurants, utilities, banks with ATM facilities, a swimming pool along with outdoor recreation facilities, and space for VSNL and other service providers for connectivity. The two basement floors house carparks and firefighting and common utility services. The energy centre is housed in a separate building. The faade of the building is state-of-the-art, reflecting the hitech sophistication of all its functions. The building is clad with composite metal panels and structural glazing systems, including curtain walling. Areas within contain fountains and greenery, offering the eye a welcome break from the glitter and shine of the flooring and the glass, ceramic, granite and metal used in the building. Bright wall murals, again contrasted with green plants, add a touch of cheerfulness and lightness to the awe-inspiring structure.

n the old road from Chennai to Mahabalipuram is city suburb Taramani where the eye is caught by an imposing structure that appears like a bright blue flash at first glance, taking your mind away in an instant from the dust, heat and the relentless surging traffic that threatens to engulf you. Thats TIDEL Park, the Information Technology Park complex, a software facility constructed by L&T-ECC in the New Millennium. This was the pick of the projects completed by ECC that year. The joint venture partners in the project were the Tamil Nadu Industries Development Corporation (TIDCO) and the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT). The Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company Limited was the principal contractor. L&T-ECCs scope of work in this contract for the countrys third consecutive fast-track information technology park included construction of structure, finishing works and building automation systems in a record time of 16 months.

Above: The Reception area. Below: Fountains and cascades adorn the lobby inside TIDEL Park.

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TIDEL Park, Chennai, by night.

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Pump houses along the pipeline.

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An Uphill Ta s k

8.5km of winding, forested hill slopes terrain that had proved a stumbling block to similar efforts in the past. L&T-ECC was approached to handle the project and have everything operational within what seemed on impossible three-month period. The scope of the project included tapping of water sources at the foot of the hills, construction of ground level service reservoirs, pump houses, an electrical sub-station, pumping mains and other accessories. It also involved the design, supply, installation, testing and commissioning of steel pipelines, along with the erection of pumps with motors and surge protection equipment. L&T-ECC accepted the challenge. Three other firms Kirloskar Brothers Ltd, Subash Projects and Marketing Ltd and IVR Projects formed a consortium with L&T to execute the contract. To ensure that the time schedule were strictly adhered to, ECC resorted to micro-planning, organising design, engineering, fabrication and supply of equipment, all in tandem. The pipeline route was finalised after a detailed study of the area, making sure that the number of bends was kept to the minimum. Given the terrain, L&T-ECC introduced various innovative methods of construction and movement of material. An approach road was built to facilitate shifting of pipes. Pipes were also made of 12m span to keep the field welding to a minimum and their weight manageable for easy manual handling. Wire ropes were tied between the tall trees on the slopes and used as ropeways for lowering pipes. Raw materials like sand, steel and metal in nearly 130,000 gunny bags were transported using long human chains of unskilled workers. Heavy machinery was dismantled, moved and then swiftly reassembled. Trees formed bridges and anchors. Sure-footed donkeys nimbly carried material to inaccessible areas. Innovative methods were also used for the pumping of concrete against the sloping gravity. Thrust blocks and anchor blocks were used to protect the pipeline from both lateral movements and uplifting forces. Safety was paid utmost attention to, resulting in the site being declared a zero-accident one an admirable achievement given the terrain, and the enviable benchmark ECC established by completing this greenfield water supply project in a record time of 77 days.

irumala-Tirupathi, one of the most ancient pilgrim sites in India, dates back over twelve centuries. The abode of the Lord of the Seven Hills, Sri Venkatesa, is the jewel in the crown of places of worship in Southern India. Every day, thousands of ardent devotees from all over India and abroad arrive to worship at this shrine. One of the major problems faced by the temple authorities, especially during summer, is shortage of water. In 1999, during a particularly extended dry spell, the then Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu suggested that the temple authorities make arrangements to have water pumped up from the plains. A high power committee was formed to look into the possibility. The aim was to pump 10 lakh gallons of water a day over a distance of 8.5km from Alamelumangapuram, at the foot of the 960m-high Tirumala Hill, to the temple at the summit. This involved dealing with hostile terrain that included 700m uphill and

A view of the pipeline laid along the slope.

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Pipeline cutting through forests taking much-needed water to pilgrims at Tirumala from the plains below.

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The Sea O f Tr a n q u i l l i t y

construction of three breakwaters, the 3.1km Southern Breakwater, connecting Arge and Round Island, the 1.7km Northern Breakwater connecting Anjadip Island to the mainland at Binaga Point, and the 340km Spur Breakwater jutting from Anjadip Island in a westerly direction. The scope of work involved the dredging of soft material below the breakwaters, dredging for a harbour basin for the approach channel and the reclamation of 50ha of land. A good foundation is the backbone of any breakwater. A huge concave depression was therefore carved out of the sea bed. The soft soil was replaced by fine sand, topped with coarse sand and the entire area well compacted, so that a stable foundation could be created to facilitate the placing of stones. The rock mass required for the breakwater construction, over 8 million MT, was quarried from the Aligadde Hill within the project site, on the basis of 1m of breakwater consuming approximately 1600MT of stone. Approximately 4 million m3 of rock was quarried for the project, transforming the hill into a 30ha plateau. After drilling and blasting, the rock mass was segregated, loaded and stockpiled into grades, which were then used as filter and inner core material, and also as armour in the outer layers. Nine types of stones were used in the breakwater construction. Two trailer hopper dredgers, the Saga and the Pacifique, dredged the trench for the Southern and Northern breakwaters between October 2000 and May 2001. The fine sand used for backfilling was compacted by vibro-compacters. The split hopper the Orwell was employed in the placing of the coarse sand layer. Hydrographic surveys by a specially built vessel fitted with stateof-the-art equipment ensured high quality and accuracy of the dredging operation. Four operational sections quarry, stockpile, marine operations and breakwater construction contributed to the success of this Rs 5760 million project. The harbour, which was created in 260 weeks now offers berthing facilities for the repair and maintenance of Western Naval Command vessels.

he first phase of a massive breakwater project, called Seabird, was executed for the Indian Navy in 1999-2004 by a consortium comprising of L&T-ECC, Hochtief AG of Germany, and Ballast Nedam Dredging, The Netherlands. Project Seabird aims to develop an integrated strategic naval base, at Karwar in Karnataka. The project is set in a picturesque landscape in the narrow strip of land between the thickly wooded Western Ghats and the emerald green waters of the Arabian Sea. The project will bring about a sea-change from turbulence to tranquillity in these coastal waters through reclamation and the

Work in progress at the harbour created at the Seabird site.

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Split barge carrying rock mass for dumping while creating the breakwater for the Indian Navy at Karwar, Karnataka.

Rock mass being loaded.

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Carrying Water to the Masses


An overview of the CETP.

&T-ECC combines sturdy business sense with an active social conscience.

Water is perhaps one of the most precious commodities required for humanitys survival. L&T-ECC has been in the vanguard of water supply projects for a while now. In recent times, L&TECC has undertaken a number of projects with the sole purpose of making water easily available. Industrial effluent treatment, wastewater treatment and disposal, solid waste management, leak detection and pipeline rehabilitation are some of the down-toearth jobs undertaken to achieve this purpose. One such project entrusted to L&T-ECC was by the Delhi State Industrial Development Corporation. This was to set up a Rs 99 million Combined Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at A closer look at the pipelines and controls.

Wazirpur, New Delhi, for primary treatment. The scope of the project included the design, engineering, fabrication, erection, testing and commissioning of the 24-million-litre-per-day CETP. It also included a raw effluent pumping station, rising main as well as operations and maintenance for one year. The project, awarded to L&T-ECC in October 1999, was completed three months ahead of schedule in October 2001, overcoming many difficult circumstances and hurdles. Work had to be done under very unhygienic conditions in areas congested with hutments and narrow roads. At the peak of operations, flooding, caused by the main drain overflowing, required dewatering of more than 15 million litres of water and work shut-down for more than 20 days. L&T-ECCs team did not lose heart and normalcy was soon restored. The plant caters to 28 industrial estates in the area. The scope of work required that 36 process units be constructed, including a pump house and equalisation tank, with a capacity to hold 8 million litres of effluent. The equipment included pumps, floating aerators, sludge thickeners and rotary vacuum filters. Electrical and instrumentation work was also undertaken, and included supply and erection of the LT panel, HT panel, transformers, aura lighting, pressure gauges and magnetic flow meters, among others. The project was of enormous environmental significance, and, as such, was under constant scrutiny, with officials and ministers from the Government being frequent visitors. The progress of work was monitored by the Supreme Court of India, who were kept informed of progress by the Government of Delhi. In the end, ECC demonstrated to all safety, speed and quality.

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The Combined Effluent Treatment Plant, Wazirpur, New Delhi.

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World-class Knowledge Hub

Perhaps the most challenging of all the work was the dry stone cladding which had to be completed in four months for the Academic Centre and Housing blocks. Using 25,000m2 of 50mm thick Bansi Paharpur sandstone, a thousand workers, including 400 skilled craftsmen, helped achieve this intricate task speedily and safely. In order to do that, the sandstone slabs had to be erected by stainless steel clamps, non-staining silicon sealant had to be applied between the grooves of the stone, coatings of silicon-based water-repellent had to be applied to prevent dampness and 5580m2 had to be plastered. The architectural features of the Academic Centre and Housing blocks for students, visiting faculty, permanent faculty and visiting executives reflect clean, uncluttered lines, symbolising the clear, straightforward, goal-oriented thought processes so essential to any academic institution. Open spaces both within and outside the constructed areas, the wide expanse of water, the colours used all serve to create an environment where the mind can breathe free amidst spacious surroundings.

he Indian School of Business (ISB), Hyderabad, set in a sprawling 250-acre campus at Gachibowli on the outskirts of the Andhra Pradesh capital, is the brainchild of a group of visionary business leaders, who wished to create a world-class Knowledge Hub with affiliations to universities of global repute. These project goals included the development of modern facilities that met all international standards, while ensuring no loss of ethnic identity and essence. These goals were instrumental in guiding L&T-ECCs approach to aesthetics and construction. The first challenge was to complete the civil and structural framework of a nine-block 60,000m2 Academic Centre comprising eight independent 3-storeyed blocks and a towering 45m tall central circular (40m diameter) library block within a timeframe of only 180 days, commencing from June 19, 2000. L&TECC completed the architecturally striking structure before schedule. Impressed by this speed of delivery, the ISB called upon L&T-ECC to undertake further work within the complex, such as infrastructural facilities like a 132kV substation and the external water, sewer and rainwater systems, the completion of which was necessary before the July 1, 2001 inauguration of the academic course for the very first year. The unexpected challenge of having to complete the entire internal plumbing in 2 months as against the original schedule of 5 months was also met with ease, once again demonstrating professional pre-planning.

The spacious central lobby at the Academic Centre.

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A poolside view of the Indian School of Business, Hyderabad.

A towering architectural structure at the Indian School of Business.

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Building a Dream in the East

Valuable plant and machinery one Manitowec, 30 mobile cranes, two batching plants, huge quantities of earth-moving and lifting equipment, tools and tackle all of which were worth crores of rupees were pressed into service. A 7000-strong work-force and 275 staff members worked on the project. The project was a great learning experience for ECCs engineers, working hand-in-hand with leading global players. While the construction giant Bechtel, Engineers India Limited and HPL formed the project management team, the EPC project executors included Toyo Engineering Corporation (Naphtha Cracker Plant), Daelim Engineering Corporation (high density polyethylene & polypropylene), Technimont GB (linear light density polyethylene) and Lurgi (benzene/butadiene). Engineers India Limited (offsite facilities) and HPLCL (a company formed by L&T and HPL to set up a 116MW co-generation power plant on BOO basis) were among the leading Indian contractors. The co-generation power plant was set up at a cost of Rs 4690 million. L&T had sole responsibility for this project; ECC was responsible for the erection of equipment for the co-generation power plant which was executed by L&T Gr II. The scope of work involved the construction of two naphtha-based front-fired service boilers, two units of heat recovery steam generators, two 35MW gas turbines generators, one 34MW condensate steam turbine generator, and one 14MW back-pressure steam turbine generator along with the utilities and process pipelines, pumps and fans, a cooling tower, and all the mechanical work. The naphtha cracker plant was executed in 27 months, a world record. Throwing its full weight behind this endeavor, L&T-ECC executed a crash programme to complete 70,000 inch-dia of welding and hydrotesting of 400 loops in a record time of four months. This package won safety management awards twice. The ECC group was recognised as the Best Safety Contractor for three quarters in the award year. The Haldia environment is a stronghold of the trade union movement, but posed no major industrial relations problems for L&T-ECC. A calm collaborative spirit was maintained with the huge labour force throughout project execution, the only major offsite problem being the severe lack of housing facilities. A residential colony with 1000 temporary quarters for various grades of both skilled and non-skilled labour was built by ECC to help tide over this problem.

ith the commissioning of Haldia Petrochemicals Limited in West Bengal in April 2000, a twenty-year-old dream became reality. Jointly promoted by the West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation, the Chatterjee Soros Group (USA), Telco, and the Tata Electric Companies, this Rs 55,000 million project ranks among the most prestigious projects in the eastern region. L&T-ECC played a key role in the process of giving the vision a concrete shape. Haldia Petrochemicals Limited is an integrated naphtha-based petrochemical complex comprising a The 116MW co-generation naphtha cracker and associated power plant at Haldia. process units with huge capacities for the production of ethylene, propylene, benzene, butadiene and pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenated. Byproducts include raffinates, Ce raffinates and carbon black fuel. L&T-ECC undertook more than 50% of the plant construction, spread over various packages worth Rs 1710 million. The scope of work included the complete civil, structural and piping work as well as the design, supply, installation, testing and commissioning of a 132kV switchyard and 33kV switchgear building. The project involved a massive quantum of work 98,000m3 of concreting, 8000MT of structurals, 600,000 inch-dia of above-ground piping, 9700MT of equipment erection and 860km of cabling.

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The Co-gen Plant at Haldia Petrochemicals Limited, seen by night.

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In the Wake of Disaster

anuary 26, 2001. A date Gujarat will remember forever; a day fraught with horror and tragedy, when one of the worst earthquakes ever witnessed, tore through Kutch and other parts of Gujarat. Bhuj was one of the worst affected areas. Its General Hospital, saviour and lifeline to so many citizens, was reduced to rubble in seconds. India united, breaking through shackles of caste, creed and religion, with only one thought in mind to rush to Gujarats aid. Re-building became the common goal of the nation. With the full support of the Government of India, one of the States primary tasks was to rebuild the lifeline of Kutch. L&T-ECC, having served on so many national projects, was chosen to rebuild G K General Hospital in Bhuj. The order for the work was given on October 15, 2001, and the main building was to be completed by January 2003, the ancillary structures by March 2003. The Rs 110 crore reconstruction of a 500-bed hospital was funded by the Prime Ministers National Relief Fund. It included execution of civil, mechanical, HVAC, plumbing, and firefighting works. Landscaping the structure and its environs also came under the purview of the project. Ancillary structures to augment the functional capabilities of the hospital were included in its scope. Bhuj falls under seismic zone V, and is therefore prone to earthquakes of medium to high intensity. It was imperative therefore that the structural design be earthquakeresistant in a manner that matched international standards. For the first time in India, Base Isolation technology was

adopted in which the superstructure is isolated from the basement. The isolators used for this purpose were designed in New Zealand, and manufactured and imported from Malaysia. The re-construction process was subjected to many vagaries and delays, progress being bogged down at various stages due to earthquakes with intensities of 3.1-4.0, a rather common feature in the area. The frequent tremors caused severe hardships in the initial phases for mobilisation of the huge manpower resources that were required for the planned construction activities. In order to begin the process of re-building, all damaged structures had to be removed or cleared, while partially damaged structures were modified and repaired to enable them to be used as temporary structures. When in February 2002, Gujarat was rocked by large scale communal violence, the site, although not directly affected, experienced the aftershocks and the work force was very badly demoralised. Movement and mobilisation of resources was badly affected, causing further delays. However, nothing could really hinder the speed of progress completely. Delays were dealt with summarily by mobilising additional manpower, plant and machinery. With the total commitment and focused professionalism of L&T-ECC, along with the full functional support of the National Dairy Development Board, EFN Rebeiro Associates, New Delhi, and the Prime Ministers Office, the project was completed successfully. The hospital was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee on January 14, 2004. The well-equipped hospital has 8 operating rooms, 6 delivery rooms, a school of nursing, residential complexes, guest house, a residential doctors hostel, and all other necessary facilities. A night view of the GK General Hospital in Bhuj, Gujarat.

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The main entrance to the earthquake-resistant GK General Hospital, Bhuj, Gujarat.

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Making the Nation Proud

rade Fairs play a major role in global economy by bringing together buyers and sellers in international trade. They also play a major role in catapulting the growth and development of modern cities. The Government of Andhra Pradesh, with its now trade-mark longsighted vision, was inspired to create a modern international exhibition venue. The dream led to HITEX the Hyderabad International Trade Exposition Centre at Inst Nagar, in the fast developing Hitec City. Based on the report of Messe Dusseldorf, one of the worlds largest organisers of international trade shows, the Andhra Pradesh Government identified the National Academy of Construction (NAC) to initiate the project, providing 100 acres of land in its campus, close to Hitec City near Madhapur, in the newly notified Cyberabad area. L&T Infocity (a joint venture of L&T Limited and the Andhra Pradesh Industrial Investment Corporation Limited) was selected as a suitable private partner to invest and manage the Trade Fair Centre. The Trade Fair Centre is being developed in two phases the first phase, with an outlay of Rs 45 crore, is now operational with three exhibition halls, trade fair building and a functional entrance plaza. A convention centre-cum-hotel, and the creation of five more exhibition halls, are planned for Phase II. L&T-ECC was entrusted with the civil, structural, electrical, plumbing, sanitary and landscaping works of the project all to be completed within a year.

The scope of work was vast, involving design and construction of the fair grounds, under-pass and external roads, open car parks capable of handling more than 900 cars, in office buildings, column-free exhibition halls with their special requirements of acoustics and other specifications, and a restaurant. The welcome arch, located at the intersection leading to HITEX, spanning 22.4m, and 32m tall, is made of structural steel and is modelled on the Charminar, an image evocative of the region. Along with an elephant-tusked landmark structure at HITEX, it serves as a monument to L&Ts capacity to combine aesthetics with practical construction. The most challenging part of this project was the erection, in a mere two months, of the roofs of the exhibition halls and the East Entrance Plaza using 1076MT of structural steel. Another challenge was the stone cladding using pink Bhansi Paharpur stone. There were unexpected situational challenges, like the increase in the scope of the paving block area by 33,793m2, which again had to be completed in two months, all of which were handled with smooth professionalism by L&T-ECC. M/s JV Consults of Germany were the Concept Architects, and M/s Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick India Pvt Ltd were appointed Project Management Consultants, with detailed engineering and architecture inputs being provided by the engineering design and research wing of L&T. HITEX is an international state-of-the-art exhibition venue, designed on the lines of the expo centres in Germany, and has the best infrastructure and service facilities. The project commenced with the groundbreaking ceremony on January 4, 2002, and the inauguration was held on January 14, 2003, with a zero-accident rate during execution, a matter of great pride. At the inaugural ceremony, Chief Guest Arun Shourie, then Union Minister for Disinvestment and Commerce (also Minister for Tele-communications), made special mention of the three Ss that dominate the work ethics of L&T-ECC Speed, Standards, and Scale, making their work equal to the best in the world, on global scales.

Exhibition Halls inside HITEX.

The central foyer in the office complex with skylights and spiral stairs.

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Inside the HITEX International Trade Fair Complex, Hyderabad.

Kelanittisa Combined Cycle Power Plant, Sri Lanka

Induced draft cooling towers, Vijayawada

Salalah Power Plant, Oman

Refinery for Chennai Petroleum Corporation

Refinery for IOCL, Panipat

Ship unloaders, Haldia Dock Complex

De-inking plant, Kottayam

Metal Beam Crash Barrier Unit, Pondicherry

Ready Mix Concrete Plant, Coimbatore

Talcher Thermal Power Station (boiler)

Secunderabad Faluknama Railway Electrification

Nellore Sriperumpudur Transmission Line

Patna Railway Electrification

Varahi Hydroelectric Power Project

Sasaram Allahabad Transmission Line

CIDCO Housing Complex, Navi Mumbai.

Hostel & Cateteria Complex IIT, Powai

Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Research Institute, Pondicherry

D Block of Andhra Pradesh Secretariat, Hyderabad

Residential apartments of Vellore Institute of Technology

Model of Les Pailles Exhibition Centre, Mauritius

Stayring for Bhavani Kattilai Hydroelectric Power Project

Model of Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital at Pune

Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex, Anandpur Sahib

Hotel ITC Grand Maratha Sheraton, Mumbai

ING Vysya, Bangalore

MMRDA mass housing, Mumbai

SAP Lab at Whitefield, Bangalore

Cyber Park, Bangalore

Commerce @ Mantri, Bangalore

G-100 hospital, Saudi Arabia

SAFAL Cash & Carry Outlet, Bangalore

Titanium a Software Complex, Bangalore

Software Park Convergys, Hyderabad

Cognizant Techno Campus, Chennai

Water supply pipeline for SJ Hubli Dharwad, Karnataka

Railway bridge across Ghambir Khad

Bridge across river Gowthami, Andhra Pradesh

AJC Bose Road Flyover, Kolkata

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Karnataka State Warehouse, Whitefield

The Forum a commercial complex, Bangalore

Mobile Crushing Plant

Sulphuric acid plant of Sterlite, Tuticorin

Blast furnace for a steel plant

Maddur Water Supply Project, Bangalore

LNG Terminal at Dahej, Gujarat

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Sai Ganga approach canal, A.P.

LNG Terminal for Shell at Hazira

Sports Stadium, Qatar

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Hockey stadium, Hyderabad

Purulia Pumped Storage Project

Tunnel boring machine

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Songo Songo gas pipeline, Tanzania

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Stacker reclaimer, Haldia

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Soil Lab ECC HQ, Chennai

ECC Transit House, Cenotaph Road

L&T Chennai House

L&T ECC Workshops, Kanchipuram

Transmission Line Tower Works, Pondicherry

L&T Formwork Factory, Pondicherry

Transmission Line Tower Works, Pithampur

Holiday Home at Kodaikannal

HITEX Exhibition Centre, Hyderabad

Lloyds Estate, Prabhadevi, Mumbai

Audco India Ltd., Chennai

Landmarks which houses ECCs Mumbai R O

L&T Centre, Coimbatore

Audco India Ltd., Kancheepuram

LTM Business Unit, Chennai

L&T Infotech Park, Chennai

L&T Komatsu Ltd., Bangalore

L&T Mysore Works

EWAC Alloys Ltd., Powai

Aerial View L&Ts Industrial complex at Powai

New canteen Powai West

L&T John Deere Tractor Factory, Pune

L&T Hazira Works

Management Development Centre (MDC) Lonavala

L&T Kansbahal Works, Orissa

L&T Pithampur Works, MP

Mahakumbabishekam of Sri. Kamalambika Sametha Kailasanatha Swamy Temple in ECC HQ Complex, Chennai,

Acknowledgement
60 Landmark Years, a prestigious publication, brought out by L&T-ECC Division acknowledges the invaluable contribution of the stalwarts of this great organisation. Appropriately, a major portion of this volume highlights a selection of 60 outstanding projects executed by ECC during these memorable years. Representative of the thousands of projects that ECC has successfully completed over the past 60 years, these projects bring to the fore the Herculean efforts of ECC-ites toiling day and night to create the landmarks many of them at difficult locations. We salute not only all these veterans and peers but also our customers, clients, vendors and suppliers whose support and co-operation have been of vital importance for the creation of these marvellous masterpieces. Compilation of a memoir of such graphic excellence, as this book, would not have been possible without a lot of effort and the unstinted co-operation of several persons. Invariably the collection of photographs and data is in itself a daunting and challenging task. To achieve this a lot of networking has taken place with many veterans of the past and stalwarts of the present contributing in ample measure. I thank them all for their worthy contributions. Special thanks are due to Mr. Ole Toubro who provided us with picture reference of project work for the film Bridge on the River Kwai site from Mr. Toubros personal archives. I would like to acknowledge Mr. S. Muthiah and his team for compiling the details and editing this book. Their excellent commentary and blending of the pictures with the text bring alive the efforts of the people behind the projects, as well as the graphic work of PACE Systems & Graphic Communications. I would also like to acknowledge M/s. Srusti Ads and Communications and Pragati, Hyderabad for the quality printing of the book, credit for which goes to Dr. D.U.S. Valluri who meticulously co-ordinated the printing and production. The team from our Corporate Communications Department, headed by Mr. V.S. Ramana, has been the catalyst accelerating the entire exercise, and bringing it to fruition within a stringent time frame. Last but not the least, my sincere thanks to all at ECC past and present, as well as the entire L&T organisation who have provided valuable inputs towards the successful compilation of this compendium.

Chennai August, 2004

K.V. Rangaswami Senior Vice-President, ECC Division

282

Larsen & Toubro Photographs

283

Appendices

284

Chronology
The courage to dream and dare

1620: The Danish association with India begins. Denmark receives the grant of Tranquebar from the rulers of Tanjore, 20 years before Madras was founded by the British. 1845: The British acquire Denmarks Indian settlements. 1934: Soren Kristian Toubro (SKT) arrives in India to help erect and commission machinery supplied by F L Smidth & Co. A/S, Copenhagen. 1935: Henning Holck-Larsen (HHL) is sent by Smidth & Co. to assess the potential of the various cement manufacturing companies in India. His recommendations become the blueprint for Associated Cement Companies (ACC). 1937: Holck-Larsen and Toubro conceive the idea of a business partnership. 1938: Holck-Larsen and Toubro found L&T based on oral understanding (written document is filed only two years later). L&T rents from Western India Match Company (WIMCO) a small room on Nicol Road in Ballard Estate for its first office. Danish manufacturers and the Federation of Danish Industries pay the firm a modest retainer to help sell their products. 1939: A small workshop is set up in Calicut Street in Bombay to undertake different kinds of engineering assignments and provide service facilities.

1940: Supply of Danish products ceases after Germany invades Denmark. L&T, now forced to stand on its own feet, begins manufacture of machinery and equipment and quickly earns reputation as a reliable fabricator of high-quality engineering requirements. Also, takes on ship repairs. L&T rents two floors in the JK Building , opposite what is to later become L&T House. 1943: Holck-Larsen and Toubro accept the challenge of degaussing ships. 1944: L&T begins to expand puts up sheds at Mallet Bunder in Bombay for storage of spare parts and a workshop with fabricating facilities in Falkland Road. A happy relationship with the Tatas begins, with work on its soda ash plant in Mithapur. Engineering Construction Corporation (ECC) is founded with Holck-Larsen, Toubro, S Rudinger and E B Mogensen each contributing Rs 10,000. Holck-Larsen visits London to seek foreign collaboration and returns to India with agencies for vanaspati-, biscuit- and soapmaking machinery. 1945: L&T signs a dealership agreement with Caterpillar Tractor Company of Peoria, Illinois, for earthmoving equipment. HHL and SKT scout for funds to purchase war surplus Caterpillar equipment. HHL meets Mangaldas Desai and son Narottam M Desai in November for this purpose. Mangaldas Desai and friends invest Rs 7 lakh in L&T. 1946: L&T becomes L&T Private Limited in February. L&T (Management) Pvt. Ltd., with Narottam Desai as its head, is formed to manage the

285

business of L&T as its managing agents, marking an important landmark in L&Ts development as a professionally managed company. Offices in Calcutta and Delhi are opened. 1948: L&T acquires 55 acres of undeveloped land in Powai, near Bombay, a turning point in the companys history. Work on developing the area begins with a contribution of Rs 50,000 from the partners. Late 1940s: H R Steenstrup opens the L&T office in Madras. 1950: The Caterpillar service station is shifted from Mallet Bunder to Powai. In December, L&T becomes a public limited company with a paid-up share capital of Rs 2 million. 1950s: Manufacturing of bottle closures begins. Laur-Knudsen, the representative of a Danish company, arrives in India to size up the switchgear market. L&T gets into manufacture of low-tension switchgear. 1955: L&Ts dairy division readies the Amul plant, which is dedicated to the nation by Jawaharlal Nehru. 1956: A major part of L&T Bombay office moves to ICI House at Ballard Estate (ten years later, L&T would purchase it and rename it L&T House, its corporate headquarters). Narottam Desai joins the L&T Board. 1957: L&T receives its first large engineering and construction order, from the Rourkela Steel Plant.

1958: Manufacture of food processing equipment begins in Powai. 1960: Mangaldas Desai passes away. Utkal Machinery Ltd. (UTMAL), L&Ts first associate company, is established in Kansbahal, Orissa, with three German partners, to manufacture plant and machinery for pulp & paper and iron & steel industries. L&T collaborates with Gilbarco Inc., USA, to manufacture petrol pumps. 1961: Audco India Ltd. is incorporated to manufacture valves for refineries and engineering plants. 1962: Eutectic Welding Alloys is founded as L&Ts third associate company. Toubro relinquishes executive responsibilities in L&T and retires from L&T (Management) Pvt. Ltd. 1963: Tractor Engineer Ltd. (TENGL), L&Ts fourth associate, is established to produce undercarriage tracks for Caterpillar tractors. Mid 1960s: L&T enters the field of nuclear facilities construction. 1969: Indian Government abolishes the managing agency system and L&T (Management) Pvt. Ltd. has to wind up. Government policy leads to exit of Danish directors and managers, only HHL and SKT remaining. 1971: L&T signs a joint venture agreement with McNeil Akron Inc, USA, to form L&T-McNeil for the manufacture of a wide range of machinery for rubber products, and tyrecuring presses.

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1973: L&T teams with Poclain S A of France to manufacture hydraulic excavators. 1976: HHL presented the Magsaysay Award. 1977: HHL is knighted by the Queen of Denmark. 1978: HHL retires as Chairman. Narottam Desai takes over. 1981: Larsen & Toubro (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. is formally inaugurated. 1982: S K Toubro passes away. 1983: L&Ts Awarpur cement plant, Indias largest, is inaugurated. 1984: ECC is merged with L&T. 1985: L&T acquires 80 hectares of riverfront land along the Tapi River and construction of another L&T manufacturing facility begins in Hazira. 1989: HHL is appointed Chairman Emeritus. L&T sets up a footwear factory at Kalol, 50 km from Baroda. Narottam Desai resigns as Chairman. Dirubhai Ambani becomes Chairman, Mukesh Ambani is Vice-Chairman and Anil Ambani a Director. U V Rao is appointed CEO. 1990: D N Ghosh, a former bureaucrat, is appointed Chairman. 1994: U V Rao retires as Managing Director and is succeeded by S D Kulkarni. L&T Finance Ltd.

is incorporated in November as a whollyowned subsidiary of L&T. L&T (Oman) LLC (Limited Liability Company) is incorporated as a joint venture. 1997: L&T Infotech is launched. 1998: L&T Ramboll incorporated. Consulting Engineers

1999: In April, A M Naik is appointed MD and CEO. 2000: LT Trade.com is Indias first website for global investing. L&T-John Deere Ltd. is formally opened in Sanaswadi near Pune. A Ramakrishna appointed Dy Managing Director. 2001: In November, Reliance Industries sells its Rs 2.5 crore equity holding to Grasim Industries. Rajashree Birla and Kumar Mangalam Birla inducted into the Board in place of Mukesh and Anil Ambani. 2002: HHL receives the Padma Bhushan. 2003: HHL passes away on July 27th in Mumbai. On December 30, A M Naik is appointed Chairman and Managing Director, the first whole-time executive chairman since N M Desai. L&T Employees Foundation established. 2004: L&T cement business is merged with Grasims and L&T Employees Foundation accquires Grasims shares in L&T.

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6 0 L a n d m a r k Ye a r s

The Engineering Design and Consultancy Department is established to offer comprehensive civil and structural engineering design and consultancy services. 1958: Chaddha leaves ECC. N C Bhargava takes his place but after a short innings dies in London. 1959: L&T acquires remaining shares in ECC and ECC is reconstituted as a public limited company, becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of L&T. A full-fledged designs division is established in Madras after Eric Kempf convinces Hover of the advantages of having one. First major design jobs are in Neyveli and Ranchi. 1961: Mortensen, as General Manager, ECC, acquires 26 acres of land in Manapakkam, a suburb west of Madras. 1963: Designs division merges with the construction wing, helping ECC to bid for turnkey jobs by offering design AND construction. 1968: The Engineering Projects Division (EPD) is established in Mumbai as a division of L&T, as mechanical and electrical erectors, focusses on instrumentation and calibration. Eventually, ECC takes over EPD and transfers it to Madras. ECC is now able to offer in-house a complete construction and engineering service. Mortensen establishes ECCs main depot and maintenance fabrication workshop in Manapakkam. Early 1970s: Working for Davy Powergas Corporation of UK, ECC erects a natural gas liquefaction complex for the Qatar Petroleum Company, ECCs first job in West Asia.

1944: Henning Holck-Larsen, Soren Kristian Toubro, Erik Mogensen and S Rudinger invest Rs 10,000 each to promote Engineering Construction Corporation (ECC), with the construction a new India would need as its focus. Gerhard Berg is put in charge. Western Railway, the Bombay Municipal Corporation and Associated Cement Company are ECCs first clients. 1946: After L&T becomes a public limited company, it acquires majority shareholding in ECC. 1947: HHL and Toubro sell their shares in ECC to L&T, which becomes ECCs managing agents. 1948: Berg dies and Henry Petersen succeeds him as CEO. 1951: P H Mortensen joins L&T. 1953-5: Petersen dies in an air crash; Sitaram Chaddha succeeds him. Willy Lindberg, of L&T, leads a team to Colombo to commence civil engineering work on a cement plant in Kankesanthurai. Equipment and Construction Company (ECC), Ceylon is formed for the purpose. Lindberg and Mortensen begin to undertake other contracts in Ceylon, culminating in the construction of the famous bridge for the film The Bridge on the River Kwai. John Hover of L&Ts Industrial Plant Department, who had been overseeing ECC operations, moves to Madras to take over from Steenstrup.

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1975: C R Ramakrishnan (CRR) succeeds Mortensen; focusses more on contracts overseas. 1976: CRR successfully leads ECCs bid for the Abu Dhabi International Airport, ECCs first big contract overseas. In October, CRR is appointed Managing Director and Chief Executive of ECC. The foundation division is strengthened with the addition of a design team. 1981: ECC moves its headquarters from its Club House Road office to Manapakkam. 1980s: ECC diversifies into railway electrification. Enters into collaboration agreements to update its technological competence with Doka of Austria, SECTRA of France and GEA of Germany. 1983: The Electronic Data Processing Department is established in Madras. 1984: On April 6th, ECC is amalgamated with its parent company, L&T, and becomes the Engineering Construction and Contracts Division of L&T (L&T-ECC). CRR is appointed Vice-President (Operations) and Wholetime Director. 1988: Factory for manufacture, supply and erection of transmission line towers is set up in Pondicherry. ECC enters the field of pollution control. Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) workstations are introduced.

1989: CRR appointed Joint Managing Director, L&T. 1990: A Ramakrishna (AR) is appointed Group General Manager. 1991: CRR retires on December 31st. 1992: AR assumes charge of the ECC Group as VicePresident (Operations), L&T. He also becomes a Director of L&T. 1994: ECC celebrates its golden jubilee. It is now the only construction company in India to offer total turnkey services in civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. 1995: Engineering Design and Consultancy (EDC) Department established. Construction Skills Training Institute inaugurated. Late 1990s: As public-private partnership becomes acceptable, the Development Project Unit is established to team ECC and L&T Finance in investment and participation in special development projects. 1998: Build India Scholarships instituted. 1999: The Engineering Design and Research Centre (EDRC) established. Early 2000s: ECC organises itself into five Business Sectors buildings and factories: civil and transportation infrastructure; hydel and nuclear power; industrial projects and utilities; and electrical and instrumentation. 2004: On April 27th, ECC completes 60 years of service in engineering and construction.

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Index
A A Jesperson and Son 46 ABB 200 A P Cement Works 146 Abu Dhabi International Airport Terminal 60, 94, 118121, 288 Adani Port 240, 241 Adayar Gate Hotel 154 Aditya Birla Group 32, 216, 228 Advani, G A 50 Advani, L K 240 Aeroport de Paris 118 Ahmadabad-Mehsana Toll Road Limited 87, 88 Air India maintenance hangar 52 Airports Authority of India (AAI) 89, 204 Aluminium Pechiney, France 150 Ambani, Anil 30-32, 286 Ambani, Dhirubhai 30-32, 286 Ambani, Mukesh 30-32, 286 American Concrete Institute, The 174 Amin, H J 62 Amul plant 12, 285 Anand Group of Companies, Pune 227 Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation 90, 236 Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board transmission line 66 Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation 91 Andreu, Paul 118 Anglo-French Textile Mills, Pondicherry 54 Anpara super thermal power station 160, 161 Arakkonam cement plant 148 Arihant Majestic Towers, Chennai 76 Aringnar Anna Bridge, Cuddalore 52, 164 Artbangle 9 ASCENDAS 90 Ashok Leyland, Hosur 222 Assam Oil Refinery, Guwahati 216 Associated Bearing Factory, Poona 48 Associated Cement Companies 2, 40, 144, 284, 287 Asthana Mandapam, Tirumala 104 Athupalam Bridge, Coimbatore 232 Audco India Limited 16, 52, 285 Automobile factories 222-227 Awarpur Cement Plant, Maharashtra 20, 82, 144, 145, 286 B Babrala Fertiliser Complex, Uttar Pradesh 186-188 Bagging Plant and Jetty, Mangalore 148 Baghdad office complex 96 Bahai House of Worship 78, 126-131 Ballard Pier Expansion, Bombay Port Trust 44, 52 Ballast Nedam Dredging, The Netherlands 270 Bamag Limited 9 Bangalore International Airport Limited 89 Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Boards Cauvery water scheme 50, 108, 109 Bataille, Pierre 18 Bechtel, France 218, 276 Bechtel, UK 61 Bendixon 40 Berg, Gerhard 8, 40, 100, 287 Bhabha, Dr Homi 18 Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 16, 18, 46, 50 Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba 170, 174, 180, 183, 262 Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd 160 Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited projects 71, 216 Bhargava, N C 44, 48, 287 BHPE-Kinhill JV, Australia 242 Birla, Kumar Mangalam 30-32, 286 Birla, Mrs Rajashree Aditya 30, 32, 286 Birla Copper, Dahej, Gujarat 228, 229 Bluestone Capital Partners, USA 34 BNA Agencies 262 Bokaro Steel Plant 200 Bombay High 196 Bombay Municipal Corporation 40, 287 Bombay Port Trusts Alexandria Dock 44 Bombay Stock Exchange building, The 78, 112-115 Bridge on the River Kwai, The 42, 164, 287 Bridges in Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia) 98, 164-167 Budameru Bridge, Andhra Pradesh 164 Build India Scholarship 69, 288 Building Awards ACCE Sarvamangala Award-2004 213 American Concrete Institute awards 193, 194 Certificate of Merit 162, 174 fib awards 92, 133, 134 FIP awards 132 Good Industrial Design Award 13 ICI-McBauchemie Award 136 RoSPA Gold Award 242 RoSPA Merit Award 190 Bukhara 94, 138 C Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation power station 82 Calcutta Port Trust, Haldia, wastewater treatment plant 71 Caltex Texmaco Company 6 Canadian Met-Chem 122 Capfer, V C 9 Caterpillar Tractor Company 9, 11, 60, 284 Caterpillar Service Station, Powai, Bombay 11 Cement plants 144-149 Central Electrical Authority 160 Central Power Research Institute, Hyderabad, transmission line 86 Central Public Works Department 213 Chabria, Manu 30 Chadda, Sitaram 42, 287 Chaitanya Jyoti 180, 181 Chambal Fertilsers & Chemicals Limited, Gadepan, Rajasthan 188, 189 Chattopadhyay, Prof Somnath 72 Chaudhuri, Ranes Ray 46, 62, 74 Chilime Hydro Electric Project, Nepal 260, 261

290

Chokhavatia, S R 48, 50, 52 Chouls, Ivor 10 Christiani & Nielson Limited, UK 240 CITRA, Paris 44 CNH Global N V, USA 20 Cochin Refineries Limited, Ambalamugal 216 Coimbatore Bypass Road 80, 232, 233 Colombo highrise 98 Consolidated Construction Company International Ltd 64 Cooperage Tower, Mumbai 76 Customs complex, Safwan, Iraq-Kuwait border 96 Currim, Ibrahim 9 Cyber Gateway 90, 238, 239 Cyber Park 91 Cyber Park Development & Construction Limited 91 Cyber Pearl 90, 239 Cyber Towers 90, 236, 237, 239 D Datar, A C 70 Daelim Engineering Corporation 276 Damodar Valley Corporation 42 Dansborg 2 Dar-Al-Handasah 234 Davis Powergas Corporation, UK 60 Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Mass Rapid Transport System 91, 250, 251 Delhi State Industrial Development Corporation water treatment plant, Wazirpur, Delhi 272, 273 Deosthalee, Y M 32, 36 Desai, H M 70 Desai, Narottam Mangaldas 10, 16, 18, 26, 30, 34, 44, 60, 94, 284-286 Desai, Mangaldas V 10, 16, 284 Desai, Morarji 12, 124 Desai, Mrs N M 33, 40 Development Consultants Private Limited 150 Devi Theatre Complex, Madras 52, 102, 103, 154 Dhamra Port, Orissa 90 Dhir, O P 62, 94 Dinesh Ranka & Associates 230 DLF Centre, New Delhi 58, 78 Doka Formwork and Scaffolding Company, Austria 64, 92, 288

Dredging Corporation of India 242 Durga Cements, Durgapuram 144 Durgapur Steel Plant projects 48, 66, 71 Dywidag International, Germany 250 E EFN Rebeiro Associates, New Delhi 278 Egmore-Tambaram metro line electrification 85 El Paso Energy Corporation, USA 244 Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT) 266 Engineering Construction & Contracts Division (ECC) 39-100 CADD workstations 67 Casting yard 52 Cenotaph Road Guest House 52 Club House Road office 46, 288 Construction Methods Planning Cell (CMPC) 92 Construction Skills Training Institute 69, 288 Convention Centre 136, 137 Designs Division 48 Diversification into railway electrification 64, 288 Electrical Division 72, 218 Electronic Data Processing Department 93, 288 Engineering Design and Consultancy (EDC) Department 91, 288 Engineering Design and Research Centre (EDRC) 92, 134, 135, 220, 236, 256, 262, 288 Engineering Projects Division (EPD) 46, 50, 287 Enterprise Information Portal 94 Fabrication Shop 52 Facilities at Manapakkam 52 First BOT project 56 Foundation Division 57, 288 Guesthouse 52 Headquarters, Manapakkam 46, 52, 58, 64, 67, 69, 72, 132-135, 202, 287 Industrial Plant Department 287 Kancheepuram Works 16, 72, 93 Madras Regional Office and Stores 64 Maker Towers 26 Move to new headquarters 64 Merger with L&T 28, 64-66, 288 Modern fabrication shop 93

P&M Workshop 52 Quarry Services Department 93 Soil laboratory 58, 92 Strategic Business Units 75 Strategic Plan 75 Transmission line factory, Pondicherry 74 Engineering Construction Corporation (ECC) Limited 8, 40, 284, 287 Engineers India Limited 150, 216, 276 Equipment & Construction Company (E&CC), Ceylon 42 Eutectic Castolin group, Germany 16 Eutectic Welding Alloys of India Limited 16, 285 F F L Smidth & Co 2, 20, 22, 40, 284 Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte (FIP) 130, 132 Federation Internationale du Beton (fib) 134 Fernandes, George 25 Fertiliser projects 52, 83 Finolex Pipes Limited open sea jetty, Ratnagiri 91, 184, 185 Football-cum-athletics stadium, Amara, Iraq 96 Ford Motors 224 France Technique 120 Fredericknagore viii G G B Richard Ellis 236 G E A, Germany 64, 288 G K General Hospital, Bhuj 278, 279 G V K Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway Private Ltd 88 G-100 Hospital, Saudi Arabia 96 Gabriel India Limited 227 Gandhi, Indira 12, 158 Gas Authority of India Limited projects 66, 71, 264 Gauhati oil refinery 46 Gherzi Eastern 95 Ghosh, D N 30, 286 Gilbarco Inc, USA 16, 285 Godrej GE Appliances factory, Punjab 78 Golden City, Dhyana Vihar, Tada, Andhra Pradesh 78 Golden Quadrilateral Project 80

291

Gould Inc 18 Grasim Industries Limited 32, 286 Gujarat Cement Works, Kovaya 82, 146 Gujarat Cements, Veraval 144 Gurpur Bridge, Dakshina Kannada 164 H Haldia Dock Complex 90 Haldia Petrochemicals Limited 276, 277 Hansen, Gunnar 13, 26 Hare Krishna Temple, Juhu (Mumbai) 78 Heavy Engineering Corporation, Ranchi 48 Heavy Water Project, Baroda 70, 71 Hindustan Copper Limited Malanjkhand Project 154-156 Hindustan Development Corporation, Calcutta 42 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited projects 71, 216 Hindustan Steel Limited, Barsua and Durgapur 52 Hindustan Zinc Limited Rajpura-Dariba Mines 56, 83, 91 Hirmi Cement Works, The, Chattisgarh 20, 146, 147 His Holiness Paramacharya Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi 202 Hitachi Limited, Japan 246 Hitachi Zosen, Japan 61 Hochtief AG, Germany 270 Holck-Larsen, Henning viii, ix, 2-4, 6, 9-11, 16, 18, 2224, 26, 32, 34, 36, 40, 60, 67, 70, 72, 94, 100, 112, 226, 284, 287 Knighthood (Denmark) 24, 285 Magsaysay Award 22, 23, 285 Padma Bhushan 24, 286 Passing away 24 Rashmi, home on Carmichael Road 25 Sir Jehangir Ghandy Medal for Industrial Peace 24 Speyer Holck-Larsen, Karen 4 Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, Colombo 90 Hosur-Bangalore Road 80 Hotel Fokhira 142, 143 Hotel Kuk Sarai 138-141 Hover, John 8, 18, 26, 42, 50, 60, 72, 100, 287 Howe India Private Limited 150 HPLCL 276 Hyderabad Information Technology Engineering Consultancy (HITEC) City 33, 90, 154, 236-239

Hyderabad International Trade Exposition (HITEX) Centre 280, 281 Hyderabad International Trade Expositions Limited 91 Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) 91 Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company Limited 266 Hyundai automobile factory, Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu 224 I Indian Embassy, Kuwait 96 Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 240 Indian Naval Dockyard, Bombay 44 Indian Navy, Karwar, Seabird Project 154-157, 270, 271 Indian Oil Corporation Limited Barauni and Mathura refineries 116 Indian Overseas Bank headquarters, Madras 48 Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited complex, Baroda 124, 125 Indian School of Business, Hyderabad 274, 275 Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi 204, 205 Infosys, Chennai 78 Integrated Steel Plant, Dolvi, Maharashtra 208 International Gateway Telephone Exchange building, Nepal 98 International Seaports (Haldia) Pvt Ltd 90 International Seaports (India) Pvt Ltd 89 International Seaports Pte. Limited 89 IRCON International 250 Isaac, Cecielia 48 Ispat Metallics India Limited, Maharashtra 208, 209 ITC Grand Maratha Sheraton, Mumbai 76 ITC-Sunrise factory, Bangalore 78 IVR Projects 268 Iwacom 9 J J L Kier Limited, London 46 J K Building 6, 284 J K Cements, Rajasthan 144 J V Consults of Germany 280 Jaiprakash Industries Limited transmission line 256 Jamnagar-Loni Pipeline Project 265 Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Chennai 190, 191

Jhansi-Bina railway line electrification 64 Jharsuguda, Orissa, cement grinding unit 149 Jindal plant, Tornagallu, Karnataka 83 K Kaiga Nuclear Power Project, Karwar 168, 169 Kaira District Milk Producers Union, Anand, Gujarat 12 Kakinada Deep Water Port, Andhra Pradesh 89 Kakinada Seaports Limited 89 Kamshet twin tube tunnel, Maharashtra 252 Kanchanjanga Apartments, Bombay 76 Kankesanturai cement plant, Ceylon 42, 98, 287 Kanteerava Indoor Stadium, Bangalore 206, 207 Karnani, M 36 Karnataka State Industrial & Investment Development Corporation 89 Kashyap, S P 26 Katahira & Engineers International, Japan 214 Kawas switchyard 86 Kempf, Erik 48, 50, 287 Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex, Punjab 76 Khandala-Lonavala Bypass 252-255 Khandla-Bhatinda Pipeline 154 Kini, T V 62 Kirloskar Brothers Ltd 268 Komatsu Limited, Japan 20 Konkan Railway Bridge, Halladi 80 Konkan Railway Corporation Limited 70, 194 Korba thermal power plant, Madhya Pradesh 56 Kota-Nagda railway line electrification 64 Krishnan, A S 48, 52 Kudremukh Iron Ore project 83, 122, 123 Kulkarni, D G 136 Kulkarni, S D 30, 32, 286 Kumagai Gumi Co Ltd, Japan 61, 118 Kurian, V 12 Kuwait gas gathering station 96 L Larsen & Toubro (L&T) 1-38 Ballard Estate, Bombay 4, 13, 284, 285 Bangalore Works 18 Calicut Street workshop 5, 11

292

Cement business merger with Grasims 32 Cement Division 255 Dairy Division 12, 14 Earthmoving Department 11 Falkland Road workshop 8, 284 First associate company 16 First office 4 Hazira Works 28, 32, 196, 197, 199, 216 Heavy Engineering Division 228 HRD Department 37 ICI House 13, 285 Kansbahal Works 16, 200, 242 L&T House 6, 13, 284, 285 Madras branch 11 Mallet Bunder, Bombay 8, 11, 284 Management Development Centre (MDC), Lonavala 36, 37 Office in Calcutta 11, 52 Office in New Delhi 11 Planned safety 38 Powai Works 4, 11, 14, 16, 28, 37, 285 Public limited company 12 Ready-Mix-Concrete (RMC) plants 92 Shipping Division 20 Six major groups 34 Switchgear Factory 13 Total Quality Management 33 Unit Equipment Division 218 L&T other businesses Aluminium foil capsules, pilfer-proof caps 28 Biscuit-making machinery 9 Bottle closures 12 Cement manufacture 144 Concrete 92 Dairy equipment 5 Degaussing ships 6 FB fuse switches 13 Footwear 20, 286 Glass-making machinery 9 Hydraulic excavators 18 Low-temperature welding alloys and fluxes 16 Low-tension switchgear 13 ML contactors 13

Machinery for rubber products and tyre-curing presses 18 Petroleum dispensing pumps 16 Plant & machinery for iron & steel 16 Plant & machinery for pulp & paper 16 Valves 16 Soap-making machinery 9 Undercarriage tracks 16 Vanaspati (vegetable ghee) plant & machinery 9 L&T (Management) Pvt. Ltd. 10, 285 L&T Employees Foundation 25, 32, 34, 286 L&T Finance Limited 32, 87, 286 L&T Infocity Lanka Private Limited (LTILPL) 90 L&T Infocity Limited 90, 236, 239 L&T Infotech Limited 33, 34, 286 L&T Institute of Technology 37 L&T Transportation Infrastructure Limited 88 L&T Western India Toll Bridge Limited 88 L&T-Case Equipment Private Limited 20 L&T-Demag Plastics Machinery Private Limited 34 L&T-John Deere Limited 34, 286 L&T-Komatsu Limited 20 L&T-McNeil 18, 285 L&T-Poclain 18 L&T-Ramboll Consulting Engineers 32, 286 Large-scale water supply projects 82 Larsen & Toubro (Oman) LLC 32, 286 Larsen & Toubro (Singapore) Pte. Limited 28, 286 Larsen & Toubro Ceylinco (Pvt) Limited 148 Lindberg, Willy 40, 42, 287 LT Trade.com 34, 286 M m v Hilda Pvt. Ltd. 6 M W Kellogg, USA 61 Madras Atomic Power Project, Kalpakkam 50, 154, 158, 159, 168 Madras Cements, Tamil Nadu 144 Madras Cements, Andhra Pradesh 144 Madras Electricity Board 46 Madras Fertilisers Limited, Manali 50, 154 Madras Port Trust Jawahar Wet Docks 46 Madras Refineries Limited, Manali 50, 154, 216

Madukkarai Cement Works, Coimbatore 2 Maharashtra Legislative Council Hall, Mumbai 78, 116, 117 Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation 252 Mahatma Gandhi 3 Mahindra & Mahindra Limited 224 (Mahindra) Ford India Limited 224, 225 Major thermal power stations 81 Maldives resort project 98, 99 Malliah, K S R 48 Mando Brake Systems (I) Limited 224 Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited 216 Mani, K S S 26, 60 Mani Kanchan Gem & Jewellery Park, Kolkata 76 Mannai Trading Company, Doha 60 Marubeni Corporation, Japan 244 Maruti Udyog Limited 222, 223 Matt Macdonald, UK 108 McDermott-ETPM-East Inc 196 McNeil Akron Inc, USA 18, 285 Menezes, J L 62 Menon, B K 48, 52 Menon, P K P 60, 62 Messe Dusseldorf 280 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Limited, Japan 61, 160, 246 Mitsui and Company, Japan 160 Modi Cements, Modigram 144 Modular Laboratories, Trombay 48 Mody, Piloo 132 Mody, Sir Homi 8 Mogensen, E B 8, 40, 284, 287 Mortensen, P H ix, 42, 46, 52, 58, 60, 64, 72, 80, 100, 287 Mother Dairy plant, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 70 MRPL Refinery, Mangalore 217 Mumbai-Pune Expressway 154, 252, 254 Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad 91 N NALCO, Damanjodi and Angul, Orissa, and Vishakhapatnam projects 150-153 Naidu, Chandrababu 90, 268 Naik, A M vi, 26, 30, 32-34, 36, 286

293

Naharoy, S 52 Narayanan, K R 24 Narmada Cement 144 Narmada Infrastructure Construction Enterprise Limited 88 National Academy of Construction 91, 280 National Dairy Development Board, Anand, Gujarat 14, 71, 278 National Institute of Ocean Technology 240 National Stock Exchange, The, Mumbai 76 Nayak, J P 32, 36 Nehru, Jawaharlal 12, 285 Neyveli Lignite Corporation 11, 48, 91, 162, 163 NFL plant, Guna, Madhya Pradesh 83 Nielsen, H 44 Nielsen, Sven Olaf 44 Nippon Koei Co, Ltd, Japan 214 Nippon Steels, Japan 246 Nizamuddin Bridge II, New Delhi 214, 215 Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited 158, 168 Nuclear power plants 18 O Obayashi Corporation, Japan 214 Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) 71, 196, 198, 199 Oman 32, 96 Operation Flood 14 Oschatz, Germany 228 Outokumpu Engineering, Finland 228 P Pacific Consultants International, Japan 108 Padgro Consultants Private Limited 202 Panchpatmali Mines 152 Panvalnadi Viaduct 70, 194, 195 Paradip Port Trust coal handling terminal 242, 243 Parliament Library, New Delhi 210-213 Patel, B G N 26 Paul Wurth SA, Luxembourg 248 Perfect Circle Victor Limited 227 Petersen, Henry 42, 100, 287 Pherwani, M H 26 Pillaiperumal Nallur Power Generating Company power plant 244, 245

Plutschau, Heinrich viii Poclain Hydraulics Industrie, France 20 Poclain S A, France 18, 285 POS-Hyundai Coil Centre 224 Power Grid Corporation of India Limited 256 Pradhan, D L 26 Prashanthi Nilayam, Puttaparthi 170 Praxair, USA 228 Precious Shipping Public Company Limited, Bangkok 89 Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG Global), USA 244 Punjab highway 80 Q Qatar Petroleum Company 60, 287 Quarrying-Crushing 92, 154 R Raasi Cements, Wadapally, Andhra Pradesh 144 Radex, Australia 228 Radhakrishnan, S 40 Radiological Laboratory, Trombay 18, 50 Raghavan, P S 54 Raghavendra, C N (of C R Narayana Rao, Architects) 190 Raichur Thermal Power Station 81, 82 Ramakrishna, A vii, ix, 32, 33, 36, 52, 62, 70, 87, 100, 178, 190, 286, 288 Ramakrishna, Mrs A 33 Ramakrishnan, C R ix, 26, 32, 58, 60-62, 64, 66-68, 72, 74, 100, 288 Ramakrishnan, Mrs C R 60 Rana Pratap Sagar Project, Kota 44 Rangaswami, K V 70 Rao, U V 26, 30, 32, 94, 286 Rao, V S 62 Ras-Al-Khaimah 96 Ravi Associates, Bangalore 262 Rayalaseema Thermal Power Project 76 Raymond Cements, Bilaspur 144 Referral Hospital, Sikkim 76 Reliance Industries Limited 30, 286 Reliance Petroleum Limited projects 57, 83, 91, 154, 218, 219, 220, 286 Rewal, Raj 210 Rohri Cement Factory, Sukkur, Sind 2

Round Tana (Anna Statue) pedestrian subway, Mount Road, Madras 52, 54 Rourkela Steel Plant, Orissa 14, 84, 285 Rudinger, S 8, 40, 284, 287 Ruttonsey, Vissonji 10 S Saabye and D Lerche 46 Sahba, Fariburz 126 Sai Architects, New Delhi 262 Salalah power plant, Oman 96 Samarkand 94, 138 Samsung Corporation, South Korea 250 Sanghi Cements, Kachch, Gujarat 82 Santa Cruz underground water mains, Bombay 44 Sasaram-Allahabad transmission line 256, 257 Satna Cements, Satna 144 Schneider Group 44 Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick India Pvt Ltd 280 Second Vivekananda Bridge Tollway Company Limited 88 SECTRA, France 64, 288 Sentab, Sweden 44 Serampore (Srirampur) viii, 2 Serck Audco, U K 16 Shimizu Limited, Japan 250 Shipping House, Bombay 76 Shourie, Arun 280 Shriram Cements, Rajasthan 144 Shroff, G T 60 Siemens 89 Simon, Henry 9 Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station 56 Sirsi Flyover, Bangalore 234, 235 Snam Progetti, Italy 61 Sonia Vihar water supply pipelines, New Delhi 84 South City, Bangalore 230, 231 Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation Ltd 54, 110, 111 Spicer India Limited 227 Sports Stadium, Qatar 96 Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi International Library, Kancheepuram 202, 203 Sri Kamakoti Trust 202

294

Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust 76, 92, 170 Sri Sathya Sai Babas Prashanthi Nilayam, Puttaparthi, projects 171 Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences 174, 175, 262, 263 Sri Sathya Sai Water Supply Project, Anantapur 176-178 Sri Vishnu Cements, Hyderabad 144 Srinivasan Ranganath & Associates, Bangalore 134 SSA Asia Inc (USA) 89 St. Marys Bridge, Madras 164 State Fertiliser Manufacturing Corporation of Sri Lanka 61 Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) Bokaro steel plant 201 Steel plants 83, 84 Steenstrup, H R 44, 285 Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai 104 Subash Projects and Marketing Ltd 268 Subramaniam, S R R 26, 32 Sundaram, Kumara 94 Sunsari Morang Irrigation Project, Nepal 98 T Tadipatri, Andhra Pradesh, cement plant 20, 146 Takenaka Komuten Co Ltd 61, 118 Tala hydroelectric project, Bhutan 258, 259 Tamil Nadu Electricity Boards thermal plant, Tuticorin 106 Tamil Nadu Industries Development Corporation 266 Tarapur Atomic Power Project 81, 168 Tashkent tobacco factory 94 Tata-Bhivpuri hydroelectric power project 82 Tata Consulting Engineers, India 108 Tata Electric Companies 276 Tata Iron & Steel Company projects 90, 92, 246-249 Tata Theatre of the National Centre for the Performing Arts 78

Tata Trombay Bridge 164 Tatas soda ash plant, Mithapur 8, 284 Teaktek Industries, Palakkad 78 Technimont GB 276 Teisen, T 9 TELCO 276 Temple Towers, Chennai 58 Madurai Mills textile mill, Ambasamudram 50 Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg, Germany 208 TIDEL Park, Chennai 266, 267 Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanam (TTD) projects 104, 105, 268, 269 TLT-Pithampur Works 256 TNEB Tuticorin thermal power station 56, 107 Toshiba Corporation 160 Toubro, Soren Kristian viii, ix, 2-6, 8, 10-12, 22, 23, 36, 40, 50, 67, 100, 284, 286, 287 Hallmark of professionalism 12 Passing away 22 Toubro, Grete 5, 23 Toyo Engineering Corporation, Japan 61, 276 Toyo Engineering India Limited, Bombay 188 Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited 226, 227 Tractor Engineer Limited 16, 285 Tranquebar (Tarangambadi) viii, 2, 284 Trishuli-Devighat power plant 98 U Unique (Zurich Airport), Switzerland 89 Utkal Machinery Limited 16, 285 V Vajpayee, Atal Behari 25, 33, 90, 278 Varadarajulu, P R 54, 95 Vasista Bridge, Andhra Pradesh 80

Venkataramanan, K 32, 36 Vetropack, Switzerland 13 Vicars T&T 9 Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute, Bombay 6 Vishakhapatnam Port 152 Vivekananda Memorial & Cultural Centre, Kolkata 78 Vizag Industrial Water Supply Company Limited 91 Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant, Andhra Pradesh 71, 84 Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH (VAI) 200 W Wakhidov 95 Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Ltd 258 Watrak Bridge, Gujarat 87 Wayss & Freytag, Germany 194 Wenmen, Finland 228 West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation 276 Western India Match Company (WIMCO) 4, 284 Western Railway 40, 287 Woehlk, S E C 46 Worli Dairy 14 Y Yamuna Bridge, New Delhi 80 Yeluru Left Bank Canal, Vishakhapatnam 91 Yemen Dairy Development Project 61, 96 Z Zernograd, USSR 94, 95 Ziegenbalg, Bartholomaeus viii Zirku Island, Abu Dhabi 61, 96 Zuari Agro Chemicals, Goa 54 Zubair Enterprises LLC, Oman 32

REGISTERED OFFICE
L&T House Ballard Estate Mumbai 400 001. India Tel: 022-22685656 Fax: 022-22685858 e-mail: snt-ccd@lth.ltindia.com

West Bakhtawar, Ground Floor Nariman Point Mumbai 400 0221 Tel: 022-56585100, 56585101 Fax: 022-56585150 e-mail: vbg@lntecc.com East Duck Back House, 5th Floor 41, Shakespeare Sarani Kolkata 700 017 Tel: 033-22837420 Fax: 033-22406401 e-mail: mkm@lntecc.com

Kolkata Park Plaza, 2nd Floor 71, Park Street P.B. No. 9010 Kolkata 700 016 Tel: 033-22492700, 22494901 Fax: 033-22499489, 22497705 e-mail: arr@lntecc.com Mumbai Landmark A, 2 & 3 Floor Suren Road Off. Andheri-Kurla Road Andheri (East) Mumbai 400 093 Tel: 022-56965200 Fax: 022-56965345 svswaminathan@lntecc.com

International Metro Civil Contractors No. 8, Jantar Mantar Marg New Parliament Street New Delhi 110 001 Tel: 011-2334 5920, 21, 22 Fax: 011-2334 5862 e-mail: imcc@mc1b.com HCC L&T Purulia JV Vill-Bareria, PO Bagmundi (Near PPSP Township) Dist. Purulia 728 153 West Bengal Tel: 03254-240220 / 240594 Fax: 03254-240220 e-mail: sku@lntecc.com dpm@hcclntjv.com

Malaysia Block B, Unit B-3A-10 Phileo Damansarai,Jalan 16/11, 46350 Petaling Jaya Selangor Darulehsan, Malaysia Tel: 00-603-79578480,72542 Fax: 00-603-79570971 e-mail: ltcgkl@po.jaring.my Nepal CHHA-2/426, Maharaj Gunj P.O.No.8353, Balu Water Rd Kathmandu, Nepal Tel: 00-977-1-4413808 Fax: 00-977-1-4423352 e-mail: ltcgnp@mos.com.np Oman P.B. No. 1127, Ruwi, Postal Code 112, Sultanate of Oman Tel: 00968-797445, 66 Fax: 00968-797024 e-mail: mvs@lntecc.com Russia Ulitsa Dorogobuzhskaya 3 Moscow 121 354 Russian Federation Tel: 00-7-095-4488292 Fax: 00-7-095-4488291 e-mail: aka@lntecc.com

Mauritius L&T Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd. JV Ebene Village Cyber City, Mauritius Tel: 00230-4544721, 735 Fax: 00230-4544084 e-mail: rsn@lntecc.com Tanzania Songo Songo Gas Development And Power Generation Project P.O. Box No. 39840, Plot No. 23 Kilwa Road, Mbagala, Zakhem Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Tel: 00255-744 527644 Fax: 00255-222 860185 e-mail: sne@lntecc.com Dubai Al-Murooj Complex C/o. Al-Ahmadiah Contracting & Trading Co. Plot 336-234 Community Trade Centre Dubai, UAE Tel: 00971-43212275 Fax: 00971-43212350 e-mail: lntdubai@emirates.net.ae Jordan

HEADQUARTERS
Mount Poonamallee Road Manapakkam, P.B. No. 979 Chennai 600 089. India Tel: 044-22493318, 22495656 044-22492747 Fax: 044-22493317 e-mail: vsramana@lntecc.com

REGIONAL OFFICES ENGINEERING, DESIGN & Ahmedabad RESEARCH CENTRES


EDRC Chennai Mount Poonamallee Road Manapakkam, P.B. No. 979 Chennai 600 089 Tel: 044-22492747, 22493318 Fax: 044-22493888 e-mail: bgaurdas@lntecc.com seshagiri@lntecc.com EDRC Kolkata Kanak Building 41, Jawaharlal Nehru Road Kolkata 700 071 Tel: 033-22882601 Fax: 033-22881225 e-mail: droy@lntecc.com 1009, Sarkar II, 10th Floor Near Ellis Bridge, Ashram Rd. P.O.Box No. 11016 Ahmedabad 380 006 Tel: 079-26573701 Fax: 079-26576211, 26575217 e-mail: pdg@lntecc.com Bangalore 19, Kumara Krupa Road Bangalore 560 001 Tel: 080-22259675, 76 Fax: 080-22256127 e-mail: naidump@lntecc.com Chennai No.10, Club House Road Anna Salai, Chennai 600 002 Tel: 044-28460046 Fax: 044-28460060 e-mail: tc@lntecc.com Delhi 211, Okhla Industrial Estate Phase III, New Delhi 110 020 Tel: 011-51295600 Fax: 011-51615125, 26 email: nsk@lntecc.com

WORKS
Pithampur TLT Works, Plot No. 158-B Sector III, Pithampur Dhar District Madhya Pradesh 454 774 Tel: 07292-256317, 256431 Fax: 07292-256316 e-mail: sg-pith@lntecc.com Pondicherry TLT Works Mailam Road Sedurapet Pondicherry 605 111 Tel: 0413-2677684, 2677139 Fax: 0413-2677727 e-mail: sdg@lntecc.com Kancheepuram 167, Neervalur Village Kancheepuram 631 502 Tel: 04112-248283, 93 & 94 Fax:04112-248383, 290, 283 kasokkumar@lntecc.com

INTERNATIONAL OFFICES
UAE P.O. Box. 30803 Flat No.401, 4th Floor Al Salmeen Golden Tower Electra Road Abu Dhabi U.A.E. Tel: 00971-2-672 9136 Fax: 00971-2-672 9873 e-mail: ltcgad@emirates.net.ae Bangaladesh C-7, Bashati Dream House # 3, Road # 20 Gulshan 1, Dhaka 1212 Bangladesh Telefax: 00-880-2-9881238 e-mail: eccdhaka@bdmail.net Bhutan Post Box 391, 5th Floor Pelkhil House Phuentsholing, Bhutan Tel: 009755-2-54371 Telefax: 009755-2-72197 e-mail: lttala@druknet.net.bt

ZONAL OFFICES
South P.B. No. 979 Mount Poonamallee Road Manapakkam Chennai 600 089 Tel: 044-22493318, 22495656 Fax: 044-22493317, 22491157 e-mail: pjb@lntecc.com North

Wadi Abdoun Bridge Project P.O. Box No. 942088 Amman 11194 Saudi Arabia Jordan Al Bayan Office Building Tel: 00962 6 4625260/66 4th Floor, 16th St., Riyadh 11351 Fax: 00962 6 4625184 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia e-mail: ltcgprc@toubro-jo.com Tel: 00-966-01-4761222 Kuwait Fax: 00-966-01-4773925 natarajanravi@lntecc.com C/o. Al Fulaij United Group Co. Sri Lanka 40, 2/2,Sea Avenue, Kollupitiya Colombo 03, Sri Lanka Tel: 0094-1-2385790 Fax: 0094-1-2385791 e-mail: ksv@lntecc.com Dasman Complex, 9th Floor Ahmed Al Jaber St, Al Sharq P.O. Box No. 22414 Safat 13085, Kuwait Tel: 00965-4828034, 35 Fax: 00965-4828036 e-mail: srkn@lntecc.com

JV PROJECTS
L&T Hochtief Seabird Aligadda, Chendiya Karwar 581 324 Uttar Karnataka Dist. Karnataka Tel: 08382-273024 / 273001 Fax: 08382-273002 e-mail: ltht@sancharnet.in

Hyderabad 314-323, Som Dutt Chambers 1 6-3-1109/1, 2nd Floor 3rd Floor, Bhikaji Cama Place Nava Bharat Chambers R.K. Puram Raj Bhavan Road New Delhi 110 066 Hyderabad 500 082 Tel: 011-51659979, 80 Tel: 040-23406963, 23400090 Fax: 011-51635747 Fax: 040-23406962 e-mail: langer@lntecc.com shyamsundar@lntecc.com

This Book 60 Landmark Years compiled by the well-known chronicler of Madras Mr S Muthiah is a commemorative volume, showcasing the contribution of ECC to national development through various milestone projects in India and abroad, and is not intended to be a comprehensive corporate history. Apart from carrying brief stories about 60 selected outstanding projects realized in the past with historical pictures, it presents the fabulous range of 60 contemporary construction projects and the various establishments of Larsen & Toubro Limited all built by ECC, its construction arm. It also highlights the Companys philosophy and core professional values as exemplied in the following vision statement of the company: L&T shall be a professionally-managed Indian multinational, committed to total customer satisfaction and enhancing shareholder value L&T-ites shall be an innovative, entrepreneurial and empowered team constantly creating value and attaining global benchmarks. L&T shall foster a culture of caring, trust and continuous learning while meeting expectations of employees, stakeholders and society.

Builders to the Nation

Mount Poonamallee Road, Manapakkam, P.B. No. 979 Chennai 600 089. India

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