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N-2597

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CHEMICAL PRODUCTS FUNCTION IN OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION


Classification

CONTEC
Comisso de Normas Tcnicas

This standard replaces and cancels the previous revision .

This Standard has been totally revised with respect to the previous revision. The Responsible CONTEC Subcommittee provides guidance on the interpretation of this Standard when questions arise regarding its contents. The Department of PETROBRAS that uses this Standard is the responsible for adopting and applying the clauses thereof. Mandatory Requirement : a provision established as being the most adequate and which shall be used strictly in accordance with this Standard. If a decision is taken not to follow the requirement ("non-conformity" to this Standard) it shall be based on well-founded economic and management reasons, and be approved and registered by the Department of PETROBRAS that uses this Standard. It is characterized by the verb forms "shall", "it is necessary...", "is required to...", "it is required that...", "is to...", "has to...", "only ... is permitted", and other equivalent expressions having an imperative nature. Recommended Practice (nonmandatory) a provision that may be adopted under the conditions of this Standard, but which admits (and draws attention to) the possibility of there being a more adequate alternative (not written in this Standard) to the particular application. The alternative adopted shall be approved and registered by the Department of PETROBRAS that uses this Standard. It is characterized by the verbal form "should" and equivalent expressions such as "it is recommended that..." and "ought to..." (verbs of a nonmandatory nature). It is indicated by the expression: [Recommended Practice]. Copies of the registered "non-conformities" to this Standard that may contribute to the improvement thereof shall be submitted to the Responsible CONTEC Subcommittee. Proposed revisions to this Standard shall be submitted to the Responsible CONTEC Subcommittee, indicating the alphanumeric identification and revision of the Standard, the clause(s) to be revised, the proposed text, and technical/economic justification for revision. The proposals are evaluated during the work for alteration of this Standard.

SC - 01
Chemical Products and Fluid Systems in Oil Exploration and Production

Foreword
PETROBRAS technical standards are prepared by Working Groups GTs (consisting of PETROBRAS specialists and PETROBRAS Subsidiaries specialists), are commented by Local Representatives (representatives of the Industrial Units, Engineering Projects, Technical Divisions and PETROBRAS Subsidiaries), are approved by Responsible Subcommittees SCs (consisting of specialists belonging to the same speciality, representing the various PETROBRAS Departments and PETROBRAS Subsidiaries), and approved by CONTEC General Assembly (consisting of representatives of the Superintendencies of the PETROBRAS Departments and PETROBRAS Subsidiaries that use PETROBRAS technical standards). A PETROBRAS technical standard is subjected to a revision at any time by the Responsible Subcommittee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or cancelled. PETROBRAS technical standards are prepared in accordance with standard PETROBRAS N-1. For complete information about PETROBRAS standards see PETROBRAS Technical Standards Catalog.

PROPERTY OF PETROBRAS

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PREFACE This Standard is the English version (issued in APR/99) of Standard PETROBRAS N-2597 REV. A NOV/98.

1 SCOPE

1.1 This Standard establishes the terminology to classify the Chemical Products Function in Oil Exploration and Production, adding definitions to facilitate the communication amongst PETROBRAS departments.

1.2 This Standard applies to the classification of Chemical Products Function in Oil Exploration and Production initiated after this standard edition.

1.4 This Standard contains only Mandatory Requirements.

2 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Standard the following definitions are adopted:

2.1 Function Main action performed by the chemical product when applied.

2.2 Main Component Essencial component which establishes the chemical function of the product.

2.3 Application Areas Activities where chemical products and fluid systems for exploration and production in oil and gas well are used, as follows:

2.3.1 Hydraulic Drive.

2.3.2 Cementing.

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2.3.3 Completion.

2.3.4 Water Production Control.

2.3.5 Flowing.

2.3.6 Stimulation.

2.3.7 Industrial Cleaning.

2.3.8 Drilling.

2.3.9 Secondary Recovery.

2.3.10 Industrial Water Treatment.

2.3.11 Gas Treatment.

2.3.12 Oil Treatment.

3 CHEMICAL PRODUCTS FUNCTION

3.1 Acidifier

3.1.1 Function To acidify the reservoir rock.

3.1.2 Main Components a) Acetic Acid; b) Hydrochloric Acid; c) Formic Acid; d) Hydrofluoric Acid; e) Others. 4

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3.2 Densifier

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3.2.1 Function To increment the fluids specific weight, remaining in suspension or in solution.

3.2.2 Main Components a) Calcium Carbonate; b) Ferric Oxide; c) Manganese Oxide; d) Soluble Salts; e) Barium Sulfate; f) Formates; g) Others.

3.3 Antiretrogression Agent

3.3.1 Function To prevent or to reduce the temperature, stabilizing the mechanical resistance which tends to decrease with time.

3.3.2 Main Components a) Silica Powder; b) Others.

3.4 Hydraulic Drive Agent

3.4.1 Function To provide hydraulic pressure through control tubing to drive valves and equipment.

3.4.2 Main Components a) Aqueous Siliconized Emulsion; b) Glycols; c) Triethanolamine; d) Others.

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3.5 Sand Formation Contention Agent

3.5.1 Function To restrain the sand formation production.

3.5.2 Main Components a) Sand; b) Sinterized Bauxite; c) Sinterized Ceramic; d) Others.

3.6 Solids Suspension Agent

3.6.1 Function To avoid solid solids settling in the cement slurry.

3.6.2 Main Components a) Activated Clay Mineral; b) Carboxymethyl Hydroxyethyl Cellulose (CMHEC); c) Liquid Microsilica; d) Sodium Silicate; e) Others.

3.7 Fracture Sustenance Agent

3.7.1 Function To keep the artificially created fractures open in the hydraulic fracturing operations.

3.7.2 Main Components a) Sand; b) Sinterized Bauxite; c) Sinterized Ceramic; d) Others.

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3.8 Divergent Agent

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3.8.1 Function To promote the homogeneous distribution of a fluid injected in a porous medium.

3.8.2 Main Components a) Benzoic Acid; b) Sealing Spheres; c) Foams; d) Oil Soluble Resins; e) Granulated Salts; f) Others.

3.9 Wetting Agent

3.9.1 Function To provide water or oil wettability to the solids contained in the fluids as well as to the reservoir rock itself, as necessary.

3.9.2 Main Components a) Fatty Acids and Esters; b) Amides; c) Amines; d) Glycols; e) Others.

3.10 Thixotropic Agent

3.10.1 Function To fastly increase the gel strength in the cement slurry, under static conditions.

3.10.2 Main Components a) Gypsum; b) Calcium Sulfate Hemi-Hydrated; c) Others. 7

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3.11 Alkaline Agent

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3.11.1 Function To increase the fluids pH.

3.11.2 Main Components a) Sodium Carbonate; b) Calcium Hydroxide; c) Potassium Hydroxide; d) Sodium Hydroxide; e) Manganese Oxide; f) Others.

3.12 Antifoam Agent

3.12.1 Function To prevent, to reduce or to eliminate foam formation in the fluids through interfacial tensoactivity.

3.12.2 Main Components a) Aluminum Stearate; b) Octyl Alcohol; c) Silicone Oil; d) Polyalcohols; e) Others. 3.13 Biocide

3.13.1 Function To prevent or to reduce the fermentation and growth of microorganisms in the fluids.

3.13.2 Main Components a) Carbamate; b) Glutaraldehyde; c) Quaternary Ammonium Salts; 8

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d) Thiocyanate; e) Triazines; f) Others.

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3.14 pH Controller

3.14.1 Function To keep the pH within a pre-established range.

3.14.2 Main Components a) Sodium Acetate and Acetic Acid; b) Sodium Carbonate; c) Manganese Oxide; d) Others.

3.15 Gas Migration Controller

3.15.1 Function To avoid the gas migration through the cement slurry.

3.15.2 Main Components a) Styrene/Butadiene Copolymers; b) Liquid Microsilica; c) Acrylic Acid Polymers; d) Others.

3.16 Water Production Controller

3.16.1 Function To reduce the reservoir water production. 3.16.2 Main Components a) Polyacrylamide; b) Others. 9

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3.17 Deflocculant

3.17.1 Function To deflocculate and/or to prevent the active solids flocculation in the fluids.

3.17.2 Main Components a) Calcium Polyacrylate; b) Potassium Polyacrylate; c) Sodium Polyacrylate; d) Others.

3.18 Desemulsifier (Emulsion Breaker)

3.18.1 Function To promote the emulsion break with the purpose of separating the brine from the oil.

3.18.2 Main Components a) Polyethoxylates; b) Others.

3.19 Degreasit

3.19.1 Function To remove oil and grease from the metallic surface of equipment and structures.

3.19.2 Main Components a) Alkylaryl Sulfonate; b) Halogen Hydrocarbons; c) Others.

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3.20 Gas Dehydrator

3.20.1 Function To dehydrate the gas stream.

3.20.2 Main Components a) Glycols; b) Others.

3.21 Detergent

3.21.1 Function To remove oil and clay-minerals residues or to prevent its adhesion on metallic surfaces during the fluids operations.

3.21.2 Main Components a) Alkylaryl Sulfonate; b) Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates; c) Others.

3.22 Dispersant

3.22.1 Function To promote the dispersion of existing solids in the fluids.

3.22.2 Main Components a) Sodic Salt of Naphthalene Sulfonic Acid Condensed with Formaldehyde; b) Lignosulfonates; c) Tannins; d) Others.

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3.23 Emulsifier

3.23.1 Function To stabilize the water-oil emulsion of and vice-versa, with or without the intervening of lime.

3.23.2 Main Components a) Fatty Acids Blend; b) Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates; c) Others.

3.24 Foaming Agent

3.24.1 Function To promote foam or mist formation in the fluid through interface tensoactivity.

3.24.2 Main Components a) Ethoxylated Alcohol; b) Others.

3.25 Clay Stabilizer

3.25.1 Function To stabilize clay-minerals by the mechanical encapsulation effect.

3.25.2 Main Components a) Polyacrylamide; b) Polyonens; c) Anionic Polymers; d) Cationic Polymers; e) Others.

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3.26 Gel Stabilizer

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3.26.1 Function To stabilize the reticulate gel when submitted to high temperature.

3.26.2 Main Components a) Manganese Oxide; b) Triethanolamine; c) Others.

3.27 Extender

3.27.1 Function To increase the efficiency and/or to reduce the cement slurry specific gravity.

3.27.2 Main Components a) Activated Clay Mineral; b) Flying Ash; c) Gilsonite; d) Hollow Microspheres; e) Liquid Microsilica; f) Expanded Perlite; g) Sodium Silicate; h) Others.

3.28 Flocculant

3.28.1 Function To flocculate the active solids in the fluid.

3.28.2 Main Components a) Aluminum Silicate; b) Hydrated Lime; c) Acrylamide Polymers; d) Sodium Tetraphosphate; 13

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e) Others.

3.29 Gelling Agent

3.29.1 Function To promote gel formation in fluids aiming its subsequent reticulation.

3.29.2 Main Components a) Guargum; b) Hydroypropylguar (HPG); c) Others.

3.30 Fluorhydric Acid Generator

3.30.1 Function To generate in situ fluorhydric acid, in an acid phase.

3.30.2 Main Components a) Ammonium Bifluorid; b) Others.

3.31 Nitrogen Generator

3.31.1 Function To generate in situ nitrogen.

3.31.2 Main Components a) Ammonium Chloride; b) Sodium Nitrite; c) Others.

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3.32 Corrosion Inhibitor

3.32.1 Function To prevent the environment corrosive action.

3.32.2 Main Components a) Filmy Amines; b) Upper Alcohol; c) Others.

3.33 Clay Hydration Inhibitor

3.33.1 Function To inhibit the clay-mineral dispersion through ionic exchange.

3.33.2 Main Components a) Calcium Chloride; b) Potassium Chloride; c) Sodium Chloride; d) Others.

3.34 Hydrates Inhibitor

3.34.1 Function To inhibit hydrates formation.

3.34.2 Main Components a) Salty Solutions; b) Ethanol; c) Methanol; d) Glycols; e) Others.

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3.35 Inorganic Incrustation Inhibitor

3.35.1 Function To prevent the formation of inorganic deposits in an incrusting environment.

3.35.2 Main Components a) Phosphonates; b) Polyacrylates; c) Polyphosphates; d) Polyphosphonates; e) Others.

3.36 Organic Incrustation Inhibitor

3.36.1 Function To prevent the formation of organic deposits in an incrusting environment.

3.36.2 Main Components a) Copolymer of Vinyl Ethylene Acetate; b) Polyacrylate of Fatty Alcohols; c) Polyphenols; d) Others.

3.37 Spotting Fluid

3.37.1 Function To destroy the filtercakes formed between the drillpipe and the wellbore walls.

3.37.2 Main Components a) Acids; b) Fatty Esters; c) Hydrocarbons; d) Others.

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3.38 Lubricant

3.38.1 Function To reduce the friction between the drillpipe and the wellbore walls.

3.38.2 Main Components a) Fatty Esters; b) Polypropylene Glycol; c) Others.

3.39 Engine Lubricant

3.39.1 Function To reduce the friction between metallic surfaces.

3.39.2 Main Component a) Lubricant Oils in general; b) Others.

3.40 Obturator

3.40.1 Function To avoid an uncontrollable fluid invasion inside the formation.

3.40.2 Main Components a) Carbonates; b) Fibers; c) Gilsonites; d) Mica; e) Polymers; f) Salts; g) Silica; h) Others.

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3.41 Gas Odorant

3.41.1 Function To confer a characteristic odor to a gas.

3.41.2 Main Components a) Ethyl Mercaptans; b) Xantho-proteins; c) Others.

3.42 Emulsion Prevent

3.42.1 Function To prevent emulsion formation.

3.42.2 Main Components a) Polyethoxylates; b) Others.

3.43 Gel Breaker

3.43.1 Function To decompose the gel reticulate structure, reducing its viscosity.

3.43.2 Main Components a) Acids; b) Enzymes; c) Oxydants; d) Others.

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3.44 Filtrate Reducer

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3.44.1 Function To reduce the fluid loss into the porous medium.

3.44.2 Main Components a) Activated Clay; b) Starches; c) Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC); d) Copolymers Derived from Acrylamide Methyl Propane Sulfonate (AMPS); e) Maleic Anhydride Sulfonate Styrene (SSMA); f) Hydroxi Ethyl Cellulose (HEC); g) Vinyl Sulfonate Vinyl Amide; h) Lignites; i) Others.

3.45 Friction Reducer

3.45.1 Function To reduce the friction coefficient between the fluids and the surfaces.

3.45.2 Main Components a) Polyacrylamides (PHPAS); b) Poly-isobutylenes; c) Others.

3.46 Pour Point Reducer

3.46.1 Function To reduce the pour point of oil and its products.

3.46.2 Main Components a) Copolymer of Vinyl Ethylene Acetate; b) Polyacrylates and Polymetacrylates of Fatty Alcohol; c) Others. 19

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3.47 Water/Gas Interfacial Tension Reducer

3.47.1 Function To reduce the interfacial tension between the aqueous phase and the gas.

3.47.2 Main Components a) Ethylic Alcohol; b) Methylic Alcohol; c) Fluorated Polymers; d) Others.

3.48 Inorganic Incrustation Remover

3.48.1 Function To remove inorganic deposits from different surfaces and/or reservoir rock.

3.48.2 Main Components a) Acids; b) Acids Associated to Metallic Ions Sequestrants and Wetting Agents; c) Others.

3.49 Organic Incrustation Remover

3.49.1 Function To remove organic deposits from different surfaces and/or reservoir rock.

3.49.2 Main Components a) Ketone; b) Kerosene; c) Toluene; d) Xylene; e) Others.

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3.50 Cement Slurry Setting Retarder

3.50.1 Function To increase the cement slurry thickening time.

3.50.2 Main Components a) Organic Acids; b) Borax; c) Carboxymethyl Hydroxyethyl Cellulose (CMHEC); d) Lignites; e) Calcium Lignosulfonates; f) Others.

3.51 Gel Reticulator

3.51.1 Function To produce reticles among polymeric linear chains.

3.51.2 Main Components a) Boric Acid; b) Borates; c) Titanites; d) Zirconites; e) Others.

3.52 Saponifier

3.52.1 Function To produce calcic soap in water in oil emulsions.

3.52.2 Main Components a) Calcium Hydroxide; b) Calcium Oxide; c) Others. 21

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3.53 Calcium Scavenger

3.53.1 Function To reduce the calcium ions concentration in the fluids.

3.53.2 Main Components a) Sodium Bicarbonate; b) Sodium Carbonate; c) Diaminoethyl Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA); d) Others.

3.54 Iron Scavenger

3.54.1 Function To reduce the ferric ions concentration in the fluids.

3.54.2 Main Components a) Citric Acid; b) Erythorbic Acid; c) Diaminoethyl Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA); d) Others.

3.55 Oxygen Scavenger

3.55.1 Function To reduce the oxygen ions concentration in the fluids.

3.55.2 Main Components a) Bisulfites; b) Hydrazine; c) Sulfites; d) Others.

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3.56 Hydrogen Sulfide Scavenger

3.56.1 Function To reduce the hydrogen sulfide concentration in the fluids, by the formation of metallic or organic sulfides.

3.56.2 Main Components a) Magnetite Sponge; b) Zinc Oxide; c) Amines; d) Others.

3.57 Mutual Solvent

3.57.1 Function To promote the solubilization, dispersion or emulsion of some organic and inorganic compounds in acid fluids.

3.57.2 Main Components a) Glycols; b) Others.

3.58 Chemical Tracer

3.58.1 Function To identify percolant fluids.

3.58.2 Main Components a) Dye; b) Calcium Nitrate; c) Radioactive Salts; d) Others.

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3.59 Viscosifier

3.59.1 Function To increase the fluids viscosity.

3.59.2 Main Components a) Activated Clay; b) Sodium Bentonite; c) Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC); d) Guargum; e) Xanthan Gum; f) Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose (HEC); g) Hydroxypropylguar (HPG); h) Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC); i) Others.

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