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July 2013
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28 Inverters Improve Control for AC Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Advances in switching devices, microchips, and tungsten
technology are making the inverter the power source of
R. L. Bitzky and J. Garraux
32 A New Development in Aluminum Welding Wire: Alloy 4943
A new filler metal is designed to give a higher-strength
alternative to 4043
T. Anderson
38 How to Improve GTAW Performance
Some pros offer advice on gas tungsten arc welding of thin
steel, aluminum, and stainless steel
M. Franklin
44 Induction Heating for Stress Relieving Shortens Lead Times
An oil and gas equipment manufacturer finds production
help with induction heating
J. Ryan
48 Automated Welding Applied in Deep-Water Pipelines
Pipeline laying in the South China Sea is aided by dual-
carriage automated gas metal arc welding
J. Xiang-Dong et al.
Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published
monthly by the American Welding Society for
$120.00 per year in the United States and posses-
sions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
per single issue for domestic AWS members and
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authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items
excluded from copyright.
Editorial ............................4
Press Time News ..................6
News of the Industry ..............8
International Update ............14
RWMA Q&A ......................16
Book Review......................18
Stainless Q&A ....................20
Product & Print Spotlight ......22
Coming Events....................52
Certification Schedule ..........56
Conferences ......................58
Welding Workbook ..............60
Society News ....................63
Tech Topics ......................65
Interpretation AWS 3.0 ........65
Guide to AWS Services ........83
Personnel ........................84
Classifieds ........................97
Advertiser Index..................98
197-s Vacuum-Assisted Laser Welding of Zinc-Coated Steels
in a Gap-Free Lap Joint Configuration
A stabilized keyhole allowed zinc vapors to escape in laser
welding of zinc-coated steels
S. Yang et al.
205-s Active Droplet Oscillation Excited by Optimized
Active droplet oscillation is studied as a means of droplet
detachment at peak currents lower than the transitional current
J. Xiao et al.
218-s High-Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 600 and
622 Weld Claddings and Coextruded Coatings
Thermogravimetric and solid-state testing demonstrated better
corrosion resistance with Alloy 622 under simulated gaseous
J. N. DuPont et al.
Welding Research Supplement
July 2013 Volume 92 Number 7
AWS Web site www.aws.org
On the cover: The preferred technique for adding filler metal during gas tung-
sten arc welding is to touch the end of the filler rod to the leading edge of the
molten pool. (Photo courtesy of Victor Technologies.)
How can we best effect change? Ive given that question a lot of thought over the past
couple of years as I have become more involved with the leadership of the American
Welding Society. And while our tendency as business people in a competitive world is to
go it alone, Ive come to the conclusion that on many issues, Author Simon Mainwaring
was right when he said, Effectively, change is almost impossible without industry-wide
collaboration, cooperation, and consensus.
The current welding industry workforce development situation poses opportunities
and challenges of unprecedented complexity. No single society, organization, person,
agency, or government can single-handedly solve the issues at hand. These groups must
work together to effectively and efficiently solve these tough problems.
The AWS Foundation is heavily invested in workforce development for the welding
industry. Working with other organizations, with a collaborative spirit, has made a sig-
nificant impact on these workforce development efforts.
Recently, the American Welding Society and the Manufacturing Institute of the
National Association of Manufacturing (NAM) met at AWS World Headquarters in
Doral, Fla., to not only establish workforce development objectives, but develop action
plans both organizations could work toward jointly. This meeting confirmed and identi-
fied the following:
82% of manufacturers report a moderate or serious shortage in skilled production
75% of manufacturers say the skills shortage has negatively impacted their ability to
600,000 jobs in manufacturing are unfilled today because employers cant find work-
ers with the right skills.
More than 200,000 welding-related jobs will be left unfilled by 2019 because compa-
nies wont be able to find workers with the correct skill sets.
Its obvious that to close the skills gap, we need to take action now. To that end, the
Manufacturing Institute, in partnership with the AWS Foundation, has launched the
NAM-endorsed Manufacturing Skills Certification System. This system of nationally
portable, industry-recognized credentials validates both the book and the street
smarts needed to be productive and successful on the job.
I wont list specific projects being considered. After all, some ideas wont pan out and
will be dropped; other not-yet-imagined projects will prove highly successful. However,
I will tell you that those who participated in the recent joint meeting in Doral identified
nine objectives to support this certification system, and badge (welding process) creden-
tialing, master welder certification, women in welding, and weld career data collection
are some of the key areas the two organizations will be working on together.
This push by AWS and NAM to solve the workforce development issue is but one of
many collaborative efforts in which AWS participates. Your Society is actively involved
with trade unions, professional societies, educational institutions, and government agen-
cies to advance the science, technology and application of welding, and allied joining and
cutting processes. These efforts occur at the local, national, and international levels.
Collaboration isnt easy. Cooperation takes a lot of hard work. It requires us to set
aside our natural inclination to compete with others and instead find satisfaction in how
our actions will benefit our industry. When done well,
collaborative efforts can produce amazing results. We
see that all the time at AWS. As you know, all of the
AWS codes, standards, and specifications are consen-
sus standards produced by disparate groups within the
welding industry who set aside their differences to
work together. We have a proven track record of suc-
cess through collaboration.
JULY 2013 4
President Nancy C. Cole
NCC Engineering
Vice President Dean R. Wilson
Well-Dean Enterprises
Vice President David J. Landon
Vermeer Mfg. Co.
Vice President David L. McQuaid
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
Treasurer Robert G. Pali
J. P. Nissen Co.
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society
T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Global Welding Tech. Center
U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Miami Diver
J. R. Bray (Dist. 18), Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
R. E. Brenner (Dist. 10), CnD Industries, Inc.
G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services
T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1), Victor Technologies
D. A. Flood (At Large), Tri Tool, Inc.
S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries
K. L. Johnson (Dist. 19), Vigor Shipyards
J. Jones (Dist. 17), The Harris Products Group
W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech, LLC
T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory
J. Livesay (Dist. 8), Tennessee Technology Center
M. J. Lucas Jr. (At Large), Belcan Engineering
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
J. L. Mendoza (Past President), Lone Star Welding
S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro
K. A. Phy (Dist. 6), KA Phy Services, Inc.
W. A. Rice (Past President), OKI Bering
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Marinette Marine Corp.
N. Saminich (Dist. 21), Desert Rose H.S. and Career Center
K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
T. A. Siewert (At Large), NIST (ret.)
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), ACH Co.
J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College
M. R. Wiswesser (Dist. 3), Welder Training & Testing Institute
D. Wright (Dist. 16), Zephyr Products, Inc.
Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding
Working Together to Build a
Better Tomorrow
Dean R. Wilson
AWS Vice President
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Competition Launched for Three Manufacturing Institutes
The Obama Administration is launching competitions to create three new manufac-
turing innovation institutes with a federal commitment of $200 million across these five
agencies: Defense, Energy, Commerce, NASA, and the National Science Foundation.
The presidents manufacturing agenda starts with his vision for a National Network
for Manufacturing Innovation. His fiscal year 2014 budget includes a $1 billion invest-
ment at the Department of Commerce to create this network, a model based on ap-
proaches that other countries have successfully deployed. Each would serve as a regional
hub designed to bridge gaps between basic research and product development, bringing
together companies, universities and community colleges, and federal agencies to invest
in technology areas encouraging investment and production in the United States.
The Department of Defense will lead two of the new institutes on Digital Manufac-
turing and Design Innovation and Lightweight and Modern Metals Manufacturing, while
the Department of Energy will be leading one new institute on Next Generation Power
Electronics Manufacturing. Winning teams will be selected and announced later this
year. Federal funds will be matched by industry investment, support from state and local
governments, and other sources.
Victor Celebrates 100 Years, Launches Two Contests
Victor Technologies, St. Louis,
., has announced the 100th an-
niversary of its Victor brand. The
lineup consists of oxyfuel cutting and
gas control equipment; Thermal Dy-
namics, encompassing manual and
automated plasma cutting systems;
TurboTorch, including air-fuel prod-
ucts for brazing and soldering; and Ar-
cair, representing manual and auto-
mated gouging systems.
Company founder, L. W. Stettner,
who lost an eye in a welding accident,
set out to design and build safer cut-
ting and welding products. Stettners
designs resulted in numerous indus-
try firsts. For example, Victor cutting
and welding torches were assembled
with screws, not soldered, to provide a stronger connection in the event of overheating.
Also, the company has launched two contests. A Cut Above is open to students in
cutting, welding, and related programs at secondary and postsecondary schools, and will
award more than $30,000 in equipment and cash prizes. Beginner students will write a
500-word essay supporting the contest theme, while advanced students will submit a
team metal fabrication project incorporating an oxyfuel, airfuel, or plasma cutting
The Show Us Your Innovations 2014 calendar contest will award 12 Victor Medal-
ist 250 cutting outfits, and a Victor Thermal Dynamics Cutmaster 42 plasma cut-
ting system as the grand prize, for the best photos and associated captions of the en-
trant using any Victor or Victor Thermal Dynamics cutting equipment.
Both contests run through September, with winners announced at the Victor Tech-
nologies booth at FABTECH 2013 in Chicago, Ill. Contests are open to individuals who
are residents of the United States or Canada (excluding Quebec). Visit
Hobart Brothers Co. Consolidates Filler Metal Brands
Hobart Brothers Co., Troy, Ohio, has unveiled a new logo for its Hobart brand of
filler metals. The redesign decision coincides with consolidating the companys five
brands of filler metals Hobart, McKay, Tri-Mark, Corex, and Maxal under
the single Hobart brand. The companys brand of filler metals includes a product line of
tubular wires (metal and flux cored), solid wires and covered electrodes for welding car-
bon and low-alloy steels, stainless steels and aluminum, as well as hardfacing options.
JULY 2013 6
Publisher Andrew Cullison
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
Associate Editor Kristin Campbell
Editorial Asst./Peer Review Coordinator Melissa Gomez
Design and Production
Production Manager Zaida Chavez
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
Manager of International Periodicals and
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman
National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca
Advertising Sales Representative Sandra Jorgensen
Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
Subscriptions Representative Tabetha Moore
American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166
(305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
D. L. Doench, Chair
Hobart Brothers Co.
S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair
ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
J. D. Weber, Secretary
American Welding Society
D. Brown, Weiler Brush
T. Coco, Victor Technologies International
L. Davis, ORS Nasco
D. DeCorte, RoMan Mfg.
J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
F. H. Kasnick, Praxair
D. Levin, Airgas
E. C. Lipphardt, Consultant
R. Madden, Hypertherm
D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash
J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
D. Wilson, Well-Dean Enterprises
N. C. Cole, Ex Off., NCC Engineering
J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems
D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg.
S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries
R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
Copyright 2013 by American Welding Society in both printed and elec-
tronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not in-
tended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the
part of potential users.
Victor Technologies honors the 100th anniversary
of its Victor brand by launching a contest for stu-
dents and schools, plus a photo/caption challenge.
As shown, a student and instructor train with oxy-
fuel cutting using a Journeyman system.
To be the preferred supplier of welding
positioning equipment to Liebherr USA, you
have to do a lot of things right. And Koike
Aronson does.
The Virginia facility of Liebherr, one of
the worlds leading manufacturers of mining
equipment, has been buying welding
positioners from Koike for years. Some of the
original machines are still in operation, reports
Jim Farley, project manager. And the service support
is terrific. When it comes to responsiveness we can
get directly to a person who can help.
The guys on the floor are sold on Koike, too.
I love the Head and Tailstock, says Fabrication
Lead Man Charles Moler. Koike worked with us
so it was designed to fit our needs and reduce
set-up time for each rotation.
Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome Arcade, NY USA 800-252-5232
Weve had such outstanding success
with Koike that we havent spoken to
anyone else.
Left to Right:
Jim Farley
Project Manager
Charles Moler
Fabrication Lead Man
Jim Pfizenmayer
Fabrication Supervisor
Robert Egloff
Fabrication Manager
Koike Aronson Ransome
Head and Tailstock positioning
a Liebherr mining truck frame.
Weve had such outstanding success
with Koike that we havent spoken to
anyone else.Jim Farley, Project Manager
Scan here for
more information.
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Hypertherm presented the Building America Conference May
7 and 8 at its new manufacturing facility in Lebanon, N.H. About
80 invited guests attended to hear numerous speakers and tour
the property.
Evan Smith, president of Hypertherm, introduced Built in
America: Strategies for Success. He asked what is driving dy-
namics by showing a 2004 Business Week cover titled The three
scariest words in U.S. industry: The China Price and a recent
TIME magazine cover featuring Made in the USA. In the U.S.
manufacturing renaissance part of his talk, Smith quoted The
Boston Consulting Group: By 2015...Manufacturing in China
will be only 10 to 15% cheaper than in the U.S. even before
inventory and shipping costs are considered. He stated a bright
spot is manufacturing employment has grown faster in the U.S.
since the recession than in any other developed economy. For
success strategies, as a North American manufacturer, vital fac-
tors are creating collaborative workforce development and build-
ing strong supply/distribution infrastructures and partnerships.
Kevin Duggan, president of Duggan Associates, discussed
Design for Operational Excellence. His questions focused on
the best way to produce continuous improvement, and asked how
do you know where to improve next, why do you strive to create
flow and what causes its death, what would your shop floor/
office/supply chain look like if you applied every continuous im-
provement tool, and where will your improvement journey take
you. The steps Duggan listed to achieve operational excellence
concerned designing a lean flow, implementing a lean flow and
making it visual, creating standard work for the lean flow, mak-
ing abnormal flow visual and creating standard work for it, teach-
ing employees to maintain and improve the flow to the customer,
and free management to work on offense.
The guests toured the 160,000-sq-ft facility led by Leadership
in Energy and Environmental Design principals.
The extra space is expected to facilitate creating up to 500
new jobs for New Hampshire. The plant includes a reliability lab
to test products and manual system assembly lines to make plasma
machines with parts close to associates. Ergonomic additions
consist of height-adjustable benches. Other featured areas in-
clude a piece-by-the-hour
board that monitors per-
formance; a cutting tech-
nology center offers
demonstrations on small/
large machines and nest-
ing software; training
classrooms; and room for
nozzle and electrode
Weve had rapid
global growth and needed
the space, Smith said.
Since the new location
opened, he thinks it has
been going remarkably
well and added the biggest
ongoing need there is to
train CNC operators
through the companys Technical Training Institute, plus printed
circuit board assemblers and technicians. Future goals include
making the facility a key place for listening to customers and
making continued improvements for them.
Event sessions centered on strategic planning, branding,
LEAN manufacturing, continuous improvement programs, cus-
tomer experience management, motivating and engaging your
team, a new measure of cutting efficiency, and the future of air
In addition, Sydney Finkelstein, Steven Roth professor of
management and faculty director of the Tuck Executive Program
at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, reviewed
lessons on research he conducted during Why Smart Executives
Fail. Four red flags in decision making include are your personal
experiences misleading you, is your personal self interest cloud-
ing your thinking, have you made a dangerous prejudgment that
you are locked into, and are inappropriate attachments pushing
you in the wrong direction. Finkelstein gave examples of relying
on intuition, experience, and training; the surprise of how com-
mon it is to act in a self-interested matter and not realize it; in-
tellectual honesty with adaptability and open mindedness; and
reinforcing values you care about. He listed executive mindset
failures, organizational breakdowns, delusions of a dream com-
pany, and leadership pathologies as reasons why smart execu-
tives fail.
Hypertherm Founder and CEO Dick Couch concluded the
event. He recalled the companys start in 1968 with Bob Dean
and tough early years facing hardships in obtaining funding, but
said this was a good learning opportunity for designing equip-
ment. Weve had this no layoff policy for 45 years, Couch men-
tioned as a milestone. Presently, more than 1300 associates de-
liver products and services worldwide.
Videos from the conference can be found on the companys
YouTube channel.
Kristin Campbell, associate editor
JULY 2013 8
Hypertherms eco-friendly building in Lebanon, N.H., built
long and narrow, leaves the propertys wetlands untouched.
Associates work inside the new location on
manual system assembly lines making plasma
machines for cutting and gouging metal.
Hypertherm Hosts Building America Conference
One World Trade Center Receives Its
Stainless Steel Spire
On May 10, the spire for the One World Trade Center build-
ing in New York City was permanently installed.
Kammetal Kusack Architectural Metal Inc., Brooklyn, N.Y.,
an architectural/ornamental metal fabricator, fabricated the top
40 ft of the spire and pinnacle for the building. At 1776 ft, the
height pays tribute to the year the United States declared its in-
dependence and establishes the center as the tallest building in
the Western Hemisphere.
The spires glass and stainless steel structure, featuring a ro-
tating beacon to illuminate the Manhattan skyline at night, was
laser cut on a TRUMPF TruLaser 1030 machine.
KUKA Systems Acquires Uticas
Plant Engineering Business
KUKA Systems Group, Sterling Heights, Mich., has acquired
the plant engineering business of privately owned Utica Compa-
nies, Shelby Township, Mich. The purchase price was not dis-
closed but is in the low double-digit million euro range. It will
absorb Uticas body structure business that builds car body as-
sembly lines and subsystems as well as products like laser weld-
ing heads, net forms, and pierce systems; standard press room
automation for metal stamping; and hang-on technologies. About
300 Utica employees have joined the more than 1300-member
KUKA Systems team in southeastern Michigan.
Hobart Institute Breaks Ground for
Additional Welding Training Area
Driven by demand for welding training and increasing enroll-
ment, Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, Troy, Ohio, is ex-
panding. The 6360-sq-ft structure will house between 50 and 60
The NEW M205
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Kammetal fabricated the top 40 ft of the spire and pinnacle for the
new One World Trade Center. The spires glass and stainless steel
structure was laser cut on a TRUMPF 2D system. (Photo courtesy
of DMC Erectors, Inc.)
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JULY 2013 10
arc welding booths equipped for all processes and an extensive
fume-exhaust system. With a goal to match the original building
architectural and aesthetic integrity, construction is set to begin
soon. The first classes are expected to utilize the building in late
fall 2013. The contract went to Ferguson Construction Co.,
Sidney, Ohio.
Wall Colmonoy Celebrates
75th Anniversary
Wall Colmonoy, Madison Heights, Mich., an American Weld-
ing Society Supporting Company Member, is celebrating its 75th
anniversary. Albert F. Wall founded the materials engineering
company in 1938 in Detroit, Mich. Today, it is a global organiza-
tion with offices and manufacturing facilities in the United States,


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A rendering by Ferguson Construction Co. shows the Hobart Insti-
tute of Welding Technologys new building addition in Troy, Ohio.
Wall Colmonoy has been owned and operated by the same family
for 75 years. Shown is a step for the manufacturing of nickel- and
cobalt-based alloys for powder and casting products.
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United Kingdom, and France with close to 400 employees. De-
veloping new products and technologies with customers, univer-
sities, and local government is the driving innovation force. It
has been owned and operated by the same family for 75 years.
Manitowoc Welders Improve Technical
Skills Using New Training Program
When Manitowocs Grove brand recently looked for a cost-
effective way to teach, train, and evaluate welding skills of the
nearly 500 welders who build its cranes, the RealWeld Trainer
provided an answer. Using patent-pending technology by EWI,
it digitally records motions and objectively measures/scores criti-
cal welding technique while performing real arc-on welds, plus
allows practicing arc-off welds with feedback.
According to Jake Sensinger, manager of weld process engi-
neering at Manitowocs Shady Grove factory, the system was in-
corporated into operations in July 2012. Since then, two machines
at the companys Pennsylvania facility have provided customiza-
tion advantages, material cost savings, and faster individualized
training. Its going to have a tremendous impact on how we put
our curriculum together going forward, he added.
Cee Kay Executives Slowly Create a
Snail Sculpture during Cleanup Event
Cee Kay Supply, St. Louis, Mo., sponsored the 11th annual
Mission: Clean Stream and Stream Trash Art program with the
General Motors (GM) Earth Day Festival on April 6 at GMs
plant in Wentzville, Mo. Approximately 1088 tons of trash have
been removed from streams and rivers to date.
This is the fifth year in a row the company has participated.
Each year, Regional Vice President of Sales Heath Wells and
Western Regional Manager Dave Teson create a metal art sculp-
ture from cleanup pieces. This time, they fabricated a snail from
an old piece of cast iron, which was also converted into a flower
pot. It took about 8 h to complete. Company CEO and Owner
Tom Dunn also made chocolate ice cream with liquid nitrogen.
Additionally, the American Welding Societys St. Louis Sec-
tion held its 11th annual Mini Weld Show on March 28 at Cee
Paul Boulware, an EWI welding engineer, uses the RealWeld
Trainer to explain welding technique fundamentals to a trainee.
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Kays headquarters. Representatives from more than 20 compa-
nies provided hands-on demos and expertise. More than 250 stu-
dents, instructors, and industry professionals attended.
Industry Notes
CertainTeed Corp. has selected Jonesburg, Mo., as the home
for a new asphalt roofing shingle manufacturing/distribution
facility and plans to invest $100 million there. It is anticipated
an estimated 400 ancillary local jobs in welding, trucking, and
maintenance services will support operations when completed.
SGL Group The Carbon Co. recognized an investment in its
Ozark, Ark., facility to construct new graphitization for manu-
facturing graphite electrodes, used in producing steel in elec-
tric arc furnaces, with a volume of approximately $26 million.
Koike Aronson, Inc./Ransome, Arcade, N.Y., is sponsoring
Steaming Toward a Cure for Diabetes benefitting the Amer-
ican Diabetes Associations Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes
campaign of Western New York. The event is set for July 13.
CRC-Evans Pipeline International, Inc., has opened its new
pipeline supply store and warehouse in Tulsa, Okla. The 9000-
sq-ft storefront houses a large inventory with standard pipeline
construction items. Also, the warehouse carries accessories.
Optrel is offering prizes at www.facebook.com/OptrelUSA.
Welders who like its page and send their best welding photos
will be eligible for a monthly drawing to win a new welding hel-
met plus an iPod Touch through August. At the contests end,
all entries will be redrawn for a grand prize of a free trip to
Wattwil, Switzerland, where the company is headquartered.
JULY 2013 12
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Heath Wells and Dave Teson recently fabricated a snail from an
old piece of cast iron, which was converted into a flower pot.
continued on page 91
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Give It To Us Straight.
Call us at 800-782-2110 for a free quote on your
next Metal Bending job.



chine in













ertical (Easy Way) Horizontal (Hard W














ard wa



With our ROUNDO R-16S Rolling Machine,
we can roll, bend and shape structural steel
beams, angles, channels, pipe and tubing in
dimensions not found anywhere in our region.
We specialize in all types of custom rolling and
fabrication including pipe trusses, angle and tee trusses,
beam trusses, square and rectangular tubing, and girders.
We can:
Roll a W44 by 242lbs/ft I-beam the HARD way (X-X axis)
Roll any size I-beam, which is currently made the EASY way
(Y-Y axis)
Roll a W40 by 211lbs/ft I-beam to a radius less than 100ft
with almost no distortion
Roll a 26 OD pipe with 2 wall thickness
Roll almost any size square or rectangular tubing
We also fabricate rolled structural members
from steel plate, flat bar, angles, channels,
beams and pipe. From our 400,000 sq. ft.
facility (under roof ) in Lancaster County, PA, well
truck any size rolled steel, truss or
girder to your site. We can even paint
them before they leave.
So give it to us straight, and well
handle the curves.
Call us at 800-782-2110
for a free quote on your
next Metal Bending job.

For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
Qualification Center to Support
Automotive Welding Certification
I-Car Canada, a training and recognition program, is establish-
ing a national welding qualification center to serve as a hub for
Canadian automotive welding certification. The center will operate
in conjunction with a Canada-wide network of welding qualifica-
tion instructors that is being established this year.
The new qualification center will be located at CARSTARs
Vision Park in Hamilton, Ontario. It will serve an immediate audi-
ence of repair facilities and insurance staff in the Greater
Toronto/Southern Ontario region, but its impact will eventually
extend coast to coast. CARSTAR Automotive Canada, Inc., NAPA
Auto Parts, and 3M Canada are each contributing to the operation
of the center.
Marc Brazeau, president and CEO of the Automotive Industries
Association, which operates I-CAR Canada, noted the new center
will meet a critical need in the industry. He said, Most technicians
learned how to weld in their apprenticeship program ten, twenty, or
even thirty years ago. Given how much vehicle technology has
changed in that time with the introduction of aluminum, high-
strength steels, and new bonding technologies, it is imperative to
offer opportunities for continued learning. Welding is one of the
most important skills in the collision repair industry, and it must be
done right.
Sciaky Announces Strategic Partnership
Sciaky, Inc., a subsidiary of Phillips Service Industries and
provider of additive manufacturing products, has entered into a
business partnership with EVOBEAM GmbH of Mainz,
Germany, to further expand its electron beam (EB) welding
product portfolio.
Sciaky specializes in large vacuum chamber EB welding systems
with internal moving guns. These systems utilize low voltage and
high power useful for large-scale parts. EVOBEAM specializes in
high throughput, small vacuum chamber EB welding systems with
external guns. These systems utilize low voltage and low power use-
ful for rapid production of small-scale parts. Under terms of the
new agreement, Sciaky and EVOBEAM will market and sell each
others EB welding technology.
New Dust Collection Facility to Serve the
UK and European Industrial Markets
Camfil Air Pollution Control (APC), a global manufacturer of
dust and fume collection equipment, celebrated the grand opening
of its new 40,000-sq-ft facility in the United Kingdom to serve
industrial customers throughout the UK and Europe. Camfil APC
worked closely with the Rochdale Development Agency to find the
optimal site for the plant, which is located in the Birch Business
Park in Heywood, Great Manchester, UK. The facility has been
operational since April, with a current staff of 40 employees. When
fully staffed, it is expected to employ more than 100 people in engi-
neering, manufacturing, and support positions.
Lee Morgan, company president, said, Camfil APC has devel-
oped into a global dust collection company over the past five years,
with our biggest growth in the UK and European industrial mar-
kets. This strategically located facility allows us to expand our man-
ufacturing capacity and service our European customer base more
The plant includes a four-bay welding area, fabrication capacity,
powder paint line, assembly room, and storage space.
Center Promotes Development of
Pipeline Technologies
Subsea 7, a seabed-to-surface engineering, construction, and
services contractor, has opened the new Global Pipeline Welding
Development Center that will develop subsea pipeline technolo-
gies for the oil and gas markets. It is the culmination of a $15.5
million investment by Subsea 7 in the companys operations base
in Clydebank, Scotland. The development was supported with a
grant of $1.2 million from Scottish Enterprise.
The center has brought 30 new skilled jobs to the area, as
Subsea 7 creates pipeline technologies to satisfy market needs
associated with oil and gas discoveries increasingly made in deep-
er water and tougher conditions. The new center comprises two
main operational buildings Pipeline Development Center 1, a
welding inspection center, and Center 2, which houses the R&D
and screened radiographic and ultrasound nondestructive exam-
ination facilities.
The entire Subsea 7 facility in Clydebank employs 150 people,
including more than 65 engineering and project management
staff, and has more than 30 skilled welding technicians working
on site. The technology developed in Scotland will be deployed
by the subsea oil and gas industry across the globe, including the
UK, Norway, United States, Brazil, and West Africa.
JULY 2013 14
Pictured is the inaugural session held at I-Car Canadas nation-
al welding qualification center.
The new Heywood facilitys laser cutting unit.
The Global Pipeline Welding Development Center employs more
than 30 skilled welding technicians on site.
/ Fronius is internationally recognized as the welding clad
leader in process and equipment design. The only manufacturer
of cladding equipment that is vertically integrated which
allows us to maximize the systems deposited weld quality and
throughput. With the support of a global service organization,
Fronius cladding systems have and will continue to set the
standard in the cladding industry.

For more information visit www.fronius-usa.com
/ Battery Charging Systems / Welding Technology / Solar Electronics

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Q: We are considering changing our steel
source for several of the parts we produce;
however, one of the new materials is not
approved by the automotive original
equipment manufacturer (OEM). What
approval process are they talking about?
The proposed replacement appears to be
the same as our existing one.
A: The process of joining two materials
together is something that never really
crosses your mind when you purchase a
motor vehicle. In fact, it is almost some-
thing that is assumed since your driving
of the final product is proof that it can be
done. However, as with many things, a lit-
tle digging reveals there can be much more
to this process than meets the eye. In fact,
the idea behind trying to determine how
weldable a material is begins to make real
good sense once you understand what it
entails and its potential impact on the as-
sembly of the final product. In actuality,
the determination of a materials weld-
ability is really a subset of a much broader
characterization process the automotive
OEM employs to ensure the material in
question is suitable for the intended ap-
plication. In other words, material char-
acterization is really a methodology used
to classify or describe a material that is
based on an objective analysis of measur-
able characteristics.
While this discussion focuses on weld-
ability, with the engagement of the right
personnel, it could just as easily be a con-
versation about determining corrosion re-
sistance, formability, or any of a dozen or
more other manufacturing traits that need
to be accounted for and addressed in
order to successfully assemble the final
An analogy for the process of material
characterization is that of a building in-
spector. Building inspectors work behind
the scenes and their existence never re-
ally crosses your mind. But once you un-
derstand they are looking at the structure
before the drywall goes up to ensure that
all of the other supporting elements of the
building (electrical, plumbing, ventilation,
etc.) are in place and functional, you begin
to understand why their role is so impor-
tant from the point of view of protecting
the eventual final customer. The welding
characterization process works in much
the same way as it affords the automotive
OEM an opportunity to verify if the ma-
terial is truly capable of being processed
in its manufacturing environment, thus
protecting you, their customer, and help-
ing to ensure that they have made, and
you are purchasing, a quality product.
Characterization Methodology
The predominate method utilized by
all of the automotive OEMs for welding
characterization is resistance spot weld-
ing (RSW). For completeness, gas metal
arc welding (GMAW) and laser beam
welding (LBW) are now also being con-
sidered or utilized for OEM characteriza-
tion. Additionally, and as one would ex-
pect, each OEM typically wants the weld-
ability characterization performed in a
manner that is consistent with its
processes and standards. As a result, the
weldability characterization process is
often performed on specific types of
equipment so as to replicate the unique
manufacturing environment in which the
material will be used. A partial list of these
unique manufacturing elements could in-
clude the following:
Electrode Caps. The list of require-
ments in this area alone can be quite ex-
tensive and runs the gambit from taper
types (male, female), taper standards
(RWMA, ISO), body diameters, contact
face geometry (RWMA A-nose, ISO-5821
Type-B, etc.), and last, but not least, the
actual material (RWMA Class-1 or
RWMA Class-2, in all their variations).
Weld Control. The requirements in
this area can cover the make of the con-
trol (manufacturer), the type of current
[alternating current vs. midfrequency di-
rect current (AC vs. MFDC)], and/or the
methodology of using the control (auto-
matic voltage compensation or constant
current). As an aside, our experience has
shown there can be some slight variation
in weldability when utilizing different AC
controls, but not so with the MFDC units.
Transformer. Once the weld control
has been determined, the selection of the
transformer is really driven by the weld-
ing machine. However, care must be ex-
ercised in the selection as the lack of weld-
ability variation seen in MFDC weld con-
trols can reappear by the selection of the
wrong MFDC power supply. This is espe-
cially true when performing aluminum
Electrode Cooling. Both the water
temperature and flow rate may be speci-
fied for a particular characterization.
While both are critical elements to be
monitored and controlled, our experience
has shown the actual physical condition
and arrangement of the cooling system
(water tube placement, size, integrity,
etc.) are far more important than the ac-
tual temperature or flow rate.
An important point to keep in mind is
that no one characterization evaluation
can cover all possibilities. In fact, despite
the performance of a thorough weldabil-
ity characterization, it may be difficult to
predict the necessary weld setup parame-
ters for production operations. The rea-
son for this is that each test is a singular
condition among many possibilities and
cannot account for the potential litany of
material combinations, root opening or
fitup concerns, general condition of the
tooling, or other production variables.
However, if the weldability characteriza-
tion is conducted in a consistent manner,
the process will allow for the determina-
tion of significant material traits that,
when compared to other similar materi-
als, can reveal where deviation from the
norm has occurred and permit the OEM
JULY 2013 16
Fig. 1 A resistance spot weld lobe.
to screen for potential issues. An excel-
lent source for more detailed information
about RSW material weldability charac-
terization testing of sheet metal is AWS
D8.9 (Ref. 1).
Characterization Elements
Once it has been determined how the
material will be welded, the next step is to
select the necessary characterization ele-
ments that are to be evaluated. The de-
sired elements to be evaluated may vary
based on the material gauge, coating, and
substrate strength. A partial list of these
unique characterization elements could
include the following:
Weld Range/Lobe. A weld lobe is a
means of graphically expressing the nu-
merous combinations of weld current and
weld time that produce satisfactory welds
for a specific set of conditions (weld force,
electrode cap configuration, metal stack-
up, etc.) (see Fig. 1 and the March 2012
RWMA Q&A for more details on weld
Fracture Mode. This is the appear-
ance of the weld after a destructive sepa-
ration or peel test. (See the May 2010
RWMA Q&A for more details on frac-
ture modes.)
Weld Strength. This may be deter-
mined by either a quasi-static or dynamic
test, with the latter being either a fatigue
or impact test. The mechanical samples
constructed for these evaluations typically
test the weld in two directions, either full
shear (0 deg) or normal to the weld (90
Hold Time Sensitivity. This charac-
terization element is related to a change
in the welds cooling rate and is really a
man-made phenomenon related to pro-
cessing. The changeover from multifix-
ture, cascade-fire gun stations to almost
complete robot welding has reduced the
likelihood for this to occur. Consequently,
some OEM tests no longer evaluate hold
time sensitivity performance.
Electrode Endurance. This element
really focuses on the coating of the mate-
rial and its wear effect on the electrode.
As weld processing has changed, so has
this evaluation. Almost entirely gone are
the days of open-ended characterization
tests that might go for 10,000 (or more)
welds, replaced instead by more manage-
able, but still meaningful, sprints of just
5001000 welds.
Current Sensitivity. The advent of
MFDC has brought to the fore the fact
that some materials weld better with one
current type than the other. While the vast
majority of materials do not exhibit a pref-
erence, this is still an important evalua-
tion element as the selection of current
type is one area where the large OEMs
and the smaller Tier 2 and 3 suppliers are
most likely to approach welding from di-
vergent points of view.
An important point to consider is that
the descriptions of the above-mentioned
elements do not contain one word regard-
ing acceptability criteria. This was done on
purpose as each OEM evaluates the ma-
terials performance of each element
against its particular needs, and it would
be impossible to try and provide more than
the most generic of guidance in this area.
Final Thoughts
It is hoped these descriptions have
served to illustrate the challenges facing
both the steel and automotive OEM or-
ganizations as they strive to produce a
quality product in a very competitive en-
vironment. At the least it should help il-
lustrate there is a great deal that does
occur behind the scenes as a product
moves from concept to design and that
one of the biggest challenges is the selec-
tion of the right material for the applica-
tion. Just as consumers have a choice with
regard as to what they consider important
in a vehicle (passenger and/or cargo room
vs. performance), the product designer
must decide which of the above elements
has more credence for their application.
The author would like to thank Eric
Pakalnins for his invaluable perspective
on resistance weldability material charac-
1. AWS D8.9:2012, Test Methods for
Evaluating the Resistance Spot Welding Be-
havior of Automotive Sheet Steel Materials.
Doral, Fla.: American Welding Society.
DONALD F. MAATZ JR. is a laboratory
manager, RoMan Engineering Services. He
is past chair of the AWS Detroit Section,
serves on the D8.9 and D8D Automotive
Welding committees, is vice chairman of
the Certified Resistance Welding Techni-
cian working group, and is an advisor to
the C1 Resistance Welding Committee. He
is a graduate of The Ohio State University
with a BS in Welding Engineering. This ar-
ticle would not have been possible were it
not for the assistance from members of the
RoMan team. Send your comments/ques-
tions to Don at dmaatz@romaneng.com,
or to Don Maatz, c/o Welding Journal, 8669
Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166.
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Brazing Book Opens
New Technology Horizons,
Gives Practical Information
Advances in brazing: Science, technology
and applications, edited by Duan P.
Sekuli, published in March 2013 by Wood-
head Publishing Ltd. (www.woodheadpub-
lishing.com), Cambridge, UK. ISBN-13:
978 0 85709 423 0. 628 pages. Price $305.
Advances in brazing: Science, technol-
ogy and applications presents three origi-
nal chapters on the fundamentals of braz-
ing and sixteen chapters that consist both
of new studies done by their respective au-
thors as well as state-of-the-art overviews
featuring brazing processes used in
todays industry.
What Else Does the
Publication Offer?
This book covers the basics and
specifics of brazing technologies related
to joining traditional structural materials
such as aluminum alloys, nickel superal-
loys, oxide ceramics, cemented carbides,
diamonds, cubic boron nitride, and new
materials that offer challenges to engi-
neers such as titanium and nickel inter-
metallic alloys, ceramic composites, car-
bon-carbon composites, brazing coatings,
special glasses, and glass-ceramics.
All chapters present an analysis of con-
venient industrial processes and new, ef-
fective approaches to join similar and dis-
similar combinations of base materials. A
broad range of applications regarding
modern brazing technology is described.
This is illustrated by examples from auto-
motive and cutting tool industries to ap-
plications in aerospace, nuclear power,
and fuel cells.
In addition, all chapters include sub-
stantial numbers of reference of data re-
garding wetting, microstructure, strength,
and corrosion properties of brazed joints,
which means that this volume can easily
be used as a reference book appropriate
both in academic research laboratories
and everyday engineering practices.
Improving Brazing in
Practical Applications
Publication of this book is apparently
an important event in the present brazing
engineering community, as well as in the
welding industry, because many new non-
weldable but brazeable structural materi-
als appear in the industrial market every
year. Most of these materials are required
to be joined by brazing.
The authors represent different coun-
tries and universities but all of them
demonstrate one approach to writing:
They apply fundamental knowledge to ex-
plain methods of improving brazing in
practical applications. The effectiveness
of this approach to conveying knowledge
is important, especially today, precisely
because so many new materials that are
challenging to join have entered the in-
dustry. If this approach becomes accepted
convention, it can be a strong impulse to
improving depth of knowledge in brazing,
not only as a technology, but as a science.
The Value Theoretical Conceptions Bring
In the last several years, numerous
journal publications have analyzed gen-
eral practical case studies (procedures of
brazing individual materials and proper-
ties of their brazed joints), but discussion
of new theoretical conceptions is rare. The
first three chapters of this book fill in this
gap. They overview the following: funda-
mental questions of wetting and reactiv-
ity at the interface of base materials (chap-
ter 1), criteria of strength and reliability
of brazed structures (chapter 2), and sys-
tematic modeling of general procedures
in the field of brazing on macro- and
micro-scale levels (chapter 3).
The importance of these theoretical
conceptions cannot be overestimated.
They shall certainly enter into future text-
books and university courses on brazing.
At the same time, theoretical methods dis-
cussed in the first three chapters may al-
ready be used in the field while construct-
ing new systems, assessing their reliabil-
ity, and testing the appropriateness or
suitability of new base materials and filler
Additional Chapter Breakdowns,
Including New Approaches to Brazing
Superhard Tooling Materials and
Processes for Joining Aluminum Alloys
Brazing nickel-based superalloys and
stainless steels is discussed in three chap-
ters. Chapter 4 demonstrates successful
application of boron-free Ni-Cr-Zr filler
metals, while chapter 5 is focused on the
application of amorphous foils in tradi-
tional Ni-Cr-Si-B systems and metallurgi-
cal paths in joint formation. Also, two
chapters are designated to joining new
prospective intermetallic alloys tita-
nium and nickel aluminides.
The authors of chapter 4 introduce new
creep-resistant braze alloys of the Ti-Zr-
Cr, Ti-Zr-Fe, Ti-Hf-Fe, and Ti-Zr-Mn sys-
tems, while chapter 8 discusses the prop-
erty effects of base materials on the braz-
ing procedure and microstructure of
brazed joints made with traditional filler
metals such as BAg-8, Ticuni, Cusil-
ABA, BNi-2, and others. Specifics for
applying nickel-based filler metals in man-
ufacturing steel pipes and brass or bronze
components contacting drinking water are
described in chapter 18.
Chapter 6 describes industrial
processes and new approaches to brazing
superhard tooling materials diamond
and cubic boron nitride. The physics of
formation of carbide film on diamond is
an essential aspect of the corresponding
brazing process, and it is discussed in de-
tail. The technology of brazing cemented
carbides and superhard materials for cut-
ting tool applications is also considered
in chapter 14. Both chapters are sup-
ported by the analysis of wetting and met-
allurgical interactions of filler metals with
tool materials.
Several chapters are designated to dif-
ferent aspects of joining ceramics and
high-temperature composite materials;
these summarize practical experience and
scientific knowledge accumulated in the
world to date. At the same time, all au-
thors include results of their original in-
vestigations that make these publications
especially interesting, because a general
review is illustrated by case studies.
Chapters 7, 12, and 16 discuss design,
metallization, microstructure, and prop-
erties of brazed ceramics both in ceramic-
to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal joints for
the needs of the electronic and aerospace
JULY 2013 18
industries. Chapters 11 and 13 are focused
on brazing approaches and joint proper-
ties of high-temperature ceramic matrix
composites, including carbon-carbon
composites applied now in aerospace and
nuclear industries. Despite sometimes
similar base materials mentioned there, a
reader will not find any overlapping sci-
entific and technical information in these
chapters; this reflects an original research
and engineering vision by the authors on
obtained results.
The original technology and applica-
tion of brazed hard coatings by infiltra-
tion in cemented carbide particles with
silver- and copper-based filler metal is
discussed in chapter 15. Applications of
glass and glass-ceramic sealants for solid
oxide fuel cells and joining SiC-based ce-
ramics described in chapter 17 is open-
ing a new prospective in manufacturing
energy sources.
Three chapters are designated to new
materials and processes of joining alu-
minum alloys widely used in the world.
Chapter 9 covers the popular topic of
brazing aluminum to steel, as well as sol-
dering aluminum. Both subjects are com-
bined together due to a similar approach
of application with reactive fluxes. The
chemistry of fluxes is discussed in details
that are unique in brazing publications.
High-productive technology in controlled
atmosphere brazing (CAB) of aluminum
is described in chapter 10 featuring the
focus of interaction oxides with a flux and
furnace atmosphere. This chapter can be
used in the next edition of the Brazing
Handbook as is. Finally, the original tech-
nology of fluxless brazing aluminum al-
loys and features of this promising process
are discussed in chapter 19.
For those just starting to work in the
brazing industry, this book is a great pri-
mary source of scientific and practical in-
formation regarding important proce-
dures and tendencies in our technology.
A great team of scientists and engineers
is collected under the cover of this book.
Its no doubt this publication shall be-
come a work-table reference book for
many professionals of the brazing indus-
try because it is not only a source of use-
ful technical information but also opens
new horizons in our technology.
titanium-brazing.com) is brazing products
manager at Titanium Brazing, Inc., Colum-
bus, Ohio. He is a member of the C3 Com-
mittee on Brazing and Soldering, has con-
tributed to the 5th edition of the AWS Brazing
Handbook, and the Brazing Q & A column.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
JULY 2013 20
Q: We did weld cladding (two layers) with
E309LT0-4 flux-cored electrodes on a
low-alloy steel pressure vessel, then
stress relieved it for 8 h at 1150F. When
we removed the vessel from the furnace
and allowed it to cool, we found that the
weld had separated from the base metal
over a large area. It appeared that the
weld metal had not adhered to the base
metal. When we examined the separated
weld, we found that the underside of the
cladding was only slightly attracted to a
magnet, while the surface of the vessel un-
derneath was strongly attracted to a mag-
net, which makes us wonder if the weld
cladding actually fused to the base metal
in the first place. What happened, and
what can we do about it?
A: This phenomenon is known as dis-
bonding. While its history indicates that it
is most common with strip cladding, weld
cladding by use of weave beads with other
welding processes have also been known
to be affected by disbonding. Disbonding
is most common when the weld is made
with a method that produces wide, flat de-
posits with low dilution.
Nelson et al. (Refs. 13) have studied
disbonding to a considerable extent. The
mechanism seems not to be entirely clear,
but carbide precipitation, impurity segre-
gation, a long continuous grain boundary
perpendicular to the principal stress, a
considerable difference in thermal expan-
sion coefficient between the low-alloy
steel and the weld cladding, and hydro-
gen-induced cracking may all be involved
in the disbonding. The characteristic of
disbonding is cracking in the fusion zone
very close to the fusion boundary along a
particular grain boundary termed a Type
II boundary. Figure 1, taken from Ref. 3,
shows the special nature of the Type II
boundary that extends parallel to the fu-
sion boundary, only a few microns from
the fusion boundary, and several grain di-
ameters in length.
Figure 2, taken from Ref. 3, shows the
disbonded cladding side of the fracture.
The crack path is exactly along the Type II
boundary. When this cracking occurs
along the Type II boundary, only a very
thin layer of the weld (perhaps 10 microns
or so in thickness) remains attached to the
base metal, and no base metal remains at-
tached to the cladding. This accounts for
your observation that the weld metal side
shows very little attraction to a magnet
(only the ferrite in the weld metal is fer-
romagnetic, and there is much more fer-
rite in the second layer than in the first
layer), while the base metal side is
strongly attracted to a magnet.
There are several approaches you can
use to reduce the tendency for disbond-
ing. Since diffusible hydrogen is often in-
volved, it is helpful to reduce available
diffusible hydrogen. The flux-cored stain-
Fig. 1 Type 309 cladding over ASTM A508 low-alloy steel. Note that the Type II grain
boundary extends continuously along the fusion boundary a few microns into the weld
deposit from the fusion boundary.
Fig. 2 Disbonded Type 309 cladding separated from ASTM A508 low-alloy steel.
less steel electrodes of E309LT0-4 type
are not always manufactured to low-hy-
drogen practice, and exposure to humid
air can cause even a low-hydrogen elec-
trode to absorb enough moisture to result
in a problem. It is not possible to consis-
tently measure diffusible hydrogen with
austenitic filler metals like 309L because
hydrogen does not diffuse appreciably in
austenite. However, the transition from
the ferritic base metal to the austenitic
weld metal will invariably include a
martensitic layer adjacent to the fusion
boundary, which sometimes extends from
the base metal to the Type II boundary.
In this zone, hydrogen is mobile enough
to cause cracking. The zone between the
Type II boundary and the fusion bound-
ary consists in part of melted filler metal,
and if this filler metal contains enough
hydrogen, the potential for cracking is
there. So, it is important to maintain low-
hydrogen conditions for the filler metal.
This includes sourcing filler metal that
was baked at the end of manufacture and
protecting that filler metal from exposure
to moist air. I would also note that the
E309LT0-4 electrodes are intended to
operate in 75% argon 25% CO
ing which tends to produce higher dif-
fusible hydrogen than 100% CO
ing. You might consider switching to CO
shielding to reduce diffusible hydrogen.
A second approach to the prevention
of disbonding is to manipulate the weld-
ing procedure to avoid a nearly planar in-
terface between weld metal and base
metal. A nearly planar interface occurs
when the individual weld runs are wide
and shallow, as tends to occur in strip
cladding and in weld cladding with a
weave pattern. It is better to accept a lit-
tle higher dilution, with flux-cored arc
welding using your E390LT1-4 electrodes
or other welding methods by depositing
the weld metal in stringer beads instead
of weave beads because the stringer
beads produce a scalloped fusion bound-
ary rather than a planar fusion boundary,
and the scalloped fusion boundary is
more resistant to disbonding. Only the
first layer of weld cladding needs to be
deposited by stringer beads. A second
and any subsequent layers can be de-
posited with any welding pattern because
the geometry of the fusion boundary with
the base metal is already established be-
fore subsequent layers are deposited.
A third approach is to replace stain-
less steel filler metal with nickel-based
alloy filler metal. This is a more expensive
approach due to the cost of the nickel-
based alloys as compared to that of stain-
less steel filler metal. Once a layer of
nickel-based alloy, such as NiCr-3 type
filler metal has been deposited, it is nec-
essary to continue the cladding with the
nickel-based alloy because transitions of
nickel-based alloy to stainless steel are
quite susceptible to solidification crack-
ing. The main functions of the nickel-
based alloy are to reduce the thickness of
any martensitic layer in the transition
zone as compared to the thickness of the
martensitic layer in the transition zone
when stainless steel is deposited, and to
reduce the mismatch in coefficient of
thermal expansion between the ferritic
steel base metal and the weld metal. This
latter in turn reduces the stresses at the
Type II boundary. If you choose this ap-
proach, it is still important to treat
the filler metal with good low-hydrogen
None of these approaches will guar-
antee freedom from disbonding, but
chances are that you can be successful
because many other fabricators have
1. Nelson, T. W., Lippold, J. C., and
Mills, M. J. 1999. Nature and evolution of
the fusion boundary in ferritic-austenitic
dissimilar metal welds Part 1: Nucle-
ation and growth. Welding Journal 78(10):
329-s to 337-s.
2. Rowe, M. D., Nelson, T. W., and
Lippold, J. C. 1999. Hydrogen-induced
cracking along the fusion boundary of
dissimilar metal welds. Welding Journal
78(2): 31-s to 37-s.
3. Nelson, T. W., Lippold, J. C., and
Mills, M. J. 2000. Nature and evolution of
the fusion boundary in ferritic-austenitic
dissimilar metal welds Part 2: On-cool-
ing transformations. Welding Journal
79(10): 267-s to 277-s.
DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is president,
Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants, Inc.
He is treasurer of the IIW and a member of
the A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel
Filler Metals, D1K Subcommittee on Stain-
less Steel Structural Welding; and WRC
Subcommittee on Welding Stainless Steels
and Nickel-Base Alloys. He is a past chair of
the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Al-
lied Materials, and served as AWS president
(20052006). Send questions to damian@
damiankotecki.com, or Damian Kotecki,
c/o Welding Journal Dept., 8669 Doral
Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166.
reddarc.com/ihs 1-866-733-3272
Sales, Rentals, Lease Programs
Weld Preheating,
Post-Weld Heat Treatment,
Coating Removal, Shrink Fit,
Liquid- and Air-Cooled Systems
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
Metal-Cored Electrode
Designed for Oil Field Uses
The 4130C a metal-cored, nickel-
based, low-alloy steel electrode
matches the properties of certain quench
and tempered steels following postweld
heat treatment (PWHT). It is a
nickel/chromium/molybdenum bearing
wire that provides these weld metal prop-
erties. In addition, it contains less than
1% nickel in the weld deposit and deliv-
ers smooth arc transfer with minimal spat-
ter. It is designed to weld 4130, 4140, 8630,
and similar alloy steels that are to be
PWHT. The low-nickel deposit makes the
product suited for most oilfield applica-
tions. The electrode is available in 0.045
16 in. diameters.
Select-Arc, Inc.
(800) 341-5215
Laser System Cuts
Steel Plate
The CL-400 CO
laser cutting system
uses water-cooled, high-speed linear
motor drives with the same HMI touch-
screen control and nesting software found
on the companys other CO
and fiber
laser cutting systems. Dual 5 10 ft pal-
lets and an optional modular material
handling system reduce beam-off time. It
delivers fast positioning speeds of 12,000
in./min and up to a 1 in. processing range
on mild steel. Other features include a
4000-W resonator; fourth-generation lin-
ear motor drives; and 0.75- to 1.5-in. steel
plate frame.
Cincinnati, Inc.
(513) 367-7100
Brochure Highlights
Service Program
The companys new four-page
brochure offers an overview of its 5-Star
Service program and service center. It
explains that whether its an emergency
service call or a complete rebuild, the serv-
ice program will have customers operat-
ing at original equipment standards. The
service center is equipped to remanufac-
turer complex systems. It employs trained
Focus on Stress Relieving, PWHT, and GTAW
GTA Torch Provides Cooling Capacity
The WP-280 water-cooled GTA torch has been designed with the companys
Super Cool technology. Its body also includes an antirotation feature to pre-
vent handle movement during welding and improve operator control. The Tri-
Flex hose and cable assembly has been designed to remain flexible in cold
weather, improve operator control, and prevent cracking. ColorSmart hose
and cable sets differentiate input water, water/power cable, and gas hoses to
simplify torch installation. Extra features include copper components to maxi-
mize current capacity and high-temperature silicone rubber insulation to mini-
mize high-frequency voltage leaks. Mechanical fittings provide a secure gas and
water connection to prevent leakage and allow users to easily replace hoses.
Weld-Ready torch package has installed front-end parts, including a nozzle,
medium back cap,
32-in. collet and collet body, and 3-in.-long ceriated tungsten
electrode. The torch packages include a cable cover that offers a hook and loop
closure to prevent slippage and provide cable protection, while also allowing ac-
cess for remote finger control cables. Packages with part numbers ending in
MFD50 include a cable cover that reaches to the power source to reduce cable
clutter and offer additional cable protection, as well as a 50-mm Dinse connec-
tor. The torch is compatible with 13N front-end consumables.
(800) 752-7620
JULY 2013 22
technicians, and the machining, fabricat-
ing, and welding capabilities necessary to
rebuild equipment. According to the
brochure, 5-Star Service also includes on-
site testing and repair. All work is done
with original parts, components, and
(888) 300-3743
Tungsten Suits Alternating
and Direct Current GTAW
The LaYZr
(color code chartreuse)
tungsten electrodes (A5.12M/A5.12:2009-
AWS Class EWG) are nonradioactive and
can be used in alternating as well as direct
current GTAW applications. They have a
chemical specification of 98.34% tung-
sten, + 1.5% lanthanum, 0.08% zirco-
nium, and 0.08% yttrium, plus work in
mechanized or robotic GTAW applica-
tions. Additionally, the 2% lanthanated
(color code blue) tungsten electrodes
(A5.12/A5.12:2009-AWS Class EWLa-2)
are nonradioactive and perform in alter-
nating current (aluminum) applications.
They have a chemical composition of
1.82.2% lanthanum-balance tungsten
and provide an option as a general
purpose electrode for most GTAW
CK Worldwide, Inc.
(800) 426-0877
Flux-Cored Wire Works
for PWHT
The UltraCore SR-12 is a gas-
shielded flux-cored wire that meets AWS
E71T-12M-JH8 requirements for as-
welded and stress-relieved conditions. It
is a choice for pressure vessel fabrication
and other applications requiring postweld
heat treatment (PWHT) of mild steel.
Extra features include arc performance
and bead shape making it easy to use for
welders of all skill levels. The wire is of-
fered in 15- and 33-lb packages, and comes
in the standard 0.045 in. diameter.
The Lincoln Electric Co.
(888) 355-3213
Orbital Welding
of Sanitary Process Lines
made EZ
Making a perfect weld is now as
simple as selecting tube/fitting O.D.
and wall thickness, and pressing
Start Weld! The intuitive symbol-
based touch screen interface
minimizes operator training and
qualification time.
The modular EZ Orbital System is
used with standard GTAW power
sources. Priced at 1/3 of industry
standards, this affordable tool
should be in every welders toolbox.
E-mail: info@MagnatechLLC.com

Phone: (
1) 860 653-2573
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
JULY 2013 24
Needle Scaler Suitable
for Stress Relieving
The Trelawny TVS needle scaler
with integrated vacuum shroud enables
dust-free working in hazardous applica-
tions when used with a dust-extraction
vacuum. Model 3BPG uses 28 needles to
supply 2200 blows/min, making it suitable
for cleaning and stress relieving welds.
Other applications include removing coat-
ings, corrosion, and other accumulated
materials, as well as texturing concrete.
Designed with a pistol grip, this pneumatic
tool consumes 8 ft/min of air at 90 lb/in..
The model weights 9.9 lb and has a vibra-
tion level of 19.9 m/s.
CS Unitec, Inc.
(800) 700-5919
Catalog Focuses on
Switch-Rated Plugs
The companys 239-page product cat-
alog features Decontactor Series switch-
rated plugs, receptacles, and connectors.
It also provides information about the
companys other plug and receptacle
product offerings, including the new
CS1000 single-pole plugs and receptacles
(up to 400 A, 600 VAC) and a wide vari-
ety of multipin devices (from 7 to 37 con-
tacts). The switch-rated plugs and recep-
tacles allow technicians to quickly change
out motors, welding machines, and other
Toll Free: (877) WELDHGR (877) 935-3447 Fax: (480) 940-9366
Visit our website at: www.weldhugger.com
Simulated nozzle flow
Includes 6
nozzles &
straight gas flow
Includes 6
nozzles, manifold,
assembly &
Includes 6 nozzles
& manifold
Flows gas evenly
over and behind the
weld pool.
Reduces oxidation
and discolorization
Designed for trailing
shield and a variety
of other applications.
316L Stainless steel
nozzles and manifolds.
Snake Kit
Shield Kit
Basic Kit
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
electrical equipment with plug and play
Meltric Corp.
(800) 433-7642
GTAW Machine Offers
High-Frequency Start
The TIG 200 DC welding machine has
high-frequency Mosfet inverter technol-
ogy with a high-frequency start feature
that provides an instant arc strike with no
tungsten contamination. The voltage self-
sensing circuitry automatically detects a
power source range of 110 or 220 V, 50 to
60 Hz, and delivers 10 up to 200 A DC. It
welds steel as well as stainless steel up to
16 in. thick and includes preset post and
preflow gas, overload protection, and ad-
justable amperage control for panel (trig-
ger switch) or foot pedal operation.
Eastwood Co.
(800) 343-9353
Furnace Performs
Preheating and PWHT
No. 837 is a 1450F electrically heated
tempering furnace used for preheating
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
prior to welding and various postweld heat
treatments (PWHT). Workspace dimen-
sions measure 60 60 60 in. Heat to the
load is provided by 180-kW nickel-chrome
wire coils supported by a stainless steel
framework. The unit includes a rear wall-
mounted, heat-resisting alloy recirculat-
ing fan, powered by a 25-hp motor with
V-belt drive and water-cooled bearings. It
features an air-operated vertical lift door
and safety/control components, including
a programming and recording tempera-
ture recorder, SCR power controller,
manual reset excess temperature con-
troller with separate contactors, and a re-
circulating blower airflow safety switch.
The Grieve Corp.
(847) 546-8225
Cooling Vests Come in
Eight Different Models
The companys line of cooling prod-
ucts includes eight different models of
cooling vests that offer on-the-job flexi-
bility. The Vortex cooling or heating vest
may be adjusted to provide warm or cool
air; the flame-retardant, low-profile cool-
ing vest may be connected to any clean
compressed-air source and worn under
protective clothing. The Standard vest for
cooling inserts is useful to wear under
HazMat suits, and the Standard and Econ-
omy Poncho cooling vests may be soaked
in cold water to provide all-day comfort.
The vests are durable, breathable, light-
weight, and available in a variety of safety
colors. Other products include cool offs,
doo rags, and bandanas.
Allegro Industries
(800) 622-3530
Catalog Includes
The companys 6th edition materials
testing accessories catalog details, in full
JULY 2013 26
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visit www.tiptigusa.com

Flux Cored
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PH: 800-848-2719
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continued on page 93
For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
JULY 2013 28
nverter technology for alternating cur-
rent (AC) gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW) has traditionally been
thought of as expensive, complicated,
and even problematic. Recent advances
in switching devices, microchips, and
tungsten technology have changed the
playing field, making inverter technology
for AC GTAW applications more afford-
able and accessible, offering a high-tech
welding solution to a broader range of
users from the average welder to any size
of industrial fabrication shop.
The Early Days of AC
For a better understanding of invert-
ers and the benefits they offer, its im-
portant to reflect on the early days of AC
During GTAWs development in the
early 1940s, it was discovered that AC re-
verse polarity could remove the tenacious
oxide layer from aluminum, making it
easier to weld. Alternating current
GTAW employed simple transformer
technology that utilized 60-Hz incoming
sine wave power to generate an arc suit-
able for the process. This consisted of a
heavy transformer to supply the proper
power and an equally heavy magnetic am-
plifier as a means of output control.
A drawback to using AC sine wave
power was the long time period at low
current as the current changed polarity.
High frequency (HF) was required to
help ensure reignition of the arc during
the alternation of the current flow. If the
arc didnt reignite, typically on the elec-
trode positive half cycle, rectification oc-
curred and cleaning action was lost.
It was a constant fight to try to keep
the polarity balanced to ensure sufficient
cleaning action on the aluminum surface.
This balanced polarity caused the tip of
ROBERT L. BITZKY (bbitzky@esab.com) is
manager, Training & Process Center, and
JEFF GARRAUX (jgarraux@esab.com) is
process & training welding engineer, ESAB
Welding & Cutting Products, Florence, S.C.
Inverter technology in GTAW applications has
evolved to offer a costeffective, easytouse,
hightech answer that has broad appeal
Fig. 1 Inverter power supplies make
welding frequencies of upward of 200 Hz
available, providing more control of the
AC waveform. As the frequency is in
creased, the arc column becomes more
concentrated. This allows the welder to
put in smaller beads. With a more con
centrated arc, the cleaning side of the
cycle is also better concentrated, produc
ing a narrower oxide etch zone.
Inverters Improve Control
for AC Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
the tungsten electrode to form a molten
ball and the arc to be quite broad. As a
secondary detriment, the rectification
sometimes caused the tungsten to actu-
ally spit a small piece of the molten ma-
terial into the weld pool. Moreover, the
characteristic of the magnetic devices
caused a further distortion (deteriora-
tion) in the sine wave, making this a less-
than-perfect process.
It was obvious the sine wave process
was not the answer. Faster switching
through the current reversal offered a
better solution. The square wave era
(circa late 1970s) introduced fast switch-
ing, which helped lessen many of the arc
issues of balance and rectification, but
the welding machines remained very
heavy and not very power efficient.
Better Frequency and
While the introduction of square wave
technology offered better control of the
polarity balance compared to sine wave
technology, this technology was limited
to approximately 75% direct current
electrode negative (DCEN) and 25% di-
rect current electrode positive (DCEP),
allowing less time on the DCEP side of
the cycle and reducing the overall heat-
ing of the tungsten.
What was needed was faster switch-
ing and technology that was more effi-
cient and weighed less. This came to pass
with the era of inverter technology.
The advent of inverter power supplies
made welding frequencies of upward of
200 Hz available Fig. 1. The increase
in frequency provides greater control of
the AC waveform. As the frequency is in-
creased, the arc column becomes more
concentrated. This allows the welder to
put in smaller beads. With a more con-
centrated arc, the cleaning side of the
cycle is also better concentrated, produc-
ing a narrower oxide etch zone. In addi-
tion to a more concentrated arc, the ca-
pabilities for pulsing are also greatly
Inverter power supplies through the
nature of their design introduced supe-
rior electronics. These advanced elec-
tronics allow for increased balance con-
trol with balance adjustable up to 90%
DCEN and 10% DCEP. Increasing the
balance control permits a greater control
over the arc. Balance above 75% DCEN
minimizes overheating of the electrode.
This allows the welder to prepare and
maintain a pointed electrode. A pointed
electrode allows for a more concentrated
arc and the ability and convenience to
switch from an AC to a DC process with-
out changing the electrode.
The advanced electronics used in in-
verter technology also provide a much
more stable arc without the need for con-
tinuous HF. In these systems, HF is only
used to initiate the arc and is turned off
for the duration of the weld. This reduces
electrical interference with the machine
and other electronics in the vicinity of
the power source.
Advanced electronics and increased
balance control and frequency directly
impact overall weld performance and
combined offer greater benefits. Higher
balance control and frequency found in
modern inverter-based systems allow the
welder to tune the arc from traditional
square wave up to a concentrated arc in
Fig. 2 The higher balance control and frequency
provided by modern inverterbased systems allows
the welder to tune the arc from traditional square
wave to a concentrated arc in AC, rivaling DC arc char
acteristics. This helps the welder maintain a very sta
ble and concentrated arc to produce small, highqual
ity welds not achievable with older style equipment.
AC that rivals DC arc characteristics
Fig. 2. This helps the welder maintain a
stable, concentrated arc for some of
the smallest, highest-quality welds that
are not achievable with older style
A Superior Solution
There are several other areas in which
modern inverter-based welding systems
offer the welder advantages:
Tungsten selection: Inverter technol-
ogy provides the added benefit of sharp-
ened tungsten during AC welding and the
ability to switch back and forth from AC
to DC without changing the tungsten.
What tungsten should be used? Conven-
tional systems instructed welders to use
pure tungsten (green) for AC and thori-
ated tungsten (red) for DC. Inverter
technology eliminates the requirement
to use two types of tungsten electrodes.
In fact, inverter power sources have
ushered in a new age of tungsten with the
use of rare earth elements like lanthanum
and cerium alloyed with tungsten Fig.
3. Other special alloys have also been
added to the list of tungsten sources.
With these newer tungstens, welders can
use the same tungsten type for AC and
DC. This allows the user to carry a sin-
gle type of tungsten, which reduces op-
erating costs as well as confusion as to
which type of tungsten to select for AC
vs. DC welding.
Energy savings: The superior arc con-
trol that inverters supply should be rea-
son enough to make the switch from
older style equipment, but inverter-based
welding machines have more to offer.
Compared to older style welding machin-
ery, inverters are much more energy ef-
ficient; so much so that they typically use
only half of the input amperage of older
systems. This amounts to significant sav-
ings in electricity, which directly reduces
operating costs and increases the users
return on investment.
Lower power consumption also makes
these machines suitable for smaller shops
that do not have high-amperage service.
Typical input amperage available in a
smaller shop or house is about 50 A.
Older style welding machines draw an av-
erage of 100 A on the input, making them
unsuitable for such environments. Newer
inverter machines at the same rated out-
puts draw less than 40 A, well within the
available service in these locations.
In addition, for field applications, in-
verter-based machines can be operated
using smaller generators than older weld-
ing equipment can.
Ability to run on three-phase power:
Prior to the introduction of inverter tech-
nology, AC GTAW required the use of
single-phase power. In most industrial
applications, three-phase power is avail-
able and large single-phase loads tend to
cause unbalanced line currents in the
three-phase supply lines. This further de-
grades efficiency and can disturb the op-
eration of sensitive equipment.
Lower cost of acquisition: While many
industrial fabricators assume that in-
verter-based welding systems featuring
high-end electronics and high-speed
switching devices come at a high price
tag, the opposite is true.
Typically, transformers are composed
of copper and iron, and the larger the
transformer, the higher the price tag of
the equipment. Inverters employ trans-
formers that are typically only one-sixth
the weight of traditional machines. Sig-
nificantly smaller transformers, like
those used on inverter-based welding sys-
tems, mean greatly reducing manufactur-
ing cost. This in turn makes inverter-
based equipment less expensive to man-
ufacture than traditional machines and
a more cost-effective investment.
Improved portability: The smaller
transformer used on an inverter-based
system reduces the overall weight and
size of the machine, which improves the
systems portability. A reduced machine
footprint saves on valuable floor space
and makes the unit easily transportable
for field work.
Increased program storage: Modern
inverter-based welding machines also
feature increased program storage with
some systems offering up to 60 parame-
ter sets. Built-in program storage reduces
operator input and ensures a quick, con-
sistent setup and exact processing condi-
tions to achieve repeatable weld quality
and high productivity no matter the
welders skill level.
Changing the Rules
Modern inverter-based welding sys-
tems are changing the rules of traditional
AC gas tungsten arc welding, providing
better control over the AC arc, more pro-
grammability, longer electrode life, and
greater ease of use than old-style weld-
ing systems. Inverter technology ad-
dresses the need of every welder to con-
trol the arc and heat, and to have flexi-
bility in the welding process.
From small job shops welding a vari-
ety of short- to medium-run jobs to large
oil refineries welding miles of pipeline,
inverter technology for AC GTAW has
evolved to offer greater functionality at
a lower cost of acquisition, putting a high-
tech welding solution within the reach of
a broader range of welders.
JULY 2013 30
Fig. 3 Inverter technology eliminates
the need to use two types of tungsten
electrodes. Inverter power sources use
rare earth elements such as lanthanum
and cerium alloyed with tungsten. With
these newer tungstens, welders can use
the same tungsten type for AC and DC.
For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
JULY 2013 32
lloy 4943 is the first aluminum
filler metal in 50 years to be de-
veloped in the USA for wrought
commercial applications and to receive
an Aluminum Association Registered In-
ternational Designation (the last being
4643, which was registered with the Alu-
minum Association in 1963 and then later
added to the AWS A5.10 specification in
1988). The 4943 aluminum filler metal
has recently received the AWS A5.10
classifications of ER4943 and R4943,
along with an ASME filler metal mate-
rial group allocation of F23 (the same F
number as 4043 and 4643) and CWB and
ABS approvals.
The new 4943 filler metal was de-
signed primarily to provide a consistently
high-strength alternative to filler metal
4043 while maintaining the ease of weld-
ing and other advantages of 4043, and
also to provide higher postweld heat-
treated strength when compared to 4643.
To fully appreciate the technological
merits associated with this new filler
metal, it is necessary to understand the
history associated with the 4xxx series sil-
icon-based filler metals, how base metal
and filler metal chemical compositions
combine and influence weld strength,
and the metallurgy of aluminum-silicon
filler metals.
The History of Aluminum
Silicon Filler Metals
Starting in the 1930s, the brazing
process was adapted to aluminum join-
ing on a commercial scale. The brazing
filler metals have liquidus temperatures
above 800F but below the melting tem-
perature of the base metal. During the
brazing process, typically no base metal
melting occurs and, consequently, there
is no dilution of base metal and filler
During this period, Alcoa developed
two basic silicon-based brazing alloys
(Table 1). These silicon alloys are still
used for the successful brazing of
Arc Welding
Arc welding of aluminum began on a
commercial basis in the early 1940s with
the introduction of the gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW) process followed by the
gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process.
Unlike in brazing, the arc welding
processes melt the metal under the arc,
both filler metal and base metal, followed
by solidification of the weld bead. For
this reason, most arc weld beads have a
rapidly solidified cast structure that is
comprised of both filler metal and base
metal. As the arc welding process was de-
veloped for aluminum, filler metals were
developed for welding the various types
of aluminum base metals. Unlike steel
welding, for reasons associated with weld
integrity and strength, filler metals with
significantly different chemical composi-
tions than that of the base metal are often
used when arc welding aluminum. When
arc welding with the 4043 filler metal,
particularly on the 6xxx series base met-
als, it is important to recognize that the
completed weld bead chemical composi-
tion, resultant weld integrity, and me-
chanical properties are dependent on the
mixture of the base and filler metals in
the weld bead.
(tony.anderson@millerwelds.com) is
director of Aluminum Technology, ITW
Welding North America, Appleton, Wis.
A new aluminum filler metal for wrought
commercial applications offers higher strength
A New Development in Aluminum
Welding Wire: Alloy 4943
Table 1 Two Early Silicon-Based Brazing Alloys
AWS/ASTM Aluminum Association %Si %Mg Melting Range
Class Designation Range Max. F
BAlSi-1 4043 4.56.0 0.05 10701165
BAlSi-4 4047 11.513.0 0.10 10701080
How base metal and filler metal
chemical compositions combine and in-
fluence weld strength when using 4043
filler metal.
The strength of a weld made with filler
metal 4043, which has no other strength-
ening additives other than silicon, is often
dependent on dilution with the base
metal. Weld beads (that are a mixture of
filler metal and base metal) can acquire
small amounts of magnesium from the
6xxx series base metals. The addition of
magnesium to the 4043 filler metal, ob-
tained from dilution of the base metal,
combines with the silicon in the 4043 and
produces magnesium-silicide (Mg
Si), an
effective strengthening precipitate. One
problem associated with this method of
weld bead strengthening is its unpre-
dictability. When arc welding the 6xxx se-
ries aluminum base metals with the 4043
silicon-based filler metal, there are many
situations in which the dilution ratio be-
tween base metal and filler metal can
fluctuate and influence the strength of
the completed weld. The probability of
producing weld metal with consistent me-
chanical properties is further diminished
when we consider the variations in base
metal/weld metal dilution ratios associ-
ated with various weld joint designs,
welding procedures used, and material
thicknesses welded.
There are situations where it becomes
difficult to ensure dilution from a base
metal in order to modify the filler metal
chemistry and improve the strength of
the deposited weld. Two very good exam-
ples of these types of applications are
when welding thick or thin base material.
When welding thick material, it is possi-
ble to produce a section within a multi-
pass weld that is significantly removed
from the base metal material so that lit-
tle, if any, base metal chemistry is trans-
ferred into the weld filler metal. When
welding thin material, it is often neces-
sary to design welding procedures to pro-
vide absolute minimum penetration into
the base metal in an attempt to prevent
melt-through and distortion problems.
In both cases, we would expect to see
weld beads comprised of large amounts
of filler metal and very little base metal
dilution, with corresponding reductions
in strength.
Most filler metal alloys contain all the
alloying elements necessary to meet the
physical and mechanical property re-
quirements of a base metal and filler
metal combination without the need for
base metal chemistry dilution. AWS
A5.10/A5.10M:2012, Welding Consum-
ables Wire Electrodes, Wires and Rods
for Welding of Aluminum and Aluminum-
Alloys Classification, lists all filler
metal classifications for both aluminum
GMAW and GTAW joining methods. All
of the listed filler metal alloys have been
specifically developed for arc welding ex-
cept Alloys 4043, 4047, and 4145. These
three filler metals were originally devel-
oped as brazing alloys.
One development related to this dilu-
tion phenomenon was the introduction
of filler Alloy 4643 in the early 1960s.
Alloy 4643 was introduced to address the
specific challenge of obtaining sufficient
dilution from base Alloy 6061 and to
meet mechanical property requirements
when using filler Alloy 4043 in the post-
weld heat-treated and aged condition.
Alloy 4643 was designed by Alcoa to be
a blend of 80% 4043 and 20% 6061 chem-
istry in the filler metal. However, filler
metal 4643 still requires some dilution
from the base alloy (approximately 20%)
for postweld heat-treat and aging appli-
cations in order to obtain optimum me-
chanical properties.
Filler metal 4643, as compared to
4043, has reduced silicon content, which
increases the hot cracking sensitivity,
lowers the fluidity of the molten metal
and the ability for bead contour control
that can significantly impact the strength
and fatigue life of the weld. Also, lower
free-silicon content negatively impacts
strength. As a result, 4643 properties can
typically only achieve 90% of the base
metal 6061-T6 properties when in
the postweld heat-treated and aged
Development of
Filler Metal 4943
Filler metal 4943 has been developed
specifically for arc welding processes and
to be used for welding wrought aluminum
base alloys. It was developed with the ob-
jective of providing a consistently higher
tensile, yield, and shear strength alterna-
tive to 4043 and 4643 while maintaining
the same proven welding characteristics
of 4043. The 4043 filler metal is a popu-
lar aluminum/silicon filler alloy for gen-
eral-purpose welding applications. How-
ever, it has lower strength when com-
pared to the 5xxx series filler metals, and
can show significant variability in
strength based on welding conditions and
the level of base metal dilution obtained
during welding, as described previously.
The 4943 filler metal has been formu-
lated to be welded with similar weld pro-
cedure specifications as 4043, provide im-
proved strength, and address variability
in strength issues associated with 4043.
While improving weld strength, 4943 will
also maintain the same excellent corro-
Effect of Porosity on Tensile Strength
Fig. 1 Effect of porosity on tensile strength. The effect of
porosity on the tensile strength of welds made with 4043 and
4943 filler metal in comparison with the design allowable
limit for 6061-T6 base (24 ksi) is shown.
sion characteristics, low melting temper-
ature, low shrinkage rate, higher fluidity,
and low hot-cracking sensitivity as the
4043 filler metal, and also exhibit low
welding smut and discoloration. In addi-
tion to consistently higher as-welded
strength, the new 4943 filler metal is also
heat treatable and has demonstrated its
improved strength characteristics in the
postweld solution heat-treated and arti-
ficially aged condition when compared
to the currently used heat-treatable filler
Alloy 4643 (which has been generally
employed for welding the 6xxx series
base materials that are postweld heat-
Strength Benefits
Groove Welds
In complete-joint-penetration groove
weld applications, the as-welded strength
of 4043 without dilution is typically ade-
quate to support the 24 ksi minimum
transverse tensile strength requirement
of 6061-T6, which is set as a result of the
depleted strength of the base material
heat-affected zone (HAZ). However, the
lower strength weld produced by 4043
leaves less room for discontinuities
(porosity, for example) in a weld before
the weld drops to below the acceptance
strength level Fig. 1. Although 4943
will provide improved strength in groove
welds, this is not its principal intended
benefit. The principal benefit of 4943 is
to provide higher-strength fillet welds.
Fillet Weld Strength
The most important benefit of 4943 is
to provide consistently higher-strength
fillet welds. There are far more fillet
welds than groove welds used in struc-
tural welded components; of all alu-
minum welds in industry, approximately
80% are fillet welds. Fillet welds, by de-
sign, are partial penetration joints that
are assumed to have minimal base metal
dilution. Unlike complete-joint-penetra-
tion groove weld transverse tensile
strength, which is controlled by the base
metal HAZ, fillet weld shear strength is
directly controlled by the strength of the
filler metal used during welding.
Tests comparing 4043 to 4943 have
shown 4943 to have an ultimate tensile
strength that is conservatively 20%
higher than 4043. One potential benefit
of this increase in weld strength may be
the opportunity for a manufacturer to de-
crease the size of fillet welds while main-
taining the same strength. This may pro-
vide potential savings to a manufacturer
from the reduced amount of weld wire
needed to be purchased for a project, and
also, in the labor cost that could be re-
duced from the time saved by making
smaller welds (increased productivity).
One other side benefit to smaller welds,
which is often important, is reduced dis-
tortion. With the increased strength of
4943 over 4043, it is quite plausible to
consider a one-pass fillet weld made with
4943 having the same strength as a three-
pass weld made with 4043. Figure 2 shows
the relative shear strengths of 4043, 4643,
4943, and 5356.
As-Welded, Postweld Aged,
and Postweld Heat-Treated
and Aged Properties
Alloy 4943 has been evaluated along-
side Alloys 4043 and 4643. The evalua-
tion was performed using various weld
joint designs welded in accordance with
AWS D1.2, Structural Welding Code
Aluminum. Tensile test specimens were
taken in the longitudinal direction in the
all-weld-metal region, and were tensile
tested per ASTM B557. A number of
tests were performed using fairly wide
joints with Alloy 1100 base plates to pre-
vent any favorable base metal dilution.
JULY 2013 34
Shear Strength 4943
Fig. 2 Filler metal shear strength comparison chart shows the po-
sitioning of 4943 filler metal based on fillet weld shear strength.
Fig. 3 All-weld-metal/all-filler-metal
longitudinal tensile strength of 4043,
4643, and 4943 in the as-welded, post-
weld artificially aged, and solution heat-
treated and artificially aged to -t6 temper.
This is important so as to recreate the
little to no dilution conditions obtained
on many thick welds, on very thin joints
where heat input has to be limited, and,
more frequently, on fillet welds in the
field. Figure 3 summarizes the results.
Note: The data in Fig. 3 represent a
25% gain observed on ultimate tensile
strength and a 50% gain on tensile yield
strength for 4943 over 4043 in the as-
welded condition. All welds were com-
pleted using the same welding procedure
and with the GMAW process. Consider-
ation should be given to the fact that 28
ksi tensile strength for an all-weld-metal
4043 test is achieved in these samples
tested using the GMAW process with a
reasonably low heat input. Any substan-
tial increase in heat input and associated
slow cooling rate, such as with GTAW,
may have the potential to reduce the 4043
weld metal tensile strength to below the
minimum design allowable strength.
How the Filler Metal
Provides Higher Strength
Alloy Design
The 4943 alloy was designed around
two principal ideas. The first was the ad-
dition of a strengthening element in
this case magnesium, which combines
with the available silicon in the filler
metal to form Mg
Si, an effective
strengthening phase as demonstrated in
6XXX series alloys. The range of the
magnesium addition was set at 0.1 to
0.5% to achieve a specific amount of
Si precipitation while staying away
from the crack sensitivity peak.
The second idea was to adjust the 4943
silicon range to 5.06.0% to ensure the
level of free silicon is maintained at the
same level as 4043, typically 4.56.0%,
knowing that up to 0.5% silicon will pre-
cipitate as Mg
Si phase. Keeping the
amount of free silicon to the level of 4043
is essential in maintaining fluidity char-
acteristics and resistance to hot cracking
during solidification. This also has a ben-
eficial effect on strength and allows de-
signing for fracture toughness and fa-
tigue performance similar to Alloy 4043
with higher fatigue strength proportional
to the increase in tensile strength.
Metallurgy of Aluminum-
Silicon Alloys
Silicon is one of the most common al-
loying elements in commercial alu-
minum. Silicons benefits of increasing
fluidity, reducing solidification tempera-
ture and solid-state shrinkage, reducing
welding distortion, strengthening, wear
resistance, etc., are taken advantage of
in many markets and applications such
as castings, wrought products, and weld-
ing rods and electrodes.
The effect of the silicon on strength
is significant. A small percentage of the
silicon addition contributes to strength
via solid-solution strengthening and a
small percentage via silicon-phase pre-
cipitation, but most of the strengthening
comes from the rather large hard and
brittle silicon particles. The strength of
the alloy is proportional to the silicon
content up to a range of 12 to 14% (de-
pendent on the silicon constituent mor-
phology), up to a point where the mor-
phology and distribution of silicon
precipitates offsets the effect of more
Currently, the main Al-Si filler metal
in terms of volume usage is 4043, with a
range of 4.56.0% silicon. This alloy of-
fers very good resistance to hot cracking
while maintaining practical levels of frac-
ture toughness, fatigue, strength, and
ease of manufacturing. The hot cracking
performance is a result of the alloys high
fluidity, lower melting temperature, and
reduced shrinkage rate obtained from
the silicon content. It is easy to weld with
and produces smooth, great looking
Alloy 4047 is the second most com-
monly used 4xxx series filler metal, with
12% silicon. The increased fluidity of
4047 makes it suitable for applications
requiring superior leak proofing, such as
heat exchangers. The improved fluidity
comes at a cost, as fracture toughness and
ductility are negatively impacted by the
higher silicon content. Alloys with sili-
con content greater than 12% are com-
mon in the foundry industry but not in
the wrought or weld wire product forms
as the very high silicon content makes
these alloys extremely difficult for hot or
cold working.
Alloys 4643 (developed in the 1960s
by Alcoa) and 4943 (recently developed
by Maxal-Hobart/ITW) take advantage
of magnesium additions to increase the
strength of the soft matrix, in addition to
all of the above strengthening means
from the silicon. The magnesium com-
bines with the free silicon to precipitate
as Mg
Si. The Mg
Si precipitates are very
effective at strengthening the matrix.
Alloy 4043 takes advantage of this to a
lesser extent when it is welded to a base
metal that contains magnesium, as some
magnesium from the base metal is diluted
into the fusion zone. In this case, the
welding practice and the type of weld
have a significant impact on the amount
of dilution. Alloy 4043 fillet welds and
very thin/thick welds are especially sus-
ceptible to variations in the degree of di-
lution, resulting in variations in weld
strength. The smaller strength variation
for 4943 is because the magnesium is al-
ready in the alloy and not dependent
solely on base metal dilution diffusion.
Intended Use
Filler metal 4943 is suitable for all ap-
plications currently using Alloys 4043 or
4643. These applications typically use
1xxx, 3xxx, and 5xxx alloys with less than
2.5% magnesium (such as 5052), and 6xxx
series base metals. Filler metal 4943 may
be useful for applications such as auto-
motive and motorcycle frames, wheels,
ship decks, pleasure boats, bicycles,
scooters, 356 casting repair, and high end
The 4943 filler metal has demon-
strated higher weld strength than Alloys
4043 and 4643 in the as-welded, postweld
aged, or postweld solution heat-treated
Although 4943 will provide
improved strength in groove
welds... the principal benefit
is to provide higher-strength
fillet welds.
and artificially aged conditions. The 4943
filler metal will exceed the strength of
6061-T6 base metal upon postweld heat
treatment and aging.
Aluminum-silicon alloys of the 4xxx
series are widely used in GMAW and
GTAW because of their excellent weld-
ing characteristics, fluidity, reduced
shrinkage distortion, and resistance to
hot cracking. The moderate and variable
strength of 4043 can be improved via
magnesium additions to the filler alloy
itself, and this was achieved to some ex-
tent with Alloy 4643. The magnesium ad-
dition was optimized with a silicon addi-
tion in Alloy 4943 for improved charac-
teristics relating to strength, fluidity,
shrinkage, and hot cracking resistance.
Tests have shown that when using filler
metal 4043 for complete-joint-penetra-
tion groove welds, we can come very close
to the minimum design strength allow-
able for 6061 base metal and that this
concern becomes far less significant if we
use the higher strength 4943 filler metal.
However, the principal advantage of
the 4943 filler metal over 4043 would ap-
pear to be when used for fillet welds. In
the fillet weld application, there is a dis-
tinct opportunity for improving weld
strength, reducing welding costs, and im-
proving productivity. Welds made using
the new filler metal 4943 can exhibit sub-
stantial improvements in strength when
compared with 4043 and/or 4643 filler
metals in both the as-welded and post-
weld heat-treated conditions.
The author would like to thank
Matthew Stephens, mechanical engineer,
Goddard Space Flight Center, for pro-
viding test results and feedback of com-
parison tests for the 4943 filler metal
used on the James Webb Space Telescope
Project; and the following contributors
from Maxal International: Bruce Ander-
son, research and development consult-
ant, for the design and development of
4943 filler metal and all the technical sup-
port during the extensive testing pro-
gram; Patrick Berube, QA manager/met-
allurgical engineer, for designing test
programs, technical support, and prepar-
ing test data; and Galen White, senior
welding engineer, for producing and test-
ing many weld samples during many
months of extensive testing of the 4943
filler metal.
JULY 2013 36
NASA Chooses Filler Metal 4943 for the
James Webb Space Telescope Project
During development and testing of this new filler metal, a number of aluminum
fabricators evaluated its performance, but perhaps the most interesting and com-
prehensive series of tests was conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center for the
James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project.
The James Webb Space Telescope will be the scientific successor to Hubble; its
science goals were motivated by results from Hubble. The telescope, scheduled for
launch in 2018, will go beyond what Hubble has already done by looking at light
with longer wavelengths (infrared). This ability will allow it to see light from more
distant objects whose visible light is degraded over the vast distance of space from
ultraviolet and optical into near-infrared. To optically see these vast distances a
larger mirror is required. The JWST primary mirror is 6.5 m wide, which is about
seven times the collecting area of Hubbles 2.4-m-wide primary mirror Fig. 4.
To support such a large mirror, JWST itself is a massive engineering feat. This
project includes a sun shield almost as big as a Boeing 737 to protect the heat-sensi-
tive telescope from our own suns radiation.
The science that JWST will explore goes farther and deeper into our knowledge
of the universe than ever before by having the capability to study the assembly galax-
ies, observe the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems, analyze the chemical prop-
erties of planetary systems including our own, and see the first bright objects that
formed in the early universe. All of these amazing capabilities will be achieved by
the telescopes cutting-edge cameras, which are called science instruments (SI). But
dont be fooled, these SI cameras are about as similar to your digital camera as a
Ferrari is to a moped. All four of the SIs are supported by a precision-optical frame
called the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). Currently, the ISIM is
being prepared for integration and testing at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center
in Greenbelt, Md. One of the multiple testing operations is known as a cryovac test
in which the functionality of the ISIM is evaluated in Goddards Space Environment
Simulator (SES) where the cryogenic temperatures (18 K or 427F) and vacuum of
space are recreated.
Developing Welding Procedures to Meet Strength
While safely supporting the ISIM during integration, performing cryovac, and
other testing was an extreme engineering challenge in itself, imposed test require-
ments, strength margins, and design envelopes demanded a strong, lightweight alu-
minum 6061 frame that was termed the SES Integration Frame (SIF) Fig. 5. Early
An artists rendering of the
James Webb Space Telescope.
(Image courtesy of NASA.)
design iterations revealed that a welded
frame was needed to achieve the weight
requirement but standard welding
strength values did not achieve the de-
sign margins needed. It was learned that
the postweld aging process used in spe-
cialized industries could achieve the
strength needed. The SIF matured as a
multirolled integration and testing frame
that would support and lift the ISIM as
well as hold needed test equipment in
close proximity around it.
An in-depth development study was
completed to determine which filler
metal (4043, 4643, or 4943) would meet
the design needs. After conducting tests
to compare the new 4943 filler metal with
4043 and 4643, the test results identified
significant improvements in strength
from the 4943 filler metal over the other
filler metals tested and also established
that the 4943 weld wire would maximize
the frames performance. The SIF fabri-
cation has been completed and is
currently in preparation for the first ISIM
cyrovac test expected to start this
Fig. 4 Size comparison between the Hubble and James Webb telescope mirrors.
(Photo courtesy of NASA.)
Fig. 5 Imposed test requirements, strength margins, and design envelopes demanded a strong, lightweight aluminum 6061 frame.
(Photo courtesy of NASA.)
JULY 2013 38
ike many others in 2008, welder
Mike Balboni became a statistic of
the recession. Laid off from work,
he applied his nearly 20 years of experi-
ence and numerous welding certifica-
tions for structural steel (SMAW), sheet
metal (GMAW), and general fabrication
(including aluminum GTAW) to accept-
ing a variety of metal fabrication proj-
ects. He often took the projects that oth-
ers wouldnt do.
His shop, Northeast Welding and
Coating Services (www.northeastwelding.
com), is located about 40 miles south of
Boston in Attleboro, Mass. His company
also provides media blasting, powder
coating, electrostatic powder spray, gal-
vanizing, and thermoplastic spraying
services. Some of his recent projects in-
clude building four 20-ft-tall solar tow-
ers for a local professional sports team
in two weeks, building a massive decora-
tive park fence project for a local munic-
ipality, hardfacing an excavator bucket,
stainless steel artwork, and construction
of a stainless steel conveyor system for a
bakery that required 80,000
gas tungsten arc welds.
Today, Balboni relies on two portable
multiprocess inverters with DC outputs
for gas tungsten arc (GTA), gas metal arc
(GMA), and shielded metal arc (SMA)
welding, as well as a portable inverter
with an advanced AC/DC GTAW output
and high-frequency (HF) arc starting ca-
TIG (GTA) welding enabled me to
grow my business, he said. This in-
cludes thin-gauge stainless steel, process
piping, and aluminum fabrication.
Whether the work is in the field, under
an emergency vehicle, or on a tuna tower,
having a GTAW inverter with advanced
capabilities lets me take on work that I
used to have to sub-out or turn away.
So that other fabricators in his posi-
tion dont have to turn away GTAW work
for lack of knowledge, Balboni recently
teamed up with Thomas Ferri, a district
manager with Victor Technologies, as
well as an AWS Certified Welding In-
Fig. 1 To prevent contamination, this
grinder is dedicated to the one pur-
pose of shaping tungsten electrodes.
How to Improve
GTAW Performance
spector (CWI) and AWS District 1 direc-
tor. The following are some of their most
important tips to improve GTA welding
performance. The applications selected
for demonstration purposes include 18-
gauge, Type 304 stainless steel, 304 stain-
less steel pipe (1
4-in. diameter, Sched-
ule 40), and
8-in. 6061 aluminum.
Tungsten Basics
Dedicated Grinder
A grinding wheel dedicated to shap-
ing tungsten electrodes is essential to
prevent contamination from other met-
als. Figure 1 shows the proper angle for
For GTA welding without the con-
cerns caused by radioactive thorium dust,
select a nonradioactive tungsten such as
ceriated, lathanated, or the new tri-mix
type. They offer similar performance, in-
cluding easy arc starting, arc stability,
long life, and similar current capacities.
For Schedule 40 pipe, Balboni selects a
32-in. tungsten; for 18-gauge stainless
steel, he selects a
16-in. tungsten.
Blunted Point
For AC welding of
8-in. aluminum
with an inverter-based power source,
Balboni selects a
32-in. ceriated tungsten
electrode and creates a blunted point. To
create a blunted point, he sharpens the
tungsten as he would for welding stain-
less or mild steel, but then puts a slight
flat spot on the end of it Fig. 2. This
provides better directional control over
the arc compared to the traditional ball
used for GTAW on AC current for weld-
ing aluminum with his previous conven-
tional AC GTA welding machine.
Gas Lens
A gas lens (Fig. 3) uses a mesh screen
to distribute the shielding gas more
evenly around the tungsten electrode, the
arc, and the weld pool. It also enables a
longer electrode extention, which helps
when welding on inside corners or other
spots with tight access.
This photo also illustrates tungsten
extention. As a general rule, the tungsten
should not extend any farther than the
measurement of the inside diameter of
the cup. For example, for the No. 8 cup
shown here, which has a
2-in. ID, the
MELISSA FRANKLIN is a brand manager
at Victor Technologies
St. Louis, Mo.
An entrepreneur became competitive by
mastering the advanced functions on GTAW
power supplies for more control over his welding
of thin steel, aluminum, and stainless steel
Fig. 2 Tungsten tip properly blunted.
JULY 2013 40
tungsten should extend no more than
in. That said, the gas lens does permit in-
creasing the extension by about 50%.
Setting Gas Flow
When it comes to shielding gas flow,
more is not better. Excessive gas flow cre-
ates a swirling venturi-like effect that can
draw in atmospheric air and contaminate
the weld. For GTAW, set the gas flow be-
tween 15 and 20 ft
/min. When welding
outdoors or in drafty areas, set up wind
baffles or even a tent if necessary, but do
not increase the gas flow beyond the rec-
ommended values.
Aluminum-Only Brush
When exposed to the atmosphere,
aluminum (melting point 1221F) imme-
diately forms aluminum oxide, which
melts at 3762F. To remove the aluminum
oxide, Balboni uses a stainless steel wire
brush dedicated to this task that is clearly
labeled Aluminum Only to prevent
cross contamination from carbon steel.
He makes sure the aluminum filler rods
are kept dry in a storage container and
not exposed to shop dust or other sources
of contamination.
Getting Started
Arc Start Options
When procedures specify a noncon-
tact, HF arc start, operators have no
choice but to use a power source with this
option. Many of todays GTA inverters
have both HF start and Lift TIG arc-
start options. With the touch method, it
is a mistake to apply the old-fashioned
scratch-start technique; scratching the
tungsten like a match poses a greater risk
of tungsten contamination.
To start the arc using Lift TIG, per-
form the following steps: Rest the back
edge of the cup on the workpiece, then
rock the cup forward and touch the tung-
sten to the workpiece. Depress the torch
switch/foot control and maintain contact
between the tungsten and the workpiece
for a one-thousand-one count to estab-
lish the circuit. Rock the cup back to cre-
Fig. 3 (Top) The screen surrounding the
tungsten electrode serves as a gas-
diffusing lens.
Fig. 4 (Bottom) Balboni carefully braces
his arms and hands prior to welding.
ate a small gap and ignite the arc. Once
the arc is established, move the torch to
the proper arc length, which is generally
the same or slightly less than the diame-
ter of the tungsten. After practicing sev-
eral starts, operators may find they no
longer need to rest the cup on the work-
Brace Yourself
Before striking an arc, get into a com-
fortable position. Brace your body, then
practice the moves required for the joint
at hand. Notice how Balboni braced his
arms on the edge of the table and his
hands close to the weldment Fig. 4.
More Tacks
On material prone to warping, such
as thin-gauge stainless steel, use addi-
tional tacks. Here, the tacks are only
about 1
2 in. apart.
One of the larger challenges when
learning to GTA weld is maintaining the
correct angle between the torch and the
workpiece (5 to 15 deg back from the di-
rection of travel) and the angle between
the torch and the filler rod (90 deg, or 15
deg off the workpiece) Fig. 5. Tilting
the torch too far back leads to poor
shielding gas coverage at the back of the
weld pool, inviting contamination. Too
steep of a filler rod angle may prema-
turely melt the filler metal. This photo
also shows the gap and bevel used to pro-
mote good penetration. Note that in a
stainless steel application, the pipe would
also be back-purged to promote weld
Head Position
In order to read the weld pool, you
have to be able to see it clearly. Position
your head to the side and/or in front of
the arc for maximum visibility Fig. 6.
A common mistake is to move the torch
when it blocks your vision, which may
then direct the energy of the arc at the
wrong spot on the joint.
Adding Filler Metal
Do not use the heat of the arc to di-
rectly melt the filler metal. It will form a
ball on the end of the rod, drop into the
molten weld pool with a splash, and re-
duce pool control. The preferred tech-
nique is to touch the end of the filler rod
to the leading edge of the molten pool.
The heat of the pool will melt the rod,
and capillary action will pull it into the
weld pool/joint. When moving forward,
move the torch and filler rod in harmony,
being sure to keep the end of the rod in-
side the flow of the shielding gas to pre-
vent contamination.
Advanced Settings
Counting Cadence
Just like the military counts cadence
to teach new soldiers how to march in
step, beginners can use the pulsing con-
trol functions of an advanced GTAW in-
verter to develop a rhythm for adding
filler rod and moving forward. Generally,
1 pulse/s is a good place to start. Dab the
filler metal during the pulse of peak cur-
rent and slide the torch and filler rod for-
ward during the background current.
Fig. 5 Tungsten arc welding a pipe joint.
Pulse to Reduce Heat
Stainless steel, thin-gauge metal, and
out-of-position GTA welds all benefit
from pulsed GTAW. It can reduce heat
input by 30% while maintaining good
penetration. Here are some general
guidelines for setting pulsing parameters:
Peak current: Use the traditional rule
of thumb: 1 A for every 0.001 in. of thick-
ness, increase the current as necessary to
achieve good penetration. When using a
foot control, add 20% more amperage to
provide wiggle room at the top end.
Pulse width (technically percentage
of time at peak amperage): Between 40
and 65% works well in most applications,
using less time on thinner metals.
Pulse frequency: Start at 100 pulses/s
and adjust upward from there without
changing any other pulsing variables.
Higher frequencies increase penetration
and narrow the bead width without in-
creasing total heat input. Many applica-
tions benefit from a frequency of 200
Background current: Start at about
one-third of the peak current, adjusting
upward to perhaps 45 or 50%, if needed.
Adjusting for Aluminum
Increasing AC frequency has the same
effect as increasing pulse frequency; it
narrows and concentrates the arc cone
to create a narrower bead and deeper
penetration while increasing travel
Following are general guidelines for
setting advanced AC controls for GTAW
of aluminum.
Current: Set as normal, using slightly
more current for fillet welds than for
butt-joint welds.
Frequency: Thinner materials and fil-
let welds generally benefit from a fre-
quency of 80 to 150 Hz. For butt-joint
welds and outside corners where a wider
arc cone will help catch both plates, start
with a frequency of 80 Hz.
Set the wave balance control, or per-
centage of electrode positive (which pro-
vides cleaning action to remove oxides)
to electrode negative (which provides
penetration): 30% cleaning action is a
good starting point. Black, pepper-like
flakes in the weld may be an indication
of oxidized aluminum and may require
JULY 2013 42
Fig. 6 Head position is critical for a clear view of the weld pool.
more cleaning. Before starting to weld
aluminum, its worth the time to clean it
with a stainless steel wire brush or a sol-
vent cleaner specifically used on alu-
After striking the arc, wait until the
weld pool becomes shiny before begin-
ning to add filler metal and moving for-
ward. The shiny surface indicates the alu-
minum oxides have been removed.
Understanding 4T
Everyone understands the 2T (nor-
mal) GTAW controls. If bulletin board
chatter is any indication, there is some
confusion about 4T, or latch control,
that operators use to reduce hand fatigue
on long welds, or for repeatability. When
using 4T, the power source goes through
these steps:
Press and hold trigger: Gas preflow,
arc initiation, and establishment of ini-
tial current.
Release trigger: Current upslope (a
measure of time) to the base current.
This will be the welding current set for
regular welding or the background cur-
rent for pulsed welding (upon which the
power source will automatically enter the
pulse mode).
Press and hold trigger: Current down-
slope (a measure of time) to the crater
current. Ramping down the current helps
prevent the formation of a crater that
could promote cracking.
Release trigger: Arc terminated, gas
postflow initiated.
Hold Steady
After breaking arc, hold the torch and
filler rod in position so that the shield-
ing gas postflow can do its job of protect-
ing the weld, the filler metal, and extend-
ing electrode life. For this stainless ap-
plication, as well as aluminum of similar
thickness (
8 in. and greater), set postflow
duration between 11 and 13 s. Thicker
metals will require more time.
More Control
Advanced GTAW power sources, like
smartphones, are full of useful functions
that many people fail to use Fig. 7.
Balboni was not one of those people.
It takes a little time to learn the con-
trols, but the setup is pretty intuitive once
you dive into it, he said. Since I started
using the advanced GTAW functions, I
hardly ever GTA weld thin steel, stain-
less steel, or aluminum using standard
technology. The advanced functions give
me that much more control over the weld
Editors note: Two weeks after the inter-
view for this story, Mike Balboni died in
a motorcycle accident. At the request of
his family, this article is presented in its
original version so his story of building
Northeast Welding and Coating Services
may inspire others to overcome adver-
sity, pursue their dreams, and start a
welding business of their own.
After being laid off, Balboni was just
one guy working out of the back of his
Jeep. With hard work, he eventually grew
his business into a 2000-sq-ft shop that
created jobs for others as well.
His boundless energy helped him
meet demanding deadlines, and he drew
upon the many skills he acquired as a
Navy aircraft mechanic with certifica-
tions in electrical, pumps, mechanics,
and safety. In short, if it had hydraulics,
wheels, wiring, or needed welding, Mike
could fix it.
He started shop in an old barn, gain-
ing welding skills from a brother-in-law
who passed on many valuable lessons
and helped him handle the tougher jobs.
Even during the depths of the reces-
sion, he grew his customer base by never
turning down work. No job was too small
or too large, and he always offered a rea-
sonable price and excellent service. We
dont wait for someone else to solve our
problems, Balboni said during the inter-
views for this article, and Im not going
to let this economy knock me down. Well
figure out a way and get the job done.
Fig. 7 Setting the frequency on a typical inverter power supply control panel.
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JULY 2013 44
ride of the Hills Manufacturing, Big
Prairie, Ohio, is largely sustained
by what is stored thousands of feet
beneath those hills: shale gas.
Set in the heart of Marcellus and
Utica Shale country, the company has
grown with the regions shale gas produc-
tion boom. As a manufacturer of oil and
gas production equipment, it has grown
and evolved with increased production
levels, locally and nationwide Fig. 1.
There was once a time when a good
well in the area produced 100,000 ft
natural gas per day. A great shale well
now produces 60 million ft
per day.
Pride of the Hills has responded, moving
from smaller, low-pressure equipment to
the larger, higher-pressure systems it now
takes to operate a shale gas well.
With increased production comes an
expedited demand for Pride of the Hills
products: production equipment that sits
at the well head, separates the oil, gas,
and water, and turns them into salable
products. These systems are complicated
networks of pressure vessels and high-
pressure piping. As the company looked
An oil and gas production equipment manufacturer
uses the process to expedite schedules
Induction Heating for
Stress Relieving
Shortens Lead Times
JOE RYAN is a market segment
manager for process pipe welding
with Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
Appleton, Wis.
Fig. 1 As a manufacturer of oil and
gas production equipment (like the nat-
ural gas separator shown here), Pride of
the Hills has grown and evolved with in-
creased production levels, locally and
for new ways to shorten product lead
times, one focus became the stress reliev-
ing process for large pressure vessels.
The current practice involved shipping
the vessels 2 h away to an oven in Cleve-
land. This added significant time chal-
lenges, scheduling, and hard costs asso-
ciated with trucking.
In searching for new ways to conduct
stress relieving, Pride of the Hills was in-
troduced to induction heating, a process
that generates heat electromagnetically
in the part Fig. 2. The company was
able to take several days out of total
product development and limit these
challenges by bringing the process in
house all while taking up a relatively
small footprint in its manufacturing
Managing High
The gas stream comes out of a shale
gas well at between 3000 and 6000 lb of
pressure. The stream then passes through
a sand separator rated between 5000 and
6000 lb, allowing the solids to settle out
of the oil, water, and gas stream. That
stream is then depressurized, which
causes rapid cooling, dropping the tem-
perature by as much as 150 deg. The
stream is then reheated and brought back
through the separator, removing the flu-
ids and sending the natural gas down the
Pride of the Hills also designs systems
that can take the bulk liquid remains
and turn the oil into a stable, salable
Our challenges are that were deal-
ing with high pressures, high volumes of
dirty product that we have to clean, reg-
ulate, produce safely, monitor, and put
down into a sales line into a place where
it can be used for your home or my fac-
tory or trucked off someplace, said Curt
Murray Jr., vice president of Pride of the
Hills Manufacturing and president/
founder of Grace Automation.
Adhering to Regulations
Pride of the Hills products are exten-
sively regulated due to the volatility of
the oil and gas extraction process. Piping
is typically constructed of an A/SA106
Grade B or C carbon steel, while pres-
sure vessels are typically built of SA516
Grade 70 material. The companys work
is regulated under numerous codes from
the American Petroleum Institute (API);
B31.3 along with Section VIII Division 1
of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME); as well as the strict
requirements of each customer.
Welding the Pressure Vessel
A key component of the systems it
manufactures is the sand separator,
which is a pressure vessel that ranges in
thickness from 1
2 to 4 in., depending on
the model. The vessel is welded with a
root pass and two hot passes. This is done
to build up the root with enough mate-
rial to support a submerged arc, or sub-
arc, welding process that completes the
rest of the joint. The subarc process takes
approximately 8 h, as a dual-headed sys-
tem welds both heads simultaneously.
Stress Relieving with
Induction Heating Cuts
out the Middleman
Under the guidelines of ASME Sec-
tion VIII Division 1, any pressure vessel
exceeding 1
2 in. in thickness is required
to undergo postweld stress relief. De-
pending on the vessels thickness, this
typically involves ramping up its temper-
ature to approximately 1150F.
When were putting four inches of
weld (into a very large gap), that puts a
lot of stresses into the weld, which puts
undue stress on the material, said Mur-
ray. So were going up to 1150 degrees,
which allows for stress relieving. Were
not baking anything out or going high
enough in temperature to change grain
structure. Were just relieving stresses
that were put into the part.
Our choices were to ship that prod-
uct out to a third party that has an oven
able to do the work, said Murray. In
Northern Ohio, there are only a couple
of places that have the ability to do that.
One of the first things we started look-
ing at was just how can we do this process
in house?
Implementing the Process
The company began looking at ovens
of their own, until they were introduced
to the Miller ProHeat 35 induction
heating system. With an induction heat-
ing system, heat is created electromag-
netically in the part by placing it in an al-
ternating magnetic field created by liq-
uid-cooled induction heating cables. The
induction cables are wrapped around the
part, or on the part, and do not heat up
themselves, but create eddy currents in-
side the part that generate heat.
Were able to basically pinpoint the
heat where its needed and not waste en-
ergy heating the rest of the vessel, said
Murray. These vessels weigh anywhere
from 5000 up to 10,000 pounds. The oven
technology forces us to heat the whole
vessel where the induction heating prod-
uct can just pinpoint that to those
areas. So we decided to buy the
product, bring it in, and start im-
plementing it. It saved us a tremen-
dous amount of time in just truck-
ing and handling the product.
He added the biggest thing is
having control over their own prod-
uct and the process doing the stress
With the recorder on it and the
way we set upits particularly easy
to meet the ASME code require-
ments. Its been a big advantage,
said Murray.
Induction heating gives Pride of
the Hills control to ramp up the
temperature as fast or as slow as
dictated by the code. Similarly,
after spending the prescribed
amount of time at its soak temper-
ature, the system can ramp down
the temperature to code require-
ments. This overall process can last
5 to 12 h, depending on the thick-
ness of the vessel.
Having that control, and being
able to document the entire process
through a digital recorder, is im-
portant to the quality control
process and, ultimately, in docu-
menting to the customer that the
part was fabricated properly.
Our quality control depart-
ment looks at it and then our au-
thorized inspector looks at it, and
then as on all of our equipment
we send our customer an as-built
document (that includes these
data), said Murray.
Ending Thoughts
While quality is paramount, the
ability to do it all in house and not
rely on third-party vendors has
helped to noticeably shorten lead
Aside from the 6 h of trucking
and handling previously associated
with getting a vessel to the oven,
Murray also took into account the
labor, diesel fuel, truck wear and
tear, and being at the mercy of the
oven owners schedule, which could
add considerable downtime to the
All together, it added up to a
smart change.
We were literally able to cut at
least a couple of days (out of the
process), concluded Murray.
JULY 2013 46
Fig. 2 Pride of the Hills was able to take numerous days out of total product development,
while taking up a relatively small footprint in its manufacturing facility, by using induction
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JULY 2013 48
n the past few decades, interest in
deepwater oil and gas exploration has
received increased attention. China
intends to explore resources in the South
China Sea, and in order to lay oil and gas
pipelines, a variety of high-quality and ef-
ficient welding technologies have been
developed that use the gas metal arc
welding (GMAW) process, which is cur-
rently widely used in industrial applica-
tions (Ref. 1). Besides pipeline laying, au-
tomated welding also can be applied in
some other offshore operations, such as
the J-type laying in the welding installa-
tion of steel catenary risers (SCR)
(Ref. 2).
Semiautomatic welding technology
was introduced to China in laying sub-
sea pipelines in the 1990s. Gradually,
more advanced welding technologies
were used in offshore industries (Ref. 3).
As part of a major research program sup-
ported by the Chinese government, sub-
sea pipeline welding was investigated
(Refs. 4, 5). In this study, automatic weld-
ing equipment used in deepwater
pipeline laying was manufactured, a se-
ries of girth welds, which satisfy require-
ments of API STD 1104, were produced,
and a sea trial was successfully carried
Development of
Automatic Welding
General Design of Automatic
Welding Equipment
For subsea S-type pipeline laying, sev-
eral welding stations are distributed
along the main laying line to complete
the root pass, fill passes, and cap pass se-
quentially. As shown in Fig. 1, each weld-
ing station is comprised of two automatic
welding machines with dual welding
guns. Two welding vehicles were
arranged on both sides of the pipe, in-
stalled on the same rail, and moved from
the top of the pipe to the bottom, each
of which finished welding a half segment,
The automatic welding vehicle de-
picted in Fig. 2 has two torches with a
space of about 50 mm. Two weld pools
are formed during the welding process.
Compared to single gun welding, double
gun welding can significantly increase the
metal deposition rate.
Automatic Welding Vehicle
The welding vehicle is comprised of
mechanisms locking travel, torch oscilla-
tion, and welding torch height adjust-
ment; a chassis; and torch components.
Different from pipelines on land, sub-
A system that utilized two automated carriages
and two guns was used for gas metal arc
welding pipe to API standards
JIAO XIANG-DONG, ZHOU CAN-FENG (canfeng@bipt.edu.cn), CHEN JIA-QING, and JI WENG-GANG are with Beijing Higher Institution
Engineering Research Center of Energy Engineering Advanced Joining Technology, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing, China.
LI ZHI-GANG, ZHAO DONG-YAN, and CAO JUN are with Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China.
This article is reprinted with permission from Modern Welding, published by Chengdu ONLY Welding Industry Development Co. Ltd., Chengdu,
Sichuan Province, China.
Fig. 1 Schematics of equipment for
each welding station.
Fig. 2 The automatic welding vehicle.
Automated Welding Applied
in Deep-Water Pipelines
Welding Vehicle
Circular Guide
sea pipelines have a thick concrete to in-
crease weight in the water. To ensure the
efficiency and control the cost of laying
the pipeline, the length of pipe end where
the concrete is removed must be strictly
controlled. Thus, the size of the welding
vehicle is limited to 370 mm (length)
285 mm (width) 175 mm (height). The
weight of the vehicle is also controlled to
less than 16 kg, which can reduce physi-
cal labor during the pipeline laying.
Control System Design
The block diagram of the automated
welding control system is illustrated in
Fig. 3. An industrial PC is used as the
main controller of the system. All con-
nections between the main controller and
peripheral devices, such as drive motors
for vehicle propulsion and welding power
source, are realized via CAN bus, which
can transfer data from the welding equip-
ment to a supervisory computer through
the Ethernet network.
Compared to most automatic welding
control systems designed on I/O, this con-
trol system has several advantages as
1) Synchronization of two travel servo
motors. To save space for the welding ve-
hicle, two small servo motors were se-
lected to replace a big servo motor to
drive the vehicle on a round rail. The syn-
chronization of the two motors was
achieved through a synchronizing con-
trol program.
2) Vehicle computation. Four drives
with high intelligence are integrated into
the vehicle to propel four servo motors
required by welding
movements. The integra-
tion of drive and motor
reduced the number of
connection cables in the
system. A tilt sensor in-
stalled on the vehicle
captured the welding po-
sition of the vehicle on
the rail, and transfered
welding position data to
the drive directly. The in-
telligent drive can finish
computation independ-
ently and transfer com-
putation results to the
main controller via the
CAN bus. The main con-
troller sends commands
to the welding power
source, which can adap-
tively adjust the welding
current according to
welding position.
3) CAN-open bus technology. The con-
trol system utilizes a CAN-open bus,
which reduces the connection cables and
increases the expansibility of the weld-
ing system.
Welding Process
General Scheme for
Welding Efficiency
The basic requirement of welding in
subsea pipeline laying is that the effi-
ciency be as high as possible to ensure
weld quality.
The use of two welding vehicles and
two welding guns for root, fill, and cover
passes increases welding efficiency. A set
of copper liners is specifically designed
to integrate with the internal clamp,
which gives backing support during root
welding, and allows a high current
needed for complete joint penetration to
be selected. The high current for the root
pass also improves metal deposition. A
narrow groove with the bevel angle of 45
deg is machined to replace the traditional
V-groove, which reduces weld metal
for the fill passes, increasing production
Automatic Girth Welding of
Subsea Pipeline
The test pipes were API 5L X65 seam-
less steel pipes with an outside diameter
of 323.9 mm, wall thickness of 12.7 mm,
4 deg groove angle, root face of 2 mm,
and no joint clearance between the two
ends. The welding wire selected was AWS
A5.18 ER70S-6 with a diameter of 1.0
mm. The shielding gas was a mix of CO
50% + Ar 50%.
The internal clamp was used to align
the two pipe ends, which controlled align-
ment within tolerance. The groove and
nearby areas were preheated by induc-
tion heating before the welding process
began. Each dual gun vehicle welded a
half segment of the pipe, and a completed
joint weld was made up of one root pass,
two fill passes, and one cap pass.
The TPS4000 welding power source
has a control where if the wire feed speed
is set, then the welding current and weld-
ing voltage are automatically matched.
Half of the circumference of the pipe is
divided into 12 segments on average from
top to bottom. Adaptive welding param-
eters are set at different segments of the
Welding parameters consist of weld-
ing speed, wire feed speed, and welding
gun oscillation. For example, the weld-
ing speed for the root was 109113
cm/min, the wire feed speed for the first
welding gun was 11.813 m/min, and the
wire feed speed for the second welding
gun was 1011.2 m/min. The welding gun
oscillating speed was 80110 cm/min,
with a width of 1.6 mm, and the dwelling
time on both sides was 0.1 s.
Performance of the Pipe
Girth Welds
The pipe girth welds satisfied the re-
quirements of API STD 1104-2005,
which includes visual, ultrasonic, and me-
chanical testing. The weld tensile
strength was 550570 N/mm
. After sur-
face bending, lateral bending, and root
bending, the weld surfaces showed no vis-
ible defects. The average impact energy
was 150376 J at 20C.
Fig. 3 The block diagram of an automatic welding
equipment control system.
Fig. 4 The sea trial ship BH108.
JULY 2013 50
Test at the Construction Site
before Sea Trials
The automatic welding equipment
was tested at the fabricating facility of
Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd.,
before the sea trial was carried out. The
pipe girth welds passed the ultrasound
examination successfully.
Environment of Sea Trial
The sea trial for the automatic weld-
ing equipment was conducted at Tanggu,
Bohai Bay, with coordinates of 38 deg 59
min latitude and 117 deg 43 min longi-
tude. The wind was coming from the NW
at a speed of 8 m/s. The automatic weld-
ing equipment was arranged in a tempo-
rary work shed on the sea trial ship
BH108 Fig. 4. The ship was anchored
in water at a depth of 5 m, with a flow ve-
locity of 17 cm/s, and temperature
of 6C.
The Process for the
Sea Trials
The welding sea trials were carried out
according to the plan. Four girth welds
were produced and tested successfully by
ultrasonic inspection Figs. 5, 6.
In this investigation, automatic
pipeline welding equipment was manu-
factured and welding parameters were
developed. Several conclusions are
drawn as follows:
1) The two vehicle, two gun technol-
ogy utilized in the welding workstation
significantly reduces the cost of offshore
welding operations.
2) The welding vehicle was compact
and light weight, which helps meet spe-
cial requirements for subsea pipeline
3) Several advanced technologies
were adopted in the control system of the
automatic welding equipment, such as
synchronization of two traveling motors,
vehicle computation, and all-position
4) The control system was designed
based on CAN-bus technology, which not
only reduces the connection cables, but
also makes the welding system more
5) Copper liners for the root welding
ensured good weld backing and a high
welding efficiency.
6) A specially designed narrow groove
improved welding efficiency and reduced
the amount of weld metal needed.
7) The joint was completed with a root
pass, two fill passes, and one cap pass.
Welding parameters were set depending
on the different positions of the welding
vehicle, which were measured by a tilt
sensor installed on the vehicle.
8) Pipe girth welds produced by the
dual vehicle, dual welding gun equipment
met all requirements of API STD 1104-
2005, such as visual, ultrasonic, and me-
chanical performance testing.
9) After the experiment in the labo-
ratory and before the sea trial, the auto-
matic welding equipment was tested suc-
cessfully in a fabricating plant.
10) The welding sea trials were suc-
cessfully carried out in the China Sea,
and all girth welds were tested by ultra-
sonic inspection.
1. Yapp, D., and Blackman, S. A. 2004.
Recent developments in high productiv-
ity pipeline welding. Journal of the Brazil-
ian Society of Mechanical Sciences and
Engineering XXVI(1): 8997.
2. Graaf, J.van der, Wolbers, D., and
Boerkamp, P. Field experience with the
construction of large diameter SCR in
deep water. Offshore Technology Confer-
ence, OTC 17524, Houston, Tex.
3. Xiao-jun, Liu. 2003. Submarine
pipeline and welding technology in our
country. Shipbuilding of China 44: 6570.
4. Jing Xi-zhao, Cao Jun, Zhou Can-
feng, et al. 2010. Study on welding pro-
cedure and equipment applied in subsea
pipeline laying. Ship and Ocean Engineer-
ing (3): 128132.
5. Zhou Can-feng, Jiao Xiang-dong,
Chen Jia-qing, et al. 2010. Design of
welding system applied in deepwater sub-
sea pipeline laying. Welding and Joining
(7): 1620.
Fig. 5 (Left) The sea trials with auto-
matic welding equipment installed on
Fig. 6 (Right) Welded joints performed
during sea trials.
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Laser Technology Days. July 24, 25. Mazak Optonics Corp., Elgin,
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16th Annual Aluminum Conf. Sept. 4, 5. Chicago, Ill. Sponsored
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66th IIW Annual Assembly. Sept. 1117. Essen, Germany. Or-
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Convention Center, Indianapolis, Ind. www.asminternational.org/
IIW Intl Conf. on Automation in Welding. Sept. 16, 17. Essen,
Germany. www.iiw2013.com. Event in the IIW Annual Assembly.
Schweissen & Schneiden 2013 Intl Trade Fair Joining, Cutting,
Surfacing. Sept. 1621. Essen, Germany. Sponsored by DVS, Ger-
man Welding Society. www.schweissenuschneiden.de/en/schweis-
JULY 2013 52
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
9th Annual Northeast Shingo Prize Conf. Sept. 24, 25. The Re-
sort & Conference Center at Hyannis, Hyannis, Mass.
POWER-GEN Brasil 2013, HydroVision Brasil, and DistribuTech
Brasil. Sept. 2426. Transamerica Center, So Paulo, Brazil.
Canadian Manufacturing Technology Show (CMTS) 2013. Sept.
30Oct. 3. The International Centre, 6900 Airport Rd., Missis-
sauga, Canada. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. (888) 322-
7333, ext. 4426; www.cmts.ca.
Brazil Welding Show 2013. Oct. 14. So Paulo, Brazil. Sponsored
by DVS, German Welding Society. www.brazil-welding-show.com/.
National Manufacturing Day. Oct. 4. Events held nationwide.
Sponsored by Fabricators & Manufacturers Assn. To find events
planned near you, visit www.mfgday.com for interactive map.
ICALEO Intl Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-
Optics. Oct. 610, Hyatt Regendy Miami Resort, Miami, Fla.
The Intl WorkBoat Show. Oct. 911, Morial Convention Center,
New Orleans, La. www.workboatshow.com.
WESTEC. Oct. 1517. Los Angeles Convention Center, Los An-
geles, Calif. The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. (800) 733-
4763; www.westeconline.com.
Canadian Intl Aluminum Conf. Oct. 2125, Palais des Congrs
de Montral, Montreal, Que., Canada. www.ciacmontreal.com.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
JULY 2013 54
12th Inalco Intl Aluminum Conf. Oct. 21, 22, Palais des Congrs
de Montral, Montreal, Que., Canada. www.inalco2013.com.
FFA Annual Convention. Oct. 30Nov. 3, Kentucky Exposition
Center, Louisville, Ky. Future Farmers of America.
ASNT Fall Conf. and Quality Testing Show 2013. Nov. 47, Rio
Hotel, Las Vegas, Nev. The American Society for Nondestructive
Testing. www.asnt.org.
POWER-GEN Intl Event. Nov. 1214, Orange County Conven-
tion Center, Orlando, Fla. www.power-gen.com/event-info.html.
FABTECH 2013. Nov. 1821, McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill.
This exhibition is the largest event in North America dedicated to
showcasing the full spectrum of metal forming, fabricating, tube
and pipe, welding equipment, and myriad manufacturing tech-
nologies. American Welding Society. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264;
5th Thermal Spray Technology: High-Performance Surfaces.
Nov. 19. McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. Sponsored by Intl Ther-
mal Spray Assn., an AWS Standing Committee. itsa@thermal-
spray.org. American Welding Society. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264;
FABTECH India colocated with Weld India. April 1012, 2014,
Pragati Maidan Exhibition Complex, New Delhi, India. Concur-
rent with the 2014 Intl Congress of the IIW. Cosponsored by
AWS, FMA, SME, PMA, CCAI, and India Institute of Welding.
Educational Opportunities
Fundamentals of Welding Engineering. Aug. 59, EWI,
Columbus, Ohio. www.ewi.org/events; education@ewi.org.
Laser Welding and Equipment Fundamentals. Sept. 19, EWI,
Columbus, Ohio. www.ewi.org/events; education@ewi.org.
Aluminum Welding Technology School. Oct. 13, AlcoTec,
Traverse City, Mich. For brochure and to register, visit
Brazing School Fundamentals to Advanced Concepts. Oct.
2224 (Greenville, S.C.); Nov. 1921 (Simsbury, Conn.).
www.kaybrazing.com/seminars.htm; dan@kaybrazing.com; (860)
CWI Preparation Courses. Aug. 1923, Nov. 1115. D1.1
Endorsement: Aug. 23, Nov. 15; D1.5 Endorsement: Aug. 16; API
Endorsement: Nov. 8. All courses and endorsements held at
Welder Training & Testing Institute, 1144 N. Graham St.,
Allentown, Pa. www.wtti.com; (610) 820-9551, ext. 204.
Fundamentals of Welding Engineering. Aug. 59, EWI,
Columbus, Ohio. www.ewi.org/events; education@ewi.org.
Grounding and Electrical Protection Courses. Aug. 15, 16,
Chantilly, Va.; Oct. 17, 18, Albuquerque, N.Mex. Lyncole XIT
Grounding, www.lyncole.com/courses; education@lyncole.com.
Introduction to Friction Stir Welding. Nov. 6, EWI, Columbus,
Ohio. www.ewi.org/events; education@ewi.org.
Laser Vision Seminars. Aug. 28, 29; Oct. 2, 3; Nov. 6, 7; Dec. 4,
5. Servo-Robot, Inc. www.servorobot.com.
Laser Welding and Equipment Fundamentals. Sept. 19, EWI,
Columbus, Ohio. www.ewi.org/events; education@ewi.org.
ASM Intl Courses. Numerous classes on welding, corrosion, fail-
ure analysis, metallography, heat treating, etc., presented in
Materials Park, Ohio, online, webinars, on-site, videos, and
DVDs; www.asminternational.org, search for courses.
Automotive Body in White Training for Skilled Trades and
Engineers. Orion, Mich. A five-day course covers operations,
troubleshooting, error recovery programs, and safety procedures
for automotive lines and integrated cells. Applied Mfg.
Technologies; (248) 409-2000; www.appliedmfg.com.
Basic and Advanced Welding Courses. Cleveland, Ohio. The
Lincoln Electric Co.; www.lincolnelectric.com.
Basics of Nonferrous Surface Preparation. Online course, six
hours includes exam. Offered on the 15th of every month by The
Society for Protective Coatings. Register at www.sspc.org/training.
Best Practices for High-Strength Steel Repairs. I-CAR courses
for vehicle repair and steel structural technicians. www.i-car.com.
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Training Courses and
Seminars. Columbus, Ohio; (614) 888-8320; www.national-
Canadian Welding Bureau Courses. Welding inspection courses
and preparation courses for Canadian General Standards Board
and Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission certifications. The
CWB Group, www.cwbgroup.org.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
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Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
Chicago, IL Aug. 49 Aug. 10
Baton Rouge, LA Aug. 49 Aug. 10
Portland, ME Aug. 49 Aug. 10
Las Vegas, NV Aug. 49 Aug. 10
Mobile, AL Aug. 1116 Aug. 17
Charlotte, NC Aug. 1116 Aug. 17
Rochester, NY Exam only Aug. 17
San Antonio, TX Aug. 1116 Aug. 17
Seattle, WA Aug. 1116 Aug. 17
San Diego, CA Aug. 1823 Aug. 24
Minneapolis, MN Aug. 1823 Aug. 24
Salt Lake City, UT Aug. 1823 Aug. 24
Anchorage, AK Exam only Sept. 21
Miami, FL Sept. 1520 Sept. 21
Idaho Falls, ID Sept. 1520 Sept. 21
St. Louis, MO Sept. 1520 Sept. 21
Houston, TX Sept. 1520 Sept. 21
New Orleans, LA Sept. 2227 Sept. 28
Fargo, ND Sept. 2227 Sept. 28
Pittsburgh, PA Sept. 2227 Sept. 28
Indianapolis, IN Sept. 29Oct. 4 Oct. 5
Corpus Christi, TX Exam only Oct. 12
Long Beach, CA Oct. 611 Oct. 12
Tulsa, OK Oct. 611 Oct. 12
Cedar Rapids, IA Oct. 611 Oct. 12
Miami, FL Exam only Oct. 17
South Plainfield, NJ Oct. 1318 Oct. 19
Portland, OR Oct. 1318 Oct. 19
Nashville, TN Oct. 1318 Oct. 19
Atlanta, GA Oct. 2025 Oct. 26
Shreveport, LA Oct. 2025 Oct. 26
Detroit, MI Oct. 2025 Oct. 26
Roanoke, VA Oct. 2025 Oct. 26
Cleveland, OH Oct. 27Nov. 1 Nov. 2
Spokane, WA Oct. 27Nov. 1 Nov. 2
Sacramento, CA Nov. 38 Nov. 9
Corpus Christi, TX Exam only Nov. 16
Miami, FL Nov. 1015 Nov. 16
Anapolis, MD Nov. 1015 Nov. 16
Dallas, TX Nov. 1015 Nov. 16
Chicago, IL Exam only Nov. 21
Miami, FL Exam only Dec. 5
Los Angeles, CA Dec. 813 Dec. 14
Orlando, FL Dec. 813 Dec. 14
Reno, NV Dec. 813 Dec. 14
Houston, TX Dec. 813 Dec. 14
St. Louis, MO Exam only Dec. 14
Certified Welding Engineer; Senior Certified Welding
Inspector Exams can be taken at any site listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered.
International CWI Courses and Exams Schedules
Please visit www.aws.org/certification/inter_contact.html.
9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI
(No exams given.) For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet
education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be
taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
Orlando, FL Aug. 1823
Denver, CO Sept. 1520
Dallas, TX Oct. 611
New Orleans, LA Oct. 27Nov. 1
Seattle, WA Nov. 38
Miami, FL Dec. 813
Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
Miami, FL Sept. 2327 Sept. 28
Norfolk, VA Oct. 1418 Oct. 19
CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
Dallas, TX Aug. 1923 Aug. 24
Chicago, IL Sept. 2327 Sept. 28
Pittsburgh, PA Oct. 1418 Oct. 19
The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
The course dates are followed by the location and phone number
Dec. 913 at
ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
Aug. 1923, Dec. 26 at
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Oct. 14 at
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
July 1519, Oct. 2125 at
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800
Training: July 2224, Sept. 2325, Nov. 1820
Exams: July 2526, Sept. 2627, Nov. 2122 at
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at
MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996
Certification Seminars, Code Clinics, and Examinations
IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the
seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application dead-
line dates by visiting our website www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. Verify your event dates with the Certification Dept.
to confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to regis-
ter online, visit www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars. Apply early
to avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.
JULY 2013 56
For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
Codes and Standards Conference
July 16, 17
Orlando, Fla.
For the first time, the American Welding Society is holding a
conference on Codes and Standards. The timing is right for this
long-awaited conference, based on the important changes that are
taking place throughout the broad range of codes and
Leading the group of 16 speakers will be Rich Campbell of Bech-
tel who will discuss the changes in both AWS D1.1, Structural Weld-
ing Code Steel, and D1.6, Structural Welding Code Stainless
Steel. Thom Burns from AlcoTec will cover the activity within D1.2,
Structural Welding Code Aluminum. About half of the presenta-
tions will be on AWS codes and standards. Walt Sperkos presenta-
tion, Section IX of the ASME Code New and Improved, will be
the first of several talks concerning the ASME code, and Matt Bor-
ing will provide an update on the API 1104 Code. Paul Blomquist,
the on-site chairman of the conference, will discuss Qualification
of Hybrid Laser Arc Welding How Do We Get There. David
Bolser of the Boeing Co. will provide updates on a variety of stan-
dards, including AWS D17.3, Specification for Friction Stir Welding
of Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace Applications.
Other presentations will cover such topics as robot safety, the
Tip Tig process, standards for the newer NDE technologies, a re-
pair document from the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Ves-
sel Inspectors, and a revision to AWS A5.32, Welding Consumables
Gases and Gas Mixtures for Fusion Welding and Allied Processes.
16th Annual Aluminum Conference
September 17, 18
Chicago, Ill.
A distinguished panel of industry experts will survey the state of
the art in aluminum welding technology and practice. Attendees
will have several opportunities to network informally with speakers
and other participants, as well as visit an exhibition showcasing
products and services available to the aluminum welding industry.
Aluminum lends itself to a wide variety of industrial applications
because of its light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion
resistance, and other attributes. However, because its chemical and
physical properties are different from those of steel, welding of alu-
minum requires special processes, techniques, and expertise.
Welding Dissimilar Metals Conference
November 18
FABTECH 2013, Chicago, Ill.
Trying to figure out how to weld those various combinations of
dissimilar metals has been described as weldings severest chal-
lenge. Sometimes a new or existing process will do it. Other times,
one of a handful of filler metals or even one of many transition
joints will provide the answer. Whether its stainless steel to carbon
steel or steel to aluminum, theres a solution somewhere. The con-
ference will be guided by a hand-picked group of knowledgeable
welding metallurgists.
For more information, please contact the AWS Conferences
and Seminars Business Unit at (800) 443-9353, ext. 223, or
e-mail ablanco@aws.org. You can also visit the Conference
Department Web site at www.aws.org/conferences for upcoming
conferences and registration information.
JULY 2013 58
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In the manufacture, field fabrication, and/or repair of piping
and tubing, it may be necessary to heat components before weld-
ing (bake-out or preheating), between passes (interpass heating),
or after welding (postheating or postweld heat treatment). Table
1 compares processes used for localized heating. This column
concentrates on local postweld heat treatment (PWHT).
Code requirements and/or concerns regarding the service en-
vironment drive the need for PWHT. Generally, so-called code
required PWHT is aimed at improving resistance to brittle frac-
ture. To accomplish this, PWHT attempts to improve notch tough-
ness and relax residual stress. When service requirements dictate
the need for PWHT, additional objectives such as hardness reduc-
tion and/or stress relaxation aimed to be below a specific thresh-
old level become important, depending on the environment.
Postheating encompasses all heating performed after welding
has been stopped this can be after completion and at an in-
termediate point including PWHT. However, it is generally
recognized that postheating is performed at a lower tempera-
ture, generally 300600F (149316C) vs. 10001400F
(538760C) for PWHT, and with a different primary objective
than PWHT.
The primary objective of postheating is removal of hydrogen
and prevention of hydrogen-induced cracking (also known as de-
layed cracking since it can occur up to 48 h after the weldment
has cooled to ambient temperature).
As with postheating, PWHT may need to be applied without
allowing the temperature to drop below the minimum for pre-
Local PWHT of carbon and low-alloy steels is typically per-
formed below the lower critical transformation temperature and
is therefore referred to as subcritical. The lower and upper criti-
cal transformation temperatures indicate where the crystal struc-
ture of steel begins and finally completes a change from body-
centered cubic to face-centered cubic upon heating (the reverse
upon cooling).
There are several reasons why local supercritical PWHT
(above the upper critical transformation temperature) such as
annealing or normalizing is undesirable. First, the temperature
gradients inherent to local PWHT would produce subcritical, in-
tercritical, and supercritical temperature regions. Depending on
the prior heat treatment of the material, this could result in a
detrimental effect on properties such as tensile/yield strength
and impact toughness, and/or local inhomogeneity. Also, reduced
material strength at supercritical temperatures creates a greater
likelihood of distortion. For reasons related to carbide precipita-
tion and the need for rapid cooling, localized solution anneal of
austenitic alloys such as 300 series stainless steels is also gener-
ally undesirable.
Postweld heat treatment can have both beneficial and detri-
mental effects. The primary benefits of PWHT are tempering,
relaxation of residual stress, and hydrogen removal. Avoidance
of hydrogen-induced cracking, dimensional stability, and im-
proved ductility, toughness, and corrosion resistance are conse-
quences of the primary benefits. It is important that PWHT con-
ditions be determined based upon the desired objectives.
Excessive or inappropriate PWHT temperatures and/or long
holding times can adversely affect properties. These adverse ef-
fects can include reduced tensile strength, creep strength, and
notch toughness (generally caused by embrittlement due to pre-
cipitate formation). The influence of PWHT on properties pri-
marily depends upon the composition of the weld metal and base
metal, and prior thermal and mechanical processing of the base
The need for PWHT is usually driven by either a direct re-
quirement with a particular fabrication or repair code, or by serv-
ice environment concerns. Within the fabrication codes, mate-
rial type and thickness generally trigger the requirements to apply
PWHT. Such code-required PWHT is generally aimed at reduc-
ing susceptibility to brittle fracture.
JULY 2013 60
Datasheet 341
Excerpted from D10.10/D10.10M:2009, Recommended Practices for Local Heating of Welds in Piping and Tubing.
Postweld Heat Treatment of Welds in Piping and Tubing
Table 1 Comparison of Heating Processes
Attribute Induction Electric Resistance Flame Exothermic Gas Infrared Quartz Infrared
Applicability to Bake-out Yes Yes Limited Very Limited Yes Yes
Applicability to Preheat/Interpass Yes Yes Yes No Limited Limited
Applicability to Postheating Yes Yes Limited Very Limited Yes Yes
Applicability to PWHT Yes Yes No Very Limited Yes Yes
Main Advantages A, B C, D E, F E, F A, F A, F
Main Disadvantages G, H, I J K L, M, N G, I, O G, I, O, P
Key to Advantages
A = high heating rates; B = ability to heat a narrow band adjacent to a region that has temperature restrictions; C = ability to continuously main-
tain heat from welding operation to PWHT; D = good ability to vary heat around the circumference; E = low initial equipment cost; F = good porta-
bility and ease of setup.
Key to Disadvantages
G = high initial equipment cost; H = equipment large and less portable; I = limited ability to create control zones around the circumference; J =
elements may burn out or arc during heating; K = minimal precision, repeatability, and temperature uniformity; L = no adjustment possible once
started; M = limited ability to vary heating rate, hold time, and cooling rate; N = available systems currently limited to one weld configuration; O =
separate equipment required for each diameter; P = equipment is fragile and sensitive to rough handling.
FABTECH represents every step of the metal manufacturing process
from start to nish. Its where new ideas, products and technology
are highlighted through interactive exhibits, education and
networking. Compare solutions from 1,500+ exhibitors, find tools
to improve quality and productivity, and learn ways to increase prot.
REGISTER NOW for the show with a degree of difference.
November 1821, 2013 | Chicago, IL | fabtechexpo.com
North Americas Largest Metal Forming,
Fabricating, Welding and Finishing Event
Scan code to
watch video.
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September 4

September 4 5, 2013 / Chicago
A distinguished panel of aluminum-industry
experts will survey the state of the art in
aluminum welding technology and practice.
The 16
Aluminum Welding Conference will
also provide several opportunities for you to
network informally with speakers and other
participants, and to visit an exhibition
showcasing products and services available to
the aluminum welding industry.
Aluminum lends itself to a wide variety of
industrial applications because of its light
weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion
resistance, and other attributes. However,
because its chemical and physical properties
are different from those of steel, welding of
aluminum requires special processes,
techniques and expertise.
Register early and save.
Visit www.aws.org/conferences or
call (800) 443-9353 ext 223.
September 4 5, 2013 / Chicago






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National and District Officers Nominated for 2014
David McQuaid
vice president
John Bray
vice president
W. Richard Polanin
Dean Wilson
David Landon
vice president
The 20122013 Nominating Committee
has announced its slate of candidates who
will stand for election to AWS national of-
fices for the 2014 term, which begins Janu-
ary 1, 2014.
Nominated are the following candi-
dates: Dean Wilson, for president; David
Landon, David McQuaid, and John Bray
for vice presidents; and W. Richard Polanin
and Robert Roth for directors-at-large.
Three vice presidents, and two directors-
at-large are to be elected.
The National Nominating Committee
was chaired by Past President John Men-
doza. Serving on the committee with Men-
doza were John Bruskotter, Thomas Ferri,
Dale Flood, Donald Howard, J. Jones,
Thomas Lienert, Sean Moran, Robert Pali,
Neil Shannon, Robert Wilcox, Michael
Wiswesser, and Dennis Wright. Gricelda
Manalich served as secretary.
The Nominating Committees for Dis-
tricts 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 have selected
the following candidates for election/re-
election as District directors for the three-
year term Jan. 1, 2014Dec. 31, 2016. The
nominees are Harland Thompson, District
2; Carl Matricardi, District 5; D. Joshua
Burgess, District 8; Robert Wilcox, District
11; Robert Richwine, District 14; Jerry
Knapp, District 17; and Pierrette Gorman,
District 20.
Dean Wilson, currently completing his
third term as a vice president, is nominated
for president. Currently, he is vice presi-
dent of Well-Dean Enterprises and earlier
served as vice president of welding business
development at Jackson Safety Products
and president, CEO, and owner of Wilson
Industries, Inc.
David Landon is nominated to serve a
third term as a vice president. Currently,
he is manager of welding engineering and
missions support at Vermeer Mfg. Co. and
an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspec-
tor. Previously, he had his own welding
business and worked as a welding engineer
for Chicago Bridge and Iron Co. He has
served on many AWS technical committees
and as a Delegate to the IIW Commission
XIV, Welding Education and Training.
David McQuaid is nominated to serve
a second term as a vice president. Cur-
rently, he heads D. L. McQuaid and Asso-
ciates, Inc., which he founded in 1999. He
has chaired the AWS D1 Structural Weld-
ing and the Technical Activities Commit-
tees. At American Bridge Div. of U.S. Steel
Corp., he served as senior welding engineer
and corporate engineer. In 2009, he re-
ceived the American National Standards
Institute Finegan Standards Medal for his
outstanding contributions to industrial
John Bray, currently serving as Dis-
trict 18 director, is nominated to serve his
first term as an AWS vice president. He is
president of Affiliated Machinery, Inc., in
Pearland, Tex., where he has served as pres-
ident for the past 17 years. He is a 12-year
AWS member and a former chairman of
the Houston Section.
W. Richard Polanin, a recent District
13 director, has been nominated to serve
as a director-at-large. Polanin is a profes-
sor and program chair of Manufacturing
Engineering Technology at Illinois Central
College, president of WRP Associates, and
serves on the adjunct faculty at Bradley
University. He is an AWS Certified Weld-
ing Inspector,
Welder, and
Welding Educa-
tor, and is a
SME Certified
Engineer. He
has served as
chair of the Peo-
ria Section, and
a member of the
AWS D16 Com-
mittee on Auto-
mated and Ro-
botic Welding,
and AWS Robotic Technician Certification
Committee. He has served as an instructor
for the AWS Welding Instructors Institute
for three years.
Robert Roth, president and CEO of
RoMan Manufacturing, Inc., has been
nominated to serve as a director-at-large.
Roth, a long-time AWS member, serves on
the AWS Finance Committee and is a past
chair of WEMCO (An Association of Weld-
ing Equipment Manufacturers) and its ex-
ecutive committee, and has also chaired a
number of RWMA (Resistance Welding
Manufacturing Alliance) subcommittees.
He has served as board chair of the Grand
Rapids Area Chamber of Commerce and
sits on the boards of the SE YMCA, and
several health and civic associations.
Harland Thompson is nominated to
serve a second term as District 2 director.
Thompson is senior project engineer and
welding supervisor for Underwriters Labo-
ratories (UL), Inc., in Melville, N.Y. Prior
to joining UL in 2006, he worked in engi-
neering and quality assurance positions at
Robert Roth
JULY 2013 64
terials Applications, Inc. An Expert
Welder, he has earned the AWS
SENSE Level III Certificate.
Robert Wilcox, an AWS member
since 1974, is nominated to serve a
second term as District 11 director.
He has served in many Detroit Sec-
tion officer positions including chair.
He received his masters degree at
Central Michigan University. He has
worked in the automobile industry as
a cost estimator, buyer, and quality
manager. Wilcox serves on the advi-
sory committees for William D. Ford
Vocational High School and School-
craft Community College where he
studied industrial welding and fabri-
cation technology. Currently, he owns
and operates Warriors of Faith Mar-
tial Arts Academy.
Robert Richwine, an AWS Distin-
guished Member, with the Indiana
Section, is nominated to serve his sec-
ond term as District 14 director. With
Ivy Tech Community College since
1994, he currently serves as director
of its new Welding Institute. He began
his welding career in 1965 at Delco
Remy Division of General Motors
with a pipefitter-steamfitter appren-
ticeship. He has received the District
CWI of the Year, Meritorious, Private
Sector Educator, and the District Ed-
ucator and District Director Awards,
the National Meritorious and the Na-
tional Image of Welding Awards.
Jerry Knapp, an AWS member for
more than 35 years, is nominated for
his first term as District 17 director.
Knapp has served as Tulsa Section
chair for two years and is presently a
board advisor. He has extensive expe-
rience as a salesman in the gas and
welding supply industry. He has
worked for Alloy Welding Supply,
Arkansas Specialty Co., Jimmie
Jones, National Welding Supply, Bell
Helicopter, Adair Sheet Metal,
Hobbs Trailers, and American Mfg.
of Texas. Earlier, he worked as a
grinder, welders helper, and in sheet
metal welding,
Pierrette Gorman has been nomi-
nated to serve her first term as Dis-
trict 20 director. She has chaired the
New Mexico Section twice and re-
ceived the Section and District Meri-
torious Awards. Most recently, she
served ten years at Sandia National
Laboratories as a lead process engi-
neer involved with lean manufactur-
ing and laser processing. Earlier, she
worked as a research and applications
engineer at Optomec, Inc.; welding
engineer at Wilson Greatbatch, Ltd.;
and a research technician at Edison
Welding Institute where she explored
resistance welding of dissimilar and
plated materials. She holds two
patents on forming structures from
CAD solid models.
Pierrette Gorman
District 20 director
Jerry Knapp
District 17 director
Robert Richwine
District 14 director
Robert Wilcox
District 11 director
D. Joshua Burgess
District 8 director
Carl Matricardi
District 5 director
Harland Thompson
District 2 director
AWS Bylaws
Article IX, Section 3
Section 3. Nominations.
Nominations, except for Executive
Director and Secretary, shall proceed as
(a) Nominations for District Direc-
tors shall be made by the District Nomi-
nating Committees [see Article III, Sec-
tion 2(c)]. The National Nominating
Committee shall select nominees for the
other offices falling vacant. The names
of the nominees for each office, with a
brief biographical sketch of each, shall
be published in the July issue of the Weld-
ing Journal. The names of the members
of the National Nominating Committee
shall also be published in this issue of the
Welding Journal, along with a copy of this
Article IX, Section 3.
(b) Any person with the required
qualifications may be nominated for any
national office by written petitions
signed by not less than 200 members
other than Student Members, with sig-
natures of at least 20 members from each
of five Districts, provided such petitions
are delivered to the Executive Director
and Secretary before August 26 for the
elections to be held that year. A biogra-
phical sketch of the nominee (and ac-
ceptance letter) shall be provided with
the petition. Any such nominee shall be
included the election for such office. A
District Director may be nominated by
written petitions signed by at least 10
members each from a majority of the
Sections in the District, provided such
petitions are delivered to the Executive
Director and Secretary before August 26
for the elections to be held that year. A
biographical sketch and acceptance let-
ter of the nominee shall be provided with
the petition. Any such nominee shall be
included in the election.
Belle Transit Div., the Long Island Railroad, Thomp-
son Transit Services, Ronkonkoma, N.Y.; and LTK
Engineering Services.
Carl Matricardi is nominated to continue serv-
ing as District 5 director. He is founder and president
of Welding Solutions, Inc., in Lawrenceville, Ga. In
the welding industry for 37 years, he is an AWS Cer-
tified Welding Inspector and Welding Educator, and
vice chair of the Atlanta Section. He has worked as a
shipyard welder before earning his masters degree
in education. He has taught welding and manufactur-
ing processes in technical colleges and state universi-
ties, and served as an expert witness.
D. Joshua Burgess has been nominated to serve
his first term as District 8 director. He has served as
District 8 deputy director since 2009, holds a masters
in materials science and expects to defend his PhD
thesis this year. He competed in the VICA welding
contests where he won the regional and district levels
to become the Tennessee state champion. He worked
as a welder, a welding engineer technician at Aqua
Chem, and currently is a consultant engineer for Ma-
Official Interpretation AWS 3.0
Standard Welding Terms
and Definitions
Subject: Overlap at the ends of welds
Document: A3.0M/A3.0:2010, Standard
Welding Terms and Definitions
Provision: Page 30, Definition for overlap,
fusion welding; and Page 47, Definition for
weld toe.
Inquiry: Due to the absence of discus-
sion and figures related to weld end-con-
ditions, it is unclear whether requirements
for overlap are applicable at the ends of a
weld bead, where the arc starts and stops.
Response: The overlap condition (as
currently defined) does apply to the ends
of welds, not just the sides which are illus-
trated in the referenced figures.
Standard for Public Review
A5.01M/A5.01:201X (ISO 14344:2010
MOD), Procurement Guidelines for Con-
sumables Welding and Allied Processes
Flux and Gas Shielded Electrical Welding
Processes. Revised. $32.50. 7/1/13. Staff
secretary R. Gupta, gupta@aws.org, ext.
AWS was approved as an accredited
standards-preparing organization by the
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as approved
by ANSI, require that all standards be
open to public review for comment during
the approval process. The above standard
is submitted for public review. A draft copy
may be obtained from the staff secretary.
ISO Standards
In the United States, if you wish to par-
ticipate in the development of Interna-
tional Standards for welding, contact A.
Davis, adavis@aws.org, ext. 466.
Technical Committee Meetings
All AWS technical committee meetings
are open to the public. Persons wishing to
attend a meeting should contact the com-
mittee secretary listed.
July 30, International Standards Activ-
ities Committee. Houston, Tex. A. Davis,
adavis@aws.org, ext. 466.
July 30, 31, Technical Activities Com-
mittee. Houston, Tex. A. Alonso,
aalonso@aws.org, ext. 299.
Safety and Health Committee seeks ed-
ucators, users, general interest, and con-
sultants. S. Hedrick, steveh@aws.org.
Oxyfuel gas welding and cutting, C4
Committee seeks educators, general in-
terest, and end users; Friction welding,
C6 Committee seeks professionals; Hi g h
energy beam welding and cutting, C7
Committee seeks professionals. P. Henry,
Magnesium alloy filler metals, A5L
Subcommittee seeks professionals. R.
Gupta, gupta@aws.org.
Robotic and automatic welding, D16
Committee seeks general interest and ed-
ucational members; Local heat treating of
pipe, D10P Subcommittee seeks profes-
sionals; Mechanical testing of welds, B4
Committee seeks professionals. B. Mc-
Grath, bmcgrath@aws.org.
Reactive Alloys, G2D Subcommittee
seeks volunteers; Titanium and zirconium
filler metals, A5K Subcommittee seeks
professionals; Welding qualifications,
B2B Subcommittee seeks members; Fric-
tion stir welding of aluminum alloys for
aerospace applications, D17J Subcommit-
tee seeks members. A. Diaz,
Resistance welding equipment, J1
Committee seeks educators, general in-
terest, and users; Thermal spraying and
automotive welding, The D8 and C2 Com-
mittees seek educators, general interest,
and end users; Machinery and equip-
ment, and Surfacing and reconditioning
of industrial mill rolls, D14 Committee
and D14H Subcommittee seek profession-
als. E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org.
Opportunities to Serve on AWS Technical Committees
Volunteers are sought to contribute to the following technical committees. Visit www.aws.org/technical/jointechcomm.html.
The A2 Committees on Definitions and Symbols held their spring meeting in Nashville, Tenn.
Shown from left are (front row) John Gullotti and Chris Lander, (back row) Chuck Ford,
Secretary Stephen Borrero, Rob Anderson, Pat Newhouse, Brian Galliers, Dick Holdren, J. P.
Christein, and Dave Beneteau.
Definitions and Symbols Committees Meet in Nashville
AWS members who wish to nominate candidates for Pres-
ident, Vice President, and Director-at-Large on the AWS
Board of Directors for the term starting Jan. 1, 2015, may:
1. Send their nominations electronically by Oct. 8, 2013, to
Gricelda Manalich at gricelda@aws.org, c/o W. A. Rice, chair-
man, National Nominating Committee; or
2. Present their nominations in person at the open session
of the National Nominating Committee meeting scheduled
for 2:00 to 3:00 P.M., Tuesday, Nov. 19, 2013, at McCormick
Place, Chicago, Illinois, during the 2013 FABTECH Expo.
Nominations must be accompanied by biographical material
on each candidate, including a written statement by the candi-
date as to his or her willingness and ability to serve if nominated
and elected, letters of support, plus a 5- 7-in. head-and-shoul-
ders color photograph.
Note: Persons who present their nominations at the Show
must provide 20 copies of the biographical materials and written
Nominations Sought for National Officers
Tech Topics
JULY 2013 66
November 1, 2013, is the deadline for
submitting nominations for the 2014 Prof.
Koichi Masubuchi Award. This award in-
cludes a $5000 honorarium. It is presented
each year to one person, 40 years old or
younger, who has made significant contri-
butions to the advancement of materials
joining through research and develop-
ment. Nominations should include a de-
scription of the candidates experience,
list of publications, honors, and awards,
and at least three letters of recommenda-
tion from fellow researchers. The award
is sponsored by the Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology Dept. of Ocean Engi-
neering. E-mail your nomination package
to Todd A. Palmer, assistant professor,
The Pennsylvania State University,
Candidates Sought for Annual Masubuchi Award
The AWS Beaver Valley Student Chapter,
Pittsburgh Section, District 7, has selected
Matt Tempalski to receive the Student Chap-
ter Member Award.
Tempalski, who served as the Chapters
vice chairman, received the schools 2013 per-
fect attendance award and is a National Tech-
nical Honor Society inductee. He is also qual-
ified to the requirements of AWS D1.1 3 & 4
limited thickness, and B2.1.001-90.
Actions of Districts Council
Student Chapter Member Award Presented
Five Members Receive District Director Awards
On May 19, 2013, after due considera-
tion, Districts Council approved the char-
ter of the AWS Central Louisiana Section,
District 9, and the AWS Malaysia Interna-
tional Section. The AWS Central Nebraska
Section, District 16, and the AWS West
Zone IndiaVadodara International Sec-
tion were approved for disbandment.
Approved for Student Chapter charters
were the AWS Parkside Career and Tech-
nology Education Center Student Chap-
ter, District 2; AWS Riverside Parishes
Community College Student Chapter, Dis-
trict 9; AWS University of Wisconsin-Stout
Student Chapter, District 15; AWS Okla-
homa Technical College Student Chapter,
District 17; and the AWS Laney College
Student Chapter, District 22. The AWS
Ozark Mountain Technical Center Student
Chapter, District 17, and the AWS Brigham
Young University Student Chapter, Dis-
trict 20, were approved for reinstatement.
District 16 Director Dennis Wright has
nominated the following AWS members
to receive this award:
Chris Beaty Nebraska Section
Karl Fogleman Nebraska Section
Brent Wohl SE Nebraska Section
District 22 Director Kerry Shatell has
nominated the following AWS members
to receive this award:
Ken Morris Sacramento Section
Brad Bosworth Fresno Section
The District Director Award provides
a means for District directors to recog-
nize individuals and corporations who
have contributed their time and effort to
the affairs of their local Section and/or
August 1 is the deadline to submit your
nominations for the AWS Distinguished
Welder Award. The award recognizes pro-
fessionals with a minimum of 15 years ex-
perience whose skills and achievements
warrant special recognition.
For details on the full description, se-
lection criteria, and the nomination form,
visit the AWS Web site, www.aws.org, and
select the awards category. Or, e-mail
Wendy Sue Reeve, senior manager, awards
programs, wreeve@aws.org.
Nominate Your Candidate for the Distinguished Welder Award
William Irrgang Memorial Award
This award is given to the individual who has done the most
over the past five years to enhance the Societys goal of advanc-
ing the science and technology of welding. It includes a $2500
honorarium and a certificate.
Honorary Membership Award
This award acknowledges eminence in the welding profession,
or one who is credited with exceptional accomplishments in the
development of the welding art. Honorary Members have full
rights of membership.
National Meritorious Certificate Award
This award recognizes the recipients counsel, loyalty, and
dedication to AWS affairs, assistance in promoting cordial rela-
tions with industry and other organizations, and for contribu-
tions of time and effort on behalf of the Society.
George E. Willis Award
This award is given to an individual who promoted the ad-
vancement of welding internationally by fostering coopera-
tive participation in technology transfer, standards rationali-
zation, and promotion of industrial goodwill. It includes a
$2500 honorarium.
International Meritorious Certificate Award
This honor recognizes recipients significant contributions to
the welding industry for service to the international welding com-
munity in the broadest terms. The award consists of a certificate
and a one-year AWS membership.
The deadline for nominating candidates for the following awards is December 31 prior to the year of the awards presentations.
Contact Wendy Sue Reeve, wreeve@aws.org; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 293.
Name Your Candidates for These AWS Awards
Matt Tempalski
Affiliate Companies
Alpha Iron Fabrication LLC
5880 W. 59 Ave., Ste. G
Arvada, CO 80003
Fastenal Mfg. Co.
1801 Theurer Blvd.
Winona, MN 55987
Goodbody Gear, Inc.
10546 Valle Vista Rd.
Lakeside, CA 92040
H. A. Fabricators
349 W. 2500 N.
Logan, UT 84341
Idaho Precision Welding, Inc.
555 Hwy. 52
Horseshoe Bend, ID 83629
La Forge De Style
57 Romanelli Ave. S.
Hackensack, NJ 07606
Minth Mexico SA de CV
Carretera Los Arellanos No. 214
Parque Industrial Siglo XXI
Aguascalientes 20283, Mexico
Rail Mechanical Services, Inc.
PO Box 848
Columbia, PA 17512
Supporting Companies
Great Plains Mfg., Inc.
1525 E. North St.
Salina, KS 67401
Petrustech Oil & Gas
5500 N. Sam Houston
Parkway W., Ste. 200
Houston, TX 77086
Educational Institutions
Area Career Center
5727 Sohl Ave.
Hammond, IN 46320
Charter College
2221 E. Northern Lights Blvd.,
Ste. 120
Anchorage, AK 99508
Garrett College - CEWD
687 Mosser Rd.
McHenry, MD 21541
Mason High School
1105 W. College Ave.
Mason, TX 76856
Wylie High School
4502 Antilley Rd.
Abilene, TX 79606
Welding Distributor
Airgas USA, LLC
5635 International Dr.
Rockford, IL 61109
New AWS Supporters
Sustaining Members
Airgas, Inc.
259 N. Radnor Chester Rd., Ste. 100
Radnor, PA 19087
Representative: David Levin
Avenal State Prison
1 Kings Way, PO Box 8
Avenal, CA 93204
Representative: Michael Valdez
Calif. Correctional Center
711-045 Center Rd., PO Box 790
Susanville, CA 96130
Representative: Michael Valdez
Calif. Correctional Institution
24900 Hwy. 202, PO Box 1031
Tehachapi, CA 93581
Representative: Michael Valdez
Calif. Institution for Men
14901 Central Ave., PO Box 128
Chino, CA 91710
Representative: Michael Valdez
Calif. Mens Colony
Hwy. 1, PO Box 8101
San Luis Obispo, CA 93409
Representative: Michael Valdez
Calif. State Prison-Corcoran
4001 King Ave., PO Box 8300
Corcoran, CA 93212
Representative: Michael Valdez
Calif. State Prison-Solano
2100 Peabody Rd., PO Box 4000
Vacaville, CA 95696
Representative: Michael Valdez
Calif. Substance Abuse Treatment
900 Quebec Ave., PO Box 7100
Corcoran, CA 93212
Representative: Michael Valdez
Centinela State Prison
2302 Brown Rd., PO Box 731
Imperial, CA 92251
Representative: Michael Valdez
Chuckawalla Valley State Prison
19025 Wileys Rd., PO Box 2289
Blythe, CA 92226
Representative: Michael Valdez
Greystone Adult School - Lowar Yard
PO Box 71, 300 Prison Rd.
Represa, CA 95671
Representative: Michael Valdez
Greystone Adult School - P.I.A.
300 Prison Rd., PO Box 71
Represa, CA 95671
Representative: Michael Valdez
Hood - EIC, LLC
45 Vista Blvd., Ste. 102
Sparks, NV 89434
Representative: Michael Labahn
Kern Valley State Prison
3000 W. Cecil Ave., PO Box 3150
Delano, CA 93216
Representative: Michael Valdez
Mule Creek State Prison
4001 Hwy. 104, PO Box 409009
Ione, CA 95640
Representative: Michael Valdez
Pleasant Valley State Prison
24863 W. Jayne Ave., PO Box 8500
Coalinga, CA 93210
Representative: Michael Valdez
Rasmussen Mechanical Services
3215 Nebraska Ave.
Council Bluffs, IA 51501
Representative: Greg Schroeter
Richard J. Donovan
Correctional Facility
480 Alta Rd.
San Diego, CA 92179
Representative: Michael Valdez
Sierra Conservation Center
5100 OByrnes Ferry Rd., PO Box 497
Jamestown, CA 95327
Representative: Michael Valdez
Techcrane International, LLC
17639 Hard Hat Dr.
Covington, LA 70435
Representative: Ardalan Farahmand
Valley State Prison
21633 Ave. 24, PO Box 92
Chowchilla, CA 93610
Representative: Michael Valdez
AWS Member Counts
June 1, 2013
Sustaining ......................................588
Educational ...................................623
Welding Distributor........................53
Total Corporate ..........................2,103
Individual .................................59,002
Student + Transitional .................9,352
Total Members.........................68,354
JULY 2013 68
Member-Get-A-Member Campaign
Winners Circle
Sponsored 20 or more Individual Mem-
bers per year since June 1, 1999. The super-
script denotes the number of times the status
was achieved if more than once.
E. Ezell, Mobile
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley
J. Merzthal, Peru
G. Taylor, Pascagoula
L. Taylor, Pascagoula
B. Chin, Auburn
S. Esders, Detroit
M. Haggard, Inland Empire
M. Karagoulis, Detroit
S. McGill, NE Tennessee
B. Mikeska, Houston
W. Shreve, Fox Valley
T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona
G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona
R. Wray, Nebraska
Presidents Guild
Sponsored 20+ new Individual Members
M. Pelegrino, Chicago 36
E. Ezell, Mobile 32
Presidents Roundtable
Sponsored 919 new Individual Members
R. Fulmer, Twin Tiers 10
W. Blamire, Atlanta 9
A. Tous, Costa Rica 9
P. Strother, New Orleans 9
Presidents Club
Sponsored 38 new Individual Members
D. Galigher, Detroit 7
W. Komlos, Utah 7
J. Smith, San Antonio 6
C. Becker, Northwest 5
R. Thacker Jr., Oklahoma City 5
L. Webb, Lexington 4
D. Wright, Kansas City 4
T. Baber, San Fernando Valley 3
J. Bain, Mobile 3
A. Bernard, Sabine 3
J. Blubaugh, Detroit 3
P. Brown, New Orleans 3
D. Buster, Eastern Iowa 3
C. Daon, Israel Section 3
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 3
B. Hackbarth, Milwaukee 3
S. Jaycox, Long Island 3
D. Jessop, Mahoning Valley 3
D. Saunders, Lakeshore 3
T. Sumerix, Dayton 3
J. Turcott, Rochester 3
A. Winkle, Kansas City 3
R. Wright, San Antonio 3
R. Zabel, SE Nebraska 3
Presidents Honor Roll
Sponsored 2 Individual Members
G. Cornell, St. Louis
M. Depuy, Portland
M. Douville, Central Mass./R.I.
D. Hayes Jr., Louisville
J. Helfrich, Tri-River
P. Host, Chicago
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley
J. Kline, Northern New York
L. Kvidahl, Pascagoula
W. Larry, Southern Colorado
G. Lawrence, N. Central Florida
J. Mansfield, Philadelphia
E. Norman, Ozark
A. Sam, Trinidad
C. Shepherd, Houston
G. Solomon, Central Pennsylvania
A. Sumal, British Columbia
C. Villarreal, Houston
J. Vincent, Kansas City
A. Vogt, New Jersey
J. Vorstenbosch, International
M. Wheeler, Cleveland
L. William, Western Carolina
W. Wilson, New Orleans
J. Winston, St. Louis
Student Member Sponsors
Sponsored 3+ new Student Members
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 106
A. Theriot, New Orleans 47
B. Scherer, Cincinnati 39
D. Saunders, Lakeshore 36
W. England, W. Michigan 33
R. Zabel, SE Nebraska 33
R. Bulthouse, Western Michigan 31
D. Pickering, Central Arkansas 31
R. Gilmer, Houston 29
T. Rivera, Corpus Christi 29
R. Hammond, Greater Huntsville 28
A. Stute, Madison-Beloit 28
T. Geisler, Pittsburgh 24
S. Siviski, Maine 24
B. Cheatham, Columbia 23
C. Kochersperger, Philadelphia 23
M. Arand, Louisville 22
R. Hutchinson, Long Bch./Or. Cty. 22
D. Bastian, Northwestern Pa. 21
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 21
J. Falgout, Baton Rouge 20
F. Oravets, Pittsburgh 20
J. Theberge, Boston 20
J. Johnson, Madison-Beloit 19
K. Temme, Philadelphia 19
V. Facchiano, Lehigh Valley 18
R. Munns, Utah 18
S. Lindsey, San Diego 17
R. Richwine, Indiana 17
J. Russell, Fox Valley 17
M. Anderson, Indiana 16
R. Fuller, Green & White Mts. 16
E. Norman, Ozark 16
A. Oberman, Ozark 16
C. Donnell, NW Ohio 14
J. Kline, Northern New York 13
G. Smith, Lehigh Valley 13
D. Schnalzer, Lehigh Valley 13
T. Sumerix, Dayton 12
C. Daily, Puget Sound 12
J. Daugherty, Louisville 12
C. Morris, Sacramento 12
S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley 12
J. Ciaramitaro, N. Central Florida 11
K. Cox, Palm Beach 11
A. Duron, Cumberland Valley 11
J. Boyer, Lancaster Section 10
G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona 10
R. Vann, South Carolina 10
C. Schiner, Wyoming 9
C. Galbavy, Idaho/Montana 8
C. Gilbertson, Northern Plains 8
J. Dawson, Pittsburgh 7
R. Udy, Utah 7
A. Badeaux, Washington, D.C. 6
T. Buckler, Columbus 6
S. Caldera, Portland 6
J. Elliott, Houston 6
T. Shirk, Tidewater 6
P. Host, Chicago 5
R. Ledford, Birmingham 5
G. Rolla, L.A./Inland Empire 5
G. Siepert, Kansas 5
P. Strother, New Orleans 5
W. Wilson, New Orleans 5
C. Chifici, New Orleans 4
L. Clark, Milwaukee 4
J. Ginther, International 4
C. Griffin, Tulsa 4
J. Johnson, Northern Plains 4
J. Reed, Ozark 4
E. Shreve, Pittsburgh 4
P. Strother, New Orleans 4
R. Zadroga, Philadelphia 4
J. Fitzpatrick, Arizona 3
L. Gross, Milwaukee 3
R. Hilty, Pittsburgh 3
C. Hobson, Olympic 3
S. Liu, Colorado 3
D. McGrath, Houston 3
J. Vincent, Kansas City 3
G. Von Lunen, Kansas City 3
B. Wenzel, Sacramento 3
R. Wilsdorf, Tulsa 3
Listed are the members participating in the 20122013 campaign. Standings as of May 18. See page 81 of this Welding Journal for cam-
paign rules and prize list or visit www.aws.org/mgm. For information, call the Membership Dept. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 480.
District 1
Thomas Ferri, director
(508) 527-1884
District 2
Harland W. Thompson, director
(631) 546-2903
Manchester Community Technical College welding students and instructors are shown during the dedication of their new welding facilities
attended by Boston Section members in April.
Shown (from left) are Jack Paige, Tony Hanna, Dan Chabot, Paul Plourde, Susan Huard,
and Dave Paquin, Boston Section chair.
Central Mass./R.I. Section members learned
how to bend rectangular tubing in April.
Long Island Section judges (from left) Jim
Malamon, Lou DeFulio, and Dave Terpo-
lilli Jr. are shown at the SkillsUSA welding
Don Smith, welding instructor, poses with
ninth graders Rebecca Jackson and Joe Pao-
lillo at the Long Island Section event.
Activity: The Section participated in the
dedication of a new welding lab at Man-
chester Community Technical College
(MCTC) in Manchester, Conn. An over-
head crane was dedicated to Jack Paige, a
retired welding instructor and past Section
chair and technical chair. The roast pig
dinner was provided by alumnus Mark
Stock of Multi-Weld Services. Participat-
ing were Tony Hanna, welding instructor;
Dan Chabot, faculty director; Paul
Plourde, professor of welding technology;
Susan Huard, MCTC president; and Sec-
tion Chair Dave Paquin.
Speaker: Stephen St. John
Affiliation: St. John Fabrication & Weld-
Topic: Using a ring rolling machine
Activity: St. John demonstrated how to use
a Baileigh ring rolling machine to bend a
20-ft-long, 3- 2-in., 0.125-in. wall rec-
tangular tubing into an arc. The meeting
was held at Old Colony Regional Techni-
cal High School in Rochester, Mass.
Activity: The Section participated in the
SkillsUSA welding competition held at
Somerset Technical High School in Bridge-
water, N.J. Judging and other duties were
performed by Jim Malamon, Lou DeFulio,
Dave Terpolilli Jr., Welding Instructor Don
Smith, and Harland Thompson, District 2
JULY 2013 70
Activity: The Long Island Section held an
awards-presentation program in Wantagh,
N.Y. Chair Brian Cassidy and District 2
Director Harland Thompson presented
Tom Garland the Private Sector Instruc-
tor Award, and the Section Meritorious
Award to Ray OLeary.
Morris County School of
Technology Student
Activity: The Student Chapter, headed by
Advisor Herb Browne, conducted a Boy
Scout merit badge workshop at the school
in Denville, N.J. The Student Chapter is
affiliated with the New Jersey Section.
Shown at the Long Island Section program are (from left) Jesse Provler, Alex Duschere, Tom Garland, Ray OLeary, Chair Brian Cassidy,
District 2 Director Harland Thompson, and Ken Messemer.
Ray Sosko, advisor, Central Piedmont C.C. Student Chapter, is shown with his class.
Herb Browne (left), Morris County School
of Technology Student Chapter advisor,
works with Boy Scout Ben Smith (center)
and welding student Gehring Andrew.
AWS President Nancy Cole is shown with
Justin Heistand (left), Lancaster Section
chair, and Ed Calaman, York Section chair.
Mike Sebergandio (right) is shown with
Justin Heistand, Lancaster Section chair.
Lancaster Section members (from left) Tucker Hill, Daniel Hrizhynku, Pete Bibawy, Chair
Justin Heistand, Steve Mitchell, Josh Joyce, and Mike Sebergandio, are shown during the
Rohrers Quarry tour.
District 6
Kenneth Phy, director
(315) 218-5297
District 4
Stewart A. Harris, director
(919) 824-0520
District 5
Carl Matricardi, director
(770) 979-6344
Activity: The Section members and guests
toured Rohrers Quarry, Inc., in Lititz, Pa.,
to study the equipment and methods used
for processing limestone for agricultural,
construction, and road-building uses.
Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: The need for women in welding jobs
Activity: Nancy Cole presented Ed Cala-
man a certificate for serving as York Sec-
tion chair. Mike Sebergandio presented
Lancaster Section chair Justin Heistand
his chairman award. The event was held at
Heritage Hills Golf Resort in York, Pa.
Welding Supply, Ward Tank, Chicago
Bridge and Iron, Praxair, Airgas, Martin
Marietta, Liburdi Dimetrics, and
Colonnas Shipyard.
Activity: The Section hosted its annual
Shrimp-A-Roo outing for more than 75
members and guests at Yuengling Brew-
ery Biergarten in Tampa, Fla. Al Sedory
received the District Meritorious Award
from Carl Matricardi, District 5 director,
for his work at many District 5 conferences.
Charles Crumpton was recognized for his
services as chair. Devin Lytle received a
$750 scholarship from Alan Shissler,
scholarship chair.
Activity: The Section and Erie 1 Board of
Cooperative Educational Services
(BOCES) hosted a career fair at the school
in West Seneca, N.Y., for about 50 job
MAY 14
Activity: The Section held its past chair-
mens night program at Asian Buffet in
Dayton, Ohio. Al J. Mealey Scholarships
were awarded to Robert Lacy to study at
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
(HIWT), and to Wesley Hart to study at
The Ohio State University. Other scholar-
ships were presented to Lila Golly, Ben-
jamin Kettler, and Justin Heiland, all
studying at HIWT. Chris Lander received
a certificate of appreciation for his serv-
ices as chair.
Central Piedmont C.C.
Student Chapter
Activity: The college hosted its 13th an-
nual welding competition at the college in
Charlotte, N.C. Student Chapter Advisor
Ray Sosko and members participated, in-
cluding John Grillo, Justin Shearin, Jere-
miah Vernon, Justin Burgess, Paul Mar-
tin, Joseph Barnes, Dlip Tolani, Frank
Turner, Jayce Kinney, Connor Pohlman,
Austin Price, Ryan Moore, Trey Mitchell,
Kyle Waters, Reed ONeal, Tanner Bright,
Theo VanEssendelft, Jamey Richardson,
Samantha Vick, Matt Cooler, Seth Hogan,
Jason Greene, Richard Grady, Chad Fox,
Jason Laird, Joshua Cox, Melody Blech-
lin, William Daugherty, and Ryan Wilson.
Student welders from ten local colleges
competed with prizes donated by ESAB,
Victor, Lincoln Electric, Machine and
Florida West Coast Section board members are (from left) Robert Brewington, Charles Crumpton, Al Sedory, Bill Maknivitz, Walt Arnold,
Alan Shissler, Albert Carr, and Roger Aker.
Al Sedory (right) receives the District Meri-
torious Certificate Award from Carl Matri-
cardi, District 5 director, at the Florida West
Coast Section event.
Wesley Hart (left) receives a scholarship from
Chris Lander, Dayton Section chair.
District 3
Michael Wiswesser, director
(610) 820-9551
District 7
Uwe Aschemeier, director
(786) 473-9540
District 9
George Fairbanks Jr., director
(225) 473-6362
District 8
Joe Livesay, director
(931) 484-7502, ext. 143
JULY 2013 72
AWS President Nancy Cole is shown with
some of the Birmingham Section members. Shown at the Pascagoula Section program
are (from left) AWS President Nancy Cole,
Awardee Cynthia Harris, and George Fair-
banks, District 9 director.
Presenter Bill Faircloth (left) is shown with
Johnny Dedeaux, Mobile Section chair.
Cody Manders (right) is shown with Craig
Donnell, advisor, Whitmer Career and Tech-
nical Center Student Chapter.
Southeastern Louisiana University Student Chapter members and guests are shown with speaker Nancy Cole, AWS president.
MAY 14
Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: Careers in welding for women
Activity: Myron Laurent, education spe-
ciality and Alabama SkillsUSA director,
discussed the recent Alabama competi-
tion. Jim Casey was recognized for his
services as chair.
Lawson State C.C.
Student Chapter
Activity: Thirteen Student Chapter mem-
bers and welding students from Wallace
State C.C. participated in two events.
Corey Lehfeldt, James Foster, Ramiro
Lopez, and Ben Vining tack welded for the
competitors from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m at the
National Crafts Championship, sponsored
by Go Build Alabama and the Associated
Builders & Contractors of Alabama. At
the Alabama SkillsUSA competition,
Ramiro Lopez and Ben Vining competed
in the SkillsUSA welding competition. Vin-
ing earned the gold medal. He will partic-
ipate in the National SkillsUSA welding
competition to be held in Kansas City, Mo.
Both events were held at the Birmingham
Jefferson Convention Complex.
Activity: The Section members met at Fair-
cloth Metallurgical Services in Mobile,
Ala., for a barbecue dinner followed by a
tour of the facilities. Bill Faircloth, metal-
lurgist and owner, discussed the impor-
tance of weld procedure qualifications and
weld testing then conducted the plant tour.
Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: Women in welding
Activity: Section Vice Chair Cynthia Har-
ris received the District Educator of the
Year Award from George Fairbanks, Dis-
trict 9 director. Harris was recognized for
her outstanding work in the Moss Point
School District where she was cited for
raising the standards for welding educa-
tion in the district from the lowest to one
of the top-rated programs in the state. She
is the only woman welding instructor in the
Mississippi Public School System.
SE Louisiana University
Student Chapter
Lawson State C.C. Student Chapter mem-
bers shown at the SkillsUSA event are (from
left) Corey Lehfeldt, Ramiro Lopez, and
Benjamin Vining.
Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: Careers in welding for women
Activity: The Chapter and members of the
SLU Industrial Technology department
hosted a breakfast meeting for President
Nancy Cole and George Fairbanks, Dis-
trict 9 director, at the university in Ham-
mond, La.
Speaker: Karl Hoes, instructor
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: Welding competition vehicles
Activity: More than 25 competition vehi-
Speaker: CDR William Roth, CWI, cor-
porate welding and materials engineer
Affiliation: Proctor & Gamble
Topic: Passivation of carbon and stainless
steels for corrosion control
Activity: Colleen Schmidt received a Sec-
tion scholarship to attend Hobart Institute
of Welding Technology.
Activity: The fourth annual Lakeshore
Section student career day event was held
at Lakeshore Technical College, Cleve-
land, Wis., to promote welding as a good
career choice. Section scholarships were
presented to Aaron Parvechek and Jimmy
Dao. David Saunders received the Madi-
son-Beloit Section Educator of the Year
Activity: Ninety-four Section members and
guests toured the Caterpillar mining
shovel manufacturing facility in South Mil-
waukee, Wis.
Activity: The Section members and weld-
ing students from Gateway Technical Col-
lege toured the US Tanker-Fire Appara-
cles were on display for study. Members
also tried their skills using a VRTEX 360
virtual reality arc welding training station.
Top scorers won a welding helmet. The
program was held in Perrysburg (Toledo),
Whitmer Career and Techni-
cal Center Student Chapter
Activity: Cody Manders received the Stu-
dent Chapter Member Award from Advi-
sor Craig Donnell, CWI and CWE. Man-
ders was cited for maintaining a 3.5 GPA
in the welding program while working as
a welder-machinist at TM Tool & Die and
participating in many community service
projects. He was one of four seniors who
fabricated a solar-powered car frame for
an engineering class project.
District 10
Robert E. Brenner, director
(330) 484-3650
District 11
Robert P. Wilcox, director
(734) 721-8272
District 12
Daniel J. Roland, director
(715) 735-9341, ext. 6421
Shown at the Fox Valley Section program are (from left) Bill Hanke, Al Sherrill, Randy Schmidt, Joe Hoban, Barb Schmidt, Colleen Schmidt,
Steve Waldvogel, CDR William Roth, Louis Janzen, Patti Shreve, Jerry Sackman, William Shreve, Jeffery Bunker, and Kevin Werth.
Shown at the Lakeshore Section event are
(from left) Aaron Parvechek, David Saun-
ders, and Jimmy Dao.
Shown at the Milwaukee Section tour are (from left) Carl Senek, Karen Gilgenbach, Brian
Stone, Dale Gilbertson, Chris and Anni VanDyke, Adam Thomas, and Scott Lancelle.
JULY 2013 74
tus, Inc., facility in Delavan, Wis., to study
the manufacture of stainless steel tankers
and pumpers used in rural and suburban
fire departments.
Racine-Kenosha Section members and welding students are shown during their tour of US
Tanker Fire Apparatus.
Shown at the Chicago Section board meeting are from left (seated) Craig Tichelar, Chair
Pete Host, and Jeff Stanczak; (standing) Bob Zimny and Cliff Iftimie.
At the Mid-West Team Welding Tournament, Instructor Keith Cusey poses with his winning
team Marcus Crawford, Ryan Porter, Jordan Bird, Chad Wanless, and Brandon Gibbs.
Indiana Section officers (from left) Gary
Tucker, Chair Bennie Flynn, and Gary Dug-
ger judged the state SkillsUSA welding event.
Dean Wilson, an AWS vice president, and
Glenda Ritz spoke at the Indiana Sections
Mid-West Welding Tournament awards
Bob Zimny (left) and Pete Host, Chicago
Section chair, display the Illinois governors
welding month proclamation.
District 13
John Willard, director
(815) 954-4838
District 14
Robert L. Richwine, director
(765) 378-5378
Activity: Jeff Noruk gave a presentation
on the Wiki-SCAN, a hand-held, laser-
based welding inspection system for use in
the field. Bob Zimny and Chair Pete Host
displayed a proclamation signed by Illinois
Governor Pat Quinn declaring April as
welding month in the state.
Activity: The board members met at Hog
Wild Restaurant to review applications for
Section scholarships. Participating were
Chair Pete Host, Craig Tichelar, Jeff
Stanczak, Bob Zimny, and Cliff Iftimie.
APRIL 19, 20
Activity: The Section conducted the Indi-
ana state SkillsUSA welding contest. Serv-
ing as judges were Chair Bennie Flynn,
Gary Tucker, Gary Dugger, and Tony Bro-
sio. The teams from New Castle Area Ca-
reer Programs and Ivy Tech C.C. won trips
to attend the National SkillsUSA contests.
APRIL 14, 25
Speaker: Dean Wilson, AWS VP
Affiliation: Well-Dean Enterprises
Topic: Welding as a career
Activity: The Section held its 35th annual
Mid-West Team Welding Tournament at J.
Everett Light Career Center (JELCC).
Judges included District 14 Director Bob
Richwine, Chair Bennie Flynn, Gary
Tucker, Gary Dugger, Tony Brosio, and
Richard Alley, a past AWS president. Eric
Cooper from JELCC and David Jackson
from Indiana Oxygen Corp. organized the
event. The top three teams represented
Heartland Career Center, 4-County Ca-
reer Center, and New Castle Area Career
Programs. Dean Wilson, AWS vice presi-
dent, and Glenda Ritz, superintendent of
public instruction, spoke at the event.
Activity: ESAB presented a program on
automated welding at Bluegrass Commu-
nity and Technical College in Lexington,
Ky., for 30 attendees.
Activity: The Section hosted its annual
mini welding show to display the latest in
safety, testing, welding tools, and technol-
ogy. Representatives from several compa-
nies provided demonstrations of their
Shown at the Lexington Section program are (from left) Chair Coy Hall, Welding Instructor
Sherman Cook, Eric McCracken, Kayla Lovell, and Tim Nicely.
St. Louis-area vendors are shown at the mini welding show in March.
Shown at the St. Louis Section event are (from left) Chair Tully Parker, Joe Grinston, Brandi
Phelps, Tiffany Turnbo, Charles Siebert, Brandon Shelton, Matthew Lockhart, Wesley John-
son, Brandon Hays, David Gill, and Christopher Crain.
Students recognized by the St. Louis Section are (from left) Instructor Joe Candela, Nick
Vallejo, Tyler Scott, Instructor Kevin Corgan, Mitchel McFarland, and Cameron Medley.
products and technical expertise. The
event was held at the Hil Bax Technical
Center at Cee Kay Supply, Inc., in St.
Louis, Mo.
Speaker: Pat Cody, welding engineer
Affiliation: Ameren (ret.)
Topic: The SkillsUSA welding competition
Activity: Section and Hil Bax scholarships
were presented to Joe Grinston, Brandi
Phelps, Tiffany Turnbo, Charles Siebert,
Brandon Shelton, Matthew Lockhart,
Wesley Johnson, Brandon Hays, David
Gill, and Christopher Crain. Student
awards were presented to Nick Vallejo,
Tyler Scott, Mitchel McFarland, and
Cameron Medley by their instructors Joe
Candela and Kevin Corgan.
Speaker Pat Cody (right) is shown with Tully
Parker, St. Louis Section chair.
JULY 2013 76
Shown at the Saskatoon Section event are
(from left) Scott Krieg, Eric Krueger, Chair
Ike Oguocha, and Huawei Guo.
Ike Oguocha (left) receives his chairman ap-
preciation certificate from Huawei Guo at
the Saskatoon Section program.
Nebraska Section members are shown with the Boy Scouts they trained to earn their welding merit badges.
Nebraska Section members are shown at Joes Karting in April.
Shown at the Central Arkansas program are (from left) Drake Collins,Chance Johnson,
Vice Chair Dennis Pickering, Kory House, Dillon Dugan, and Jimmy Allison.
Attendees are shown at the Tulsa Section-sponsored CWI training class.
Angela Harrison from Welsco receives the
Honorary Lifetime Member award from Ray
Winiecki, Arkansas SkillsUSA director, at
the Central Arkansas Section program.
Scott Blom demonstrated a soldering tech-
nique at the East Texas Section program.
District 15
David Lynnes, director
(701) 365-0606
District 16
Dennis Wright, director
(913) 782-0635
Ernest Levert, AWS past president, ad-
dressed the North Texas Section in April.
Houston Section Vice Chair Derek Stelly
(left) is shown with speaker Jean-Marc
Activity: Ike Oguocha received an appre-
ciation award for his services as chair from
Treasurer Huawei Guo. The presentation
took place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan,
Activity: The Section visited Joes Karting
in Council Bluffs, Iowa, to celebrate Na-
tional Welding Month. The Section, in
conjunction with Metropolitan Commu-
nity College and The Lincoln Electric Co.
taught a group of Boy Scouts how to weld
to help them earn their welding merit
Activity: The Section members manned a
booth at the SkillsUSA event held at Hot
Springs Convention Center in Hot Springs,
Ark. The District Director Award was pre-
sented to Jimmy Brewer from UA Local
155. Section Meritorious Awards were pre-
sented to Matt Fair from UA Local 155,
Monte Breedenfrom UA Local 29, and An-
gela Harrison from Welsco. Michael
Dugan from the University of Arkansas,
Ft. Smith, received the Section Educator
Award, accepted in his absence by his son
Dillon Dugan. Ray Winiecki, SkillsUSA
director for Arkansas, presented an award
to Welsco, Inc., for its 27 years of service
and contributions to the Arkansas Skills-
USA welding competitions.
Speaker: Scott Blom, district sales man-
Affiliation: The Harris Products Group
Topic: Materials and techniques for sol-
dering and brazing dissimilar metals
Activity: Following the lecture, the atten-
dees had a hands-on opportunity to braze
and solder dissimilar metals. The program
was held at Tyler Jr. College in Tyler, Tex.
Speaker: Ernest Levert, AWS past presi-
Affiliation: Lockheed Martin, senior staff
manufacturing engineer
Topic: New trends in welding
Activity: The program was held in Grand
Prairie, Tex.
Activity: The Section sponsored a CWI
preparatory class for 27 students. Ray
Wilsdorf and Ralph Johnson taught the
class at Tulsa Technology Center, Lemley
Campus, in Tulsa, Okla.
Some of the attendees are shown at the Alaska Section student night event.
District 17
J. Jones, director
(832) 506-5986
District 18
John Bray, director
(281) 997-7273
Speakers: Jean-Marc Tetevuide and John
Evans, general manager and technology
manager, respectively
Affiliation: Plasma Technology Automa-
tion & Materials
Topic: Hardfacing using lasers and plasma
transferred arc welding
Activity: The program was held at Bradys
Landing in Houston, Tex.
Speaker: Kalen Hollinberger
Affiliation: Kiewit Building Group
Topic: Bridges and other projects built by
Activity: More than 60 people attended
this student night event that offered infor-
mation on careers in welding, advanced
welding processes, and existing welding
jobs in the area.
District 19
Ken Johnson, director
(425) 957-3553
JULY 2013 78
Pat Newhouse presents the chairman appre-
ciation certificate to Steve Prost at the British
Columbia Section program.
The winning team in the District 19 Stump
the Experts contest included (from left)
Jared Satterlund, Mark Lynch, and Phil Za-
mmit. Chris Lynch holds the trophy.
Speaker Bob Heffernan (left) is shown with
Ken Johnson, District 19 director, at the
Puget Sound Section program.
Bien Irizarry discussed the casting process for the Central New Mexico C. C. Student Chap-
ter members in April.
The New Mexico Section members are shown at the Albuquerque Airgas facility in May.
Shown at the Puget Sound Section program
are (from left) District 19 Director Ken John-
son, Steve Nielsen, Art Schnitzer, Steve Pol-
lard, and Dave Edwards.
District 19 Section officers are shown at the District 19 conference hosted by the Inland Em-
pire Section.
Speaker Bob Miller (left) is shown with Steve
Prost, British Columbia Section chair.
Boy Scouts in Troop 895 earned their welding merit badges with the help of the Utah Sec-
tion. Shown are (from left) Travis Harding, Brady Horstmann, Jesus Acosta, Rob Hansen,
William Mortensen,Campbell Hall, and Bart Mortensen.
L.A./Inland Empire officers are (from left) Tim Serviss, Tim Chubbs, Robert Doiron, Che
Chancy, Ladon Gilbert, Kenny Reid, Mariana Ludmer, and George Rolla.
Long Beach/Orange County Section members are shown at their April meeting.
Eric Budwig, chair of the Long Beach/Orange County Section, presents a certificate of ap-
preciation to Phil Fulgenzi and his team of Lincoln Electric representatives.
Speaker: Bob Miller, materials engineer
Affiliation: Postle Industries, Inc.
Topic: Tungsten carbide hardfacing
Activity: Steve Prost received a certificate
of appreciation for his services as chair
from Pat Newhouse. The catered dinner
and program were held at UA Piping In-
dustry College of British Columbia in
Delta, B.C., Canada.
District 19 Conference
Activity: The annual Stump the Experts
contest was held on the eve of the District
conference in Pasco, Wash. The winning
team featured Phil Zammit (Spokane Sec-
tion), Jared Satterlund (Puget Sound Sec-
tion), and Mark Lynch (Portland Section).
The conference, hosted by the Inland Em-
pire Section, featured a tour of the Laser
Inferometer Gravitational Wave Observa-
tory (LIGO) in Richland, Wash.
Speaker: Bob Heffernan, welding applica-
tions engineer
Affiliation: Praxair
Topic: Laser cutting using carbon dioxide
Activity: The incoming slate of officers was
elected: Dan Sheets, chair; Ken Johnson
and Robert White, vice chairs; Dave Ed-
wards, secretary; Steve Nielsen, treasurer,
Gary Mancel, membership chair; Steve
Pollard, technical and newsletter chair;
and Art Schnitzer, publicity chair. The
event was held at Rock Salt Steak House
in Seattle, Wash.
MAY 15
Activity: Forty-two Section members and
guests met at Spokane Community Col-
lege welding lab where Phillip Formento
from ESAB demonstrated the submerged
arc welding process.
JULY 2013 80
The San Fernando Valley Section members are shown during their Aero Bending Co. tour.
Essen, Germany
SEPT. 1117
66th IIW Annual Assembly
2013 Intl Trade Fair
Joining, Cutting, Surfacing
SEPT. 16, 17
Intl Conf. on Automation in Welding
SEPT. 1621
Young Welders Competitions
Central New Mexico C. C.
Student Chapter
Activity: The Chapter members visited the
Shidoni Bronze Foundry in Tesque, N.
Mex. Bien Irizarry led the tour and ex-
plained the steps in the casting process.
Activity: The Section met at MEGA Corp.
in Albuquerque, N. Mex., for talks on
welding plastic pipes. The presenters were
Herb Smith and Dean Rogers.
MAY 16
Speaker: Steve Mize
Affiliation: Airgas
Topic: Welding gas mixtures
Activity: This New Mexico Section event
was held at Airgas in Albuquerque, N.
Activity: The Section assisted Boy Scouts
in Troop 895, West Point, Utah, to earn
their welding merit badges. Travis Hard-
ing, special process engineer, headed the
training program. The event was held at
the Weber Applied Technology Center in
Ogden, Utah.
held at Aero Bending Co. in Palmdale,
Calif., hosted by Robert Burns, president.
Following the talk, Burns guided the mem-
bers on a tour of the facility that special-
izes in precision tube bending for the aero-
space industry.
Speaker: Phillip Fulgenzi, district man-
Affiliation: Lincoln Electric Center
Topic: Job opportunities for welders
Activity: After the talk, Fulgenzi and his
team conducted hands-on demonstrations
of plasma cutting machines, wire feeders,
and robotic welding equipment. The meet-
ing was held at the Lincoln Electric Cen-
ter in Santa Fe Springs, Calif.
Activity: The Sections board met to dis-
cuss the upcoming District 21 conference
and to introduce new board members Tim
Chubbs and Ladon Gilbert. Others at-
tending were Tim Serviss, Robert Doiron,
Che Chancy, Kenny Reid, George Rolla,
and Mariana Ludmer.
Speaker: Neil Chapman, lead welding en-
Affiliation: Entergy Northeast
Topic: Welding repairs in nuclear power
Activity: The dinner and meeting were
District 20
William A. Komlos, director
(801) 560-2353
District 21
Nanette Samanich, director
(702) 429-5017
District 22
Kerry E. Shatell, director
(925) 866-5434
Guide to AWS Services
American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166
(800/305) 443-9353; FAX (305) 443-7559; www.aws.org
Staff phone extensions are shown in parentheses.
Nancy C. Cole
NCC Engineering
2735 Robert Oliver Ave.
Fernandina Beach, FL 32034
Executive Director
Ray W. Shook.. rshook@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(210)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253)
Chief Financial Officer
Gesana Villegas.. gvillegas@aws.org . . . . . .(252)
Chief Marketing Officer
Bill Fudale..bfudale@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(211)
Chief Technology Officer
Dennis Harwig..dharwig@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(213)
Executive Assistant for Board Services
Gricelda Manalich.. gricelda@aws.org . . . . .(294)
Administrative Services
Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. jiml@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(214)
IT Network Director
Armando Campana..acampana@aws.org . .(296)
Hidail Nuez..hidail@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(287)
Director of IT Operations
Natalia Swain..nswain@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(245)
Human Resources
Director, Compensation and Benefits
Luisa Hernandez.. luisa@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(266)
Director, Human Resources
Dora A. Shade.. dshade@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(235)
International Institute of Welding
Senior Coordinator
Sissibeth Lopez . . sissi@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(319)
Liaison services with other national and international
societies and standards organizations.
Hugh K. Webster . . . . . . . . .hwebster@wc-b.com
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C.,
(202) 785-9500; FAX (202) 835-0243. Monitors fed-
eral issues of importance to the industry.
Director, Convention and Meeting Services
Matthew Rubin.....mrubin@aws.org . . . . . . .(239)
ITSA International Thermal
Spray Association
Senior Manager and Editor
Kathy Dusa.kathydusa@thermalspray.org . . .(232)
RWMA Resistance Welding
Manufacturing Alliance
Management Specialist
Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)
WEMCO Association of
Welding Manufacturers
Management Specialist
Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)
Brazing and Soldering
Manufacturers Committee
Jeff Weber.. jweber@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)
GAWDA Gases and Welding
Distributors Association
Executive Director
John Ospina.. jospina@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(462)
Operations Manager
Natasha Alexis.. nalexis@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(401)
Managing Director, Global Exposition Sales
Joe Krall..jkrall@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297)
Corporate Director, International Sales
Jeff P. Kamentz..jkamentz@aws.org . . . . . . .(233)
Oversees international business activities involving
certification, publication, and membership.
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)
Managing Director
Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)
Welding Journal
Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)
Mary Ruth Johnsen.. mjohnsen@aws.org . .(238)
National Sales Director
Rob Saltzstein.. salty@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . .(243)
Society and Section News Editor
Howard Woodward..woodward@aws.org . .(244)
Welding Handbook
Annette OBrien.. aobrien@aws.org . . . . . . .(303)
Ross Hancock.. rhancock@aws.org . . . . . . .(226)
Public Relations Manager
Cindy Weihl..cweihl@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(416)
Jose Salgado..jsalgado@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(456)
Section Web Editor
Henry Chinea...hchinea@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(452)
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253)
Rhenda A. Kenny... rhenda@aws.org . . . . . .(260)
Serves as a liaison between Section members and AWS
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Managing Director
John L. Gayler.. gayler@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(472)
Oversees all certification activities including all inter-
national certification programs.
Director, Certification Operations
Terry Perez..tperez@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Oversees application processing, renewals, and exam
Director, Certification Programs
Linda Henderson..lindah@aws.org . . . . . . .(298)
Oversees the development of new certification pro-
grams, as well as AWS-Accredited Test Facilities, and
AWS Certified Welding Fabricators.
Director, Operations
Martica Ventura.. mventura@aws.org . . . . . .(224)
Director, Education Development
David Hernandez.. dhernandez@aws.org . . .(219)
Senior Manager
Wendy S. Reeve.. wreeve@aws.org . . . . . . . .(293)
Coordinates AWS awards, Fellow, Counselor nom-
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)
Managing Director
Technical Services Development & Systems
Andrew R. Davis.. adavis@aws.org . . . . . . .(466)
International Standards Activities, American Coun-
cil of the International Institute of Welding (IIW)
Director, Technical Services Operations
Annette Alonso.. aalonso@aws.org . . . . . . .(299)
Associate Director, Technical Services Operations
Alex Diaz.... adiaz@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)
Welding Qualification, Sheet Metal Welding, Air-
craft and Aerospace, Joining of Metals and Alloys
Manager, Safety and Health
Stephen P. Hedrick.. steveh@aws.org . . . . . .(305)
Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plas-
tics and Composites, Welding Iron Castings, Per-
sonnel and Facilities Qualification
Managing Engineer, Standards
Brian McGrath .... bmcgrath@aws.org . . . . .(311)
Structural Welding, Methods of Inspection, Me-
chanical Testing of Welds, Welding in Marine Con-
struction, Piping and Tubing
Senior Staff Engineer
Rakesh Gupta.. gupta@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(301)
Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International
Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc
Welding and Cutting Processes
Standards Program Managers
Efram Abrams.. eabrams@aws.org . . . . . . . .(307)
Thermal Spray, Automotive, Resistance Welding,
Machinery and Equipment
Stephen Borrero... sborrero@aws.org . . . . .(334)
Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and
Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook,
Railroad Welding, Definitions and Symbols
Patrick Henry.. phenry@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(215)
Friction Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cut-
ting, High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Weld-
ing, Welding in Sanitary Applications
Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards
may be obtained only by sending a request in writ-
ing to Andrew R. Davis, managing director, Tech-
nical Services, adavis@aws.org.
Oral opinions on AWS standards may be ren-
dered, however, oral opinions do not constitute of-
ficial or unofficial opinions or interpretations of
AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and
should not be used as a substitute for an official
General Information
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212, vpinsky@aws.org
Chairman, Board of Trustees
Gerald D. Uttrachi
Executive Director, Foundation
Sam Gentry.. sgentry@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)
Corporate Director, Workforce Development
Monica Pfarr.. mpfarr@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (461)
The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corpora-
tion established to provide support for the educa-
tional and scientific endeavors of the American Weld-
ing Society.
Promote the Foundations work with your financial
support. For information, call Vicki Pinsky, (800/305)
443-9353, ext. 212; e-mail vpinsky@aws.org.
Lincoln Promotes Two to
Fill Key Sales Posts
Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc., Cleve-
land, Ohio, has promoted Michael S.
Mintun to VP sales and marketing
North America, and Phil Bouchard to
U.S. sales manager. Previously, Mintun
served as VP of sales North America
and Bouchard was north central regional
MSCI Elects Chair
The Metals Service Center Institute
(MSCI), Rolling Meadows, Ill., has
elected David H. Hannah, previously vice
chair, to chairman of the board. He suc-
ceeds Michael H. Hoffman, vice chair of
Kloeckner Metals, who served in the post
for two years. Hannah is chairman and
CEO of Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co.
in Los Angeles, Calif. Brian R. Hedges
was named a new vice chair. He is presi-
dent and CEO of Russel Metals, Inc.,
Mississauga, Ont., Canada.
Fronius Fills Three Sales
Fronius USA, LLC, Portage, Ind., a
manufacturer of welding equipment, has
promoted Vadim Nakonechnyy to area
sales manager for its southeast region,
responsible for Georgia, Florida, the
Carolinas, Virginia, and West Virginia.
Kevin Barton was hired as sales/applica-
tion engineer for its Chattanooga, Tenn.,
office, filling Nakonechnyys former po-
sition. Barton has nine years experience
as a CNC machinist and robot program-
mer. Matthew Chynoweth, a recent Fer-
ris State University welding technology
graduate, was hired as a sales/system en-
gineer, based in the Portage office.
Mazak Optonics Names
Southwest Sales Manager
Mazak Optonics
Corp, Elgin, Ill., a
provider of laser
cutting systems,
has named David
Widlund regional
sales manager for
its southwest terri-
tory, including Ari-
zona, New Mexico,
Texas, Oklahoma,
Kansas, Missouri,
Arkansas, and Louisiana. Widlund has
12 years experience in the sheet metal
fabrication industry, laser production
management, direct sales, and most re-
cently as a regional sales manager.
Michael Mintun
JULY 2013 84
Phil Bouchard
V. Nakonechnyy Kevin Barton
Matthew Chynoweth
David Widlund
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
Edward N. C. Dalder
Edward N. C. Dalder, an AWS Gold
Member, affiliated with the San Fran-
cisco Section, has been recognized by
Continental Whos Who as a Pinnacle Pro-
fessional in the field of engineering. He
was cited for his achievements as vice
president of Dalder Materials Consult-
ing, Inc., in the areas of welding engi-
neering, failure analysis, metallurgy and
process selection, and accident recon-
struction. His papers have been pub-
lished in the Welding Journal, Materials
Transactions, and Cryogenic Engineering
Conference Proceedings. Dalder earned
his PhD in welding engineering from The
Ohio State University.
Ernest D. Levert Sr.
Ernest D. Levert Sr., an AWS past
president and member of the North Texas
Section, has been named one of 180 of
the nations top African American scien-
tists by The HistoryMakers. Levert was
chosen as a positive role model whose
life story will be used to encourage oth-
ers to enter scientific professions. His
biography is posted online at www.thehis-
Levert is a senior staff manufacturing en-
gineer at Lockheed Martin Missiles, Fire
Control Div., Dallas, Tex., where he re-
ceived its NOVA Award for Outstanding
Leadership. He has worked on the
Space Shuttle, International Space Station,
Multiple Launch
Rocket System, and
the Army Tactical
Missile System. He
chaired IIW Com-
mission IV, Power
Beam Processes,
and was 2007 presi-
dent of the Federa-
tion of Material So-
cieties. He has con-
tributed to the AWS
Welding Handbook
and Boy Scouts of America Welding Merit
Badge Book. The Ohio State University
School of Engineering awarded him its
Outstanding and Distinguished Alumni
Ernest Levert Sr.
Member Milestones
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
William Thomas Phillips
William Thomas Phillips, 79, died
May 9. A long-time resident of
Northville, Mich., he was founder and
chairman of the board of Phillips Serv-
ice Industries, Inc., Livonia, Mich., the
$130-million parent company of POW-
ERTHRU, Beaver Aerospace & De-
fense, Sciaky, Inc., Evana Automation
S p e c i a l i s t s ,
Mountain Se-
cure Systems,
and Skytronics,
Inc. During the
Korean War,
he served as a
hydraulic tech-
nician and line
chief in the
U.S. Air Force,
based in New-
f o u n d l a n d ,
Robert J. Dybas
Robert J. Dybas,
an AWS Gold Mem-
ber, died March 19 in
Niskayuna, N.Y. He
served as chair of the
AWS Northern New
York Section where
he received the Mer-
itorious Certificate
Award. At GE, he re-
ceived its Industrial
and Power Systems Engineering Award.
Gordon Eugene Smith
Gordon Eugene Smith, 65, died
March 21 in Columbus, Ohio. In 1977,
he became one of the first ASNT Certi-
fied NDT Level III engineers. He worked
for Marion Power Shovel, GE Plastics,
ASNT in the area of personnel certifica-
tion and qualification, and H.C.Nutting
Co. as design consultant. Most recently,
Smith was senior engineer with Jones-
Stuckey, Ltd., Inc., a civil engineering
firm. He has authored numerous publi-
cations on inspection and the prevention
of cracking in bridge structures.
Randal Keith Easterwood
Randal Keith Easterwood, 58, died
March 30 in Mesa,
Ariz. In the U.S. Air
Force he trained
welders. Later, he
joined Honeywell
Aerospace where he
worked his entire ca-
reer, serving as an
engineer in the Ma-
terial and Process
Engineering depart-
ment and conduct-
ing training worldwide. Easterwood was
active with SkillsUSA at the state and na-
tional levels, where he participated in
welding contests for more than 25
JULY 2013 86
Robert Dybas
William Phillips
R. K. Easterwood
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For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

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An Association of Welding Manufacturers
Pictured at the 2012 Image of Welding Awards
(from left) are Ernest D. Levert (Individual); David Parker (Educator); Allie Reynolds (Distributor, WELSCO); David Corbin (Large Business, Vermeer Corp.); and
Glenn Kay (Educational Facility, Washtenaw Community College). (Not shown are the Small Business, AWS Section, and Media winners.)
2012 IOW Distributor Award Winner
Vermeer Manufacturing
2012 IOW Large Business Award Winner
AWS Houston Section
2012 AWS IOW Section Award Winner
Entry deadline is July 31, 2013
For more information and to submit a nomination
form online, visit www.aws.org/awards/image.html
or call 800-443-9353.
The Image of Welding Awards Program recognizes outstanding
achievement in the following categories:
Know an individual, company, educator, or educational
facility that exemplifies what welding is all about?
Nominate them!

(you or other individual)

(AWS local chapter)

Large Business
(200 or more employees)

Small Business
(less than 200 employees)

(welding products)

(welding teacher at an institution, facility, etc.)

Educational Facility
(any organization that conducts welding
education or training)

(imagpromoting article or news broadcast)

Glenn Kay (Educational Facility
(from left) are Ernest D. Levert (Individual); David Parker (Educator);

ashtenaw Community College). (Not shown are the Small Business, , W ducational Facilityy
(from left) are Ernest D. Levert (Individual); David Parker (Educator);
Pictured at the

ashtenaw Community College). (Not shown are the Small Business,
, WEL Allie Reynolds (Distributorr (from left) are Ernest D. Levert (Individual); David Parker (Educator);
wards A elding 2012 Image of W We Pictured at the

WS Section, and Media winners.) A ashtenaw Community College). (Not shown are the Small Business,
, WELSCO); David Corbin (Large Business, V

WS Section, and Media winners.)
ermeer Corp.); and , WELSCO); David Corbin (Large Business, V

A WS IOW Section A 2012
WS Houston Section A

ward Winner A

eld WWe
e Image of
hievement in the

achievement in the following categories:
wards Program recognize AAw ding

es outstanding

ward Winner A 2012 IOW Distributor

ard Winn

(less than 200 employees)
(200 or more employees)
WS local chapter) (A AW
(you or other individual)
Large Busin
Small Busin

promoting article or news broadcast) imag (

education or training)
(any organization that conducts welding
Educational Facility

(welding teacher at an institution, facility


(welding products)

(less than 200 employees)

Small Business
(200 or more employees)
Large Business
(you or other individual)

promoting article or news broadcast)
(any organization that conducts welding
Educational Facility
, etc.) (welding teacher at an institution, facility

2012 IOW Large Business
ermeer Manufacturing V

A 2012 IOW Large Business
ermeer Manufacturing

or call 800-443-9353.
form online, visit
For more information and to submit a nomination

or call 800-443-9353.
g/awards/image.html .aws.or www form online, visit
For more information and to submit a nomination

For more information and to submit a nomination
OCT. 1 4, 2013 So Paulo
Trade Show and Congress
Essen Trade Shows
Karen Vogelsang
Tel. +1. 914. 962-1310
In cooperation with:
JUNE 2528, 2013
MAY 2014
JUNE 1821, 2013
OCT. 2830, 2014
JAN. 1013, 2015
SEPT. 16 21, 2013

For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

ILMO Products Co., Jacksonville, Ill., an industrial gases dis-
tributor, is celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2013. It sur-
prised all 97 employees with $100 on the 100th day of the year.
Iron Man 3 features Lincoln Electric welding equipment used
by actor Robert Downey Jr.s character, Tony Stark/Iron Man,
to fabricate his armored suit, various tools, and weapons.
Hyundai Heavy Industries has developed mini welding robots
for building ships. The design measures 50 30 15 cm when
its welding arm is retracted. The robot has six joints as well.
ESAB Cutting Systems, Florence, S.C., has been awarded the
2013 Gold Stevie Award for sales and customer service, recog-
nized as the Sales Turnaround of the Year. ESAB Welding
& Cutting Products has also launched a blog that will feature
posts on CNC cutting systems and various processes.
Lucas-Milhaupt, Inc., has acquired the assets of Wolverine
Joining Technologies, Warwick, R.I. It will operate as Lucas-
Milhaupt Warwick LLC and provide the company with a pri-
mary domestic mill for brazing consumables.
More than 1400 experts recently gathered in Livonia, Mich., at
the Great Designs in Steel seminar. More than 35 presenta-
tions on all aspects of advanced high-strength steel design, de-
velopment, and use showed the future for these materials.
Operations have gone live at Industrial Scientifics newly leased
19,500-sq-ft facility near Pittsburgh, Pa. It supports global or-
ders with regional manufacturing and instrument repair.
PFERD, Leominster, Mass., has a new tool mobile program in
North America. Application specialists have the resources to
instantly address and troubleshoot challenges on-site.
Workshops for Warriors, San Diego, Calif., a metalworking
training facility for veterans, has earned accreditation from
the National Institute for Metalworking Skills.
Freudenberg Sealing Technologies laser welding process has
won a Manufacturing Leadership 100 Sustainability Award
from Frost & Sullivans Manufacturing Leadership Council.
SMS Meer, Germany, has received an order from California
Steel Industries for delivering a 24-in., high-frequency tube
welding line. It will be brought into service in 2014.
USA Tank has expanded its manufacturing capabilities to in-
clude shop welded tanks. This division will be located in Good-
man, Mo., in the 100,000-sq-ft manufacturing facility.
Great Falls College Montana State University recently an-
nounced a $30,000 donation from General Distributing Co. to
be used, in part, for supporting the welding programs needs.
Many robotic welding enhancements, including new fixtures
and add-ons, have been made to Gilchrist Metal Fabricating
Co.s 70,000-sq-ft metal fabrication facility in Hudson, N.H.
Tom Spika and Spika Welding, a small, family enterprise, re-
ceived the first Manufacturer of the Year award in Helena pre-
sented by the Montana Manufacturing Council.
continued from page 12
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index
color images, a broad range of accessories
to enhance materials testing systems. The
420-page catalog features detailed prod-
uct information on grips, extensometers,
fixtures, environmental chambers, load
cells, furnaces, and other materials test-
ing accessories. Many items in the catalog
can be adapted to suit testing equipment
from other manufacturers. Highlighted is
the new AutoX 750 automatic extensome-
ter and Bluehill TrendTracker used for
managing and analyzing test results.
(800) 564-8378
Weld Shaver Features
Adjustable Depth of Cut
The WS90 weld shaver is hand-held,
operates at 2.3 hp, and weighs 12 lb. It uses
indexable carbide inserts in a milling cut-
ting tool to remove weld beads from both
flat butt-joint welds and inside 90 deg fil-
let welds. The new model also features an
adjustable depth of cut and an adjustable
fence, making it easy to remove only a
weld bead and not the surrounding pri-
mary materials.
Heck Industries
(810) 632-5400
Monitor Measures Oxygen
down to 1 Part/Million
The PurgEye 300 Nano Weld Purge
has been updated to read
down to 1 part/million using a new-style
zirconia sensor. Designed for personnel
in welding and quality departments, this
monitor is suitable for weld purging of all
stainless, duplex, and superduplex steels,
as well as titanium, zirconium, and nickel
alloys. It has many applications for weld
purging tube and pipe joints, either with
manual or orbital welding techniques, and
welding chambers, boxes, and enclosures
to ensure the internal atmosphere is re-
duced to 10 parts/million of oxygen or less.
Huntingdon Fusion Techniques Ltd.
(800) 431-1311
Power Units Useful for
Many Electronic Devices
The Power Swap System allows the
companys NB Series workstations to op-
erate 24 h a day with no recharging break.
The workstations, which can run comput-
ers, printers, scales, testers, scanners, and
other electronic hardware, provide AC
power without extension cords or ceiling
drops. The system is useful for facilities
with multiple work shifts or applications
that draw enough power to shorten typi-
cal battery life. The power units are on
swivel casters, and their connectors work
with the workstations ports. They include
a UL- and CSA-approved inverter/
charger package and digital remote meter
with a color-coded LED display.
Newcastle Systems
(781) 935-3450
Shield Protects Analyzers
Detector Window
The Titan Detector Shield, a patent
pending accessory, protects the detector
window from being punctured by sharp
objects like scrap shavings and wires, while
allowing analysis of almost any material.
It also minimizes the chance that the de-
tector will be damaged. This does not sac-
rifice the instruments analytical perform-
ance, even for light elements like magne-
sium, aluminum, and silicon. The shield
is available for both the S1 Titan
based analyzer, as well as the S1 Titan
Si-PIN based analyzer. This optional ac-
cessory can be ordered with either model
when buying a new unit.
Bruker Corp.
(509) 783-9850
Downdraft Tables Contain
Flame-Retardant Filters
The companys downdraft tables pro-
tect workers from smoke, fumes, and par-
ticles generated during grinding, welding,
or sanding. They are designed to pass pol-
lutants and sparks over water pans to pro-
tect the filters and reduce fire risk. Flame-
retardant cartridge filters are standard.
They are made of 100% spunbond poly-
ester and remove particulates down to 0.5
micron with a 99.95% efficiency rate. A
jet pulse system cleans the filters using
compressed air. The standard table top is
4-in. steel plate. Holes around the tops
perimeter create a higher air flow near the
spark shield and work area. The tables are
available from 26 35 in. for small or sin-
gle work cells to a large 48 96 in. table.
Denray Machine, Inc.
(800) 766-8263
continued from page 26


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ALM Materials Handling Positioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
www.almmh.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(815) 673-5546
Arc Machines, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
www.arcmachines.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(818) 896-9556
Arcos Industries, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC
www.arcos.us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 233-8460
AWS Education Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62, 92, 96
www.aws.org/education/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353
AWS Membership Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90, 94
www.aws.org/membership/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353
Bonal Technologies, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
www.Meta-Lax.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 638-2529
Camfil Air Pollution Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
www.camfilapc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 479-6801
Champion Welding Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
www.championwelding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 321-9353
CM Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
www.cmindustries.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(847) 550-0033
Commercial Diving Academy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
www.commercialdivingacademy.com . . . . . . . . . . .(888) 974-2232
Cor-Met . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
www.cor-met.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 848-2719
Diamond Ground Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
www.diamondground.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(805) 498-3837
ESAB Welding and Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
www.esabna.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 372-2123
ESSEN Welding Show/Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
www.schweissen-schneiden.com . . . . . . . . . . . .001-914-962-1310
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Fischer Engineering Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
www.fischerengr.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(937) 754-1750
Fronius USA, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
www.fronius-usa.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(877) 376-6487
Gedik Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
www.gedikwelding.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+90 216 378 50 00
Greiner Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
www.greinerindustries.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 782-2110
Gullco International, Inc. - U.S.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
www.gullco.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(440) 439-8333
Harris Products Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
www.harrisproductsgroup.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 733-4043
Hobart Inst. of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
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Image of Welding/WEMCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
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JULY 2013 98
To reduce vehicle weight and improve
fuel efficiency, high-strength steels are in-
creasingly used in the automotive industry.
These steels are usually coated with zinc,
which provides an excellent corrosion re-
sistance for a typical guarantee of up to
ten years corrosion protection for auto-
motive body panels. However, the pres-
ence of zinc coating in the metal sheets
poses several severe issues for welding.
When welding the zinc-coated steels in a
gap-free lap joint configuration, a highly-
pressurized zinc vapor is readily produced
at the interface of two coated metal sheets
because of the lower boiling point of zinc
(906C) compared to the melting point of
steel (above 1300C). If the generation of
zinc vapor at the interface of the metal
sheets is not suppressed, various weld dis-
crepancies such as spatter and porosity will
be produced during welding. Conse-
quently, the resultant mechanical proper-
ties are degraded, and repair is usually
required after the welding process.
With respect to high welding speeds
and low heat input, various laser welding
techniques have attracted tremendous at-
tention from industry. In the past several
decades, many efforts were made around
the world in order to achieve a sound weld
in zinc-coated steels. The American Weld-
ing Society set a standard of removing the
zinc coating layer at the interface of metal
sheets completely, prior to welding zinc-
coated steels (Refs. 1, 2). A common way
for industries to weld zinc-coated steels is
to include a spacer with the thickness of
about 0.10.2 mm at the interface of metal
sheets. The gap created by the spacer fa-
cilitates the zinc vapor escape from the in-
terface of metal sheets resulting in
high-quality welds (Ref. 3). Alloying the
zinc with copper is another way to weld
zinc-coated steels (Ref. 4). Before the
steel is melted, a zinc-copper compound is
formed, which has a higher melting point
(1083C) than the boiling point of zinc.
Hence, the formation of highly pressur-
ized zinc vapor is avoided. Similarly, a thin
aluminum alloy foil was set along the weld
line at the interface of metal sheets in
order to alloy the zinc. Under the heat
from the laser, an Al-Zn compound was
formed, resulting in a reduced pressure
level of zinc vapor (Refs. 5, 6). One po-
tential issue for using this method was that
the mechanical properties of welds could
be degraded by excessive dissolution of
aluminum into the welds (Refs. 5, 6). In
addition, methods of depositing a nickel
coating having a high melting point along
the weld line at the interface of metal
sheets (Refs. 7, 8), using dual beam or two
lasers (Refs. 913), pulsed laser (Ref. 14),
and hybrid laser welding (Refs. 1419),
have been proposed to weld zinc-coated
steels. Wang et al. (Ref. 20) proposed a
method of using a laser to cut a slot for the
zinc vapor to escape from the interface of
the metal sheets and using the second
laser to weld the metal sheets. Speranza et
al. (Ref. 21) suggested a method of intro-
ducing a metal powder, which can alloy
with the zinc, into the molten pool pro-
duced by the laser beam, thereby reducing
the weld porosity and spatter.
Recently, Yang et al. (Ref. 22) devel-
oped a hybrid laser arc welding process
that employed a gas tungsten arc welding
Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council
Vacuum-Assisted Laser Welding of
Zinc-Coated Steels in a Gap-Free
Lap Joint Configuration
High-quality welds were produced with a new laser process that stabilized
the keyhole to allow the zinc vapors to escape
Zinc-Coated Steels
Gap-Free Lap Joint
Single Laser Beam
Weld Dicontinuities
Negative Pressure Zone
Suction Device
S. YANG (david.s.yang@gm.com), J.
WANG, , AND J. ZHANG are with GM China
Science Lab, Pudong, Shanghai, China. B. E.
CARLSON is with General Motors R & D Cen-
ter, Warren, Mich.
Zinc-coated steels are increasingly used in the automotive industry due to their ex-
cellent corrosion resistance and long-term mechanical performance. However, it is still
a great challenge to weld zinc-coated steels in a gap-free lap joint configuration. When
zinc vaporizes at 906C, which is much lower than the melting temperature of steel
(1300C), a high-pressure vapor will be generated at the faying interface of the steel
sheets. If the zinc vapor is not appropriately vented out, a weld discontinuity such as
porosity is usually produced in the weld and spatter is expelled from the weld.
In this paper, a new laser welding process is proposed to join zinc-coated steels in
a gap-free lap joint configuration. The new process uses a suction device to create a
negative pressure zone (relative to ambient) directly above the molten pool. The pur-
pose of this negative pressure zone is two-fold. First, a drag force is generated due to
the external suction device, which can counterbalance the shear force induced by the
erupting zinc vapor. Secondly, the negative pressure zone facilitates the zinc vapor to
escape along the suction direction. As a result, the molten pool becomes more stable
and the keyhole will remain open to allow the escape of zinc vapor. With vacuum as-
sist, welds free of spatter and porosity can be obtained. In addition, mechanical prop-
erties of the welds are evaluated by tensile shear test and microhardness measurements.

(GTAW) preheating technique to weld
zinc-coated, high-strength, dual-phase
steels in a gap-free lap joint configuration
where GTAW preheating leads the laser
beam and simultaneously moves with the
laser beam. With the GTAW preheating, a
portion of the zinc along the weld line at
the interface of metal sheets is vaporized
and part of the zinc is transformed into
zinc oxide, which has a melting point
(above 1900C) greater than that of steel.
Under these welding conditions, a com-
pletely defect-free weld in the zinc-coated
steels was achieved. Furthermore, Yang et
al. (Ref. 23) optimized the shielding con-
ditions to stabilize the molten pool, thus
achieving a constantly open stable key-
hole. The stable keyhole provides a chan-
nel that allows the zinc vapor to escape
from the interface of the metal sheets.
Consequently, the molten pool is not dis-
turbed by the zinc vapor and the formation
of spatter and porosity in the welds is elim-
inated. Gu et al. (Ref. 25) utilized a re-
mote laser welding technique with a high
scanning speed called laser dimpling to
create a dimple prior to welding, which
provides a gap for the subsequent laser
welding of the zinc-coated steels. Sound
welds were obtained with this laser dim-
pling technology. In addition, Kim et al.
(Ref. 24) developed a CO
laser mi-
croplasma arc hybrid welding to weld zinc-
coated steels.
Although the aforementioned methods
can address the issues arising from the
welding of the zinc-coated steels in a lap
joint configuration, there exist some limi-
tations, such as high cost for implementa-
tion in the automotive industry. In order
to reduce the cost and cycle
time, the automotive indus-
try looks for simple and flex-
ible laser welding
techniques, using a single
laser beam to weld the zinc-
coated steels in a gap-free
lap joint configuration.
Therefore, it becomes nec-
essary to develop a new laser
welding technique which can
flexibly weld zinc-coated steels in a gap-
free lap joint.
In this study, a 4-kW fiber laser was
used to weld the zinc-coated steels. A suc-
tion device was developed to create a neg-
ative pressure zone directly above the
molten pool. The presence of the negative
pressure zone had two effects: The first
was to help the generated zinc vapor to es-
cape along the suction direction, and the
second was to maintain the molten pool
stability. In addition, tensile shear and mi-
crohardness tests were carried out to as-
sess the weld mechanical properties.
Experimental Setup
The materials used in this study were
zinc-coated dual-phase (DP590) steels.
The zinc coating was hot dipped at a level
of 60 g/m
per side. The tested coupons
had the following dimensions: 120 85 1
mm. The two metal sheets were then
tightly clamped together during the laser
welding process so that there was no joint
clearance. The overlap length between the
two metal sheets was 25 mm, and the laser
beam was located at the center of overlap.
The lap-shear samples did not contain the
start and stop of the welds. The laser weld-
ing process was performed with a 4-kW
fiber laser. A multimode laser beam was
brought into the laser welding head by an
optical fiber and focused on the top sur-
face of the workpiece. The laser spot di-
ameter at focus was 0.3 mm. A high-speed
camera with a frame rate of 4000 fps was
used to record images of the laser-induced
plasma in order to study its dynamic be-
havior. During the laser welding process,
the laser beam was focused on the top sur-
face of the two-sheet stack up. The exper-
imental setup is shown in Fig. 1. The
suction device used in this study was an
AirStar vacuum cleaner with bag made by
Philips (Model: HomeCare-FC8224),
which has an input power of 1400 W and a
maximum vacuum level of 29 kPa. A cop-
per tube of 8 mm in diameter was con-
nected to the cleaner to provide a negative
pressure zone above the welding pool. It
was positioned 3 mm in front of the laser
beam and 6 mm from the top surface of
the workpiece. In addition, the lap joint
coupons were sectioned, ground, polished,
and etched for hardness measurements
and examination using an optical micro-
scope. Vickers microhardness tests were
conducted using a load of 100 g and a
dwell time of 10 s.
Results and Discussion
Issues from laser welding of zinc-
coated steels in a gap-free lap joint con-
figuration are below.
Figure 2 shows the characteristics of
typical laser welds in zinc-coated steels. As
shown, a large amount of spatter and
porosity are produced in the welds. It is
well known that the highly pressurized zinc
vapor is the root cause of these weld de-
fects. When spatter is produced and ex-
pelled along the laser beam propagation
direction, coupling of the laser beam en-
ergy to the workpiece is impeded resulting
in only partial penetration (Fig. 2B) being
achieved, even at high power levels. In ad-
dition, a turbulent molten pool is always
observed due to the large difference in the
velocity and pressure between the zinc
vapor and the liquid melt. The instability
of the molten pool manifests itself in the
form of waves, which are generated on the
molten pool with the associated swelling
and troughs. Under these welding condi-
tions, the laser beam is projected onto the
uneven surface of the molten pool. This
phenomenon is equivalent to changing the
JULY 2013, VOL. 92 198-s

Fig. 1 Experimental setup of vacuum-assisted laser welding
(welding direction: right to left).
Fig. 2 Typical laser welds in zinc-coated steels. A Top view; B bottom view. (Laser
power 3.4 kW; welding speed 1.8 m/min).
position of focus, the spot size, and the
focus location of the laser beam, i.e., the
laser beam intensity will be distributed un-
evenly at the spatial and temporal dimen-
Figure 3A and B schematically demon-
strates the different mechanisms of the ab-
sorption of the laser beam when the
keyhole is unstable and stable, respec-
tively. The absorption of the laser beam
for the case of a stable keyhole is dramat-
ically improved through multireflection
within the keyhole. In contrast, the uneven
surface of the turbulent molten pool
causes a majority of the laser beam energy
to be reflected. When the laser beam is
projected onto the surface of the zinc-
coated steel, the zinc is immediately va-
porized as a result of the low boiling point
of zinc. Furthermore, a large amount of
time varying laser-induced plasma and
plume is always produced during the laser
welding process (Ref. 25).
Previous studies have found that the
laser-induced plasma and plume fluctuates
in a high frequency and changes its shape
and size over time during the welding
process (Refs. 11, 25). The uneven surface
of the molten pool along with the fluctu-
ating laser-induced plasma and plume de-
teriorates the coupling efficiency of the
laser beam energy into the welded materi-
als. Consequently, the keyhole size and
depth changes during the laser welding
process and is forced to collapse due to an
insufficient power density of the incident
laser beam into the workpiece. When the
keyhole collapses or the keyhole depth
cant reach the faying interface, the zinc
vapor is entrapped and expands inside the
molten pool. Once the zinc vapor pressure
is beyond the threshold, the vapor bubble
and associated liquid metal are ejected out
of the molten pool, scattering drops of
molten metal in different directions, which
deposit onto the surrounding top surface
of the workpiece. As a consequence, spat-
ter and porosity are formed. As mentioned
previously, the spatter scattered along the
laser beam propagation direction blocks a
portion of the incident laser beam energy
into the workpiece to be welded.
In order to study the real-time dynamic
liquid metal behavior, high-speed cameras
were used to monitor the welding process.
Using a 5-W green laser as an illumination
light to suppress the strong laser light en-
abled the dynamic behavior of the molten
pool and the keyhole to be clearly ob-
served. Figure 4 shows ten successive pho-
tos taken in the middle of the welding
process, which indicate the transformation
of a relatively stable molten pool into a
turbulent molten pool due to the eruption
of zinc vapor. A relatively stable molten
pool and a stable keyhole are shown in
Fig. 4A where a white spot represents the
keyhole and the area inside the blue line
represents the molten pool. As shown in
Fig. 3B, a stable molten pool has a rela-
tively flat surface with a circular shape of
the keyhole as seen from a top view. Evo-
lution of the zinc vapor through the key-
hole causes the molten metal behind the
keyhole to be pushed back opposite to the
welding direction, as shown in Fig. 4B. A
trough and a swelling featured as indicated
by the yellow line in Fig. 4B are also ob-
served in the molten pool. This phenome-
non suggests that the molten pool has
become unstable and is fluctuating at
some frequency. Additionally, the keyhole
begins to disappear in Fig. 4B.
By the analysis of the recorded images
and direct observation of the laser welding
process, it was found that the formation of
spatter is associated with some sort of
molten pool fluctuation frequency and
amplitude of the swelling. Further studies
are needed to clarify this relationship.
From Fig. 4B to J, the shape of the
swelling and troughs vary over time as do
the size and shape of the keyhole and the
inclined angle of the keyhole with respect
to the workpiece. Note that after the
molten pool experiences a significant fluc-
tuation and a given volume of liquid melt
is ejected out of the molten pool, the
molten pool begins to stabilize, as shown
in Fig. 4J. It is theorized that the reason
for the molten pool to resume a relatively
stable condition following a period of tur-
bulence is that the zinc vapor pressure at
the faying interface becomes lower than
the threshold value after the zinc vapor is
released during the turbulent period.
Then as the pressure builds up over time
to a point where the vapor is emitted from
the molten pool, the cyclic nature of the
molten pool turbulence is explained. This
area of study requires further research.
Vacuum-Assisted Laser Welding of
Zinc-Coated Steels
In the current body of work, a new
method, vacuum-assisted laser welding, is
proposed and developed for the welding
of zinc-coated steels in a gap-free lap joint
configuration where a vacuum system is
integrated with the laser system. As shown
in Fig. 1, a copper tube connected to the
vacuum system is positioned directly in
front of the laser focal point. During the
laser welding process, the drag force pro-
duced by the vacuum system can be ad-
justed with a change in the pressure level
within the vacuum system.
Figure 5 shows the initial experimental
results, which exhibit neither spatter nor
porosity in addition to full penetration.
The main reason for achieving sound
welds by the vacuum-assisted laser weld-
ing process is that a stable and open key-
hole can be consistently created, which in
turn, provides a stable channel for the zinc
vapor to escape. For the conventional sin-
gle laser beam welding of zinc-coated
steels, a large shear force is always present
and acts upon the molten pool resulting
from the competing forces induced by the
upward and lateral moving, unstable zinc
vapor and the downward acting laser-in-
duced plasma. Under this large fluctuat-

Fig. 3 Effect of keyhole shape on coupling efficiency of laser beam energy. A Unstable keyhole reflecting a majority of the laser beam; B stable keyhole
coupling where most of the laser beam energy is transferred into the workpiece through multireflection within the keyhole.
ing shear force as the zinc vapor pressure
builds, and subsequently releases, the
molten pool becomes dramatically unsta-
ble and the keyhole tends to collapse. With
the vacuum-assisted laser welding of zinc-
coated steels, the leading vacuum system
guides the laser-induced plasma and
plume toward the welding direction,
which provides an external force, i.e., a
drag force, to counter-balance the shear
force acting on the molten pool surface re-
sulting from the zinc vapor.
Figures 6 and 7 illustrate this mecha-
nism. The removal of the laser-induced
plasma and plume enhances the coupling
JULY 2013, VOL. 92 200-s

Fig. 4 Sequenced images of molten pool turbulence during laser welding (power 3.4 kW; welding speed 1.8 m/min) taken at different times. A t = 1.00000
s; B t = 1.00025 s; C t = 1.00050 s; D t = 1.00075 s; E t= 1.00100 s; F t = 1.00125 s; G t = 1.00150 s; H t=1.00175 s; I t = 1.00200
s; J t = 1.00225 s.
efficiency of the laser power into the weld.
Furthermore, a negative pressure zone is
created directly on the top of the molten
pool when a vacuum system is used during
the laser welding process. This suggests that
the pressure level in front of the laser beam
is always the lowest. The difference in the
pressure level of the highly pressurized zinc
vapor and that around the copper tube fa-
cilitates the zinc vapor to escape toward the
lower pressure zone, i.e., the suction direc-
tion. Thus, the applied force on the surface
of the molten pool from the zinc vapor and
laser-induced plasma is reduced. Under
these welding conditions, the molten pool
remains stable and the coupling of laser
power into the workpiece is consistent. As
a consequence, the keyhole is stable and re-
mains open during welding for the zinc
vapor to escape.
Real-Time Monitoring of Laser-Induced
Plasma and Plume
A high-speed camera was used to study
the dynamic behavior of the laser-induced
plasma. In this case, the illuminating green
laser light was not used. Figure 8 presents
successive top view images of the laser-in-
duced plasma and plume taken by the
high-speed camera. Figure 8AF indicate
the typical characteristics of the laser-in-
duced plasma plume including weld spat-
ter for conventional laser welding and Fig.
8GM demonstrate the typical character-
istics of laser-induced plasma plume with
no weld spatter for vacuum-assisted laser
welding. As shown in Fig. 8AF, the laser-
induced plasma and plume are highly dy-
namic and demonstrate rapid change in
their shape and size over a short time. Be-
cause of the strong force the plasma and
plume induce on the molten pool, the
molten pool is severely disturbed and be-
comes very unstable when the laser-
induced plasma and plume fluctuates in a
large angle with respect to the top surface
of the workpiece. Furthermore, changes in
the shape and size of the laser-induced
plasma and plume influences the coupling
efficiency of the laser beam energy into
the workpiece. As a consequence, the key-
hole is unstable, and its depth and shape
are changed. When the keyhole depth
does not reach the faying interface of the
two metal sheets or is collapsed, the
highly-pressurized zinc vapor cant find a
channel to escape, and it expands inside
the molten pool. Consequently, a large
amount of liquid metal is expelled from
the molten pool and spatter is observed, as
shown in Fig. 8A. In contrast, the size and
shape of the laser-induced plasma and
plume are very stable when the vacuum
system is applied. As can be seen in Fig. 8
GM, the laser-induced plasma and plume
are guided by the vacuum system toward
the direction of suction, and their shape
and size exhibit little change over time.
The stability of the laser-induced
plasma and plume facilitates coupling of
the laser beam energy uniformly into the
welded materials. Thus, the keyhole depth
and shape do not vary dramatically, which
helps the zinc vapor to escape from the in-
terface. It is observed that when the vac-
uum system is applied, the weld
penetration is nearly the same at different
locations of the weld. Figure 9 presents a
set of six sequenced images of the keyhole
and molten pool recorded by a high-speed
camera using an illumination light during
the vacuum-assisted laser welding. These
images clearly show that the shape and
size of the keyhole vary within a small
range, and the keyhole is maintained open
during the entire sequence.
The improved stability achieved by vac-
uum-assisted laser welding can be ex-
plained from an energy point of view, by
the fact that the suction device improves
the molten pool/keyhole stability thereby
reducing the effects of defocusing and ab-
sorption of laser-induced plasma and
plume on the laser beam energy. Figure 10
schematically shows the improved laser
beam transmission to the workpiece. Ac-
cording to the Beer-Lambert Law,
where I is the laser beam energy absorbed
by the workpiece, I
is the incident laser
beam energy, is the absorption coeffi-
cient of laser-induced plasma and plume,
and Z is the height of the laser-induced
plasma and plume. From Equation 1, it is
found that changes in the height of the
laser-induced plasma and plume are asso-
ciated with changes in the shape and size
of the laser-induced plasma and plume,
which alters the amount of laser beam en-
ergy transferred to the workpiece. As
shown in Fig. 10, the vacuum-assisted laser
welding process has a lower height of
laser-induced plasma and plume of Z
than that of Z
produced in the conven-
tional laser welding process.
Previous studies have found that the
absorption coefficient of laser-induced
plasma and plume is relative to the tem-
perature and electron density. The higher
the temperature and electron density, the
higher the absorption coefficient and re-
fraction index of the laser-induced plasma
and plume (Refs. 27, 28). When using the
suction device, the plume is quickly diluted
and removed, i.e., the electron density is
reduced and the value of laser-induced
plasma and plume absorption is reduced.
As a consequence, the vacuum-assisted
laser welding process has a lower value of
Z than that in conventional laser welding.
Based on Equation 1 and considering
the constant incident laser beam energy,
the laser beam energy absorbed by the

Fig. 5 Welds obtained by vacuum-assisted laser welding. A Top view; B bottom view (laser
power 3.2 kW; welding speed 3 m/min).
Fig. 6 Schematic of the stabilizing mechanism
in vacuum-assisted laser welding of zinc-coated
steels in a gap-free lap joint.
Fig. 7 Schematic of the negative pressure zone
above the molten pool.
laser-induced plasma and plume during
vacuum-assisted laser welding process is
lower than that produced in conventional
laser welding process. In addition, the
laser beam could be defocused by the
laser-induced plasma and plume during
the laser welding process. As shown in Fig.
10A, the incident laser beam spot is en-
larged due to the refractive effect of the
JULY 2013, VOL. 92 202-s

Fig. 8 Sequenced images of the molten pool during laser welding.(laser power 3.4 kW; welding speed 1.8 m/min) exhibiting dynamic behavior of laser-induced
plasma plume when suction is turned off. A t = 0.500 s; B t = 0.501 s; C t = 0.502 s; D t = 0.503 s; E t = 0.504 s; F t = 505 s (arrows point to
spatter); suction turned on; G t = 1.000 s; H t = 1.002 s; I t = 1.003 s; J t = 1.004 s; K t = 1.005 s; L t = 1.006 s. Welding direction is from right
to left for each image.
laser-induced plasma during the conven-
tional laser welding process. However, the
defocusing effect of the laser-induced
plasma and plume is reduced during the
vacuum-assisted laser welding process, as
shown in Fig. 10B. Based on the above
analysis, the coupling efficiency of the
laser beam energy is improved by vacuum
assisted laser welding in comparison to
conventional laser welding.
Tensile Tests
Tensile shear testing was carried out to
determine the peak load, which is used as
a measure of strength for base and weld
metals. Three tensile test specimens were
machined from the same weld for both the
vacuum-assisted and without applied vac-
uum conditions, both of which were
welded under the same conditions. The
average value was used to compare the
vacuum-assisted laser weld strength to that
of the single laser weld strength. The load-
bearing area of the weld was assumed to
be the weld length at the faying interface
as measured on polished cross sections.
For the base metal, its tensile strength is
0.78 kN/mm, as calculated from the peak
load divided by sample width. All of the
vacuum-assisted laser welds fractured in
the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to
the base metal. Figure 11B shows the char-
acteristics of a typical fracture in a sample
produced by vacuum-assisted laser weld-
ing. The average maximum tensile
strength of the vacuum-assisted laser weld
was 0.77 kN/mm. Similar to the previous
studies (Refs. 22, 23), the weld strength
achieved by the vacuum-assisted laser
welding process approaches that of the
base metal. However, the laser welds ob-
tained by regular laser welding fractured
in the weld zone under tensile loading re-
sulting in an average strength of 0.51
kN/mm. The formation of weld defects
such as the porosity degraded the weld
strength. Figure 11C shows that when
deep porosity was present in the weld,
cracking first initiated along its edge and
then propagated into the base material.
Microhardness Tests
Microhardness tests were also con-
ducted across the weld using a 100-g load
and 10 s holding time. Figure 12 shows 1)
the relative position of the hardness meas-
urements, and 2) the microhardness dis-
tribution profile for a typical
vacuum-assisted weld. As is typical for
steel, the highest hardness value is within
the weld zone due to a quenching effect
following the laser welding process. The
hardness value in the weld zone was rela-
tively uniform. Furthermore, the hardness
values decreased from the weld zone,
through the HAZ and to the base metal.
The lowest hardness value was located in
the region close to the base metal. No in-
ternal porosity was found in the welds,
which is similar to the results obtained by
the previous studies (Refs. 22, 23).
Experiments for zinc-coated steels
were conducted by vacuum-assisted laser
welding. The conclusions of this study can
be summarized as follows:
High-quality, gap-free lap joints in
zinc-coated steels can be obtained by using
a vacuum-assisted laser welding process.
This is achieved because a stable and open
keyhole can always be produced when the
suction is turned on. Therefore, the highly
pressurized zinc vapor can be vented out
through the open keyhole.
Aside from the zinc vapor itself, the
laser-induced plasma and plume are key
factors that influence the stability of the
laser welding process. When using a sin-
gle laser beam, the shape and size of the
laser-induced plasma and plume fluctu-
ate at a high frequency. This imposes a
large force on the molten pool and results
in a turbulent molten pool. A large
amount of liquid metal is squeezed out of
the molten pool and spatter is observed
when laser-induced plasma and plume vi-
brate at a large angle.
The laser-induced plasma and plume are
guided by the vacuum system and move

Fig. 9 Top view images of the stable keyhole achieved by vacuum-assisted laser welding (laser power
3.4 kW; welding speed 1.8 m/min). A t = 1.000 s; B t = 1.002 s; C t = 1.003 s; D t = 1.004
s; E t = 1.005 s; F t = 1.006 s. The welding direction for all images is from right to left.
Fig. 10 Schematic of the laser-induced plasma and plume above the molten pool during welding. A
Baseline without suction; B improved laser beam energy transmission resulting in larger keyhole di-
ameter with application of a suction device. Welding direction is from right to left. Z
and Z
are laser-in-
duced plume heights without/with suction device turning off/on respectively. r
and r
are the laser focus
spot sizes. r
and r
are the real laser spot sizes without/with suction device turned off/on, respectively.
along the suction direction, which also helps
to stabilize the molten pool. Vacuum-as-
sisted laser welding can also have a higher
coupling efficiency of the laser beam than
that of the conventional laser welding.
The authors would like to thank Pro-
fessor Chunming Wang from the
Huazhong University of Science and Tech-
nology for providing a fiber laser system
for concept validation. The authors would
also like to thank Shichun Chen, Xiyuan
Hu, and Jun Wang for preparing the ten-
sile shear test coupons.
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JULY 2013, VOL. 92 204-s

Fig. 11 Fracture under tensile shear loading. A
Schematic representation of lap-shear sample; B
fracture at HAZ for the vacuum-assisted weld; C
fracture in the weld zone for a conventional laser
Fig. 12 Microhardness profile of welds obtained by vacuum-assisted laser welding. A Position of
hardness measurements; B microhardness distribution profile.

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is cur-
rently the most widely used arc welding
method in the manufacturing industry due
to its high productivity by using a consum-
able wire and its good compatibility to au-
tomatic welding. The formation and de-
tachment of the metal droplet is generally
referred to as the metal transfer process,
which plays a critical role in determining the
arc stability and welding quality; therefore,
effective control of the metal transfer helps
improve the GMAW process for better sta-
bility and weld quality (Refs. 1, 2).
The metal transfer is typically classified
into three modes short circuiting trans-
fer, globular transfer, and spray transfer.
Spray transfer can be further classified
into drop (projected) spray and streaming
spray (Ref. 3). With relatively low welding
currents, the transfer mode is expected to
be short circuiting or globular transfer,
which both often produce unstable arc and
significant spatters unless appropriate
controls such as surface tension transfer
(STT) and cold metal transfer (CMT)
(Refs. 46) are applied. When the welding
current increases to be higher than the
transition current (Ref. 3), the transfer
mode changes into the spray transfer in
which the droplet is detached at a diame-
ter similar to that of the wire. A further in-
crease in the current would result in the
streaming spray where the impact from
high-speed small particles on the weld
pool may produce undesirable finger-
shaped penetration (Refs. 710).
While drop spray, which is generally as-
sociated with good stability and low spat-
ter, is often the preferred transfer mode,
its required amperage higher than the
transition current, resulting in increased
heat input, metal vapors, and arc pres-
sures may not always be preferred.
Welding researchers are motivated to de-
velop methods that use currents lower
than the transition currents to produce
drop spray transfer. According to the dy-
namic force model balance (DFMB) the-
ory on metal transfer (Ref. 11), the elec-
tromagnetic force determined by the
welding current is the primary detaching
force, and the gravitational force, plasma
gas drag force, and momentum force also
contribute to droplet detachment. The
major retaining force that resists the
droplet detachment is the surface tension.
When the detaching force is greater than
the retaining force, the droplet is detached
from the wire tip. Based on this theory, the
approaches developed to achieve spray
transfer have focused on changing the
forces on the droplet using electrical and
mechanical ways (Refs. 1217).
Pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-
P) is a widely used electrical way to pro-
duce the desired drop spray transfer at a
wide range of average current (Refs. 14,
18). In GMAW-P, the desired one droplet
per pulse (ODPP) transfer is achieved by
selecting an appropriate combination of
the duration and amplitude of the peak
current. Basically, the amplitude of the
peak current still needs to be higher than
the transition current to avoid one droplet
multiple pulses (ODMP) while its dura-
tion needs to be appropriately short to
avoid multiple droplets per pulse (Refs.
19, 20) and appropriately long to ensure
the detachment for ODMP. Achieving the
desired droplet ODPP transfer using
GMAW-P through optimizing parameters
may not be robust enough while a peak
Active Droplet Oscillation Excited by
Optimized Waveform
Experiments reveal the effects of waveform parameters on the excited droplet
oscillation, plus the optimal range of current waveform parameters is determined
Metal Transfer
Transition Current
Spray Transfer
J. XIAO is with the National Key Laboratory of
Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute
of Technology, China, and the Institute for Sus-
tainable Manufacturing, University of Kentucky,
Lexington, Ky. G. J. ZHANG and L. WU are with
the National Key Laboratory of Advanced Weld-
ing and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology,
China. S. J. CHEN is with the Welding Research
Institute, Beijing University of Technology, China.
Y. M. ZHANG (yuming.zhang@uky.edu) is with
the Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing and
Department of Electrical and Computer Engi-
neering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky.
The active droplet oscillation method is an approach previously proposed to
detach the droplet at currents below the transition current. In this method, a
droplet oscillation is first excited by intentionally switching the current from the
peak to base level; the downward momentum of the oscillating droplet is then uti-
lized to enhance the droplet detachment such that the droplet can be detached at
reduced peak currents lower than the transition current. In the present work, this
method is systematically studied to initiate stronger oscillations with lower aver-
age currents. To this end, the current waveform is modified by differentiating the
exciting current from the growing current. This differentiation enables the grow-
ing current (heat input) be reduced without affecting the oscillation excitation.
The current waveform is then further modified by adding a base period before the
exciting pulse to maximize the oscillation, resulting in an optimized waveform. A
series of experiments has been conducted to correlate the droplet oscillation to
the parameters in the optimized waveform. The optimal ranges for the waveform
parameters are experimentally determined. The active droplet oscillation method
is improved at a fundamental level, and its mechanism is also better understood.

current higher than the transition current
is still needed.
A method has been proposed to
achieve a robust control for repeatable
and controllable metal transfer in
GMAW-P with reduced peak current am-
perage, referred to as active control of
metal transfer, by using an excited droplet
oscillation (Refs. 2123). The droplet is
actively oscillated to generate a downward
momentum that will significantly enhance
the droplet detachment. As shown in Fig.
1, during the exciting pulse, the droplet
grows gradually at the same amperage as
the exciting current and is dragged into an
elongated shape with initial amplitude in
the weld pool direction by the electro-
magnetic force. Then the current is
switched from the exciting level to the
base level, so the electromagnetic force
decreases, and the droplet springs back to
the wire tip and starts oscillating due to the
surface tension.
When the downward motion of the
droplet is first detected, the current is in-
creased to the detaching level. With the as-
sistance of the downward momentum, the
droplet detachment is ensured with a de-
taching current lower than the spray tran-
sition current, which is essential in con-
ventional GMAW-P. The synchronization
of the detaching current and downward
momentum of the droplet is referred to as
phase match. In Ref. 24, this method has
been modified to suit for metal transfer
control for titanium by applying appropri-
ate current levels, but the current wave-
form is unchanged.
In the dynamic force balance model
(DFBM), a mass-spring system is used to
model the droplet oscillation (Ref. 11).
The dynamic droplet motion is described
as a second-order system varying with time
as follows:
m(t) + c(t) + k(t)x = F(t)
where x represents the mass center dis-
placement in the axial direction, F is the
axial force exerted on the droplet, and m,
c, and k are the mass, damping coefficient,
and spring constant of the droplet, respec-
tively. The surface tension acts as a spring
force. In literature (Ref. 11), the droplet
oscillation under continuous current is nu-
merically analyzed. The droplet oscilla-
tion under the pulsed current condition is
studied in literature (Ref. 25). The nu-
merical computation results in Refs. 11
and 25 both demonstrate that the droplet
oscillation frequency is mainly determined
by the droplet mass.
With respect to the active droplet os-
cillation, the previous research focused on
introducing its novel principle. However,
the associated oscillation was not fully
studied. In particular, the exciting pulse
current was fixed at a high level (220 A for
a 1.2-mm-diameter wire) to ensure that
the droplet could be elongated and oscil-
Fig. 1 Active metal transfer by monitoring the excited droplet oscillation. Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental system.
Fig. 3 Sketch of the droplet oscillation. Fig. 4 Simple current waveform for the separation-based modification.
JULY 2013, VOL. 92

lated consequently. The droplet growing
period was coupled within the exciting pe-
riod. Only the base current and duration
were adjusted to analyze the droplet oscil-
lating frequency and amplitude (Ref. 21).
Its further analysis may result in improve-
ments and optimization for much en-
hanced metal transfer control abilities.
In particular, the excited droplet oscil-
lation is a damping process. The initial dis-
placement of the droplet that determines
the initial oscillating energy increases with
the exciting peak current. However, in the
original active oscillation method, this ex-
citing peak current is the same with the
current that grows the droplet. If a lower
and adjustable growing current is used to
form the droplet as determined by the ap-
plication, and then a shorter exciting pulse
is applied to excite the droplet oscillation,
the growing and exciting processes can be
separately controlled. The metal transfer
control achieved by the active oscillation
method may be improved.
Active droplet oscillation can be con-
sidered as an electrical control strategy for
metal transfer. This active control tech-
nology can be applied not only in GMAW-
P as a modified GMAW-P process, but
also can be coupled with other control
methods to improve the original process
such as laser-enhanced GMAW, a method
recently developed to actively control the
metal transfer at given arc variables (Ref.
26). In such a process, a laser beam irradi-
ating on the droplet is applied to vaporize
the droplet partially. A recoil force is gen-
erated as an additional detaching force to
enhance droplet detachment. As a result,
short circuiting transfer under a range of
welding currents becomes controlled
globular transfer or even drop spray trans-
fer. Therefore, the metal transfer and heat
input, respectively, can be freely con-
trolled. Welding spatter is also reduced
significantly, and the arc stability is im-
proved (Refs. 27, 28). However, the re-
quirement on the laser power restricts its
application in industry. If the active
droplet oscillation technology is combined
into laser-enhanced
GMAW, a reduction in
the required laser
power may be expected,
just as the reduction of
the detaching peak cur-
rent in GMAW-P.
In this paper, the ac-
tive droplet oscillation process is further
analyzed and optimized. A modified cur-
rent waveform is proposed in which the
droplet growing and oscillation exciting
are decoupled and become separately
controllable. The growing current can be
set no longer as high as the exciting peak
current. The average welding current de-
creases. On the other hand, the exciting
peak duration can be set very narrow,
which is expected to generate enough
electromagnetic force to elongate the
droplet prominently but not melt the wire
significantly. Based on the observation
and analysis of the preliminary results, the
Fig. 5 Current waveform and droplet oscillation with a 1-ms interval per
frame. A Experiment 1; B experiment 2; C experiment 3.
Table 1 Definitions of Variables in Oscillation Description
Symbol Definition
Initial droplet length measured at the end of the growing period
A(i) Droplet oscillation amplitude of cycle i:
A(i) = L
(i) L
T(i) Measured droplet oscillation period of cycle i:
T(i) = t
(i) t
Initial amplitude of the whole droplet oscillation duration:
= L
(0) L
Average oscillation amplitude of N droplet oscillating cycles:
Average droplet oscillation period under certain waveform parameters:
A i

( )
T i

( )
JULY 2013, VOL. 92 208-s

current waveform is further optimized to
maximize the droplet oscillation energy
despite the actual growing current level.
The key factors that characterize the dy-
namic droplet oscillation, such as the am-
plitude, frequency, and rate of decay
under different exciting parameters, are
calculated to measure the droplet oscilla-
tion magnitude. By selecting an optimal
combination of the exciting parameters, a
much stronger droplet oscillation with sig-
nificantly lower heat input are achieved.
In this sense, the study improves the active
oscillation method and furthers the un-
derstanding on the dynamic droplet oscil-
lation behavior and mechanism.
Experimental System
and Approach
Experimental Setup
The experimental setup is shown in
Fig. 2. An inverter power source was used
to conduct the welding experiments. It can
be used for either constant current (CC)
or constant voltage (CV) mode. In this
work, the CC mode was selected to
achieve the desired welding current wave-
form. The arc length was controlled to be
stable by adjusting the wire feeding speed
based on arc voltage feedback. The power
supply and wire feeder can both be con-
trolled by analog input signals. A single-
board computer-based controller was es-
tablished to compute the output waveform
of the welding current and wire feed
speed. A data-acquisition set was estab-
lished to record the actual welding current
and arc voltage waveform during the weld-
ing experiments, and an Olympus iSpeed-
2 high-speed camera was used to observe
and record the droplet oscillation. The
data-acquisition board and high-speed
camera both can be triggered to work by a
5-V TTL signal such that recording the arc
variables and metal transfer is synchro-
nized; therefore, the arc voltage signal can
be further processed to analyze the
droplet oscillation process. To view the
highly dynamic characteristics of the
droplet oscillation, the recording fre-
Fig. 6 Dynamic curves of the droplet oscillation. A Experiment 1;
B experiment 2; C experiment 3.
Table 2 Growing Parameters in
Experiments 13
No. I
(A) T
(ms) Waveform
1 150 11 Original
2 80 20 Modified
3 40 40 Modified
Table 3 Growing Parameters in
Experiments 4, 5
No. I
(A) T
(ms) Waveform
4 80 20 Optimized
5 150 11 Optimized
Fig. 7 Optimized welding current waveform.

quency was set at 5000 hz.
All the welding experiments were con-
ducted as bead-on-plate welding with a
travel speed of 3 mm/s; the base metal was
mild steel; the wire was ER70S-6 with 0.8
mm diameter; and the distance from the
contact tip to workpiece was set at 12 mm.
Experimental Study Steps
As mentioned earlier, the major modi-
fication introduced from this study is that
the droplet growing and exciting are in-
tentionally separated as two actions. That
is, a lower growing current with a specified
duration is applied to form the droplet.
When the droplet reaches the desired size,
the welding current is increased to the ex-
citing peak level. This peak current is
maintained for several milliseconds. Dur-
ing this exciting peak period, the droplet is
elongated by the increased electromag-
netic force. Due to this elongation, the
droplet springs back to start oscillating
when the current is switched to the base
level. As can be seen, this modification in-
volves a number of parameters that char-
acterize the current waveform and may af-
fect the effectiveness of the proposed
modification. To optimize the modifica-
tion, the experimental studies will follow
pursuing three steps.
Feasibility Verification. The experi-
ments in this step will be designed and
used as examples to verify that the modifi-
cation characterized by the separation of
the exciting current from the growing cur-
rent can help increase the initial energy of
the oscillation. The average droplet diam-
eter will be controlled to be slightly larger
than the wire diameter to avoid the effect
from the droplet mass.
Waveform Optimization. The separa-
tion of the exciting current from the grow-
ing current provides a modification to in-
crease the oscillation. However, the
separation method (current waveform)
used above for the feasibility verification
is a relatively simple one. To further take
advantage of the separation, the effect of
the separation is maximized by reducing
the current from the growing current to
the possible minimal level allowed, i.e.,
the base current, before the exciting pulse
is applied. The waveform is further modi-
fied to maximize the oscillation.
Parameter Optimization. While the
optimized waveform provides a type of
current waveform that can further in-
crease the oscillation using the separation
principle, there are still parameters de-
picting the actual waveform and that can
be optimized to maximize the oscillation.
In this step, experiments are
designed/conducted and the experimental
data are analyzed to optimize these
Analysis Approach
High-speed droplet image sequences
and actual arc variable waveforms are syn-
chronously recorded by using the same
trigger signal to analyze the oscillation.
For quantitative analysis of the oscillation,
the vertical coordinates of the droplet top
and bottom are measured in pixels (11.25
pixels = 1 mm) from the recorded images.
The droplet length can be calculated to
describe the droplet oscillation behavior.
The fluctuation of the measured droplet
Fig. 8 Droplet oscillation using the optimized current waveform with a 1-ms interval per frame. A Experiment 4; B experiment 5.
Fig. 9 Dynamic curve of the droplet oscillation in experiment 4. Fig. 10 Droplet oscillation amplitudes measured from experiments 14.

length curve gives the droplet oscillation
magnitude. However, in previous work
(Ref. 21), only the coordinates of the
droplet bottom position were measured to
describe the oscillation. The top and bot-
tom coordinates of the droplet can appar-
ently be used to better describe and ana-
lyze the oscillation.
A standard damping oscillation is
used to model the droplet oscillation in
this study as shown in Fig. 3. The param-
eters in this model are self defined in Fig.
3 and explained in Table 1. In Table 1, N
denotes the total oscillation cycles the
droplet experiences from the end of the
exciting pulse to the application of the
detaching pulse.
In particular, at the end of the exciting
pulse, the droplet oscillation starts. The
initial amplitude A
is used to represent
the initial droplet oscillation energy for a
given mass droplet. Because of possible
errors in image measurement, the average
amplitude of the droplet oscillation A
defined to better quantify the droplet os-
cillation energy during the whole oscillat-
ing period. What should be pointed out is
that each oscillating cycle is not isochro-
nous because the droplet mass is still
slowly increasing during the oscillation.
Therefore, the droplet oscillation period
and frequency cited in this paper are actu-
ally the average period and frequency.
Also, in this paper, the oscillation of the
droplet is quantitatively analyzed using
the model and parameters together with
high-speed images.
Simple Current Waveform
for Separation
The effectiveness of separation as a
modification to the active oscillation
method is first verified using a simple cur-
rent waveform as shown in Fig. 4. In this
case, the whole metal transfer cycle is di-
vided into four periods as follows: grow-
ing, exciting, oscillating, and detaching.
The droplet grows gradually during the
growing period at a relatively low current
. The initial droplet length L
is con-
trolled by adjusting the growing duration
. Then the current is increased to the ex-
citing peak level I
. The exciting peak du-
ration T
is expected to be as short as sev-
eral milliseconds. The difference between
the exciting peak current and growing cur-
rent is defined as the exciting rising level
: I
. Then the current is reduced to
the exciting base level I
, and this step-
down level is defined as the exciting falling
level I
: I
. The base duration T
is set
to be long enough to provide adequate
Fig. 11 Droplet oscillation with different exciting peak durations. A T
= 2 ms; B T
= 3 ms; C T
= 4 ms; D T
= 5 ms; E T
= 6 ms;
= 7 ms.
Fig. 12 Droplet oscillation energy with different
exciting peak durations.
Fig. 13 Droplet motion during the exciting period for experiment 11 with a 0.4-ms interval per frame.
JULY 2013, VOL. 92
time for the droplet to oscillate. At the end
of the base duration, the detaching current
is applied to guarantee the droplet de-
tachment. Hence, the whole growing, ex-
citing, oscillating, and detaching periods
are periodically repeatable and
Experiments 13 were conducted to ex-
amine the droplet oscillation under the
simple waveform modification. The grow-
ing parameters of the current waveform
used in these three experiments are listed
in Table 2. The growing period T
has been
intentionally changed with the growing
current I
to control the droplet diameter
to be slightly greater than that of the wire.
The droplet mass in these three experi-
ments were controlled approximately the
same such that the effect of the droplet
mass on the oscillation can be excluded in
the verification experiments.
The remaining waveform parameters
in these experiments are fixed to be the
same: I
= 150 A, T
= 4 ms; I
= 30 A, T
= 30 ms; and I
= 165 A, T
= 5 ms. It is
apparent the oscillation in experiment 1,
where the growing current equals the ex-
citing current, is actually the oscillation ex-
cited using the original method. Its com-
parison with those in experiments 2 and 3
will be used to verify the effectiveness of
the separation-based modification.
In particular, the exciting peak current
was set at 150 A based on that the actual
transition current was experimentally
measured to be 165 A under the afore-
mentioned welding condition (wire diam-
eter, shielding gas, etc.). The exciting peak
duration T
was 4 ms. The growing cur-
rents I
were set at 150, 80, and 40 A for ex-
periments 13, respectively. The growing
durations T
were correspondingly set at
11, 20, and 40 ms to keep the initial droplet
size approximately even in the three
The average current in experiments
13 79.5, 66.5, and 49.7 A, respectively
can be easily calculated. It is quite clear
that the heat input can be effectively re-
duced by using the modified current wave-
form. The droplet oscillations in these
three experiments were analyzed from the
obtained image sequences. A typical cycle
of measured current waveforms and im-
ages of droplet oscillation are shown in
Fig. 5AC in which the time interval for
each frame is 1 ms. Due to the rapid damp-
ing of the droplet oscillation, only the
droplet images during the exciting period
and first oscillating cycle are presented for
a quick visual verification. As can be seen
from the recorded current waveform, the
dynamic response time of the selected
power source to a step control signal is ap-
proximately 1 ms. Consequently, the ex-
citing peak duration should be no less than
2 ms. The initial droplet lengths L
in the
three experiments were measured at ap-
proximately 1.2 mm.
The droplet oscillation frequencies in
experiments 13 were all measured to be
approximately 166 Hz. The oscillation pe-
riods T
were approximately 6 ms in
these experiments. The equivalence of the
oscillation frequency observed from these
experiments is supported by the previous
theoretical work that the droplet oscilla-
tion frequency is mainly determined by the
droplet mass (Refs. 11, 25).
The initial droplet oscillation energy
should have been believed to be mainly
determined by the exciting peak current
level when the droplet mass is given. This
would suggest that the initial amplitude in
all these three experiments should be sim-
ilar as their exciting peak current and
droplet mass are the same. However, this
prediction is not supported by the experi-
mental results.
Each frame 6 in Fig. 5AC shows the
elongation of the droplet at the falling
edge of the exciting pulse. As aforemen-
tioned, this elongation represents the ini-
tial energy of the active oscillation. As can
be seen, despite the same droplet mass
and application of the same exciting cur-
rent, the droplet is more elongated when
applying the lower growing current. In
particular, the difference among these
three experiments is the exciting rising
level I
, defined as I
, which is 0 A in
experiment 1, but 70 and 110 A for exper-
iments 2 and 3. The dynamic droplet
length curves of the whole metal transfer
cycle in experiments 13 are measured to
demonstrate the droplet oscillations and
perform a further quantitative compari-
son, as shown in Fig. 6AC. It can be seen
that the fluctuation of the droplet length
in experiment 3 is prominently more sig-
nificant, implying that its droplet oscilla-
tion energy is significantly larger than
those in experiments 1 and 2.
It is now clear that the exciting peak
current is not the only parameter deter-
mining the initial oscillation energy when
the droplet mass is given. Instead, the ini-
tial oscillation energy is determined by the
exciting raising level. In the original active
oscillation method, the exciting current
equals the growing current, resulting in a
zero exciting raising level. The separation-
based modification specifies an effective
direction to increase the oscillation.
Current Waveform Optimization
Rising Level Maximization
Although the droplet oscillation can be
enhanced by applying a lower growing cur-
rent to enlarge the exciting rising level, the
droplet growth also slows down, resulting
in reduced metal transfer frequency. The
current waveform should maximize the

Fig. 14 Droplet oscillation with different exciting base currents. A I
= 10 A; B I
= 50 A.
Fig. 15 Droplet oscillation amplitude with dif-
ferent exciting base currents.
Fig. 16 Droplet oscillation with 70-A exciting
peak current.
JULY 2013, VOL. 92 212-s

rising level of the exciting pulse despite the
growing current. To this end, the further
optimized waveform shown in Fig. 7 is
proposed. In this waveform, at the end of
the growing duration, the current is first
switched to the base level, and then in-
creased to the exciting peak level. Two new
parameters are introduced: the base cur-
rent I
and its duration T
before excit-
ing. The exciting rising level I
. Since the base current is approxi-
mately the lowest amperage allowed, the
exciting rising level is maximized.
While the intentional decrease of the
current before exciting maximizes the ex-
citing rising level to enhance the droplet
oscillation, it introduces a possible need
for phase match such that the base dura-
tion T
should be determined based on
the growing current level. That is, when
the growing current amperage is high
enough, for example, 150 A, the droplet is
expected to have been pre-elongated dur-
ing the growing duration. As a result,
when the current is changed to the first
base level I
, the droplet oscillation
should have been excited. This oscillation
that occurs before the exciting pulse is re-
ferred to as the preoscillation in this study.
In this case, the droplet downward mo-
mentum during the first base period T
can be utilized to further enhance the
droplet oscillation during the second base
duration T
. However, this enhancement
occurs only when the exciting pulse
matches the preoscillation in phase, i.e.,
the exciting pulse that is supposed to elon-
gate the droplet should be applied when
the droplet moves down toward the work-
piece during the preoscillation. The first
base duration T
should be half of the
droplet oscillation period to synchronize
the droplet downward motion and exciting
pulse. However, if the growing current is
not high enough to pre-elongate the
droplet significantly, the phase match con-
dition is not required. Hence, the first base
current period in the optimized current
Fig. 17 Droplet oscillation with I
= 140 A. A T
= 2 ms; B T
= 3 ms; C T
= 4 ms.
Fig. 18 Droplet oscillation with I
= 130 A. A T
= 2 ms; B T
= 3 ms; C T
= 4 ms.
Fig. 19 Droplet oscillation with I
= 120 A. A T
= 2 ms; B T
= 3 ms; C T
= 4 ms.

waveform needs to be determined based
on the growing current.
Verification of Optimization Effect
To verify the effect of the optimized
waveform, which is characterized by the
first base period before the exciting pulse,
experiments 4 and 5 were conducted using
the optimized waveform with different
growing parameters listed in Table 3. The
remaining waveform parameters in these
two experiments were fixed: I
= 30 A,
= 3 ms; I
= 150 A, T
= 4 ms; I
30 A, T
= 30 ms; and I
= 165 A, T
5 ms. The initial droplet mass in the two
experiments were also approximately the
same. To utilize the possible preoscillation
to enhance the final droplet oscillation,
the first base time T
was set at 3 ms to
match the phase because the droplet os-
cillation period was approximately 6 ms
for the given droplet mass in experiments
4 and 5. The recorded current waveforms
and droplet oscillation images from ex-
periments 4 and 5 are shown in Fig. 8A, B.
The time interval for each frame is also 1
ms. The measured droplet length curve of
experiment 4 is shown in Fig. 9.
The result from experiment 4 (using
the optimized waveform for separation-
based modification) is first compared with
that from experiment 2 (using the simple
waveform for separation-based modifica-
tion). The growing and exciting parame-
ters in the two experiments are the same.
The only difference is that the exciting ris-
ing level I
has been maximized to 120 A
in experiment 4 for the exciting current
and base current used while it is 70 A in ex-
periment 2 due to the simple waveform. It
can be clearly seen from corresponding
frame 6 in Figs. 5B and 8A that the droplet
is apparently more elongated during the
exciting period in experiment 4. From
Figs. 6B and 9, it also can be seen that the
droplet length fluctuation in experiment 4
using the optimized waveform is much
more intensive than that in experiment 2
using the simple waveform. The droplet
oscillation energy in experiment 4 is sig-
Fig. 20 Droplet oscillation with I
= 110 A. A T
= 2 ms; B T
= 3 ms; C T
= 4 ms.
Fig. 21 Droplet oscillation with I
= 100 A. A T
= 2 ms; B T
= 3 ms; C T
= 4 ms.
Fig. 22 Droplet oscillation with I
= 90 A. A T
= 2 ms; B T
= 3 ms; C T
= 4 ms.

nificantly higher than that in experiment 2.
The effect of the optimized waveform
characterized by the first base period be-
fore the exciting pulse is experimentally
Secondly, the results of experiments 4
and 5 can be compared to demonstrate the
effect of the growing current (preoscilla-
tion) on the droplet oscillation. In these two
experiments, the exciting rising level I
120 A in both experiments. However, the
growing current is different although the
droplet mass is approximately the same. In
experiment 5, the growing current (150 A)
is high enough to pre-elongate the droplet.
In experiment 4, the growing current (80 A)
is relatively low; the droplet is not signifi-
cantly pre-elongated during the growing pe-
riod such that the preoscillation during the
first base period is quite weak. It can be seen
from Fig. 8B the droplet is detached by the
exciting pulse of 150 A current with only 4
ms duration due to the preoscillation in ex-
periment 5. However, in Fig. 8A for exper-
iment 4 where the preoscillation is insignif-
icant, the droplet is not detached. The
oscillation in experiment 5 (with preoscilla-
tion) is stronger. The effect of the preoscil-
lation in enhancing the oscillation is demon-
strated, and it is apparently an additional
advantage of the optimized waveform.
To further perform a global quantita-
tive analysis of the current waveform
(original, simple, and optimized) effect on
the droplet oscillation, the initial ampli-
tude A
and average amplitude A
experiments 14 are measured and calcu-
lated. The results are shown in Fig. 10.
In addition, the following can be seen:
1. For experiments 13, in which the
simple current waveform was used, the ex-
citing rising level is 0, 70, and 110 A, re-
spectively. From Fig. 10, the droplet oscil-
lation amplitude increases with the
increased exciting rising level. The aver-
age amplitude in experiment 2 is 42.8%
higher than that in experiment 1, and the
average amplitude in experiment 3 is, re-
spectively, 171 and 90% higher than that
in experiments 1 and 2. Much stronger
droplet oscillation is achieved by using the
simple waveform for separation-based
modification with a reduced growing cur-
rent when the exiting current is given.
2. In comparison with experiment 3, the
magnitude of the droplet oscillation in ex-
periment 4 is improved. As can be seen from
Fig. 10, the initial amplitude of experiment
4 is 25% higher than that in experiment 3,
and the average amplitude is increased by
7.9%. This improvement is achieved be-
cause the exciting rising level I
is 9.09%
higher than that in experiment 3. This in-
crease in the exciting rising level I
is the re-
sult of the first base period that character-
izes the optimized waveform, which
decouples the exciting rising level I
the growing current. The growing current
can be freely selected to grow the droplet
and control the metal transfer frequency. It
is apparent that the optimized waveform is
responsible for the improvement.
In summary, it has been found that a
larger exciting rising level produces a
stronger droplet oscillation. The opti-
mized waveform proposed provides a
method to maximize the exciting rising
level by adding a base period before the
exciting pulse. This addition of additional
base period also introduces a possible pre-
oscillation, and this preoscillation may
further enhance the oscillation if the du-
ration of the added base period facilitates
a phase match with the exciting pulse.
Optimization of
Waveform Parameters
Although the optimized waveform pro-
vides a method to maximize the exciting ris-
ing level, there are still other parameters
which specify the actual waveform and can
be optimized to maximize the oscillation.
These parameters include the exciting peak
duration, exciting peak/base current, and
growing duration. A series of experiments
was designed and conducted in this section
to analyze the effects on the droplet oscilla-
tion and determine the optimal selection of
these parameters.
Exciting Peak Duration
In this subsection, the exciting peak du-
ration T
was set into several different lev-
els to analyze its influence on the droplet
oscillation. If the exciting peak duration is
too long, the droplet may grow to a rela-
tively large size and then get detached by
the gravity such that the desired droplet
oscillation cannot be observed. On the
other hand, if the peak duration is too nar-
row, the droplet probably could not be
elongated enough, and the droplet oscilla-
tion would be too weak to be observed. In
this sense, an appropriate range for the ex-
citing peak duration is needed. Based on
the results from experiments 3 and 4, it has
been confirmed that the droplet oscilla-
tion is reasonably strong by using 4 ms ex-
citing peak duration. Furthermore, the
droplet oscillations with other different
exciting peak duration levels also need to
be studied to lead a deeper comprehen-
sion on the droplet oscillation behavior.
Hence, experiments 611 were conducted
in which the exciting peak duration T
the only varying variable. As can be seen
from Table 4, the exciting peak duration
was changed from 2 to 7 ms in experiments
611. The other waveform parameters in
this group of experiments were fixed: I
80 A, T
= 20 ms; I
= 30 A, T
= 3 ms;
= 150 A; I
= 30 A, T
= 30 ms; and
JULY 2013, VOL. 92
Fig. 23 Droplet oscillation with I
= 80 A. A T
= 2 ms; B T
= 3 ms; C T
= 4 ms.
Table 4 Waveform Parameters in
Experiments 611
No. T
6 2
7 3
8 4
9 5
10 6
11 7

= 165 A, T
= 5 ms.
The dynamic droplet length curves are
measured, as shown in Fig. 11AF, for ex-
periments 611, respectively. The initial
amplitude A
and average amplitude A
in this group of experiments are also meas-
ured to demonstrate how the exciting peak
duration influences the droplet oscillation
magnitude, as shown in Fig. 12.
As can be seen from Fig. 11AC, the
droplet length keeps increasing during the
whole exciting peak period when the ex-
citing peak duration is 24 ms. When the
exciting peak duration is 57 ms, as shown
in Fig. 11DF, the droplet is elongated to
its maximum displacement in approxi-
mately 3 ms from the start of the exciting
pulse. In the rest of the exciting peak pe-
riod, the droplet length is no longer in-
creased and even slightly reduced. The
fluctuations of the droplet length curve
with the exciting duration of 3 and 4 ms are
approximately in the same level. The fluc-
tuation in experiment 6 with the exciting
duration of 2 ms is significantly weaker.
This result agrees with the logical predic-
tion that weaker droplet oscillation is as-
sociated with shorter exciting duration.
However, the unexpected result is that the
droplet oscillation also got weaker when
the exciting peak duration exceeded 4 ms.
As can be seen from Fig. 11CF, the fluc-
tuation of the droplet length gets weaker
with the increased exciting peak duration
(from 4 to 7 ms). As can be calculated
from Fig. 12, the average amplitude of the
droplet oscillation with 5 ms exciting peak
duration is approximately 36.6% lower
than that with 4 ms exciting peak duration,
even 13.3% lower than that with 2 ms ex-
citing duration.
Take experiment 11 using 7 ms exciting
peak duration as an example to analyze
the dynamic motion of the droplet during
the entire exciting peak period, as shown
in Fig. 13, with the time interval for each
image being 0.4 ms. During the period as
frames 18 show (3.2 ms), the droplet
length keeps increasing until it reaches the
maximum displacement, and the arc
length is stable. After that, the droplet
length stops increasing, while the droplet
starts to move upward and the arc length
is slightly increased by 0.6 mm, as shown in
frames 916 of Fig. 13. Such a fluctuation
level of the arc length is absolutely accept-
able in the GMAW process. It can be seen
that the droplet is getting slightly less elon-
gated during its upward moving period.
A qualitative analysis of this phenome-
non is performed based on the dynamic
force balance model (DFBM) of metal
transfer (Ref. 11), in which droplet mo-
mentum is considered. The droplet mo-
mentum contributes to attaching or de-
taching the droplet, depending on the
droplet moving directions. During the ex-
citing peak period, the wire melting rate is
significantly increased because the current
is increased. Meanwhile, the wire feed
speed can be considered constant during
this several-millisecond short period, be-
cause the adjustment on the wire feed
speed is much slower. As a result, the wire
melting rate exceeds the wire feed speed
during the exciting peak period. The wire
is burned back toward the contact tip, and
the droplet moves upward.
It is the upward momentum of the
droplet that partly counteracts the elec-
tromagnetic force. Therefore, the droplet
gets less elongated, and the droplet oscil-
lation is weakened.
The dynamic motion of the droplet
during the whole exciting peak period
clearly reveals two effects of the current
increase (from the base level to exciting
peak level) on the droplet:
1. Force Effect. The high electromag-
netic force generated by the exciting peak
current drags the droplet into an elon-
gated shape. Based on the experimental
results, we can see that this effect takes
place instantly once the current is
switched to the exciting peak level.
2. Thermal Effect. Because the current
is increased, the wire melting rate in-
creases to exceed the wire feed speed. The
wire is burned back slightly, in other
words, the arc length increases slightly,
and the droplet moves upward to the wire
tip during the dynamic process. The up-
ward momentum is produced, and it weak-
ens the droplet oscillation. However, the
so-called thermal effect demonstrates a
slight delay to the current increase, which
is approximately 3 ms measured from the
experimental results.
In summary, it is the upward momen-
tum of the droplet during the exciting pe-
riod that weakens the droplet oscillation,
but the delay of its occurrence to the cur-
rent increase determines that there is a
threshold of exciting peak duration for the
droplet oscillation to get weaker. Based on
the results as Figs. 11 and 12 show, the
threshold level is 4 ms, and the optimal se-
lection of the exciting peak duration is
confirmed to be 3 to 4 ms. An exciting
peak duration of 2 ms is also acceptable.
However, the exciting peak duration ex-
ceeding 4 ms is not recommended.
Exciting Base Current
As mentioned above, the droplet oscil-
lation is a damping process. When the ex-
citing peak current is switched to the base
level, the electromagnetic force is reduced
but not eliminated, and it contributes to
decay of the droplet oscillation. In this
sense, an applicable exciting base current
Fig. 24 Average amplitude with different exciting peak currents. Fig. 25 Droplet oscillation with different growing durations.
should be determined. The criteria should
be that the droplet oscillation will not
decay too fast to weaken the beneficial
downward momentum significantly and
that the arc would still burn stably. To this
end, the exciting base current I
is set to
be 10 and 50 A in experiments 12 and 13,
respectively, to verify its effect on the
droplet oscillation. The other current
waveform parameters in the two experi-
ments were fixed to be I
= 80 A, T
= 20
ms; I
= 30 A, T
= 3 ms; I
= 150 A, T
= 4 ms; T
= 30 ms; and I
= 165 A, T
= 5 ms. The result of experiment 8 is re-
ferred to as a comparison, in which the ex-
citing base current I
is 30 A, and the
other parameters are the same with those
in experiments 12 and 13.
The measured droplet oscillation from
experiments 12 and 13 are shown in Fig.
14A and B, respectively. It can be seen that
the fluctuation of droplet length in exper-
iment 13 is weaker than that in experiment
12. The initial amplitude A
and average
amplitude A
in experiments 8, 12, and
13 are calculated correspondingly, as
shown in Fig. 15. It can be seen that the ini-
tial amplitudes in the three experiments
are quite similar, because the same grow-
ing and exciting parameters were used in
the three experiments. However, the aver-
age amplitude demonstrates a down trend
with the increased exciting base current.
As shown in Fig. 15, the average ampli-
tude with the base current of 10 and 30 A
are measured being similar, but that with
the exciting base current of 50 A is ap-
proximately 24% weaker. Furthermore,
with respect to the fact that the arc burn-
ing at 30 A is more stable than that burn-
ing at 10 A, the exciting base current was
fixed at 30 A in the following experiments
as an optimal selection.
Exciting Peak Current
The droplet oscillation behavior is fur-
ther analyzed by changing the exciting
peak current in this subsection. The excit-
ing peak current certainly cannot be
higher than the transition current. How-
ever, it is also doubtless that the exciting
peak current cannot be lower than a spe-
cific level. Otherwise, the droplet will not
be elongated and then oscillated effec-
tively. This minimum exciting peak cur-
rent level is defined as the oscillating tran-
sition current in this paper. Based on the
study above, the selections of the current
waveform and exciting peak duration are
optimized. An exciting peak current, I
150 A, is used to elongate the droplet ac-
cording to the transition current of 165 A.
The optimal range of the exciting peak du-
ration is also confirmed to be 24 ms. In
this subsection, the oscillating transition
current is first verified by experiments,
then a group of experiments with a differ-
ent combination of exciting peak current
and duration T
are conducted. The
droplet oscillations are recorded and
The oscillating transition current was
tested to be 70 A by the experiments in
which the exciting peak current is stepping
down, while the exciting peak duration T
was fixed at 4 ms. The droplet length curve
with the exciting peak current of 70 A is
shown in Fig. 16. It can be seen from the
figure that the droplet is almost not oscil-
lated at all. Based on this result, the se-
lected exciting peak current I
from 140 to 80 A, stepped down by 10 A
each time, as shown in Table 5; plus, the
exciting peak duration ranges from 2 to 4
ms for each selected exciting peak current
level. The other waveform parameters are
fixed to be the same: I
= 80 A, T
= 20
ms; I
= 30 A, T
= 3 ms; I
= 30 A, T
= 30 ms; and I
= 165 A, T
= 5 ms.
The droplet length was measured to
demonstrate the dynamic droplet oscilla-
tion in experiments 1434, as shown in
Figs. 17 to 23, respectively. The average
amplitude A
was also calculated to
quantitatively reveal the relationship be-
tween the droplet oscillation energy and
exciting current, which is shown in Fig. 24.
It can be seen that the average amplitude
of the droplet oscillation presents a para-
bolic growth approximately with the in-
creased exciting peak current. As calcu-
lated before, the average amplitude of the
droplet oscillation in experiment 1, apply-
ing the original waveform and 150 A ex-
citing peak current, is approximately 0.124
mm. By comparing this result with those in
experiments 3234, it is found that the
same or even stronger droplet oscillation
is achieved with only 80 A exciting peak
current by applying the optimized current
waveform. In this sense, the enhancement
of the optimized current waveform on the
droplet oscillation is further ensured.
Meanwhile, the average current is 79.5 A
in experiment 1, but only approximately 58
A in experiment 32 and 60 A in experi-
ment 34. The heat input is significantly re-
duced by applying the optimized current
Growing Duration
As introduced previously, the initial
droplet size/mass can be controlled by ad-
justing the growing duration. In this sub-
section, the growing duration T
is set at
three different levels, and the remaining
waveform parameters are fixed: I
= 80 A;
= 30 A, T
= 3 ms; I
= 140 A, T
= 3
ms; I
= 30 A, T
= 30 ms; and I
= 165
A, T
= 5 ms. As shown in Table 6, the
growing duration is double increased from
10 to 40 ms in experiments 35 to 37, so the
initial droplet mass is also approximately
doubled. The droplet oscillations in these
three experiments were measured and
shown in Fig. 25. It demonstrates that the
initial droplet size is 0.98, 1.16, and 1.42
mm for experiment 3537, respectively.
The droplet oscillation frequencies were
measured to be 216, 183, and 133 Hz, re-
spectively. This result agrees with the the-
oretical calculation result that the droplet
oscillation frequency changes along with
the droplet mass (Refs. 11, 25).
Conclusions and Future Work
The dynamic droplet oscillation behav-
ior was systematically studied in this work.
Stronger droplet oscillation and lower
heat input were achieved by applying the
optimized current waveform. The effects
of the waveform parameters on the ex-
cited droplet oscillation were revealed by
a number of experiments. The optimal
range of current waveform parameters
was determined.
1. The current waveform applied to ex-
cite the droplet oscillation is modified.
The critical modification is that the
droplet growing and exciting periods are
separated. It is found that the droplet os-
cillation can be significantly enhanced by
JULY 2013, VOL. 92 216-s

Table 6 Growing Duration of Experiments
No. T
35 10
36 20
37 40
Table 5 Exciting Parameters of
Experiments 1434
No. I
(A) T
14 140 2
15 140 3
16 140 4
17 130 2
18 130 3
19 130 4
20 120 2
21 120 3
22 120 4
23 110 2
24 110 3
25 110 4
26 100 2
27 100 3
28 100 4
29 90 2
30 90 3
31 90 4
32 80 2
33 80 3
34 80 4

enlarging the exciting rising level. The av-
erage current is meanwhile reduced.
Based on this result, the modified current
waveform is further optimized to obtain
maximized droplet oscillation energy with
any level of growing current.
2. The influence of the exciting param-
eters on the droplet oscillation was ana-
lyzed. It was found that the exciting peak
duration is a key parameter determining
the droplet oscillation. Its optimal range
was confirmed in experiments to be 34
ms while 2 ms is also acceptable. The
droplet oscillation with a different exciting
base current and peak current was also
studied. The optimal base current is con-
sidered to be 30 A according to the exper-
imental results. The exciting transition
current was defined and tested to be 70 A.
The droplet oscillations using the exciting
peak current ranged in 80140 A were
measured. The results demonstrate that
the droplet oscillation energy increased
approximately in a parabolical way when
the exciting peak current was stepping up.
3. The growing duration was set in a
group of values to verify its influence on
the droplet oscillation. It is demonstrated
that the droplet oscillation frequency
changes significantly with the growing du-
ration. The droplet mass gets larger with
increased growing duration, so the droplet
frequency is decreased.
As future work, the correlation of the
droplet oscillation with the arc voltage
needs to be analyzed such that the droplet
motion can be monitored by sensing the
arc voltage signal. Furthermore, a closed-
loop control of the phase match based on
the feedback of arc voltage is expected to
maximize the enhancement on metal
transfer during the droplet oscillation.
Based on this work, the minimum detach-
ing current utilizing the active droplet os-
cillation will be tested with a different
combination of the exciting peak current
(80150 A) and duration (24 ms). In ad-
dition, such closed-loop controlled active
droplet oscillation technology may be fur-
ther applied into the laser-enhanced
GMAW process to reduce the required
laser power.
This work is supported by the State Key
Laboratory of Advanced Welding and
Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin, China, and the National Science
Foundation under grant CMMI-0825956.
Jun Xiao greatly appreciates the scholar-
ship from the China Scholarship Council
that funds his visit to the University of
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Many coal-fired power plant operators
have moved toward a staged combustion
process in order to reduce boiler emis-
sions as required by recently implemented
environmental regulations. By delaying
the mixing of fuel and oxygen, and thereby
creating a reducing environment in the
boiler, the amount of nitrous oxides (NO
that are released as a byproduct of coal
combustion is reduced (Refs. 1, 2). The
use of this staged combustion process has
been found by many power plant opera-
tors to be the most cost- and time-effective
method for decreasing NO
Prior to implementation of staged com-
bustion, most boiler atmospheres were oxi-
dizing, allowing for formation of protective
metal oxides on waterwall tubes made out
of carbon or low-alloy steels (Refs. 1, 3).
Under those conditions, failure of water-
walls due to accelerated corrosion was gen-
erally not a major problem. Staged combus-
tion boilers, on the other hand, create a re-
ducing atmosphere in the boiler due to the
lack of oxygen. Sulfur compounds from the
coal are transformed into highly corrosive
S gas (Ref. 4). Subsequent reaction with
the steel waterwall tubes leads to the for-
mation of metal sulfides or mixed sulfides
and oxides on the tube surfaces. Addition-
ally, corrosive deposits may form on the wa-
terwall tubes due to the accumulation of
solid particles in the combustion environ-
ment, such as ash and unburnt coal. As a re-
sult of these changes, the low-alloy steel
tubes are often susceptible to accelerated
corrosion and unsatisfactory service life-
times (Refs. 1, 4).
The current industry solution to accel-
erated waterwall corrosion is to deposit a
weld cladding of a more corrosion-resis-
tant alloy on the tube. Commercially avail-
able nickel-based alloys have been used
for weld claddings (Refs. 57). These al-
loys generally provide good resistance to
general corrosion for this application.
However, weld claddings have recently
been shown to be susceptible to corrosion-
fatigue cracking in many boiler environ-
ments (Ref. 6). The primary features as-
sociated with corrosion-fatigue cracking
are summarized in Fig. 1 (Ref. 6). Figure
1A is a photograph of a weld cladding with
extensive corrosion-fatigue cracks that
were observed after approximately 18
months of service (Ref. 6). Figure 1B
shows a scanning electron photomicro-
graph of several small cracks that were ex-
amined early in the cracking stage, and
Fig. 1C shows the distribution of alloying
elements across the dendritic substructure
of the overlay. Figure 1D provides a lower-
magnification view that demonstrates the
cracks initiate at the valley of the weld rip-
ple. The dendrite cores in the cladding ex-
hibit a minimum in alloy concentration
due to the relatively rapid solidification
conditions associated with welding (Ref.
7). As a result, the corrosion rate is accel-
erated in these regions and localized at-
tack occurs at the dendrite cores. These lo-
calized penetrations form stress
concentrations that eventually grow into
full-size corrosion-fatigue cracks under
the influence of service-applied stresses.
As shown in Fig. 1D, most cracks initiate
in the valley of surface weld ripples where
an additional stress concentration exists.
The high residual stress that results from
welding also probably contributes to the
cracking problem. In addition, dilution
from the underlying tube substrate, which
results in reduced alloy content of the
cladding, compromises the corrosion re-
sistance of the cladding.
It is important to note that the primary
factors that contribute to corrosion-
fatigue cracking (weld ripple, microsegre-
gation, high residual stresses, and dilu-
tion) are all associated with the localized
High-Temperature Corrosion Behavior of
Alloy 600 and 622 Weld Claddings
and Coextruded Coatings
Thermogravimetric and solid-state corrosion testing techniques were used to
evaluate the corrosion behavior of nickel-based alloys
Weld claddings are often used for corrosion protection for waterwalls in coal-fired
power plants. Although these coatings provide good resistance to general corrosion,
recent industry experience has shown they are susceptible to premature failure due to
corrosion-fatigue cracking. The failure has been attributed, in part, to microsegrega-
tion and dilution of the weld cladding that compromise the corrosion resistance. Co-
extruded coatings may provide improved resistance to this type of failure due to elim-
ination of microsegregation and dilution. In this work, the high-temperature gaseous
and solid-state corrosion behavior of Alloys 600 and 622 weld claddings, and coex-
truded coatings were evaluated using thermogravimetric and solid-state corrosion
testing techniques. The results demonstrate that Alloy 622 exhibits better corrosion
resistance than Alloy 600 under the simulated combustion gases of interest, and co-
extruded coatings provide corrosion resistance that is significantly better than the
weld claddings. The improved corrosion resistance of Alloy 622 is attributed to the
higher Cr and Mo concentrations, while the better corrosion resistance of the coex-
truded coatings is attributed to elimination of dilution and microsegregation. Addi-
tional benefits of the coextruded coatings in terms of service performance are also
likely, and include better control over coating thickness and surface finish and reduced
residual stresses.
(aws3@lehigh.edu) are with the Department of
Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh Uni-
versity, Bethlehem, Pa. A. CAIZZA and A. ES-
POSITO are with Plymouth Engineered Shapes,
Hopkinsville, Ky.
Weld Overlay Coating
Coextruded Coating
Ni-Based Alloys
JULY 2013, VOL. 92
heating, melting, and solidification of the
welding process. As such, use of a coating
that can be applied uniformly on the sub-
strate surface in the solid state (i.e., with-
out the need for localized heating) should
help mitigate these problems and improve
the cracking resistance of the coating.
Thus, there is a need to develop alterna-
tive coating technologies that avoid these
drawbacks. Coextruded coatings provide a
potential alternative because they are pro-
duced completely in the solid state and
therefore require no melting and resolidi-
fication. In this work, the high-tempera-
ture corrosion resistance of two nickel-
based alloys (600 and 622) were
investigated in the form of both coex-
truded coatings and weld claddings. The
counterpart wrought product form was
also tested for Alloy 600 for comparison.
Experimental Procedure
Three types of samples were corrosion
tested: coextruded coating, wrought alloy
(for Alloy 600 only), and weld cladding.
Coextruded tubes were manufactured at
Plymouth Engineered Shapes using an
outer layer of either Alloy 600 or 622 and
a 1.25Cr-0.5Mo (SA213-T11) steel sub-
strate. The composition of the Ni-based
alloys and the steel are provided in Table
1. The steel substrate and nickel alloy
outer layer were joined by an explosion
welding process prior to coextrusion. As
shown in Fig. 2, the substrate and outer
layer had a starting diameter of 6 in. and
length of about 2 ft. The bimetallic billet
was heated to 1040C prior to coextrusion,
and the coextrusion occurred in approxi-
mately 5 s. Figure 3 shows an example of
the final bimetallic tube produced after
coextrusion that has an outside diameter
of 2.5 in. with a 0.250-in. wall thickness
and a coating thickness of 0.085 in. The
final tube length was approximately 20 ft.
Simulated weld claddings were fabricated
by mixing (by weight) 10% of an Alloy 285
Grade C steel substrate (this alloy is simi-
lar to those typically used for waterwall
tubes) with 90% of Alloy 600 or 622. The
10% steel was added to simulate a typical
dilution level of a commercial weld
cladding. (It is recognized that Alloy 600 is
not available in wire form for use as a weld
cladding. However, the weld cladding
samples were prepared and tested here to
provide a direct comparison to the coex-
truded coating of the same composition.)
The mixture was then melted and resolid-
ified in an arc button melter, which essen-
tially duplicates the chemical composition
and thermal conditions used to make weld
claddings. This process has been used ex-
tensively for preparing and corrosion test-
ing weld cladding samples (Ref. 8).
Gaseous corrosion testing was carried out
at 600C for 100 h in a Netzsch thermo-
gravimetric balance. The gas used for the
corrosion tests was modeled after a typical
environment and consisted of
the following mixture (Ref. 8): 10%CO-
Corrosion samples were acquired from
the coating of the bimetallic tube by com-
pletely machining away the underlying
steel substrate.
The Alloy 622 weld cladding and coex-
truded samples were also tested under
solid-state corrosion conditions. (Alloy
600 was not evaluated under solid-state
conditions, since the gaseous corrosion re-
sults demonstrated that Alloy 622 had su-
perior corrosion resistance.) Samples that
16 in. were machined from
the coextruded tube and the weld
cladding. A quartz ring was placed on top

Fig. 1 A Photograph of an IN625 weld cladding with extensive circumferential cracks; B cross-
sectional scanning electron photomicrograph of several small cracks early in the cracking stage; C dis-
tribution of alloying elements across the dendritic substructure of the IN625 weld cladding; D photo-
graph showing crack initiation at the valley of the weld ripple.
Fig. 2 Photograph of starting bimetallic billet
showing the inner steel substrate and outer nickel
alloy layer prior to coextrusion. The starting billet had
a diameter of approximately 6 in. and a length of
about 2 ft.

of the samples, and 1680 mg of FeS
der was poured into the quartz ring. The
powder simulates the iron sulfide
that is often deposited on waterwall sur-
faces in the form of coal particles that are
not completely combusted. The iron sul-
fide will oxidize at high temperature and
subsequently release sulfur gas that cor-
rodes the underlying coating (Refs. 9, 10).
The samples were placed in a furnace and
heated to 600C for 50, 150, and 300 h
(separate samples were used for each ex-
posure time). The samples were then ex-
amined in cross section to reveal the depth
of attack and corrosion morphology after
each exposure time. This test has been
shown (Ref. 8) to simulate the solid-state
corrosion that occurs when deposits form
on the waterwall tubes in service. Corro-
sion test coupons from the gaseous and
solid-state tests were mounted under vac-
uum in cold setting epoxy and ground
through 600 grit with a SiC abrasive. The
samples were then polished to a 0.05-m
surface finish. Post-test imaging of corro-
sion scales was conducted via light optical
microscopy and scanning electron mi-
croscopy on a Hitachi 4300 scanning elec-
tron microscope (SEM) equipped with an
energy-dispersive spectrometer.
Figure 4 shows photographs that com-
pare the coating surface finish and thickness
uniformity of the coextruded coating (Fig.
4A, B) and a weld cladding typically used for
this application (Fig. 4C, D). The weld
cladding exhibits the typical surface ripples
associated with solidification and a rela-
tively uneven coating thickness. The coex-
trusion process provides a relatively smooth
surface finish and more uniform coating
thickness. Elimination of the weld ripple is
significant, since the valleys of the weld rip-
ple present stress concentrations that exac-
erbate corrosion-fatigue crack initiation
(Ref. 6). The more uniform coating thick-
ness and improved surface finish associated
with the coextruded coating eliminates this
form of stress concentration and should
therefore be more resistant to initiation of
corrosion-fatigue cracks.
Figure 5 shows the thermogravimetric
analysis results from the gaseous corro-
sion testing. These results compare the
normalized weight gain of the weld
cladding and coextruded coating. Corro-
sion results from the alloy in the wrought
condition are also shown for Alloy 600 for
comparison. Good corrosion results are
indicated by relatively low weight gains,
and the slopes of the lines are an indica-
tion of the corrosion rates. The coex-
truded coating clearly shows improved
corrosion resistance over the weld
cladding, and the corrosion resistance of
the wrought alloy and coextruded coating
for Alloy 600 is comparable. Also note
that Alloy 622 demonstrates better corro-
sion resistance (i.e., lower weight gains)
than Alloy 600.
Figure 6 shows SEM cross-sectional
photomicrographs of the corrosion
coupons from the gaseous corrosion tests.
These samples reveal an outer scale in ad-
dition to an inner corrosion scale that
formed adjacent to the coating surface dur-
ing corrosion testing. It is important to note
that, due to the large differences in corro-
sion scale thickness, the photomicrographs
acquired from the coextruded coating (Fig.
6A, B) are generally taken at a higher mag-
nification than those of the weld cladding
(Fig. 6C, D). The inner corrosion scale that
formed on the coextruded sample is signifi-
JULY 2013, VOL. 92
Fig. 4 Comparison of coating surface finish and thickness uniformity of the following: A, B Coex-
truded coating; C, D a weld cladding typically used for this application.
Fig. 3 A section of the final bimetallic tube pro-
duced after coextrusion. The tube has an outside di-
ameter of 2.5 in. with a 0.250-in. wall thickness and
a coating thickness of 0.085 in. The final tube
length was approximately 20 ft.
Table 1 Composition of the Ni-Based Alloys
and Steel Used to Make the Coextruded Tubes
(all values are given in wt-%)
622 600 T11
C 0.002 0.06 0.12
Co 0.81 0.06
Cr 21.3 16 1.22
Fe 3.7 7.47
Mn 0.25 0.36 0.52
Mo 13.1 0.52
Ni Bal Bal 0.02
P 0.012 0.009
S 0.002 0 0.026
Si 0.03 0.34 0.62
V 0.02 0.04 0.006
W 2.8
Nb 0.01
Ta 0.01
Ti 0.22
Al 0.2 0.029
Cu 0.03 0.02
Cs 0.002
N 0.005
Sn 0.002

cantly thinner than the inner scale that
formed on the weld cladding. Figure 6A,
which was acquired from the coextruded
sample, was taken at the same magnifica-
tion as Fig. 6D acquired from the weld
cladding, and the differences in scale thick-
ness are readily apparent when these two
images are compared. Also note that corro-
sion has occurred more uniformly on the co-
extruded coating compared to the weld
cladding. The differences in scale thickness
are consistent with the differences in the
weight gain results shown in Fig. 5, where
the weld cladding exhibited a higher weight
gain (due to the higher corrosion rate and
concomitantly larger scale thickness). A
thinner inner corrosion scale is preferred, as
this indicates that the scale provides better
protection between the corrosion environ-
ment and underlying coating surface.
Figure 7 shows EDS spectra collected
from the corrosion scales that formed on
the gaseous corrosion samples. The loca-
tions that the EDS scans were acquired
from are shown as white boxes in Fig. 6B,
D. (In each case, EDS spectra acquired
from the area between the inner and outer
Fig. 6 SEM cross-sectional photomicrographs of the corrosion coupons from the gaseous corrosion tests of Alloy 600 for the coextruded coating (Fig. 6A, B)
and weld cladding (Fig. 6C, D).
Fig. 5 Thermogravimetric results from the gaseous corrosion testing. A Alloy 600; B Alloy 622.
JULY 2013, VOL. 92 222-s

scales were observed to reveal the pres-
ence of carbon and oxygen, indicating that
it is merely the mounting material used to
prepare the samples. This occurs when the
inner and outer scales separate during
preparation.) For each coating type, the
outer scales are rich in nickel and sulfur.
The inner scales of each sample are also
similar and reveal the presence of a
chromium-rich mixed oxygen-sulfur scale.
Figure 8 shows the extent of corrosion
that occurred during the solid-state corro-
sion testing for the Alloy 622 weld
cladding and coextruded coatings. A sig-
nificant amount of corrosion scale can be
observed on the surface of each sample.
The amount of scale on the surface is in-
dicative of the severity of the corrosive at-
tack. The corrosion resistance of the weld
cladding and coextruded coatings are
somewhat similar up to 50 h of exposure.
However, at 150 and 300 h, the depth of
attack is greater on the weld cladding.
Also note that the weld cladding exhibits
localized corrosion penetrations (arrows
in Fig. 8F) while corrosion on the
coextruded coating is uniform.
Figure 9 shows the 300-h corrosion
sample of the weld cladding after it was
etched to reveal the dendritic substruc-
ture. Note that preferential corrosion has
occurred at the dendrite cores (arrows).
Figure 10 provides an EDS line scan that
was acquired across the dendritic sub-
structure of the weld cladding. As ex-
pected (Refs. 6, 7), the dendrite cores are
depleted in Mo, with Mo concentration
levels down to ~ 11 wt-% (the nominal
Mo concentration of the filler metal is ~
13 wt-%). Note that the Ni segregates in
the opposite direction compared to Mo
(i.e., to the dendrite cores). The particu-
larly high Mo level of ~ 38 wt-% (at a po-
sition of ~ 3 m) is coincident with Ni de-
pletion down to ~ 28 wt-% and is
associated with the electron beam inter-
acting with Mo-rich interdendritic phase.
Figure 11 shows the microstructure of
the coextruded coating, and an EDS line
scan acquired across several grains of the
coating is shown in Fig. 12. The coex-
truded coating exhibits a uniform,
equiaxed grain structure and a uniform
distribution of alloying elements.
The corrosion results demonstrate the
effect of the coating process on the result-
ant corrosion resistance. For each alloy,
the coextruded coatings provide signifi-
cantly better corrosion resistance than the
weld claddings. Since the alloy is the same
in each case, the reduced corrosion resist-
ance of the weld cladding must be attrib-
uted to differences in processing that af-
fect the microstructure. This is confirmed
by the results shown for Alloy 600 in which
a wrought alloy was also tested for com-
parison Fig. 5A. Note that the wrought
alloy and coextruded coating exhibit es-
sentially identical corrosion rates. This in-
dicates the coextrusion process has no
detrimental effect on the inherent corro-
sion resistance of the wrought alloy. This
is consistent with the observed mi-
crostructure (Fig. 11) and distribution of
alloying elements (Fig. 12) observed for
the coextruded coating. The equiaxed
grain structure and uniform distribution
of alloying elements is similar to that ob-
served for a wrought alloy, so the corro-
sion resistance is also expected to be sim-
ilar, as observed in Fig. 5A.
The differences in corrosion resistance
among the two alloys and coating types
evaluated here can be understood by con-
sidering differences in their composition.
It is well known that Cr and Mo additions
significantly improve the sulfidation re-
sistance of Ni-based alloys (Refs. 11, 12).
For example, Chen and Douglass (Refs.
11, 13) evaluated the effect of Mo addi-
tions on the sulfidation resistance of Ni-
Mo alloys at 600C at a sulfur partial pres-
sure of 0.01 atm P
. Five alloys were
evaluated, including Ni, Ni-10wt-%Mo,
Ni-20wt-%Mo, Ni-30wt-%Mo, and Ni-
40wt-%Mo. The parabolic rate constant
decreased by four orders of magnitude as
the Mo content was increased to 40 wt-%
Mo. Similar reductions in the parabolic
rate constant were also observed for Ni-Cr
alloys tested by Mrowec et al. (Refs. 12,
14). The sulfidation behavior of Ni with up
to 82 at-% Cr was evaluated in a sulfur
partial pressure of 1 atm P
at 600C. The
parabolic rate constant decreased by three
orders of magnitude as the chromium con-
tent was increased up to 82 at.-% Cr.
These results demonstrate that the corro-
sion resistance of Ni-based materials is im-
proved by alloying additions of Cr and Mo.
Thus, the improved corrosion resistance
of Alloy 622 over Alloy 600 is attributed to
the higher Cr and Mo concentration of
Alloy 622.
The improved corrosion resistance of
the coextruded coatings can be attributed
to two factors. First, the weld cladding ex-
hibits a 10% reduction in key alloying ele-
ments (e.g., Cr and Mo) due to 10% dilu-
tion with the steel substrate, and a
reduction in the concentration of these el-
ements will produce an increase in the cor-
rosion rate. The 10% dilution value used
for these tests represents a lower limit on
the dilution level for commercially applied
weld claddings. The dilution level in field-
applied weld claddings can often be higher
than this, and the corrosion resistance can
be reduced even further as a result. Such
dilution effects do not occur with the co-
extruded coating because there is no melt-
ing and mixing associated with this
process. Although there is localized solid-
state diffusion across the coating/sub-
strate interface during processing, there is
no bulk change in coating composition.
Second, the weld cladding exhibits mi-
Fig. 7 EDS spectra acquired from gaseous corrosion samples of Alloy 600. A Top surface scale of
the coextruded coating; B inner surface scale of coextruded coating; C top surface scale of the weld
cladding; D inner surface scale of weld cladding.

crosegregation in which the dendrite cores
are depleted in alloying elements (partic-
ularly of Mo) that are important for cor-
rosion protection (Ref. 15). As a result,
corrosion occurs more rapidly at the alloy-
depleted cores, thus leading to the prefer-
ential corrosive attack at the dendrite
cores observed in Figs. 6C, 6D, and 9.
It is worth noting that the coextruded
(and wrought) Alloy 600 provides corro-
sion resistance that is nearly comparable
to the Alloy 622 weld cladding, suggesting
that Alloy 600 may be useful as a coex-
truded coating. However, the objective
here is to develop a coating/process com-
bination that provides performance better
than the current industry standard (622
weld cladding). Thus, the use of Alloy 600
as a coextruded coating does not appear
warranted based on this consideration.
These results indicate that coextruded
coatings should provide significant benefits
over weld claddings for corrosion protec-
tion in fossil-fired boilers. (It should be rec-
ognized that weld claddings can be applied
in the field or the shop, while coextruded
coatings can only be applied in the shop.)
Reduction or elimination of failures due to
corrosion-fatigue cracking will require the
development of coatings with improved re-
sistance to both general corrosion and lo-
calized corrosion that occurs due to mi-
crosegregation. Other factors that promote
corrosion-fatigue crack initiation should
also be avoided, such as surface irregulari-
ties and high residual stresses. Coextruded
coatings provide several advantages over
the weld claddings in these regards. First,
the coextruded coatings will not exhibit di-
lution and microsegregation that compro-
mise corrosion resistance. The weld
claddings also exhibit surface ripples asso-
ciated with the solidification process, and
the valleys of these ripples are sources of
stress concentration that can contribute to
corrosion-fatigue cracking (Ref. 6). In con-
trast, the coextruded coatings have a uni-
form coating thickness and smooth surface
finish that should help eliminate localized
stress concentrations that initiate corro-
sion-fatigue cracks. Weld claddings also de-
velop very high levels of residual stress that
are associated with localized heating and
cooling. The residual stress level is gener-
ally on the order of the yield strength of the
alloy (Ref. 16), and this may also be a con-
tributing factor to the corrosion-fatigue
problem. In contrast, the heating and cool-
Fig. 8 Light optical photomicrographs showing the extent of corrosion that occurred during solid-state corrosion testing for the following: A, B, C Alloy
622 coextruded; D, E, F weld cladding coatings.
Fig. 9 Light optical photomicrographs of the
300-h corrosion sample of the weld cladding
after it was etched to reveal the dendritic sub-
structure. Note that preferential corrosion has
occurred at the dendrite cores (arrows).
Fig. 10 A EDS line scan acquired across the dendritic substructure of the weld cladding showing the
composition profiles for Fe, Ni, and Cr; B EDS line scan acquired across the dendritic substructure of
the weld cladding showing Mo depletion at the dendrite cores.

ing cycles experienced during coextrusion
are less severe and more uniform. As a re-
sult, the residual stresses should be signifi-
cantly reduced. Corrosion-fatigue testing
and field tests are currently in progress to
verify this expected level of improvement
and will be reported in the future.
The high-temperature corrosion resist-
ance of Alloys 600 and 622 weld claddings
and coextruded coatings was evaluated in
this work. A wrought sample of Alloy 600
was also corrosion tested for comparison.
The results demonstrate: 1) Alloy 622 ex-
hibits better corrosion resistance than
Alloy 600; and 2) coextruded coatings pro-
vide corrosion resistance that is signifi-
cantly better than the weld claddings. The
improved corrosion resistance of Alloy
622 is attributed to the higher Cr and Mo
concentrations. The improved corrosion
resistance of the coextruded coatings rel-
ative to the weld cladding is attributed to
elimination of dilution and microsegrega-
tion in the coextruded coating. Additional
benefits of the coextruded coating in
terms of service performance are also
likely, and include better control over
coating thickness/surface finish and re-
duced residual stresses.
The authors gratefully acknowledge fi-
nancial support through the National Sci-
ence Foundation Center for Integrated Ma-
terials Joining Science for Energy
Applications, Grant IIP-1034703, and PPL
Corp., Contract 00474836. Useful technical
discussions with Ruben Choug and Robert
Schneider of PPL Corp. are also gratefully
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JULY 2013, VOL. 92
Fig. 11 Light optical photomicrograph showing the microstructure of
the coextruded coating.
12 EDS line scan acquired across several grains of the coating.
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