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Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 1

Scholars Lab Theory File

Theory Toolkit Index


Dispositionality Bad........................................................................................................................1
Dispositionality Good......................................................................................................................1
Dispositionality Good......................................................................................................................1
Consult Good...................................................................................................................................1
Consult Bad.....................................................................................................................................1
Consult CPs Bad – A2: Most Real World........................................................................................1
Consult CPs Bad - A2: not infinitely regressive..............................................................................1
Consult CPs Bad - A2: Don’t Steal Entirety....................................................................................1
Consult CPs Bad - A2: Must Defend Immediacy............................................................................1
Consult CPs Bad - A2: Aff Side Bias..............................................................................................1
Consult CPs Bad - A2: Lit Checks..................................................................................................1
Consult CPs Bad – A2: Best Policy Option.....................................................................................1
ASPEC Bad.....................................................................................................................................1
ASPEC Good...................................................................................................................................1
ASPEC Good...................................................................................................................................1
ASPEC Good...................................................................................................................................1
Conditionality Bad...........................................................................................................................1
Conditionality Good – Offense........................................................................................................1
Conditionality Good – Defense.......................................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Bad..............................................................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Good...........................................................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Good – AT Kills DA Ground......................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Good – AT Makes Plan Not T....................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Good – AT Moving Target..........................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Good – AT Infinite Regression...................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Good – AT No Risk / Irresponsible............................................................................1
K Alts Need a Text.......................................................................................................................1
Floating PICs Bad............................................................................................................................1
Reject Alts Bad................................................................................................................................1
Textual Competition Good...............................................................................................................1
Textual Competition Bad.................................................................................................................1
PICs Bad..........................................................................................................................................1
PICs Good........................................................................................................................................1
International Actor Fiat Bad............................................................................................................1
International Actor Fiat Good..........................................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Perms Good................................................................................................................1
Intrinsicness Perms Bad...................................................................................................................1
Country Exclusion Bad....................................................................................................................1
Country Exclusion Good.................................................................................................................1
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 2
Scholars Lab Theory File

Dispositionality Bad

4) Euphemizes conditionality—We have to perm the CP or they can read add-ons that are non-competitive. This
answers their “aff choice” 2NC. Conditionality is bad – Makes the neg a moving target, justifies multiple
contradictory CPs, and skews 2ac time.

5) Strategy skew—The only way we can prevent a time skew is by straight-turning the net benefit, which forces us
to eliminate our best defense and causes the 2AC to reveal our strategy, allowing the block to exploit us. Letting
neg dictate aff strategy kills fairness and education.

6) Ground—dispo discourages us from making perms, which are key to aff strategy; they serve as a shield against
non-competitive and artificially competitive CPs.

7) Multiple worlds bad—allowing them to establish a temporary world of argumentation muddles the debate.
Debate is about policy option advocacy, which requires consistent arguments to evaluate. The potential for
contradictory arguments is a reason to reject the argument and the team.

8) Not real world—policymakers always have to deal with the consequences of any option they propose to the
government or public. Nobody says “here’s an amendment but I’ll withdraw it if you make an argument I don’t
like against it.”

9) Reciprocity—We only get to advocate one policy and can’t kick out of it; they should be held to the same
standard. The CP justifies severance and intrinsic perms.

10) Voters for the reasons above and competitive equity.


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Dispositionality Good

11) Time and strategy skews are inevitable—Some teams will always be faster, and theory and topicality arguments
will always produce a time and strategy tradeoff. The CP is preferable to these debates because it increases
education and equalizes time tradeoffs.

12) Turn—We put the strategic ball in their court. They can stick us with the CP simply by straight-turning it, which
means they control where the debate goes. This turns all of their reasons why dispo is bad.

13) 2NR defines advocacy—we’ll always pinpoint our position and they get another speech. This is our worldview
on all theory questions and solves all abuse claims.

14) Non-unique—All negative arguments are dispositional. The affirmative isn’t complaining about us potentially
kicking out of topicality or a disad that’s not straight-turned.

15) Best balance—we increases education by allowing real debate to occur on the counterplan, whereas
conditionality discourages the affirmative to do so and skews their strategy, and unconditionality hinders the
search for the best policy option and unfairly restricts the neg.

16) Increases critical thinking by encouraging strategic 2ACs with good time allocation and encourages affs to think
more about the interaction of our arguments.

17) Promotes crystallization—getting rid of dead arguments allows the round to narrow down to more developed
ones, maximizing depth-based education.

18) Offense checks abuse—even if we kick the CP, we can’t retract any evidence read. That evidence can still form
the basis for a turn, and offense on the net benefit answers our strategy in both worlds.

19) Key to negative flexibility—Our only burden is to disprove the plan. Being able to test it at multiple levels is
essential to neg strategy and ground, which outweighs their voters because neg flex is key to balancing an aff
bias.

20) Err neg on theory—Aff gets infinite prep time, the structural advantage of first and last speeches, gets to choose
how to interpret the resolution, and now presumption. Err neg to check this inherent affirmative bias in the
round.

21) Rejection is the wrong remedy. There’s no in-round abuse and voting on potential abuse is like voting on a
potential disad. At worst you should drop the counterplan, not the team.
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Consult Good
Offense:

22) Best Policy Option – If we win that multilateral action is good then consultation is
the best policy option

23) Education – Forces 2AC strategic thinking and increases knowledge of both
domestic and international issues via the net benefits.

24) Counter-Interpretation – Only allow consultation with countries that the U.S. has a
formal consultation framework with – solves all their offense because there are only
5 possible actors

25) Checks Aff Side Bias – They speak first and last, have infinite prep time and have a
higher win percentage

26) Key to Test Resolution –

Substantial: Capable of being treated as fact – WordNet 03.

Resolved: To Make a Firm Decision About – American Heritage Dictionary 00.

Only counterplans can effectively test each word of the resolution – disads can’t win
alone

27) Key to Check 2AC Add-Ons – Only consultation CP’s allow the negative to not get
beat by 2AC sandbagging

Defense:

28) Reject the argument not the team

29) Not Wholly Plan Inclusive – We don’t advocate unilateral action. They can get
offense to working with other institutions

30) Predictable – Consultation CP’s have been run since Jason Russell was debating - -
they should have blocks by now

31) Lit Checks- Our say yes evidence proves there is a direct correlation between the
country being consulted and the action of the plan - - this checks the “Consult
Djibouti” CP

32) No Artificial Competition – We sever out of unilateral action and have a disad
predicated off of it
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Consult Bad
33) they steal 1AC – killing debatability because we can’t leverage our 8 minutes against
anything
34) time frame counterplans are illegit – they create uniqueness through consulting – we
have to defend if the plan SHOULD pass, not WHEN – future fiat is illegit because it’s
not reciprocal

35) Regressive – we could never prepare for all possibilities – crushing predictability which
is the gateway to fairness and education. 190 some countries, thousands of international
organizations, and billions of humans could all be consulted about the plan. This is
particularly dangerous for the aff given that the threshold for the neg’s disad doesn’t
need to be large if the plan does the case, forcing affs to generate offensive args against
the net benefit when they ought to expect to outweigh these disads.

4. Reciprocity – For the purposes of disads, the plan has no contingency, but the aff gets the
right to alter only the nature of the implementation of the plan only to match neg
counterplans.

a. Solves their moving target argument


b. Forces the aff to defend the plan
c. Maintains a balance of aff and neg ground
d. Generates aff predictability which is predicated on the plan.
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Consult CPs Bad – A2: Most Real World

1. The counterplan isn’t real world – politicians don’t reject a policy because of the need to 
consult someone else 

2. Their real world standard is a bad – 
a. it’s not reciprocal – aff fiat is bound by the resolution forcing USFG action – CP destroys 
competition
b. anti­educational – real world consultation is never binding 
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Consult CPs Bad - A2: not infinitely regressive


1. Even if whoever they consult is predictable – they create the capacity for anyone or any
combination of agents to consult – that potential abuse is voter for competitive equity

2. Competing interps is critical – The standard that they apply is necessary to judge the
allowable range of power of the neg. Only interpretations are not arbitrary, preventing the
“only our case is topical” view of T.
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Consult CPs Bad - A2: Don’t Steal Entirety

1. This is a LIE –Consultation risk they say yes means they steal every aspect of the aff – the
y pass the plan exactly as we defend 

2. They create their offense – we can’t even read uniqueness arguments – which means that 
the counterplan allows them to create unique offense while taking ALL of our offense – whi
ch proves it is unpredictable and unfair.
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Consult CPs Bad - A2: Must Defend Immediacy

1. Either:
36) No part of the text says immediate – proves the CP isn’t competitive and the perm so
lves
OR
37) We defend the immediacy of the plan – we don’t spike out of ANY disads or counter
plans – FIAT is the least means necessary ­ they don’t negate the plan, means that yo
u vote aff because both sides say the plan SHOULD pass

2. This is arbitrary– it isn’t a reason why passing the plan now is bad – it is a reason why w
aiting to do something else is good – proves that the CP is contrived with no strategic cost a
gainst the negative – killing reciprocity

3. this legitimizes DELAY counterplans – which are uniquely abusive because they make de
bate about absurdity – we can never predict, research, or defend against them.

4. there’s no offense – they have zero reason why the aff defending immediacy in a world of 
an artificial counterplan is good for debate
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Consult CPs Bad - A2: Aff Side Bias

38) Consultation Counterplans go too far – they eliminate the entirety of the 1ac and AL
L predictable 2ac offense PLUS they give the negative INFINITE PREP against the 
aff by creating artificial offense

39) The side bias doesn’t exist – they block to check any structural aff bias
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Consult CPs Bad - A2: Lit Checks

1. There is no literature – yes they may have evidence about X_____ in Africa, but it’s not in 
context of the plan and the CP 

2. LITERATURE is a bad standard – 
40) literature is limitless – hemorrhoids in Djibouti, Nietzsche, super­intelligent dinosau
rs proves it’s arbitrary and provides no fair check
41) not educational – it’s a matter of what is best for topic­specific debate NOT what is a
vailable 
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Consult CPs Bad – A2: Best Policy Option

A “Best policy” arguments allows us to use private fiat or make run abusive strategies 
if it resulted in a good policy. 

B Even if we search for the best policy – the search must be reciprocal. Our specific ab
use claim should be preferred over their general warrant.

C Justifies severance and intrinsic perms because those would be the “best policy optio
n”.
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ASPEC Bad
First offense

1) Arbitrary. Their interp is always that we have to specify one more thing than is in plan. This
kills aff predictibility, so to meet we would need an 8 minute plan text and the neg would
always win on plan doing nothing.
2) Counter Interp: agent is normal means. This solves their offense by allowing debates about
what normal means is, and is most predictable because it’s in the literature.
3) Neg ground. With thousands of USfg agencies, we could specify them into bad or
unpredictable ground.
4) Counter interp: we can specify status quo plan implementation in cross x. This gives the neg
link ground to agent DAs.
5) Checks neg bias Topic.
a) No aff advantage areas.
b) Generics. Ks, politics, and domestic agent cps link to everything.
c) Structural. The neg block puts the 1ar at a time disadvantage, preventing good arguments
for the 1ar or good extensions for the 2ar.
6) Justifies agent Counterplans. This is a voter
a) Utopian. No utopian decision maker means that counterplan isn’t a test of opportunity
cost.
b) Limits. Real world decision framework is the only non-arbitrary way to limit CP’s.
c) Ground. No lit assumes a choice between two different agents.
d) Topic education. We already know about courts, we’re here to research Africa.

And, the defense

1) Potential abuse isn't a voter. There is potential that the neg runs a new counterplan in the 2nr.
2) DAs solve their offense. We still learn about implementation.
3) Not 90% of solvency. Elmore is talking about solvency mechanism and implementation, not
just the agent.
4) No impact to ground loss. They only lose bad ground.
5) Still resolved.
a) Resolved means we just have to be definite in affirming the resolution, not about the
agent. Their interp means that we are indefinite because we wrote Sub-Saharan Africa
instead of listing all the countries.
b) Resolved is before the colon. That means that the USfg is resolved about passage. This is
best because theirs allows an infinite number of k frameworks.
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ASPEC Good
A. Violation – The aff should specify its agent within the USfg.
Government power is divided into 3 branches
Rotunda, professor of law at the University of Illinois, 2001 [Richard, 18 Const. Commentary
319, “THE COMMERCE CLAUSE, THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE, AND
MORRISON”, l/n, (m7,06)]
No one denies the importance of the Constitution's federalist principles. Its state/federal division of authority protects liberty - both by
restricting the burdens that government can impose from a distance and by facilitating citizen participation in government that is closer
to home. n8 Chief Justice Rehnquist, for the majority, agreed. The "Framers crafted the federal system of government so that the people's
rights would be secured by the division of power." n9 The Framers of our Constitution anticipated that a self-interested "federal
majority" would consistently seek to impose more federal control over the people and the states. n10 Hence, they created a federal
structure designed to protect freedom by dispersing and limiting federal power. They instituted federalism [*321] chiefly to protect
individuals, that is, the people, not the "states qua states." n11 The
Framers sought to protect liberty by
creating a central government of enumerated powers. They divided power between the
state and federal governments, and they further divided power within the federal
government by splitting it among the three branches of government, and they further
divided the legislative power (the power that the Framers most feared) by splitting it
between two Houses of Congress. n12

B. Voters
42) Solvency Deficit: 90% of solvency is dependent on implementation
Elmore, Professor of public affairs at U Washington, 1980 [Political science quarterly, pg. 605,
(m7,06)]
Analysis of policy choices matters very little if the mechanism for implementing those
choices is poorly understood. In answering the question, “What percentage of the work
of achieving a desired governmental action is done when the preferred analytic
alternative has been identified?” Allison estimated that in the normal case, it was about
10 percent, leaving the remaining 90 percent in the realm of implementation.
43) Ground: We can’t run our specific DAs to USAID or congress, or have competitive a
gent CPs.
44) Real world. Policy doesn’t happen without an actor.
45) Education. Key to learn about government action and implementation.
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ASPEC Good
Next, the defense:

46) Can’t clarify.


a. They’re a moving target. This skews predictability and ground because they could
clarify to get out of any 1nc arg.
b. Not resolved
American Heritage 2k [The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth
Edition, http://www.bartleby.com/61/87/R0178700.html, © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company,
accessed 6-30-07]
Resolve TRANSITIVE VERB:1. To make a firm decision about
47) Cross-x doesn’t check
c. Pre round prep. They don’t have to answer questions before the round. This kills c
lash because we can’t prepare.
d. Not binding. The judge doesn’t flow it.
e. Aff burden to specify in plan. We should get cross-x to get links and talk about evi
dence, not clarify plans.
f. Regressive. Affs could read the res as plan and we would have to spend 3 min of c
ross-x to find out what they do.
48) Aff bias
g. Structural. First and last speech, infinite prep, and 60% win skew
h. Broad Topic. 48 countries and no precise definition of public health assistance me
ans we can’t get specific lit on their case.
i. Moral high ground. Aff gets to help people in Africa.
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ASPEC Good
Agent spec is best for debate –

First is education:
49) questions of the agent are critical to understanding implementation – that’s the only
way to learn about policy
50) generates in-depth education – debates become more focused and we learn more
about specific issues

Second is competition:
51) They justify aff conditionality - kills debatability because they can get out of any
links
52) specification is key to agent CP ground – agent CPs are awesome
1. encourages plan focus debate by testing the merits of the actor
2. key to neg ground: lit indicates the plan is not a question of the advantages
but rather implementation
3. neg flex is good – aff structural bias justifies the CP

All affs take non-topical action – Funding and enforcement are necessary for
implementation, but not sufficient to meet topic requirement. Their interp overlimits the
aff.

There are not an unlimited number of potential agents – Solvency evidence and
mechanisms check. Only a limited number of people advocate actors for public health
assistance.

Proves the need for CP limits – If too many agents are unfair to the neg, then they are
reciprocally unfair for the aff. Reject agent CPs.
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Conditionality Bad
Conditionality is bad; it’s a voter for the following reasons:

Offense:

53) Time/Strategy Skew—They could read 10 conditional counterplans in the 1NC and
kick out of all but the one with the least offense in the block
54) Moving target—We don’t know what the issues in the debate will be until the 2NR
so any offense we put on the counterplan is time wasted; this hurts fairness and
education and makes it impossible to win.
55) Counter-interpretation—they should read their K/CP dispositionally; it allows the
aff a change to straight-turn in the 2AC and checks any abuse. It solves all their
offense.
56) Not reciprocal—Justifies the aff kicking case and reading a new one in the 2AC.
57) Justifies severance and intrinsicness—if the neg can change their advocacy
whenever they want, the aff should be able to do the same
58) Promotes argumentative irresponsibility—the neg isn’t responsible for their
advocacy- they could run multiple contradictory arguments without any recourse

Defense:
59) Perms don’t check abuse—they’re a test of competition, advocated perms justify
intrinsicness
60) Neg flex is bad—They have thousands of Ks, DAs, T violations, and whatever CPs
they read dispositionally.
61) Its not real world—policy makers can’t propose competing pieces of legislation and
a senator never unrolls a list of 30 bills they might advocate that day
62) Negation theory doesn’t check—they could force us to double turn ourselves
answering all of their positions
63) No aff side bias—they have the 13 minute block to the 5 minute 1AR and they have
issue choice
64) A conditional counterplan is different than any other conditional issue—it changes
whether we’re defending our plan against the world of a counterplan or the world of
the status quo
65) There is legitimate abuse—the 2AC has already happened; they’ve already skewed
our time and strategy
66) Not key to find the best policy option/doesn’t increase critical thinking—it doesn’t
increase critical thinking or find the best policy option because whenever the neg is
put in a tough position they’ll just kick the counterplan
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Conditionality Good – Offense


67) Breadth is better than depth
a. the plan was the focus of the debate, and neg. should be able to attack the
plan from multiple vantage points.
b. advocacy training is central to the educational mission of debate
c. It’s best to force each team to "scan"the available policy options, select one
and debate it to the max
68) Best policy option-many ideas must be compared to the aff in order to find the best
policy option, which is the point of the round
69) Reciprocity-if the aff gets a policy option, so should the neg. The fact that the aff can
perm and advocate multiple perms means that the neg can run multiple conditional
counterplans
70) Neg flex – The aff has intrinsic advantages in terms of framing the debate, giving
both the first and last speeches, and win/loss percentages prove. The neg needs a
variety of approaches to answer the aff.
71) Neg theory- Either of the squo or the plan prove the aff is a bad idea. The neg’s
responsibility is to answer the aff by illustrating opportunity costs to the adoption of
the plan.
72) Real world-in the real world, legislators are allowed to propose and drop new bills
all the time
73) Harder debate is better for debate-forces us to work harder, learn more and make
debate a more productive activity. It doesn’t matter if it is infinitely regressive or
not.
74) Best policy option-we’re here to see which is the best policy option, and that is best
found by having multiple policy options to weigh in the round. This should be our
found in the round, is thus justifies why we can advocate and then drop args.
75) Dispo doesn’t solve – Limits neg flex, undermines the discussion of policy options,
and makes the aff capable of dictating the CP which undermines examination of
logical opportunity costs of the plan’s adoption, preventing the degree of difficulty
of debates from increasing. In effect, it bails out the aff.
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Conditionality Good – Defense


76) Time skew inevitable-if we hadn’t run another “policy option,” we would have just
run another kick-able case arg, DA or K argument, or we could have just had more
arguments on another flow
77) We aren’t a moving target because we will have to pick one and because the status
quo is always an option
a. All arguments are conditional. The aff will kick advantages and we can
concede disads. All of their arguments prove the CP isn’t competitive by
answering the net benefits.
b. If the negative claims that either of two policies is superior to the plan and
one of their policies is shown to be inferior, they can still logically win on the
other
78) Strat Skew is inevitable, and harder debate is better debate
c. The 1AC is stacked with advantages and the SQ is not a policy option, so we
have to have another policy option
d. Increased critical thinking on how to answer arguments is good
e. fewer arguments are not necessarily better
79) Aff bias – first and last speech, frame the debate, infinite prep, and win/loss %.
80) Perms check – the aff can advocate multiple worlds too. Our CPs simply test logical
opportunity costs of adopting the aff.
81) Debating the Squo isn’t an additional burden – The 1AC is stacked against the squo,
and typically includes some CP answers too.
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Intrinsicness Bad
82) Ground – Intrinsicness allows the aff to get out of any disad, case argument, or
counterplan. Even offense germaine to the plan become becomes moot – the aff
would win every debate and kill the activity. Importantly, these moves are
unpredictable, and only predictable ground is useful.

83) Limits – Permitting intrinsic permutations to disads permits a world where there
are 30 unpredictable advocacies in the 2AR that they can choose to go for.

84) Real World Education- Allowing the affirmative to dodge arguments directly related
to the plan ensures there is no discussion about relevant topics that would be
discussed when the plan is passed.

85) No checks – Just because the aff only uses intrinsicness on one of our arguments doesn’t
mean that the theory doesn’t allow essentially washing away of all negative disad links,
especially those on critical topics like politics and economics. The intrinsicness argument
could always be do the plan and don’t raise rates or do the plan and have Hillary drop out
of the race.

86) Voter- for fairness and ground


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Intrinsicness Good
Intrinsicness is good. It tests the germaness of the link

1. Most real world – no policy maker would ever be forced to choose between giving aid
and striking Iran

2. Better Disads

A. Forces clash and specific research on the topic

B. Checks regressive disads like spending


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Intrinsicness Good – AT Kills DA Ground

1. Intrinsicness forces more specific disads. Education is the terminal impact to all theory
args. As long as we win that specific disads are better for education, ground loss doesn’t
matter

2. Good teams will always be able to generate specific links

3. No reason the neg gets generic disad ground

4. It’s reciprocal to the fiat that the neg gets to CP out of advantages
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Intrinsicness Good – AT Makes Plan Not T

87) Intrinsicness is like a permutation to the disad. That means intrinsicness only tests
the direct cost of the Disad. It’s not a net benefit to the plan.

88) Non Topical counter-plans mean the judge has jurisdiction over non-topical fiat as
well

89) C/I – the resolution only exists as a starting point for the debate. This means the neg
can have all competitive alternatives to the plan, but we still get intrinsicness
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Intrinsicness Good – AT Moving Target

1. They get more ground. They can garner offense on the intrinsic disad perm

2. Key to check Advantage and 2NC counter plans which functionally do the something

3. The plan is STATIC. They can still read their case args and disads, as long as they are
good
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Intrinsicness Good – AT Infinite Regression

1. c/I – The aff only gets intrinsic perms in the 2AC

2. Regression is inevitable. Perms prove. New perms to new disads to perms would resolve
in the 2ar.

3. Not possible. Infinite regression is too complicated to occur normally


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Intrinsicness Good – AT No Risk / Irresponsible

90) Counterinterp – we one intrinsicness perm per disad. The neg gets one case specific
CP per advantage

91) Germane disad links solve

92) Debate over competition is inevitable. We fiat in disad takeouts that they would
have to address at some point anyway
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K Alts Need a Text

93) Interpretation: The neg needs a written text to their advocacy.


94) Reasons to Prefer:
a. Predictability: pinning the neg to a stable advocacy is key to predictable debate.
No ground is usable without predictability.
b. Moving Target: Neg needs an alt text so they can’t change their alt to avoid
arguments. The impact is time and strategy skew, which alter the nature of the
entire debate. Justifies new args.
c. Reciprocity: The aff presents a plan text so the neg needs a written description of
the difference between the SQ and their approach.
95) Voter for fairness and education
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Floating PICs Bad


1. The negative should only be able to pic actual words in plan text
a. plan focus good – plan is the only stable ground
b. predictability – its more reasonable for the affirmative to have to defend their plan not
any random representation an author may make within the evidence
2. Moving target – it allows the negative to shift their initial alternative to subsume the
affirmative which skews 2ac answers and is unpredictable
3. Justifies no alternative text which is uniquely bad
a. destroys perm ground – no way to test the competition of the link
b. justifies aff conditionality -
c. forces functional competition which is bad because its unpredictable. There are an
infinite number of alternative mechanisms to solve the impacts
4. Literature doesn’t check abuse – there is not reciprocal literature on all issues and the topic
forces us to defend certain things to be topical which establishes a side bias. This solves their aff
conditionality arguments.
5. Debateability – floating pics essentially agree that the affirmative is a good idea, forcing the
affirmative to debate against themselves
6. Including the plan within their advocacy justifies perm: do the affirmative because they agree
that the plan is a good idea and that the plan can be done without linking to the criticism
7. Voting issue
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 29
Scholars Lab Theory File

Reject Alts Bad


Their rejection alternative is illegitimate and a voting issue for the following reasons:
96) Ground trade-off – They can find anything wrong with the affirmative as reasons to
reject it and generate uniqueness but we don’t get to generate any offense which
means they will always control the direction of offense. Ground should always be
reciprocal.
97) Education loss – We don’t get to discuss possible venues to solve the problems they
are indicting. If their criticism is so important, then we should be able to debate and
learn strategies that are compatible with it - instead they make debate a normative
activity where we do nothing which their authors would indict.
98) Double bind – Either
a. Their evidence says nothing about rejection or rejection as a causal access to
solvency which means they can’t solve and their impact is non-unique. OR
b. They will shift their alternative to do something more than just rejection
which makes their alternative a moving target which is abusive and shifts out
of all our offense – affs can never win.
99) It’s utopian Fiat – They can claim solvency and uniqueness by arbitrarily fiating the
ballot as their solvency mechanism.
100)Justifies Our Intrinsicness Perms
c. Their alternative is simply a “non link” scenario. We can’t generate offense
against it or test the link which means the only way to test the germaneness
of their argument is through our intrinsicness perm.
d. Even if intrinsicness is bad their alt requires its usage which means rejection
alternatives are bad for debate and shouldn’t be allowed.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 30
Scholars Lab Theory File

Textual Competition Good


1. Most Objective: A text is the only unmovable way to determine competition, giving a clear
delineation.
2. Justifies delay counter-plans which are bad because they allow the negative to steal affirmative
ground and change when the plan gets implemented.
3. Decreases judge intervention: comparing texts is removed from the flow and requires no
weighing of arguments, ensuring fairer decisions and debate.
4. Prevents advocacy shifts: Holding a team to text prevents abusive shifts sustaining competitive
equity and ground.
5. Only true way to test competition: Without seeing what plan allows and precludes through
text, competition can’t be ascertained.
6. Disads solve their offense – It’s not that the aff doesn’t defend their aff against normal means
disads, but that those disads don’t deserve the added advantage of wiping away the aff case.
7. Aff predictability – The neg isn’t the only team that deserves it. Aff predictability is limited by
the wording of the plan text. Some CPs may have “advantages” theoretically but not meet the
need to make those CPs topical.
8. Functional competitions justifies aff intrinsicness – If the neg gets unlimited tests of the aff the
aff gets unlimited tests of the opportunity costs of the plan which justifies a perm to do x on
another issue. Solves their net benefits while passing the plan, the best of both worlds.

Voting Issue
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 31
Scholars Lab Theory File

Textual Competition Bad


101)Kills Policy Making: debate as semantics turns the activity into who can write good
plans, not what the best policy option for the real world is.
102) Increases intervention: the critic still has to pull texts and compare, which is
removed from the flow and the actual arguments against the counterplan.
103)Contextual analysis inevitable: its quite possible to pass conflicting legislation at
the same time. only a contextual lense of how they would interact on the books can show
competition, makig our method best.
104)Encourages shifty debate: adding ‘reject plan’ to bottom of counterplan text makes
any counterplan textually competitive.
105)Allows aff abuse: any ‘do both’ permutation would win a round because they don’t
weigh whether the perm is net beneficial, destroying all negative counterplan ground
which is uniquely key on such a broad topic.
106)Encourages and rewards bad plans: Vague plans undermine neg ground and offer
the aff the advantage of clarifying later what the loose plan means. Both undermine
balanced competition.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 32
Scholars Lab Theory File

PICs Bad

1. Steals aff ground- arguing against a PIC forces us to argue against our own case, hurts o
ur ability to offensively attack the CP, this ground is key to fairness

2. Breadth is better that Depth- focusing on a portion of the plan is not as educational as ev
aluating it as a whole

3. Encourages vague plan writing- allowing PICs allows affirmatives to write plans that for
ce generic strategies, that hurts education

4. PICs are regressive- allowing the neg to PIC out of one part of the plan justifies them doing
the same in the block and the 2nr, this ruins debate as the debate is never about the topic but
instead PICs that get out of aff offense, this ruins education

5. Clash- PICs limit aff arguments ruining clash within the debate decreasing education

6. Aff Predictability- the negative can PIC out of any country of sub-saharan Africa explodi
ng the ground the aff has to defend, this ruins fairness

7. Reciprocity- There is no affirmative equal to PICs, they justify abusive perms like severa
nce and intrinsic perms which makes debate unfair

8. Unpredictable Net Benefits- means we never have the pre-round preparation to garner of
fense against the CP voter for ground loss, fairness and education

9. There is in-round abuse- The damage has been done- the 2AC strategy is dependent on t
he 1NC, even if you don’t buy this Potential Abuse is a voter
A. In round abuse is arbitrary and encourages judge intervention ruining fairness
B. If we win our interpretation is best it proves why what the other team has done de
serves to be rejected

10. Argumentative Responsibility- reject the team, time skew proves the unique abuse of PI
Cs, it limits the aff in the round, the affirmative must defend all of the plan so should the ne
gative voter for fairness

11. PICs are not real world- Bills are amended, not rejected based on a singular flaw

12. Disads check neg ground loss- if there is one portion of our plan they think is bad they c
an run a DA on it
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 33
Scholars Lab Theory File

PICs Good

1) Checks Inherit Aff advantages – Aff picks the focus of the round, speaks first and last and
gets infinite prep.

2) Most real world – Bills in congress must defend every word in them, the same should apply
to the Aff plan

3) Best Policy Option – if we win that the counterplan is competitive and better than the plan
then it shouldn't matter how the CP works.

4) Competition checks abuse –the net benefit must have links to the plan with real impacts

5) Neg Ground – PICs are the only way the negative can generate offense against a racism bad
aff. Without them, the negative would have to defend fundamentally untrue arguments like
racism good.

6) Net benefits checks abuse – net benefits are a unique reason not to do the plan, and the Aff
always has offense on the net benefit.

7) No potential abuse – In round abuse arguments answer in round abuse, there is no reason
to abuse the negative for something that didn’t happen

8) Not a voting issue – at worst you reject the CP and evaluate the net benefit against the
plan
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 34
Scholars Lab Theory File

International Actor Fiat Bad


International counterplans are a voter

107)Not germane to the resolution


a. Doesn’t disprove aff. The reasons that the US should increase assistance are based
on the actions and inactions of others.
b. Not real world. No policymaker would be able to choose between the US and
their actor. This kills clash and education because there’s no comparative lit.
108)Justifies object fiat. Sudan stopping genocide would solve better, but neg would win
every round.
109)Reciprocity. Aff is limited to the US. International fiat gives them 200 actors.
110)Regressive. Impossible for aff to prep if the neg can counterplan any agent.
111)Core Education. Their counterplan discusses the agent, which is the same every year,
rather than the merits of our action.
112)Research burden. We can’t get lit on 200 countries. This kills clash because we can’t
engage their solvency or net benefits.
113)Their interps arbitrary. Our interp is predictable because we limit to the resolution’s
agent. Their interp would always just be ours plus their cp, so they don’t limit out
anything.
114)Checks neg bias.
c. Topic. No aff advantage areas.
d. Generics. Ks, politics, and domestic agent cps link to everything.
e. Structural. The neg block puts the 1ar at a time disadvantage, preventing good
arguments for the 1ar or good extensions for the 2ar.

And, the defense

115)Not a key limit. Domestic agents, different mechanisms, and topicality check unlimited
affs.
116)Not key ground. Neg gets any DA or K that links and any domestic counterplan.
117)No international education. The net benefits solve if they’re germane to the aff.
118)Not ethnocentric. Other countries still act, we just can’t fiat them.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 35
Scholars Lab Theory File

International Actor Fiat Good


OUR INTERPRETATION-
The negative can read one competitive policy option which advocates the action of an
internationally recognized government or coalition of governments on the condition that
the counter plan does not use fiat to eliminate the harms of the affirmative.

DEFENSE
1. Predictable- There may be many international actors, but literature limits the number of
viable options for the neg.

2. Reasonable research burden- The aff doesn’t have to find evidence indicating every other
country is bad, only that the US is the best.

3. Reciprocity- The aff can pick harms area, solvency mechanism, advantages and any of
their permutations. The neg should be able to pick any international actor to do the plan.

4. Preserves aff ground- The aff can use the risk of a solvency deficit to weigh advantages
against the CP just like they must win the risk of a no-link to weigh case against a “DA-
turns case” argument

5. Checks aff side bias- Infinite prep and first and last speech justify

OFFENSE
1. Key to test to test the resolution- International actor fiat tests the words “United States
federal government.”

2. Increases education- We learn about the USFG through comparative political analysis of
US foreign policy as it compares to other nations’ policies. We learn about two nations,
doubling education

3. Real world- International and national actors both present viable actors to trans-
national issues. This is magnified by the foreign nature of the topic.

4. Promotes critical thinking through solvency focus- Solvency education is more important
than harms education because it allows us to evaluate single problems with multiple
approaches to solutions, increasing problem solving skills.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 36
Scholars Lab Theory File

Intrinsicness Perms Good

First is our offense:

1. Key to checking abusive counterplans – Keeping the equity of the debate.


2. Force debate about the Aff – checks neg from running generic arguments. Forcing
negative to research case specific strategies increasing education
3. Improves research burden on the negative – intrinsicness perms make the neg research all
possible ways their impacts can be solved. This improves clash and creates more actor
specific knowledge.
4. Increases critical thinking – forces teams to think quickly and effectively to answer
strategic permutations.

Now the defense-

1. Potential abuse is not a voter – we didn't do it and it's impossible to quantify. Since the
ballot doesn't set a precedent, in-round abuse is the fairest way to judge theory.
2. Reject the argument, not the team – the punishment paradigm rewards theory over
substance, decreasing education. Plus, they can't prove a reason why we jacked their
ability to beat the rest of our positions.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2008 37
Scholars Lab Theory File

Intrinsicness Perms Bad


Intrinsicness is bad and a voting issue:

1. Decrease clash in rounds- allows the affirmative to get out of every disad or counterplan
with the intrinsic permutation; it discourages participation within the activity.

2. The perm makes the aff a moving target- the permutation advocates the plan and other
action that the 1AC does not endorse. Stable plans are key to predictable ground and
strategy.

3. Infinitely regressive- The permutation could do the plan, the counterplan, and create
world peace or feed the hungry in Africa, the negative would never be able to predict
which of the thousands of different ways the affirmative could add something to the perm
to get around the net benefits

4. Time and strategy skew- allowing intrinsicness perms takes all the time the negative
spent developing the net benefit and the affirmative can just test their way out of it, this
increases the aff side bias and is akin to doubling the 1AR's speech time

5. The perms allow for extra topical plans - which are bad for debate, because the aff can
always claim to be topical by adding on extra planks to their plan text.

6. It's a voter for fairness and education.

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