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Talk on Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Sachin Shah Vice President Electrotherm Immodo Renewables Ltd.

Talk on Solar Photovoltaics (PV)

Sachin Shah Vice President Electrotherm Immodo Renewables Ltd.

Talk on Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Sachin Shah Vice President Electrotherm Immodo Renewables Ltd.
Talk on Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Sachin Shah Vice President Electrotherm Immodo Renewables Ltd.
What is PV? PV (Photovoltaic) is a method of generatin g electrical power by converting

What is PV?

PV (Photovoltaic) is a method of generatin g electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors which exhibit photoelectric effect.

converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors which exhibit photoelectric effect.
PV Applications • Energy source for s p ace app lications like satellites . •

PV Applications

Energy source for s p ace app lications like satellites .

Portable power applications like calculators, watches etc.

Building Integrated PV (BIPV)

Rural applications for powering light loads, for pumping water etc.

Miscellaneous applications like solar street lights, solar lanterns etc.

loads, for pumping water etc. • Miscellaneous applications like solar street lights, solar lanterns etc.
loads, for pumping water etc. • Miscellaneous applications like solar street lights, solar lanterns etc.
loads, for pumping water etc. • Miscellaneous applications like solar street lights, solar lanterns etc.
PV Applications • Roofto p systems ( kWp scale) for decentralized power generation . •

PV Applications

Roofto p systems (kWp scale) for decentralized power generation .

Utilityscale (MWp grade) power plants for centralized power generation .

power generation . • Utility ‐ scale (MWp grade) power plants for centralized power generation .
power generation . • Utility ‐ scale (MWp grade) power plants for centralized power generation .
Advantages of PV • PV utilizes solar energy , which is a locally available and

Advantages of PV

PV utilizes solar energy, which is a locally available and p erennial source of energy.

Decentralized power generation (in case of rooftop systems) ; lower exposure of generated energy to line T&D losses.

PV systems are available from small sized kWp systems to utility scale MWp sized plants.

Clean and silent source of energy; environment friendl y.

Converts energy directly from the primary source of all energySun.

PV systems are modular ; existin g system may be au g mented in future.

Minimal operation and maintenance costs.

Challenges for PV • Relatively higher Ca p ex cost; es p eciall y for

Challenges for PV

Relatively higher Ca p ex cost; es p eciall y for roofto p systems which involve batteries.

PV produces DC power while the grid operates with AC power; hence converters are required to change power waveform which increases plant capex .

Land intensive; 57 acres may be required for installation of 1 MWp system.

Solar energy is a variable resource; hence there is inherent difficulty in forecastin g energy p roduction.

Strin g PV Mo dul e Array Junction Box
Strin g
PV Mo dul e
Array
Junction
Box

Typical PV Power Scheme

Inverter
Inverter
L ow V o ltage Panel Step‐ up Transformer
L ow V o ltage
Panel
Step‐ up
Transformer

Medium

Voltage

Panel

up Transformer Medium V o l t a g e Panel Substation & Switchyard with Power

Substation

&

Switchyard

with Power

Transformer

Grid
Grid
up Transformer Medium V o l t a g e Panel Substation & Switchyard with Power
PV System Components & Roles   Component   Role   PV Modules Convert solar energy

PV System Components & Roles

 

Component

 

Role

 

PV

Modules

Convert solar energy to DC electrical energy

 

Mounting System

Hold PV modules in place

 

DC

Cables

Transmission of DC ower from module strin s to junction boxes

p

g

Junction Boxes

Paralleling of DC strings

 

I

nverter

DC

to

AC

i

f

l

i

l

convers on o e ectr ca power

 

LV

Panel

Protection of inverter, transformer etc.

 

LV

Step up Transformer

Step up power to 11 kV level

 

AC

Cables

Transmission of AC power to grid interconnection facility

Energy Meter

Measurement of net injected energy to grid

 

Grid Interconnection System

Interconnection of p lant with grid; electrical p rotection

PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Mounting System Inverter Crystalline Pol y

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Mounting System

Inverter

Crystalline Pol ycr ystalline Monocrysalline Thin film Amorphous Silicon (A Si) Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Others

PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Crystalline Pol ycr ystalline (pC ‐

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Crystalline Pol ycr ystalline (pC Si)

PV Modules Crystalline Pol ycr ystalline (pC ‐ Si)

52.9 % global market share Source: multifaceted Si crystals Less effic ient than mCSi Less expensive than mCSi

Mounting System

Monocrystalline (mC Si)

Monocrystalline (mC ‐ Si)

Inverter

33.2 % global market share Source: Single, high purity Silicon crystal Complex manufacturing process Most efficient technology in market Most expensive technology in market

PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Thin ‐ film Amor phous Silicon

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Thinfilm Amor phous Silicon (A Si )

PV Modules Thin ‐ film Amor phous Silicon (A ‐ Si )

5 % global market share Process: Thin layers of Si is placed on glass Low manufac turing cost Better performance than CSi in hot weather

Mounting System

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)

Inverter

5.3 % global market share Low manufacturing cost Better performance than CSi in hot weather Cadmiumhazardous substance

PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Mounting System Inverter Fixed ‐ tilt

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Mounting System

Inverter

Fixed tilt System Seasonal tilt System Tracking System Single axis Dual axis

PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Mounting System I t nver er

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Mounting System

I

t

nver er

Fixedtilt System

Module orientation is fixed Material: MS GI is commonly used Most common mounting system Lowest land requirement per MWp

mounting system • Lowest land requirement per MWp Seasonal ‐ tilt System • Module orientation can

Seasonaltilt System

Module orientation can be varied seasonally according to altitude of sun Material: MS GI, Aluminum is commonly used More ex pensive than fixedtilt More land requirement per MWp than fixedtilt

used • More ex p ensive than fixed ‐ tilt • More land requirement per MWp
PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Mounting System Inverter Tracking System Sin

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Mounting System

Inverter

Tracking System Singleaxis

Tracks daily motion of sun (eastwest) (Azimuth tracking) No tilt (El evation) variation More energy yield (>20%) than fixedtilt More land requirement per MWp More expensive than fixed and seasonal systems

than fixed ‐ tilt • More land requirement per MWp • More expensive than fixed and
PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Mounting System Inverter Tracking System Dual

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Mounting System

Inverter

Tracking System Dual axis

Tracks daily motion of sun (eastwest) (Azimuth tracking) and also tilt (Elevation) variation w hic h c hanges seasona lly More energy yield than single axis tracker More land requirement per MWp than single axis Relevance of dual axis tracker diminishes as we move towards equator and vice versa

‐ axis • Relevance of dual ‐ axis tracker diminishes as we move towards equator and
PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Central Inverter Strin g Inverter Mounting

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Central Inverter Strin g Inverter

Mounting System

Inverter

PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Mounting System Inverter Central Inverter •

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Mounting System

Inverter

Central Inverter

Large power rating (30 kW to 1.5 MW) Higher efficiency than string inverter Requires enclosure (room/container) Requires DC junction boxes for DC para lleling Less cost per Wp than string inverter Easier operation and maintenance for large scale PV plants

• Less cost per Wp than string inverter • Easier operation and maintenance for large scale
PV Technology Options Com ponent Summar y PV Modules Mounting System Inverter String Inverter •

PV Technology Options

Com ponent

Summar y

PV Modules

Mounting System

Inverter

String Inverter

Small power rating (1 kW to 15 kW) Better MPP tracking than central inverter No dedicated enclosure required Re duces DC ca bling Used widely for small kWp size systems

• No dedicated enclosure required • Re duces DC ca bling • Used widely for small
PV Value Chain • The global PV valu e chain is made up of the

PV Value Chain

• The global PV valu e chain is made up of the following major members:
• The global PV valu e chain is made up of the following major
members:
• Developers
• System integrators
• PV module manufacturers
• Inverter manufacturers
• Manufacturers of balance of system (BoS) components
• C onsu ltants
• Media (Electronic, Print, Exhibitions etc.)
Recent PV Industry Trends • Feed ‐in tariffs slashed in major European PV markets like

Recent PV Industry Trends

• Feed ‐in tariffs slashed in major European PV markets like Germany, Spain. • South
• Feed ‐in tariffs slashed in major European PV markets like Germany,
Spain.
• South ‐east Asian countries like China, Taiwan have ta ken t h e lead in
setting up large ‐scale (GWs) production units of PV modules.
• Germany still remains world leader as PV technology supplier.
• Major policy thrusts for utility‐scale PV projects in India; e.g.
Gujarat S o lar Po licy and National S o lar Miss ion. Incentives on o ffer
also for rooftop systems.
About Electrotherm Immodo Renewables Ltd. A JV between Electrotherm (India) Ltd. and Immodo Solar S.A.,

About Electrotherm Immodo Renewables Ltd.

A JV between Electrotherm (India) Ltd. and Immodo Solar S.A., Spain.

About Electrotherm Immodo Renewables Ltd. A JV between Electrotherm (India) Ltd. and Immodo Solar S.A., Spain.
About Electrotherm Immodo Renewables Ltd. A JV between Electrotherm (India) Ltd. and Immodo Solar S.A., Spain.
Services Offered by E.I.R.L 1. Turnkey EPC for Grid ‐connect utility ‐scale photovoltaic based solar

Services Offered by E.I.R.L

1. Turnkey EPC for Grid ‐connect utility ‐scale photovoltaic based solar power plants and Off
1. Turnkey EPC for Grid ‐connect utility ‐scale photovoltaic based solar
power plants and Off ‐grid photovoltaic systems
– Site survey
– Energy estimation
– Feasibility study
– Engineering and design
– Procurement
– Insta llation and commiss ion ing
– Support for liaison for clearances and permits
– Other value ‐added services
Services Offered by E.I.R.L 2. Long ‐term O&M, which includes:‐ – Monitoring and control of

Services Offered by E.I.R.L

2. Long ‐term O&M, which includes:‐ – Monitoring and control of complete plant – Total
2. Long ‐term O&M, which includes:‐
– Monitoring and control of complete plant
– Total maintenance based on preventive systems
– S pares management
– Other value ‐added services
3. Financial services to client
Project References 2010* 2009 2008 2007 40 MWp l i f i n ormat on

Project References

2010*

2009 2008 2007 40 MWp
2009
2008
2007
40 MWp

l

i

f

i

n ormat on

References 2010* 2009 2008 2007 40 MWp l i f i n ormat on 49 MWp

49 MWp

2010* 2009 2008 2007 40 MWp l i f i n ormat on 49 MWp 0,5
2010* 2009 2008 2007 40 MWp l i f i n ormat on 49 MWp 0,5

0,5 MWp

2005 2006

l i f i n ormat on 49 MWp 0,5 MWp 2 0 0 5 2

8 MWp

2 MWp

(

*

)

2010 P

i

i

rov s ona

69 MWp

Total PV power installed up to 30 th of July, 2010.
Total PV power installed up to 30 th
of July, 2010.
Project References   POWER PEAK POWER       INSTALLATION NAME   (kWn)  

Project References

 

POWER

PEAK POWER

     

INSTALLATION NAME

 

(kWn)

 

(kWp)

 

SOLAR MODULES

FIXED OR TRACKING

INVERTERS

CASAS DE HARO ESPERANZA

 

149,00

 

188,36

SHOTT SOLAR (283Wp)

ESAUME ROTATIVE AXIS

INGECON SUN 3.3

POZOAMARGO

1

160 00

1

400 29

IBC 225 W

ST 220 REC220

ERCAM eléctrico

FRONIUS IG 30 40 60 Y 500

   

.

,

 

.

,

 

p,

,

 

,

,

CASA CARACOLES

 

499,00

 

595,66

REC 220W, SMC210

ERCAM eléctrico

INGETEAM 3,3KW and 80KW

EDUARDO

 

998,00

1.186,29

REC 220W

ERCAM hidráulico

FRONIUS 3,3

CASAS

1.584,00

1.927,20

LUXOR 175Wp

 

ERCAM hidraulicos

OMROM 3,3kw monofasicos

LA HERRERA

2.498,00

3.127,95

TRINA 175Wp

 

ERCAM & Fixed

OMRON 3,3KW

PRADEJON

2.900,00

3.497,40

TRINA 175Wp

 

ERCAM

SMA 5000A, 2

HUEDO

 

990,00

1.237,53

ST SOLAR 220Wp, TITAN 220Wp

POLAR SUN

SMA 5000A, 2

SARA

1.010,00

1.247,77

TITAN 220Wp

 

POLAR SUN

SMA 5000A, 2

GARCIA

1.000,00

1.207,36

TITAN 220WP

 

ERCAM

SMC5000A

BALAZOTE

 

996,00

1.201,06

REC 220W

SALIX SOLAR

SALIX 8300

TOPAS

 

350,00

 

419,30

REC 220W

SALIX SOLAR

SALIX 8300

CARBAJOSA LA SAGRADA

2

.

000 00

,

2

.

388 00

,

SILIKEN

ERCAM

SOLARMAX 100C 100KW

LAS TIESAS O CASA CAPITAN

2.000,00

2.558,65

260Wp. SUNTECH, SOLARFUNK 175W, NIMBO SOLAR 175W

GINERER Y ERCAM

SMC 5000ª

CAMPOLLANO

5.000,00

6.031,55

TITAN 220W

 

FIXED

SMA8000TL 8KW y SMC5000

CALZADILLA - EL CARRASCAL

 

554,40

 

665,28

TITAN 220W, 210, 230

ERCAM hidraulicos

INGETEAM 3,3KW, monofasicos

ARÉVALO

1.890,00

2.369,97

SUNTECH 260W

GIRENER

SMA5000A

OLMEDA DE LA CUESTA

6.000,00

6.874,56

REC 220W

FIXED

SMA 8000TL, 8KWn(40x96)

TORREMOCHA

 

255,00

 

304,74

REC 220W

GIRENER

DANFOS 10KW

MANJARRES

1.728,00

2.029,61

SILIKEN

ERCAM

SMC 5000A & FRONIUS IG 31

SANTO DOMINGO

1.886,00

2.173,89

SILIKEN

ERCAM

SMC 5000A, SB 3000, SB 3800

CUESTA BLANCA

3.000,00

3.648,15

TRINA 225-230 Wp

FIXED

SOLARMAX 100C 100KW

CAÑAMERO

5.500,00

6.177,00

GADIR CADMOS 80Wp

FIXED

SOLARMAX 100C 100KW

ZAMORA

9.900,00

11.979,00

TRINA SOLAR

 

ERCAM & Fixed

SOLARMAX 100C 100KW

CUBIERTAS

4.325,00

5.033,11

TRINA SOLAR, REC, SUNTECH, SOLAR FUN, LUXOR, NINGBO

FIXED

SMA, SOLARMAX, INGETEAM

TOTAL:

58.172,40

69.469,68

     
Project References 6 MWp, Thin ‐film with Fixed ‐tilt System

Project References

Project References 6 MWp, Thin ‐film with Fixed ‐tilt System
6 MWp, Thin ‐film with Fixed ‐tilt System
6 MWp, Thin ‐film with Fixed ‐tilt System
Project References 4 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker

Project References

Project References 4 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker
Project References 4 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker
4 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker
4 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker
Project References 3 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker

Project References

Project References 3 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker
Project References 3 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker
3 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker
3 MWp, Polycrystalline with 2‐Axis Tracker
Project References 7 MWp, Polycrystalline with Fixed ‐tilt System

Project References

Project References 7 MWp, Polycrystalline with Fixed ‐tilt System
7 MWp, Polycrystalline with Fixed ‐tilt System
7 MWp, Polycrystalline with Fixed ‐tilt System
Thank You

Thank You