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Chapter 5

Molecules and Compounds


Lecture Notes

1. Classification of Compounds
a) Inorganic and Organic Compounds Organic Compounds - contain Carbon; by association, also contain Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Boron, etc.; nomenclature follows naming convention for organic compounds Inorganic Compounds - do not contain Carbon; exceptions exist i) Ionic Compound contains a metal and non-metal ions

a. binary ionic contains two elements (i.e., binary): 1 metal and


1 non-metal e.g., NaCl, CaBr2

b. ternary ionic contains three elements (i.e., ternary): 1 metal


and at least 1 non-metal e.g., KNO3, MgCO3 ii) Molecular Compound also called Covalent Compound; contains two elements that are both nonmetals e.g., SO3, P2O5 does not contain ions iii) Aqueous Acids acids in solution with water the term aqueous refers to a solution produced when a substance dissolves in water a. binary acids contains H and one other non-metal e.g., HCl(aq), HI(aq), HBr(aq)

b. ternary acids contains H and a non-metal and Oxygen e.g., HNO3, H2CO3

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Exercise: Classify the following as: a) binary ionic b) ternary ionic c) binary molecular or covalent d) binary acid e) ternary acid 1. CO2 2. HF 3. H3PO4 4. Co2O3 5. Zn3PO4

b) Anions and Cations Cations - positively charged ions i) monoatomic cations contain a single atom e.g., Na+, Co3+ ii) polyatomic cations contain two or more atoms e.g., NH4+, Hg22+ Anions - negatively charged ions i) monoatomic anions contain a single atom e.g., Cl-, S2ii) polyatomic anions contain two or more atoms e.g., SO32-, CO32-

2. Nomenclature
Follows naming convention by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists). a) Cations * monoatomic named using name of parent metal e.g., Na+ Sodium Ion Al3+ Aluminum Ion if more than one oxidation state (multi-valent):
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Cation Hg2 2+ Hg Cu 2+ Cu Co 3+ Co Fe 3+ Fe Pb 4+ Pb Sn 4+ Sn
2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + 2+

Stock System Mercury (I) ion Mercury (II) ion Copper (I) ion Copper (II) ion Cobalt (II) ion Cobalt (III) ion Iron (II) ion Iron (III) ion Lead (II) ion Lead (IV) ion Tin (II) ion Tin (IV) ion

Latin System Mercurous ion Mercuric ion Cuprous ion Cupric ion Cobaltous ion Cobaltic ion Ferrous ion Ferric ion Plumbous ion Plumbic ion Stannous ion Stannic ion

* polyatomic memorize:
Hg2 + NH4
2+

Mercury (I) ion or Mercurous ion Ammonium ion

b) Anions * monoatomic named using name of non-metal parent + ide e.g., S2- Sulfide Ion Cl- Chloride Ion P3- Phosphide Ion F- Fluoride Ion * polyatomic memorize usually ends in ate or ite
ClO3 -1 ClO2
-1

Chlorate ion Chlorite ion

NO3 -1 NO2

-1

Nitrate ion Nitrite ion

c) Ionic Compounds * named by combining the cation name with the anion name the cation name is written first e.g., NaCl is made up of Na+ Sodium Ion and Cl- Chloride Ion Sodium Chloride BaCrO4 is made up of Ba2+ Barium Ion and CrO42- Chromate Ion
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Barium Chromate

* ionic compounds containing multivalent cations must include correct cation name, either using Stock or Latin system e.g., FeCl3 contains Fe3+ Ferric Ion or Iron (III) ion, and Cl- Chloride Ion Ferric Chloride or Iron (III) Chloride
(Latin) (Stock)

FeCl2 contains Fe2+ Ferrous Ion or Iron (II) ion, and Cl- Chloride Ion Ferrous Chloride or Iron (II) Chloride
(Latin) (Stock)

d) Binary Molecular Compounds * named by combining first non-metal name with second non-metal name plus ide use prefixes to designate the number of atoms 1 2 3 4 5 mono di tri tetra penta 6 hexa 7 hepta 8 octa 9 nona 10 deca Diphosphorus Pentaoxide Carbon Tetrachloride (mono is omitted)
Methane Ammonia PH3 Phosphine H2O Water

e.g., P2O5 CCl4


CH4 NH3

many compounds called by their common names:

e) Acids * memorize * acids in their pure form are typically called by their IUPAC names e.g., HCl(g) H2SO4(g) H2SO3(g) Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen Sulfate Hydrogen Sulfite
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* aqueous acids are typically called by common names e.g., HCl(aq) H2SO4(aq) H2SO3(aq) Hydrochloric Acid Sulfuric Acid Sulfurous Acid

Exercise: Name the following compounds: 1. Cu2SO4 2. CuSO4 3. Fe2(CrO4)3 4. Hg2(NO2)2 5. Pb(C2H3O2)4 6. P4S10 7. H3PO4(aq)

3. Writing Chemical Formulas


a) Cations for Representative Elements (s, p groups), ionic charges are based on common oxidation states e.g., Group IA Group IIA Group IIIA Group VIA Common Oxidation: 1+ 2+ 3+ 4+ Example: Na+, K+ Mg2+, Ca2+ Al3+ Sn4+

b) Anions for Representative Elements (s, p groups), ionic charges are based on common oxidation states e.g., Group VA Group VIA Group VIIA Common Oxidation: 321Example: N3O2-, S2Cl-, Br-

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c) Ionic Compounds
1) write formula for cation and anion (include charges!) 2) total + charges must equal charges 3) combine cation (left) with anion (right),
use parenthesis around polyatomic ion (if more than 1 ion)

e.g. Copper (II) Nitrate


Cu2+ 1 Cu2+ 2+ NO32 NO32-

Cu(NO3)2

4) verify by cross-over method:


Cu
2+

NO3

Cu1(NO3)2

or Cu(NO3)2

since 1 is not written in the chemical formula

d) Molecular Compounds - write symbols for elements and the number of elements as indicated in the chemical
name - e.g., Sulfur Dioxide Dinitrogen Trioxide SO2 N2O3
di- tri-

Note: Members of the same group in the Periodic Table will have similar chemical formulas: CaCO3 MgCO3 CaCr2O7 SrCr2O7 Na2SO4 K2SO4 K3PO4 Li3PO4

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