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I SEMESTER LINEAR ALGEBRA Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours/Week Total No.

. of Lecture Hours : 12EC046 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Marks Exam Hours : 50 : 03 : 100

Linear equations: Fields; system of linear equations, and its solution sets; elementary row operations and echelon forms; matrix operations; invertible matrices, LU-factorization. (Ref.2 Chap.1) Vector Spaces: Vector spaces; subspaces; bases and dimension; coordinates; summary of row-equivalence; computations concerning subspaces. (Ref.1 Chap.2) Linear Transformations: Linear transformations; algebra of linear transformations; isomorphism; representation of transformations by matrices; linear functionals; transpose of a linear transformation. (Ref.2 Chap.3) Canonical Forms: Characteristic values; annihilating polynomials; invariant subspaces; direct-sum decompositions; invariant direct sums; primary decomposition theorem; cyclic bases; Jordan canonical form. Iterative estimates of characteristic values. (Ref.2 Chap.6) Inner Product Spaces: Inner products; inner product spaces; orthogonal sets and projections; Gram-Schmidt process; QR-factorization; least-squares problems; unitary operators. (Ref.1 Chap.8) Symmetric Matrices and Quadratic Forms: Digitalization; quadratic forms; constrained optimization; singular value decomposition. (Ref.2 Chap.7) Reference Books: 1.Gilbert Strang, "Linear Algebra and its Applications, 3rd edition, Thomson Learning Asia, 2003. 2.Kenneth Hoffman and Ray Kunze, "Linear Algebra," 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd/ Prentice Hall of India, 2004. 3.David C. Lay, Linear Algebra and its Applications, 3rd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd, 2005 4.Bernard Kolman and David R. Hill, "Introductory Linear Algebra with Applications," Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd, 7th edition, 2003. ANTENNA THEORY & DESIGN

Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours/Week Total No. of Lecture Hours

: 12EC011 : 04 : 52

IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks

: 50 : 03 : 100

Antenna Fundamentals and Definitions: Radiation mechanism - over view, Electromagnetic Fundamentals, Solution of Maxwells Equations for Radiation Problems, Ideal Dipole, Radiation Patterns, Directivity and Gain, Antenna Impedance, Radiation Efficiency. Antenna Polarization Resonant Antennas: Wires and Patches, Dipole ntennas, Yagi - Uda Antennas, Micro strip Antenna. Arrays: Array factor for linear arrays, uniformly excited, equally spaced Linear arrays, pattern multiplication, directivity of linear arrays, nonuniformly excited -equally spaced linear arrays, Mutual coupling, multidimensional arrays, phased arrays, feeding techniques, perspective on arrays. Broad band Antennas: Traveling - wave antennas, Helical antennas, Biconical antennas, sleave antennas, and Principles of frequency independent Antennas, spiral antennas, and Log - Periodic Antennas. Aperture Antennas: Techniques for evaluating Gain, reflector antennas Parabolic reflector antenna principles, Axi -symmetric parabolic reflector antenna, offset parabolic reflectors, dual reflector antennas, Gain calculations for reflector antennas, feed antennas for reflectors, field representations, matching the feed to the reflector, general feed model, feed antennas used in practice. Antenna Synthesis: Formulation of the synthesis problem, synthesis principles, line sources shaped beam synthesis, linear array shaped beam synthesis Fourier Series, Woodward Lawson sampling method, comparison of shaped beam synthesis methods, low side lobe narrow main beam synthesis methods Dolph Chebyshev linear array, Taylor line source method. ] Method of Moments : Introduction to method of Moments, Pocklingtons integral equation, integral equations and Kirchoffs Networking Equations, Source Modeling Weighted residuals formulations and computational consideration, calculation of antenna and scatter characteristics. CEM for Antennas : Finite Difference Time Domain Method Geometrical Optics Wedge diffraction theory, ray fixed coordinate system, uniform theory

of wedge diffraction, E - Plane analysis of Horn antennas. Cylindrical parabolic antenna, radiation by a slot on a finite ground plane, radiation by a monopole on a finite ground plane, equivalent current concepts, multiple diffraction formulation, by curved surfaces, physical optics, method of stationary phase, physical theory of diffraction, cylindrical parabolic reflector antennas.

REFERENCE BOOKS: 1.C. A. Balanis: Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, John Wiley, 2nd Edition, 1997 2.Kraus: Antennas, McGraw Hill, TMH, 3rd/4th Edition. 3.Stutzman and Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2ndEd, John Wiley and Sons Inc.. 4.Sachidananda et. el, Antenna and Propagation, Pearson Edu. Laboratory Experiments: (FEKO simulators can be used) 1. MATLAB / C Implementation to obtain radiation pattern of an antenna 2. Experimental study of radiation pattern of antenna. 3. Significance of pocklingtons integral equation 4. Measurement techniques of radiation characteristics of antenna. 5. Survey on frequency independent antennas. 6. Analysis of E plane and H- plane Horns. (Any other experiments can be added in support of the course)

DIGITAL CIRCUITS AND LOGIC DESIGN Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC029 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Threshold Logic: Introductory Concepts, Synthesis of Threshold Networks. Reliable Design and Fault Diagnosis Hazards: Fault Detection in Combinational Circuits, Fault-Location Experiments, Boolean Differences, Fault Detection by Path Sensitizing, Detection of Multiple Faults, FailureTolerant Design, Quadded Logic Capabilities, Minimization, and Transformation of Sequential Machines: The Finite- State Model, Further Definitions, Capabilities and Limitations of

Finite State Machines, State Equivalence and Machine Minimization, Simplification of Incompletely Specified Machines. Structure of Sequential Machines: Introductory Example, State Assignments Using Partitions, The Lattice of closed Partitions, Reductions of the Output Dependency, Input Independence and Autonomous Clocks, Covers and Generation of closed Partitions by state splitting, Information Flow in Sequential Machines, Decompositions, Synthesis of Multiple Machines. StateIdentifications and Fault-Detection Experiments: Homing Experiments, Distinguishing Experiments, Machine Identification, FaultDetection Experiments, Design of Diagnosable Machines, Second Algorithm for the Design of Fault Detection Experiments, Fault-Detection Experiments for Machines which have no Distinguishing Sequences. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1.Zvi Kohavi, Switching and Finite Automata Theory, 2nd Edition. Tata McGraw Hill Edition 2.Charles Roth Jr., Digital Circuits and Logic Design, 3.Parag K Lala, Fault Tolerant And Fault Testable Hardware Design, Prentice Hall Inc. 1985 4.E. V. Krishnamurthy, Introductory Theory Of Computer, Macmillan Press Ltd, 1983 5.Mishra & Chandrasekaran, Theory Of Computer Science Automata, Languages And Computation, 2nd Edition, PHI,2004

Laboratory Experiments: I. Digital Circuits & Logic Design 1.Devise a minimal-length binary code to represent the state of a phone: nowork, dial-tone, dialing, busy, connected, disconnected, and ringing. 2. Write Boolean equation for a BCD decoder, that is, a decoder that has a BCD code word as input and that has outputs yo through y9. Draw a circuit that uses AND and OR gates and inverters to implement the decoder. 3. Test the circuit diagram for a multiplexer that selects amoung four sources of data, each of which is encoded with three bits. The circuit should be implemented 4-to-1 multiplexers. 4. Design circuit that has as input, a transmit clock and an NRZ serial data signal and htat generates a Manchester encoded serial data signal as output.

5. Develop a circuit of a 4-bit Gray code to unsigned binary converter implemented using a combinational ROM. 6. Develop a circuit that calculates the average of 16-bit 2s-complement signed numbers, without checking for overflow. All the above experiments are to be tested with any suitable simulator or a HDL. Any experiments can be included the supports the theory. ----------------------------------------------------------


Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours/Week Total No. of Lecture Hours

: 12EC124 : 04 : 52

IA Marks Exam Marks Exam Hours

: 50 : 03 : 100

Introduction to Probability Theory: Experiments, sample space, Events,

Axioms, Assigning probabilities, Joint and conditional probabilities, Bayes Theorem, Independence, Discrete Random Variables, Engg Example. Random Variables, Distributions, Density Functions: CDF, PDF, Gaussian random variable, Uniform Exponential, Laplace, Gamma, Erlang, Chi-Square, Raleigh, Rician and Cauchy types of random variables Operations on a Single R V: Expected value, EV of Random variables, EV of functions of Random variables, Central Moments, Conditional expected values. Characteristic functions, Probability generating functions, Moment generating functions, Engg applications, Scalar quantization, entropy and source coding.

Pairs of Random variables, Joint CDF, joint PDF, Joint probability mass functions, Conditional Distribution, density and mass functions, EV involving pairs of Random variables, Independent Random variables, Complex Random variables, Engg Application.

Multiple Random Variables: Joint and conditional PMF, CDF, PDF,.EV involving multiple Random variables, Gaussian Random variable in multiple dimension, Engg application, linear prediction. Random Process: Definition and characterization, Mathematical tools for studying Random Processes, Stationary and Ergodic Random processes, Properties of ACF. Example Processes: Markov processes, Gaussian Processes, Poisson Processes, Engg application, Computer networks, Telephone networks. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1.Probability and random processes: application to Signal processing and communication - S L Miller and D C Childers: Academic Press / Elsivier 2004 2. Probability, Random variables and stochastic processes - A. Papoullis and S U Pillai: McGraw Hill 2002. 3. Probability, Random variables and Random signal principles Peyton Z Peebles: TMH 4th Edition 2007. 4. Probability, random processes and applications - H Stark and Woods: PHI 2001

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION & NETWORKING Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours/Week Total No. of Lecture Hours : 12EC059 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Introduction: Propagation of signals in optical fiber, different losses, nonlinear effects, solitons, optical sources, detectors. Optical Components: Couplers, isolators, circulators, multiplexers, filters, gratings, interferometers, amplifiers. Modulation Demodulation: Formats, ideal receivers, Practical detection receivers, Optical preamplifier, Noise considerations, Bit error rates, Coherent detection. Transmission System Engineering: system model, power penalty, Transmitter, Receiver, Different optical amplifiers, Dispersion.
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Optical Networks: Client layers of optical layer, SONET/SDH, multiplexing, layers, frame structure, ATM functions, adaptation layers, Quality of service and flow control, ESCON, HIPPI. WDM Network Elements: Optical line terminal optical line amplifiers, optical cross connectors, WDM network design, cost trade offs, LTD and RWA problems, Routing and wavelength assignment, wavelength conversion, statistical dimensioning model. Control and Management: network management functions, management frame work, Information model, management protocols, layers within optical layer performance and fault management, impact of transparency, BER measurement, optical trace, Alarm management, configuration management. Suitable number of Assignments / Tutorials can be given based on the syllabus REFERENCE BOOKS: 1.John M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications, Pearson edition, 2000. 2.Rajiv Ramswami, N Sivaranjan, Optical Networks, M. Kauffman Publishers, 2000. 3.Gerd Keiser, Optical Fiber Communication, MGH, 1 991. 4.G. P. Agarawal, Fiber Optics Communication Systems, John Wiley NewYork, 1997 CMOS VLSI DESIGN Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC021 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

MOS Transistor theory: n MOS / p MOS transistor, threshold voltage equation, body effect, MOS device design equation, sub threshold region, Channel length modulation. mobility variation, Tunneling, punch through, hot electron effect MOS models, small signal AC Characteristics, CMOS inverter, n / p ratio, noise margin, static load MOS inverters, differential inverter, transmission gate, tristate inverter, BiCMOS inverter. CMOS Process Technology: Lambda Based Design rules, scaling factor, semiconductor Technology overview, basic CMOS technology, p well / n
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well / twin well process. Current CMOS enhancement (oxide isolation, LDD. refractory gate, multilayer inter connect) , Circuit elements, resistor , capacitor, interconnects, sheet resistance & standard unit capacitance concepts delay unit time, inverter delays , driving capacitive loads, propagate delays, MOS mask layer, stick diagram, design rules and layout, symbolic diagram, mask feints, scaling of MOS circuits. Basics of Digital CMOS Design: Combinational MOS Logic circuitsIntroduction, CMOS logic circuits with a MOS load, CMOS logic circuits, complex logic circuits, Transmission Gate. Sequential MOS logic Circuits Introduction, Behavior of hi stable elements, SR latch Circuit, clocked latch and Flip Flop Circuits, CMOS D latch and triggered Flip Flop. Dynamic Logic Circuits - Introduction, principles of pass transistor circuits, Voltage boot strapping synchronous dynamic circuits techniques, Dynamic CMOS circuit techniques CMOS Analog Design: Introduction, Single Amplifier. Differential Amplifier, Current mirrors, Band gap references, basis of cross operational amplifier. Dynamic CMOS and Clocking: Introduction, advantages of CMOS over NMOS, CMOS\SOS technology, CMOS\bulk technology, latch up in bulk CMOS., static CMOS design, Domino CMOS structure and design, Charge sharing, Clocking- clock generation, clock distribution, clocked storage elements. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1.Neil Weste and K. Eshragian,Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A System Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2000. 2. Wayne, Wolf, Modern VLSI design: System on Silicon, Pearson Education, Second Edition 3.Douglas A Pucknell & Kamran Eshragian , Basic VLSI Design, PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition 1994) 4.Sung Mo Kang & Yosuf Lederabic Law, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits: Analysis and Design, McGraw-Hill (Third Edition). AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours :12EC117 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

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Automotive Fundamentals Overview Four Stroke Cycle, Engine Control, Ignition System, Spark plug, Spark pulse generation, Ignition Timing, Drive Train, Transmission, Brakes, Steering System, Battery, Starting System

Air/Fuel Systems Fuel Handling, Air Intake System, Air/ Fuel Management Sensors Oxygen (O2/EGO) Sensors, Throttle Position Sensor (TPS), Engine Crankshaft Angular Position (CKP) Sensor, Magnetic Reluctance Position Sensor, Engine Speed Sensor, Ignition Timing Sensor, Hall effect Position Sensor, Shielded Field Sensor, Optical Crankshaft Position Sensor, Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor - Strain gauge and Capacitor capsule, Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor, Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor, Knock Sensor, Airflow rate sensor, Throttle angle sensor Actuators Fuel Metering Actuator, Fuel Injector, Ignition Actuator Exhaust After-Treatment Systems AIR, Catalytic Converter, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Evaporative Emission Systems

Electronic Engine Control Engine parameters, variables, Engine Performance terms, Electronic Fuel Control System, Electronic Ignition control, Idle sped control, EGR Control Communication Serial Data, Communication Systems, Protection, Body and Chassis Electrical Systems, Remote Keyless Entry, GPS Vehicle Motion Control Cruise Control, Chassis, Power Brakes, Antilock Brake System (ABS), Electronic Steering Control, Power Steering, Traction Control, Electronically controlled suspension Automotive Instrumentation Sampling, Measurement & Signal Conversion of various parameters. Integrated Body Climate Control Systems, Electronic HVAC Systems, Safety Systems SIR, Interior Safety, Lighting, Entertainment Systems Automotive Diagnostics Timing Light, Engine Analyzer, On-board diagnostics, Off-board diagnostics, Expert Systems Future Automotive Electronic Systems Alternative Fuel Engines, Collision Avoidance Radar warning Systems, Low tire pressure warning system, Radio navigation, Advance Driver Information System

References: 1 3

1.William B. Ribbens: Understanding Automotive Electronics, 6th Edition, SAMS/Elsevier Publishing 2.Robert Bosch GmbH: Automotive Electrics Automotive Electronics Systems and Components, 5th edition, John Wiley& Sons Ltd., 2007

SEMSTER - II WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC086 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Wireless channel: physical modeling for wireless channels, input/output model of wireless channel, time and frequency response, statistical models. (Ref.1 Chap.2) Point to point communication: detection in rayleigh fading channel, time diversity, antenna diversity, frequency diversity, impact of channel uncertainity.(Ref.1 Chap.3) Diversity: Introduction, Microdiversity, Microdiversity and simulcast, Combination of Signals, Error Probability in fading channels with diversity Reception, transmit diversity. (Ref.2 Chap.13) Capacity of wireless channels: AWGN channel capacity, resources of AWGN channel, Linear time invariant gaussian channels, capacity of fading channels. (Ref.1 Chap.5) MIMO Systems: Introduction, Space Diversity and Systems Based on Space Diversity, Smart antenna system and MIMO, MIMO based System architecture, MIMO exploits multipath, Space time Processing, Antenna considerations for MIMO, MIMO channel Modeling, MIMO Channel measurement, MIMO Channel capacity, CDD, Space Time Coding, Advantages and Applications of MIMO, MIMO applications in 3G .(Ref.4 Chap.15) MIMO 1 Spatial multiplexing and channel modeling: multiplexing capability of MIMO channels, physical modeling of MIMO channels, modeling MIMO fading channels. (Ref.1 Chap.7) Multi Antennae Systems: Smart antennas, Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems, (Ref. 1Chap.20)

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References Books: 1. David Tse, P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of wireless communication, Cambridge, 2006. 2. Andreas Molisch, Wireless communications, Wiley, 2009 3.William C Y Lee, Mobile Communication Engineering Theory and applications, TMGH, 2008 4. Upen Dalal, Wireless communication, Oxford, 2009 5. Mark Ciampa, Jorge Olenwa, Wireless communications, Cengage, 2007. ----------------------------------------------------------Laboratory Experiments: Assignment for the Laboratory work: USE NS2 SIMULATOR (available FREE on the net) 1.Use NS2 simulator to check for the transmission power in the Wireless network. 2. Using NS2 measure the losses in the channel. 3. Using NS2 implement the propagation model both indoor and Out door. 4. Using NS2 measure the performance analysis of different models. 5. Using NS2 implement the CDMA model. 6. Using NS2 measure the Latency, BW and efficiency of the given Wireless model. Any other experiments can be added to supplement the theory.

ADVANCES IN VLSI DESIGN Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC009 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Review of MOS Circuits: MOS and CMOS static plots, switches, comparison between CMOS and BI - CMOS. MESFETS: MESFET and MODFET operations, quantitative description of MESFETS.

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MIS Structures and MOSFETS: MIS systems in equilibrium, under bias, small signal operation of MESFETS and MOSFETS. Short Channel Effects and Challenges to CMOS: Short channel effects, scaling theory, processing challenges to further CMOS miniaturization Beyond CMOS: Evolutionary advances beyond CMOS, carbon Nano tubes, conventional vs. tactile computing, computing, molecular and biological computing Mole electronics-molecular Diode and diode- diode logic .Defect tolerant computing, Super Buffers, Bi-CMOS and Steering Logic: Introduction, RC delay lines, super buffers- An NMOS super buffer, tri state super buffer and pad drivers, CMOS super buffers, Dynamic ratio less inverters, large capacitive loads, pass logic, designing of transistor logic, General functional blocks NMOS and CMOS functional blocks. Special Circuit Layouts and Technology Mapping: Introduction, Talley circuits, NAND-NAND, NOR- NOR, and AOI Logic, NMOS, CMOS Multiplexers, Barrel shifter, Wire routing and module lay out. System Design: CMOS design methods, structured design methods, Strategies encompassing hierarchy, regularity, modularity & locality, CMOS Chip design Options, programmable logic, Programmable inter connect, programmable structure, Gate arrays standard cell approach, Full custom Design. Reference Books: 1.Kevin F Brrnnan Introduction to Semi Conductor Device, Cambridge publications 2.Eugene D Fabricius Introduction to VLSI Design, McGraw-Hill International publications 3.D.A Pucknell Basic VLSI Design, PHI Publication 4.Wayne Wolf, Modern VLSI Design Pearson Education,

SecondEdition , 2002

MODERN DSP Subject Code : 12EC123

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IA Marks

: 50

No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours

: 04 : 06

Exam Hours Exam Marks

: 03 : 100

Introduction and Discrete Fourier Transforms: Signals, Systems and Processing, Classification of Signals, The Concept of Frequency in Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals, Analog-to-Digital and Digitalto-Analog Conversion, Frequency-Domain Sampling: The Discrete Fourier Transform, Properties of the DFT, Linear Filtering Methods Based on the DFT(Ref.1 Chap.1 & 7). Design of Digital Filters: General Considerations, Design of FIR Filters, Design of IIR Filters from Analog Filters, Frequency Transformations.(Ref.1 Chap.10) Multirate Digital Signal Processing: Introduction, Decimation by a factor D, Interpolation by a factor I, Sampling rate Conversion by a factor I/D, implementation of Sampling rate conversion, Multistage implementation of Sampling rate conversion, Sampling rate conversion of Band Pass Signals, Sampling rate conversion by an arbitrary factor, Applications of Multirate Signal Processing, Digital Filter banks, Two Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter banks, M-Channel QMF bank.(Ref.1 Chap.11) Adaptive Filters: Applications of Adaptive Filters, Adaptive Direct Form FIR Filters- The LMS Algorithm, Adaptive Direct Form Filters-RLS Algorithm. (Ref.1 Chap.13) References: 1. Proakis and Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall 1996. (third edition). 2. Roberto Cristi, Modern Digital Signal Processing, Cengage Publishers, India, (erstwhile Thompson Publications), 2003. 3. S.K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A Computer Based Approach, III Ed, Tata McGraw Hill, India, 2007. 4. E.C. Ifeachor and B W Jarvis, Digital Signal Processing, a practitioners approach, II Edition, Pearson Education, India, 2002 Reprint.

------------------------------------------Laboratory Experiments: I. Modern Digital Signal Processing

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i. USING MATLAB 1 Question based on response of LTI systems to different inputs A LTI system is defined by the difference equation y[n]=x[n]+x[n-1]+x[n2]. (a) Determine the impulse response of the system and sketch it. (b) Determine the output y[n] of the system when the input is x[n]=u[n]. (c) Determine the output of the system when the input is a complex exponential (Eg. x[n]=2ej0.2n). 2 Question on design of simple digital filter using the relationship between pole and zeros and the frequency response of the system Design a simple digital FIR filter with real co-efficients to remove a narrowband (i.e., sinusoidal) disturbance with frequency F0=50 Hz. Let Fs=300 Hz be the sampling frequency. (a) Determine the desired zeros and poles of the filter. (b) Determine the filter coefficients with the gain K=1 (c) Sketch the magnitude of the frequency response. 3 Question on simple digital filtering using the relationship between pole and zeros and the frequency response of the system Design an IIR filter with real co-efficients with same specifications mentioned in Q2 and repeat the steps (a) to (c). 4 Question to understand the effect of time domain windowing Generate a signal with two frequencies x(t)=3cos(2F1t) + 2cos(2F2t) sampled at Fs=8 kHz. Let F1=1 kHz and F2=F1+ and the overall data length be N=256 points. (a) From theory, determine the minimum value of necessary to distinguish between the two frequencies. (b) Verify this result experimentally. Using the rectangular window, look at the DFT with several values of so that you verify the resolution. (c) Repeat part (b) using a Hamming window. How did the resolution change? 5 Comparison of DFT and DCT (in terms of energy compactness) Generate the sequence x[n]=n-64 for n=0,127. (a) Let X[k]=DFT{x[n]}. For various values of L, set to zero the high frequency coefficients X[64-L]=.X[64]=.=X[64+L]=0 and take the inverse DFT. Plot the results. (b) Let XDCT[k]=DCT(x[n]}. For the same values of L, set to zero the high frequency coefficients XDCT[127-L]=.XDCT[127]. Take the inverse DCT for each case and compare the reconstruction with the previous case.
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6 Filter design Design a discrete time low pass filter with the specifications given below: Sampling frequency = 2 kHz. Pass band edge = 260 Hz Stop band edge = 340 Hz Max. pass band attenuation = 0.1 dB Minimum stop band attenuation = 30 dB Use the following design methodologies: Hamming windowing Kaiser windowing Applying bilinear transformation to a suitable, analog Butterworth filter. Compare the obtained filters in terms of performance (accuracy in meeting specifications) and computational complexity.

ii. Using DSP PROCESSOR 1 Write an ALP to obtain the response of a system using linear convolution whose input and impulse response are specified. 2. Write an ALP to obtain the impulse response of the given system, given the difference equation. . 4.Sampling of an Image. 5.Design of equiripple filters. 6.Application of frequency transformation in filter design. 7.Computation of FFT when N is not a power of 2. 8.Sampling rate conversion and plot of spectrum. 9.Analysis of signals by STFT and WT. 10.Delayed auditory feedback signal using 6713 processor. 11.Record of machinery noise like fan or blower or diesel generator and obtaining its spectrum. 11. Synthesis of select dual tone multi frequency signals using 6713 processor. 12. Fourier Transform & its inverse Fourier Transform of an image. Any other experiments can be added to supplement the theory.

ADVANCED DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC006 : 04 : 52
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IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks

: 50 : 03 : 100

Digital Modulation Techniques: Digital Modulation Formats, Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques, Coherent Quadrature Modulation Techniques, NonCoherent Binary Modulation Techniques, Comparison of Binary and Quaternary Modulation Techniques, M-ary Modulation Techniques, Power Spectra, Bandwidth Efficiency, M-ary Modulation formats viewed in the Light of the channel capacity Theorem, Effect of Intersymbol Interference, Bit Versus Symbol Error Probabilities, Synchronisation, Applications.(Ref.3 Chap.7) Coding Techniques: Convolutional Encoding, Convolutional Encoder Representation, Formulation of the Convolutional Decoding Problem, Properties of Convolutional Codes: Distance property of convolutional codes, Systematic and Nonsystematic Convolutional Codes, Performance Bounds for Convolutional Codes, Coding Gain. Other Convolutional Decoding Algorithms: Sequential Decoding, Feedback Decoding,Turbo Codes.(Ref.2 Chap.7 & 8) Communication through band limited linear filter channels: Optimum receiver for channels with ISI and AWGN, Linear equalization, Decisionfeedback equalization, reduced complexity ML detectors, Iterative equalization and decoding-Turbo equalization. (Ref.1 Chap.10) Adaptive Equalization: Adaptive linear equalizer, adaptive decision feedback equalizer, adaptive equalization of Trellis- coded signals, Recursive least squares algorithms for adaptive equalization, self recovering (blind) equalization. (Ref.1 Chap.11) Spread Spectrum Signals for Digital Communication: Model of Spread Spectrum Digital Communication System, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Signals, Frequency-Hopped Spread Spectrum Signals, CDMA, time-hopping SS, Synchronization of SS systems. (Ref.1 Chap.13) Digital Communication Through Fading Multi-Path Channels: Characterization of fading multi-path channels, the effect of signal characteristics on the choice of a channel model, frequency-Nonselective, slowly fading channel, diversity techniques for fading multi-path channels, Digital signal over a frequency-selective, slowly fading channel, coded wave forms for fading channels, multiple antenna systems.(Ref.1 Chap.14) REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. John G. Proakis, Digital Communications , 4th edition, McGraw Hill, 2001. 2. Bernard Sklar, Digital Communications - Fundamentals and nd Applications, 2 Edition Pearson Education (Asia) Ptv. Ltd, 2001.
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3. Simon Haykin, Digital Communications , John Wiley and Sons, 4. Andrew J. Viterbi, CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communications , Prentice Hall, USA, 1995.

ELECTIVE II NANOELECTRONICS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC054 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Introduction: Overview of nanoscience and engineering,Development milestones in microfabrication and electronic industry,Moores law and continued miniaturization,Classification of Nano structures,Electronic properties of atoms and solids: Isolated atom, Bonding between atoms,Giant molecular solids,Free electron models and energy bands,crystalline solids, Periodicity of crystal lattices, Electronic conduction,effects of nanometer length scale,Fabrication methods: Top down processes,Bottom up processes methods for templating the growth of nanomaterials, ordering of nanosystems. Characterization: Classification, Microscopic techniques, Field ion microscopy, scanning probe techniques, diffraction techniques: bulk ,surface, spectroscopy techniques: photon, radiofrequency, electron, surface analysis and dept profiling: electron, mass, Ion beam, Reflectrometry, Techniques for property measurement: mechanical, electron, magnetic, thermal properties. Inorganic semiconductor nanostructures: overview of semiconductor physics,Quantum confinement in semiconductor nanostructures:quantum wells,quantum wires,quantum dots,superlattices,band offsets,electronic density of states. Fabrication techniques: requirements of ideal semiconductor,epitaxial growth of quantum wells, lithography and etching,cleaved edge overgrowth,growth of vicinal substrates,strain induced dots and wires,electrostatically induced dots and wires,Quantum well width fluctuations,thermally annealed quantum wells,semiconductor nanocrystals,collidal quantum dots,self-assembly techniques. Physical processes: modulation doping,quantum hall effect,resonant tunneling,charging effects,ballistic carrier transport,Inter band absorption, intraband absorption,Light emission processes,phonon bottleneck, quantum
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confined stark effect,nonlinear effects,coherence and dephasing, characterization of semiconductor nanostructures:optical electrical and structural. Methods of measuring properties:structure: atomic,crystallography,microscopy,spectroscopy. Properties of nanoparticles: metal nano clusters, semiconducting nanoparticles, rare gas and molecular clusters, methods of synthesis(RF, chemical, thermolysis,pulsed laser methods) Carbon nanostructures and its applications(field emission and shielding,computers,fuel cells,sensors,catalysis).Self assembling nanostructured molecular materials and devices: building blocks,principles of self assembly, methods to prepare and pattern nanoparticles,templated nanostructures,liquid crystal mesophases.Nanomagnetic materials and devices:magnetism,materials,magneto resistance,nanomagnetism in technology,challenges facing nano magnetism. Applications: Injection lasers,quantum cascade lasers,singe photon sources,biological tagging,optical memories,coulomb blocade devices,photonic structures,QWIPs,NEMS,MEMS. References: 1. Ed Robert Kelsall,Ian Hamley,Mark Geoghegan, Nanoscale science and technology ,John wiley and sons,2007. 2. Charles P Poole,Jr,Frank J owens Introduction to Nanotechnology ,John wiley,copyright 2006,Reprint 2011. 3. Ed William A Goddard III,Donald W Brenner,Sergey Edward Lyshevski,Gerald J Lafrate, Hand Book of Nanoscience Engineering and Technology ,CRC press,2003

WIRELESS AND MOBILE NETWORKS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC131 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Review of fundamentals of wireless communication and networks. Wireless communication channel specifications, wireless communication systems, wireless networks, switching technology, communication problems, wireless network issues and standards.
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Wireless body area networks (WBAN). Properties, network architecture, components, technologies, design issues, protocols and applications. Wireless personal area networks. Architecture, components, requirements, technologies and protocols, Bluetooth and Zigbee. Wireless LANS. Network components, design requirements, architectures, IEEE 802.11x, WLAN protocols, 802.11 p and applications. WMANs. IEEE 802.16, architectures, components, WiMax mobility support, protocols, broadband networks and applications. WWANs. Cellular networks, Satellite networks, applications. Wireless adhoc networks. Mobile adhoc networks, Sensor networks, Mesh networks, VANETs. Research issues in wireless networks. Reference Books: 1. S. S. Manvi, M. S. Kakkasageri, Wireles and Mobile Network concepts and protocols, Wiley, First edition, 2010. 2. P. Kaveh, Krishnamurthy, Principles of wireless networks: Aunified approach, PHI, 2006. 3. Iti Saha Mishra, Wireless communication and networks 3G and beyond , MGH, 2009 4. Mullet, Introduction to wireless telecommunication systems and networks, Cengage, 2009. 5. D. P. Agarwal, Qing An Zeng, Introduction to wireless and mobile systems, Cengage, 2008 6. Ivan Stojmenovic, Handbook of wireless networks and mobile computing, Wiley, 2009 7. P. Nicopolitidis, M. S. Obaidat, etal., Wireless Networks, Wiley, 2009 8. Yi-Bing Lin, Imrich Chlamtac, Wireless and Mobile Network Architectures, Wiley, 2009

SIMULATION MODELING AND ANALYSIS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours/Week Total No. of Lecture Hours : 12EC128 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

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Basic simulation modeling: nature of simulation, system models, discrete event simulation, single server simulation, alternative approaches, other types of simulation.(Ref.1 Chap.1) Building valid, credible and detailed simulation models. Techniques for increasing model validity and credibility, comparing real world observations. (Ref.1 Chap.5) Selecting input probability distributions. Useful probability distributions, assessing sample independence, activity I, II and III. Models of arrival process.(Ref.1 Chap.6) Random numbers generators: linear congruential, other kinds, testing random number generators. Random variate generation: approaches, continuous random variates, discrete random variates, correlated random variates.(Ref.1 Chap.7 & 8) Output data analysis. Statistical analysis for terminating simulations, analysis for steady state parameters. Comparing alternative system configurations. Confidence intervals. Variance reduction techniques. Antithetic and Control variates.(Ref.1 Chap.9) Reference Books: 1.Averill Law, Simulation modeling and analysis, MGH, 4th edition, 2007 2. Jerry Banks, Discrete event system simulation, Pearson, 2009. 3. Seila, Ceric, & Tadikamalla, Applied simulation modeling, Cengage, 2009. 4. George S. Fishman, Discrete event simulation, Springer, 2001. 5. N. Viswanadham, Y. Narahari, Performance modeling of automated manufacturing systems, PHI, 2000. 6. Frank L. Severance, System modeling and simulation, Wiley, 2009

SEMESTER III ERROR CONTROL AND CODING Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC039 : 04 : 52
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IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks

: 50 : 03 : 100

Introduction to Algebra: Groups, Fields, Binary Field Arithmetic, Construction of Galois Field GF (2m) and its basic properties, Computation using Galois Field GF (2m) Arithmetic, Vector spaces and Matrices.(Ref.1 Chap.2) Linear Block Codes: Generator and Parity check Matrices, Encoding circuits, Syndrome and Error Detection, Minimum Distance Considerations, Error detecting and Error correcting capabilities, Standard array and Syndrome decoding, Decoding circuits, Hamming Codes, Reed Muller codes, The (24, 12) Golay code, Product codes and Interleaved codes.(Ref.1 Chap.3) Cyclic Codes: Introduction, Generator and Parity check Polynomials, Encoding using Multiplication circuits, Systematic Cyclic codes Encoding using Feed back shift register circuits, Generator matrix for Cyclic codes, Syndrome computation and Error detection, Meggitt decoder, Error trapping decoding, Cyclic Hamming codes, The (23, 12) Golay code, Shortened cyclic codes.(Ref.1 Chap.5) BCH Codes: Binary primitive BCH codes, Decoding procedures, Implementation of Galois field Arithmetic, Implementation of Error correction. Non binary BCH codes: q ary Linear Block Codes, Primitive BCH codes over GF (q), Reed Solomon Codes, Decoding of Non Binary BCH and RS codes: The Berlekamp - Massey Algorithm.(Ref.1 Chap.6) Majority Logic Decodable Codes: One Step Majority logic decoding, one step Majority logic decodable Codes, Two step Majority logic decoding, Multiple step Majority logic decoding.(Ref.1 Chap.8) Convolutional Codes: Encoding of Convolutional codes, Structural properties, Distance properties, Viterbi Decoding Algorithm for decoding, Soft output Viterbi Algorithm, Stack and Fano sequential decoding Algorithms, Majority logic decoding(Ref.1 Chap.11) Concatenated Codes & Turbo Codes: Single level Concatenated codes, Multilevel Concatenated codes, Soft decision Multistage decoding, Concatenated coding schemes with Convolutional Inner codes, Introduction to Turbo coding and their distance properties, Design of Turbo codes.(Ref.1 Chap.15) Burst Error Correcting Codes: Burst and Random error correcting codes, Concept of Inter leaving, cyclic codes for Burst Error correction Fire codes, Convolutional codes for Burst Error correction.(Ref.1 Chap.21)
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Reference Books: 1.Shu Lin & Daniel J. Costello, Jr. Error Control Coding Pearson / Prentice Hall, Second Edition, 2004. (Major Reference) 2.Blahut, R.E. Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes Addison Wesley, 1984 ELECTIVE III ASIC DESIGN Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC012 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Note All Designs Will Be Based On VHDL Introduction: Full Custom with ASIC, Semi custom ASICS, Standard Cell based ASIC, Gate array based ASIC, Channeled gate array, Channel less gate array, structured get array, Programmable logic device, FPGA design flow, ASIC cell libraries Data Logic Cells: Data Path Elements, Adders, Multiplier, Arithmetic Operator, I/O cell, Cell Compilers ASIC Library Design: Logical effort: practicing delay, logical area and logical efficiency logical paths, multi stage cells, optimum delay, optimum no. of stages, library cell design. Low-Level Design Entry: Schematic Entry: Hierarchical design. The cell library, Names, Schematic, Icons & Symbols, Nets, schematic entry for ASICS, connections, vectored instances and buses, Edit in place attributes, Netlist, screener, Back annotation Programmable ASIC: programmable ASIC logic cell, ASIC I/O cell A Brief Introduction to Low Level Design Language: an introduction to EDIF, PLA Tools, an introduction to CFI designs representation. Half gate ASIC. Introduction to Synthesis and Simulation; ASIC Construction Floor Planning and Placement And Routing: Physical Design, CAD Tools, System Partitioning, Estimating ASIC size, partitioning methods. Floor planning tools, I/O and power planning, clock planning, placement algorithms, iterative placement improvement, Time
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driven placement methods. Physical Design flow global Routing, Local Routing, Detail Routing, Special Routing, Circuit Extraction and DRC. Reference Books: 1.M.J.S .Smith, - Application - Specific Integrated Circuits Pearson Education, 2003. 2. Jose E.France, Yannis Tsividis, Design of Analog-Digital VLSI Circuits for Telecommunication and signal processing, Prentice Hall, 1994. 3.Malcolm R.Haskard; Lan. C. May, Analog VLSI Design - NMOS and CMOS, Prentice Hall, 1998. 4.Mohammed Ismail and Terri Fiez, Analog VLSI Signal and Information Processing, McGraw Hill, 1994.

MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours/Week Total No. of Lecture Hours : 12EC052 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Marks Exam Hours : 50 : 03 : 100

Multimedia Communications: multimedia information representation, multimedia networks, multimedia applications, network QoS and application QoS. Information Representation: text, images, audio and video, Text and image compression, compression principles, text compression, image compression. Audio and video compression, audio compression, video compression, video compression principles, video compression standards: H.261, H.263, P1.323, MPEG 1, MPEG 2, Other coding formats for text, speech, image and video. Detailed Study of MPEG 4: coding of audiovisual objects, MPEG 4 systems, MPEG 4 audio and video, profiles and levels. MPEG 7 standardization process of multimedia content description, MPEG 21 multimedia framework, Significant features of JPEG 2000, MPEG 4 transport across the Internet.
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Synchronization: Notion of synchronization, presentation requirements, reference model for synchronization, Introduction to SMIL, Multimedia operating systems, Resource management, process management techniques. Multimedia Communication Across Networks: Layered video coding, error resilient video coding techniques, multimedia transport across IP networks and relevant protocols such as RSVP, RTP, RTCP, DVMRP, multimedia in mobile networks, multimedia in broadcast networks. Assignments / Practicals can be given on writing the programs to encode and decode the various kinds of data by using the algorithms. Students can collect several papers from journals/conferences/Internet on a specific area of multimedia communications and write a review paper and make a presentation. Reference Books: 1. Fred Halsall, Multimedia Communications, Pearson education, 2001 2. K. R. Rao, Zoran S. Bojkovic, Dragorad A. Milovanovic, Multimedia Communication Systems, Pearson education, 2004. 3. Raif steinmetz, Klara Nahrstedt, Multimedia: Computing, Communications and Applications, Pearson education, 2002 4. John Billamil, Louis Molina, Multimedia : An Introduction, PHI, 2002

RF AND MICROWAVE CIRCUIT DESIGN Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC071 : 04 : 70 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Wave Propagation in Networks: Introduction to RF/Microwave Concepts and applications; RF Electronics Concepts; Fundamental Concepts in Wave Propagation; Circuit Representations of two port RF/MW networks Passive Circuit Design: The Smith Chart, Application of the Smith Chart in Distributed and lumped element circuit applications, Design of Matching networks.
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Basic Considerations in Active Networks: Stability Consideration in Active networks, Gain Considerations in Amplifiers, Noise Considerations in Active Networks. Active Networks: Linear and Nonlinear Design: RF/MW Amplifiers Small Signal Design, Large Signal Design, RF/MW Oscillator Design, RF/MW Frequency Conversion Rectifier and Detector Design, Mixer Design, RF/MW Control Circuit Design, RF/MW Integrated circuit design. Reference Books: 1.Matthew M. Radmanesh, Radio Frequency and Microwave Electronics Illustrated, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004. 2.Reinhold Ludwig and Pavel Bretchko, RF Circuit Design: Theory and Applications, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004.

ELECTIVE IV ADVANCED EMBEDED SYSTEMS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC118 : 04 : 70 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Typical Embedded System : Core of the Embedded System, Memory, Sensors and Actuators, Communication Interface, Embedded Firmware, Other System Components Characteristics and Quality Attributes of Embedded Systems : Hardware Software Co-Design and Program Modelling : Fundamental Issues in Hardware Software Co-Design, Computational Models in Embedded Design, Introduction to Unified Modelling Language, Hardware Software Trade-offs Embedded Firmware Design and Development : Embedded Firmware Design Approaches, Embedded Firmware Development Languages. Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) based Embedded System Design : Operating System Basics, Types of OS, Tasks, Process and Threads, Multiprocessing and Multitasking, Task Scheduling, Threads, Processes and Scheduling: Putting them altogether, Task Communication, Task Synchronization, Device Drivers, How to Choose an RTOS The Embedded System Development Environment:
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The Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Types of Files Generated on Cross-compilation, Disassembler/Decompiler, Simulators, Emulators and Debugging, Target Hardware Debugging, Boundary Scan Trends in the Embedded Industry : Processor Trends in Embedded System, Embedded OS Trends, Development Language Trends, Open Standards, Frameworks and Alliances, Bottlenecks Reference Books:: 1.Shibu K V, Introduction to Embedded Systems, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, 2009 2.James K Peckol, Embedded Systems A contemporary Design Tool, John Wiely, 2008 BROADBAND WIRELESS NETWORKS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC119 : 04 : 70 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Wimax genesis and framework: 802.16 std., wimax forum, other 802.16 stds. Protocol layer topologies: layers of wimax, CS, MAC CPS, security layer, phy layer, reference model, topology. Frquency utilization and system profiles: cellualar concept, licensed and unlicensed frequencies, fixed wimax system profiles, mobile wimax profiles. Wimax physical layer: OFDM transmission, SOFDMA, subcarrier permutation, 802.16 transmission chains, channel coding, turbo coding, burst profile. Wimax MAC and QOS: CS layer, MAC function and frames, multiple access and burst profile, uplink bandwidth allocation and request mechanisms, network entry and QoS magmt. Radio engg considerations, radio resource management, advance antenna technology in wimax, MBS. Wimax architecture, mobility handover and power save modes. Security. Reference Books: 1.Loutfi Nuyami, WIMAX: technology for broadband access, John Wiley, 2007 2.Yan Zhang, Hsia Hwa Chen, Mobile WIMAX, Aurobech publications, 2008.
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RF MEMS Subject Code No. of Lecture Hours /week Total no. of Lecture Hours : 12EC0127 : 04 : 52 IA Marks Exam Hours Exam Marks : 50 : 03 : 100

Review Introduction to MEMS. Fabrication for MEMS, MEMS transducers and Actuators . Microsensing for MEMS, Materials for MEMS. MEMS materials and fabrication techniques Metals, Semiconductors, thin films, Materials for Polymer MEMS, Bulk Machining for silicon based MEMS, Surface machining for Silicon based MEMS, Micro Stereo Lithography for Polymer MEMS. RF MEMS Switches and micro relays. Switch Parameters, Basics of Switching, Switches for RF and microwave Applications , Actuation mechanisms, micro relays and micro actuators, Dynamics of Switch operation, MEMS Switch Design and design considerations. MEMS Inductors and capacitors. Micromachined RF Filters and Phase shifters. RF Filters, Modeling of Mechanical Filters, Micromachanical Filters, SAW filters Basics, Design considerations. Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, Micromachined Filters for Millimeter Wave frequencies. Micromacbined Phase Shifters, Types and Limitations, MEMS and Ferroelectric Phase shifters, Applications. Micromachined transmission lines and components. Micromachined Transmission Lines Losses in Transmission lines, coplanar lines, Meicroshield and membrane supported lines, Microshield components, Micromachined waveguides, directional couplers and mixers, Resonators and Filters.. Micomachined antennas. Design, Fabrication and Measurements. Integration and Packaging for RF MEMS. Roles and types of Packages, Flip Chip Techniques, Multichip module packaging and Wafer bonding, Reliability issues and Thermal issues. Reference Books : 1RF MEMS V K Varadan, A Laktakia and K J Vinoy, John Wiley, 2003 Reprint 2. RF MEMS Circuit Design J De Los Santos, Artech House, 2002 3. Transaction Level Modeling with SystemC: TLM Concepts and
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Applications for Embedded Systems, by Frank Ghenassia, Springer, 2005 4Networks on Chips: Technology and Tools, by Luca Benini and Giovanni De Micheli , Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2006.

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