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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013

Design and implementation of an enhanced channel accessing system for low BER
Nasreen1, K. Gouthami 2
1

Asst.Prof, Tirumala Engineering College, jonnalagadda,guntur Dt. HOD, Vignan's Nirula Institute of Tech. & Sci for women,Guntur

ABSTRACT: In this project, we have introduced an advanced and novel high-rate, low complexity MIMO

it is used for a variant of digital subscriber line (DSL). For wireless, OFDM television is the and basis radio for several broadcast

transmission scheme, called STBCSM, as an alternative to previous techniques like SM and VBLAST. The amplitudes of the signal are scaled in a way to reduce the PAPR. Proposed new transmission scheme employs both APM techniques and antenna indices to convey information and exploits the transmit diversity potential of MIMO channels. The amplitude of complex OFDM signal is clipped and then scaled in such a way that the PAPR is reduced without causing much degradation in bit error rate (BER). This project presents QPSK constellation reductions. KEY WORDS: OFDM, BER, VBLAST, APM, CLIPPING, CLAMPING, MIMO INTRODUCTION: OFDM is a multimode modulation and multiple access technique used in a number of commercial wired and wireless applications. In the wired side, with PAPR and BER

applications, including the European digital broadcast television standard, as well as digital radio in North America. 1.1 Principle of OFDM The principle of OFDM is to divide the available spectrum or

communication channel into a number of equally spaced tones or sub-carriers. Each equally spaced subcarrier carries a portion of users information.

Figure 1 Three sub-carriers within OFDM symbol

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013 The special property of OFDM is that each sub-carrier is orthogonal with every other sub-carrier. Moreover, the spectrum of each sub-carrier can be allowed to overlap. Since the OFDM enables the creation of a very flexible system architecture,

which can be used efficiently for a wide range of services, including both voice and data. OFDM segments the available spectrum according to frequency rather than TDMA which segments

orthogonality is maintained, the subcarriers do not interfere with each other. The orthogonal property of sub carrier is given by, Cos (2*pi*n*f0*t) + Cos (2*pi*m*f0*t) dt = 0 Where (n! = m), t Time, f0 frequency of transmission n, m constants Figure 1 shows the OFDM spectrum with three sub-carriers. can be The

the available spectrum according to time and CDMA according to spreading codes. OFDM can also be considered as multiple access technique such that individual carriers can be assigned to different users. OFDM can be combined with frequency hopping to create a spread spectrum system, realizing the benefits of frequency diversity and interference averaging of

orthogonality

completely

maintained, even though the signal passes through a time dispersive channel, by introducing a cyclic path. A cyclic prefix is a copy of the last part of the OFDM symbol which is pretended to the transmitted symbol. This makes the transmitted signal periodic so that it avoids Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Inter Carrier Interference (ICI). Benefits of OFDM

CDMA technique.The cyclic prefix called as a guard time makes the channel to behave as the

transmitted waveforms were from time minus infinite which prevents one sub-carrier from interfering with another called Inter Carrier Interference (ICI).

PAPR:

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013 The crest factor or peak-to-average ratio (PAR) or peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is a measurement of a expensive components in the radio. In this section, we quantify the PAR problem; explain its severity in OFDM systems. The PAR Problem When transmitted through a nonlinear device, such as a high-power amplifier (HPA) or a digital to analog converter (DAC) a high peak signal, generates out-of-band energy (spectral regrowth) and in-band distortion (constellation tilting and scattering). These

waveform, calculated from the peak amplitude of the waveform divided by the RMS value of the waveform.It is therefore a dimensionless quantity.

While this quotient is most simply expressed by a positive rational number, in commercial products it is also commonly stated as the ratio of two whole numbers, e.g., 2:1. In signal processing expressed applications in decibels it is often The

(dB).

degradations may affect the system performance severely. The nonlinear behavior of an HPA by can be

minimum possible crest factor is 1, 1:1 or 0 dB. OFDM signals have a higher peak-toaverage ratio (PAR) often called a peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) than single-carrier signals do. The reason is that in the time domain, a multicarrier signal is the sum of many narrowband signals. At some time instances, this sum is large and at other times is small, which means that the peak value of the signal is

characterized

amplitude modulation amplitude modulation

modulation/amplitude (AM/AM) modulation/phase and

(AM/PM) responses. Figure (1) shows a typical AM/AM response for an HPA, with the associated input and output back-off regions (IBO and OBO, respectively). To avoid such undesirable nonlinear effects, a

waveform with high peak power must be transmitted in the linear region of the HPA by decreasing the average power of the input signal. This is called (input) backoff (IBO) and results in a proportional output backoff (OBO). High backoff reduces the Page 3102

substantially larger than the average value. This high PAR is one of the most important implementation

challenges that face OFDM, because it reduces the efficiency and hence increases the cost of the RF power amplifier, which is one of the most

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013 power efficiency of the HPA and may limit the battery life for mobile applications. In addition to inefficiency in terms of power, the coverage range is reduced, and the cost of the HPA is higher than would be mandated by the average power requirements. The plane for the corresponding M-PSK or M-QAM scheme and complex symbols are generated. These symbols are to be transmitted independently on to the subcarriers. To achieve this, they are fed parallel to the input of the N-point IFFT. They represent the frequency domain data set. Inverse transform converts this Fourier

input backoff is defined as Where is the saturation power, above which is the nonlinear region, and sat in P in P is the average input power. The amount of backoff is usually greater than or equal to the PAR of the signal. The power efficiency of an HPA can be increased by reducing the PAR of the transmitted signal. Clearly, it would be desirable to have the average and peak values are as close together as possible in order to maximize the efficiency of the power amplifier. In addition to the large burden placed on the HPA, a high PAR requires high resolution for both the transmitters DAC and the receivers ADC, since the dynamic range of the signal is proportional to the PAR. High-

frequency

domain data set into its corresponding time domain representation.

Specifically, IFFT is useful for OFDM because it generates samples of

waveforms with orthogonal frequency components. PAPR reduction is

applied at the output of the IFFT block and the OFDM symbols are then transmitted over the channel with energy per bit as Eb. The channel considered here is an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel with mean zero and variance No. At the receiver the inverse PAPR reduction technique is applied and FFT block is used to get the frequency domain data set from the time domain values. The signal in frequency domain represents the data symbols which were mapped to M-PSK or M-QAM. After parallel to serial conversion, these symbols are

resolution D/A and A/D conversion places an additional complexity, cost, and power burden on the system. SYSTEM MODEL As shown in Fig. 1, the incoming data bits are mapped onto the constellation

used to estimate the original data values.

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013

We select the clipping threshold at which the BER is degraded from 1.5 ?10 3 to 3.5 ?103 at SNR of 10dB and the amplitudes above this clipping threshold are clipped. Instead of clipping the signal further to reduce the PAPR, we consider a reversible

= x, if A x xp where xp is the amplitude peak value occurring in an OFDM symbol block, is the factor deciding the clipping threshold in terms of percentage of the peak value and is the scaling factor for the range [0,A) whose value is greater than one. The values of the parameters used are mentioned at the end of this section. Scale Down: In this method, we scale down the higher amplitudes of the signal by a factor of . This leads to decrease the peak value. Although the average value would also fall down, the resulting PAPR reduces. Because the reduction in peak power is greater than the reduction in the average power. The PAPR reduction function can be defined as h(x) = xp, if x > xp = x, if B x xp = x, if x < B

process - Differential Scaling which would reduce the PAPR but not deteriorate the BER. Since different ranges of amplitudes of the signal are scaled in a different manner, it is called Differential Scaling. We have

considered three types of scaling as described below. Scale Up: In this method, we scale up the lower amplitudes of the signal by a factor of . This leads to increase the average value without affecting the peak values. Therefore, the resulting PAPR reduces. The PAPR reduction function can be defined as h(x) = xp, if x > xp = x, if x < A

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013 where xp is the amplitude peak value occurring in an OFDM symbol block, is the factor deciding the clipping threshold in terms of percentage of the peak value and is the scaling factor for the range [,xp] whose value is less than one. CLIPPING AND DIFFERENTIAL SCALING: We propose in this section a new technique called Clipping and

Differential Scaling. The probability distribution of amplitudes of the OFDM signal [12] follows and Rayleigh thus the

distribution

probability of high peaks is very less. An upper threshold above which the signal amplitudes do not contribute much to the signal is determined as follows. Using simulations, we have determined BER for the modified signals alongwith PAPR. SIMULATION RESULTS:

CONCLUSION:

Finally, I have

established an efficient and most

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013 powerful communication in OFDM with less PAPR and reduced Bit Error Rate Probability. Using simulations, we obtained the values of threshold for clipping and parameters for scaling with a view to reduce PAPR without degradation presented in the BER. PAPR We and have BER from orthogonal designs," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 45, no.5, pp. 14561467, July 1999. [5] X.-B. Liang, Orthogonal designs with maximal rates," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 2468-2503, Oct. 2003. [6] Y. Jie, C. Lei, and C. De, A modified selected mapping technique to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio ossf OFDM signal, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 846851, Aug. 2007. [7] K. Kasari and M. Dehghani, A blind SLM scheme for reduction of PAPR in OFDM systems, in Proc. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol., Feb. 2009, vol. 38, pp. 399402. [8] D. Kim and G. L. Stuber, Clipping noise mitigation for OFDM by

performance for all the techniques considered. The proposed up-down scaling technique is able to achieve PAPR reduction of the order of 8.5 dB from 12 dB PAPR initially REFERENCES: [1] E. Telatar, Capacity of multiantenna Gaussian channels," European Trans. Telecommun., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 558-595, Nov./Dec. 1999. [2] P. Wolniansky, G. Foschini, G. Golden, and R. Valenzuela, V-

BLAST: an architecture for realizing very high data rates over the richscattering wireless channel," in Proc. International Symp. Signals, Syst., Electron.(ISSSE98), Pisa, Italy, pp. 295-300, Sep. 1998. [3] S. M. Alamouti, A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless

decision-aided reconstruction, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 46, Jan. 1999. [9] H. Saeedi, M. Sharif, and F. Marvasti, Clipping noise cancellation inOFDM systems using oversampled signal reconstruction, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 7375, Feb. 2002. [10] B. S. Krongold and D. L. Jones, An active-set approach for OFDM PAR reduction via tone reservation,

communications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 14511458, Oct. 1998. [4] V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank, Space-time block codes

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4 Issue7- July 2013 IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 495509, Feb. 2004. [11] L. Wang and C. Tellambura, Analysis of clipping noise and

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average ratio reduction in OFDM, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3941, Jan. 2010.

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