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Unit 1 Beginnings Fixed expressions with MAKE

1- I shouted in order to . 2- She she was searching for sth on the ground so he wouldnt realise that
she was staring at him.

3- I was on . Success would mean promotion while failure would result in 45678the loss of my job. David and Susan has had their problems, but theyve decided to ............their marriage. Our picnic was spoiled by the rain but we .of it by playing games indoors. I cant afford to buy a new car, so I have to.with my old one. I wish you would about which film to watch. Dr Jenny ..the factors that developed the strange illness.

Phrasal verbs with MAKE 12345678He was sorry about the way he behaved so he .by taking her out to dinner. They jumped into the car and .towards the port. He .the hospital as soon as he could. Susan didnt go on an expedition, she .that part of the story. Louis trusted John but he never expected that John would .with the company funds. There was so much noise that I couldnt ..what they were saying. Peter promised to work late this month to ..the time he missed. Shethe new computer ..her files stores because he hadnt one at work.

Match the phrasal verbs with their definitions. abcdefghDo sth to show that you are sorry for the problems you caused bomebody. Go towards a particular place or destination. Invent a new story, song, game, etc. . Leave quickly, especially in order to escape. . Be able to see or hear sth, though not very clearly. .. Make a bad situation better, or replace sth that has been lost. Change sth so that it has a different purpose or use. .. Use the opportunities you have to become successful. ..

Key word transformation 1- She passed her driving test in 1996. 2345Driving She ..since 1996. I urgently need to give Simon a message about where to meet Jane. Deliver I have to .Simon about where to meet Jane. Please hurry up and decide which film to watch. Mind I wish youabout which film to watch. I found it quite hard to get this place at university. Easy It has .get this place at university. Id been worry about the test, but it was easy. Expected

I be so easy. 6- The police suspect that he killed his wife. Of Hehis wife. 7- Now that hes retired, he likes to go fishing a lot. Taken Since he retired he ..a hobby. 8- Shes taking karate lessons, and kickboxing as well. Is Not only .shes also doing kickboxing. 9- Mum offered me another piece of pie, but I told her I was full. Had I told mum ..when she offered me another piece. 10- John and Peter first met thirty years ago. Each John and Peter ..thirty years. 11- We havent had a night out in ages. Since Its had a night out. 12- They have been building their dream home for the past ten years. Under Their dream home .the past ten years. 13- We didnt like the holiday resort much but we decided to enjoy what we could. Most We decided ..the holiday resort even though we didnt like it much. 14- I didnt hear from Jane for another three years. Before It .from Jane again. 15- Getting a place on the course was much harder than I thought it would be. As It was a place on the course as I thought it would be. 16- Greg has to work very hard to pay his bills. Ends To ..Greg has to work very hard. Unit 2 Childs world 1. Verbs: Bound: run with a lot of energy and enthusiasm. Leap: to move quickly and with a lot of energy. Stroll: to walk somewhere in a slow relaxed way. Wander : walk around an area without going in a fixed direction. March: walk in a determined, purposeful manner. Swing: to make regular movements from one side to the other while hanging from a particular point. Climb: move up, down or across sth using your feet and hands. Paddle: to walk for pleasure without shoes or socks in water that is not deep. Tiptoe: to walk very quietly. Heave: pull or lift sth heavy with difficulty. Skip: to move forwards with quick steps and jumps. Wade: walk or stand in water. Hop: to move by jumping on one foot. Slide: to move somewhere quietly and smoothly. Clamber: to climb with difficulty, using hands and feet. Jump Stride: to walk quickly with long steps. Wrestle: to try to move sth when it is large, heavy or difficult to move. 2. Parts of the body Idioms a)-to be a bit down in the mouth: to be sad. b)- to have a brainwave: have a brilliant idea. 2

c)- to be all fingers and thumbs: to be rude in movement. d)-to bat an eyelid: to not seem to be shocked, surprised or embarrassed. e)-to be a pain in the neck: an annoying person f)- see eye to eye: to be in agreement with each other. g)- to be tongue in cheek: h)- to be wet behind the ears: to not have enough experience. i)- to stuck ones neck out: to say /do sththat is wrong; defend an idea. j)- to keep putting in: to keep doing sth that is wrong. k)- to put the mouth where their mouth is: to show by your actions that you really believe what you say. l)- off the top of my head: to have the perception of. m)-to have a real chip on your shoulder: to easily become offended or angry because you think you have been treated unfairly in the past. 3-Fixed phrases: PICK a) Pick up the pieces: to return or to help sb to return to a normal situation particularly after a shock or a disease. b) Pick somebodys brain: to ask sb a lot of questions about sth because they know more than you. c) Take your pick: choose d) Pick holes in sth: to criticize an idea or a plan by saying what its weak points are. e) Pick your way: to walk in a slow carefully way, choosing exactly where to put your foot down. f) Pick-me-up: to let sb get into your car and take them somewhere. g) Pick through: to search through a pile of things to find things that you want. h) Pick over: to examine a group of things very carefully in order to choose the ones you want. i)- pick sth up on: return to a point or an idea that has been mentioned and discuss it more. 4- Complete the sentences with the words in the chart. There two extras phrases. Picked holes in- pick you brains- pick you up- picked up on- picked her way-pick up the piecesPicky- picked it up- take your pick- pick-me-up

a- Sue can I borrow one of your books? Sure, b- Brian, can I ..for a moment? I need some advice on this report
Im writing. c- Youve got a dose of gastric flu, Mrs Brown. You probably on your business trip last week. d- Heidi .through the pile of toys lying scattered all over the bedroom floor to where her son sat. e- Theres no point in taking two cars tonight, Jim. So, Ill ..from the office at 5:30. Ok? f- Its taken Paul a while to .after his wife left him, but hes coping a lot better since he sold the house. g- My boss really ..my report this morning, and after Id worked so hard on it. h- At the meeting, Tina.what, George had said about the problem of security at the festival. 5- Key word: RUN a- To run an errand: to do a task for someone. b- To run counter to someone: to go against or in opposition to sth or someone. c- To run a story in a newspaper: to publish an article d- To run for office: to become a political candidate e- To run a risk: to do sth that is dangerous or uncertain 3

f- To keep the engine running. Circle the correct word in italics to complete the following sentences.
a)- Alice wanted to become politically active, so she run for office/cover. b)-David realised he was running a fever/ risk by going to see Helen, but he had to talk with her. c)- Could you run an errand/story on the fire in the next issue? d)-Your proposal runs counter/parallel to company policy, and so I cannot support it. 6- Passive forms. (pag 170 c-b) Complete the following sentences using the correct passive form. a)- People consider the five year old boy to be too young to have a mobile phone. The five year old boy .to have a mobile phone. b)- There have been rumours that the childrens playground is going to become a car park. It to become a car park. c)- The public think that the laws against underage drinking are too stric. The laws..too strict. d)-They suspect that a nine year old boy broke into his aunts home and stole money. A nine year old boy ...........his aunts home and stealing money. e)-The government has estimated a 10%incerase in the number of children under 14 who smoke. The number of children under 14 who smoke..by 10%. f)- People say that the missing boy was a loner and didnt have many friends. It..many friends. g)-Police believe she went missing somewhere between the bus stop and Walvern Road. It ..and Walvern Road. h)- My mum lets me have friends to stay at the weekend. .. i)- My mum made me do my homework before I could go out. .. Unit 3 Are you game Extreme Sports: Bodyboarding-cycling-hang gliding(the sport of flying using a hang-glider)- ice-skating- kite landboardingmountaineering- paragliding(a sport in which you jump off a hill or out of a plane and use a parachute to fly for long distances before floating back down to the ground)- rowing- running- skiing- snorkeling(when you swim under water using a snorkel)-swimming-thriatlon-white water rafting-yacht racing. Adjectives:Adrenalin rush-amazing-awesome-determined-exhausted-exhilarating (making you feel happy, excited, and full of energy)-fantastic-frightening-incredible-loneliness-petrified-terrifying-reassuring(making you feel less worried or frightened)-relaxed-wild 1)- Phrasal verbs: TAKE a- take for: mistakenly think one person is another. b- take back: regret having said sth./return sth. c- take after: resemble someone in your family. d- take down: write sth down on paper. e- take at: accept responsibility. f-take up: start a new activity. g-take over: take control from someone else. h-take out: obtain sth by applying for it and paying the necessary fee./invite someone to go somewhere with you. i-take to:like immediately. 4

j-take apart: separate sth into pieces. *Replace the undelined part of each sentence with a phrasal verb formed with take. a- Unfortunately Brian resembles his father far more than me! .. b- Dad asked me if I would like to assume responsibility for the family business when he retired. c- Claudia felt awful about what shed said and asked if she could retract her last comment. .. d- Pauline didnt hesitate and said she was happy to accept burden of their invalid mother. .. e-It seems I was wrong about you, Lesley. I had assumed you were a person I could trust.! ... f-As a child he used to disassemble anything electronic. Trouble was he could never put it together again. g-Sally and Susie liked each other immediately and were firm friends thereafter. . h-Luke has just started to play tennis. I doubt hell keep it up for long though. .. 2- Expressions with TAKE a- Do a double take: look at sth again in surprise. b- Take no prisoners: fight to succeed or die trying. c- Take their threats lying down: d- Take it or leave it e- Take the bull by the horns: to bravely or confidently deal with a difficult, dangerous, or unpleasant problem. f- Take my hat off to her: admire g- Take sth with a pinch of: to not completely believe what someone tells you, because you know that they do not always tell the truth. h- Take it out of you i- Take it from it 3- Key word transformation a- Im certain thats my umbrella, because its got a brown mark on it. So That umbrellas got a brown mark on it, .mine. b- James hasnt called. Its impossible hes forgotten my birthday. Have James, because he hasnt called. c- I definitely didnt write the note, Lyn, because thats not my handwriting! Written I ..Lyn, because thats not my handwriting. d- Paul said he would call April to tell her hes not going to the party, and Im sure he has. Will Paulher hes not going to the party, because he said he would. e- Ive definitely dropped my keys somewhere, because I remember putting them in my bag this morning. Must I remember putting my keys in my bag this morning, so somewhere. f- Has Andrea gone to Dubai yet? I dont think so, because she hasnt called me to say goodbye. Would Has Andrea gone to Dubai yet? I think so. She .goodbye. g- Its true that I lost the match, but I played well. Not I .. the match, but I played well. h- Although hes good with animals, hes not very comfortable with people. May He ..animals, but hes unable to relax around people. 5

5- Verbs: a- Be down to: to be reduced to. b- Get up to sth: misbehave c- Get down to do sth: begin to concentrate on doing. d- Feeling down: experience slight depression. e- Be not up to much: be not very good. f- Be down to: be the fault of someone. 6- Understanding the speakers attitude. CERTAINTY UNCERTAINTY Positive feelings Negative feelings confident hesitant exuberant annoyed definite doubtful delighted frustrated secure unconvinced thrilled exasperated unambiguous cynical elated irked Elated: extremely happy and excited, especially because of something that has happened or is going to happen. Irked: makes you feel annoyed. Unit 4 Eureka Idioms: Colours a-Argue/talk etc till you're blue in the face: to argue, talk etc about something a lot, but without achieving what you want. Eg. You can complain about it until you go blue in the face.-it wont make any difference at all. b-Once in a blue moon: very rarely.eg, I dont really see David any more, but once in a moon he phones me. c-Black and blue: skin that is black and blue has BRUISEs (=dark marks) on it as a result of being hit. Eg, after my first karate lessons, I was black and blue all over. d-In the red: to owe more money than you have. e-To be in the black list: f-To have green fingers: to be good at making plants grow. Eg, My mother used to have such green fingers-her garden always looked so beautiful. g-The grass always looks greener on the other side!: No todo lo que brilla es oro. Theres still sth good for you in the future. Eg. Stop moaning and be happy with what youve got! Remember the grass looks greener on the other side! h-To be caught red-handed: con las manos en la masa. Eg,, The boys were caught red-handed stealing Mrs Browns apples. i-To be green with envy: to have envy of somebody else. (rojo de envidia)Eg, Youre so lucky to be going to Rome. Im green with envy. j-Out of the blue: sth is unexpected. l-To see red: to be very annoyed by sth. m-Feeling so blue: to feel depressed. n-To be a red herring: false alarm, a fact or idea that is not important but is introduced to take your attention away from the points that are important. o-Like a bolt from the blue: eg, The news of Harrys failure came like a bolt from the blue, news that is sudden and unexpected. p-a black mark (against somebody):if there is a black mark against you, someone has a bad opinion of you because of something you have done q-be in the black: to have money in your bank account [ be in the red] 1)- Key word: TELL a- To tell oneself: to put sth into words in your mind to give encouragement or persuade yourself about sth. 6

b- to can tell sth: to judge a situation correctly based on evidence. c-to tell sth apart: recognize the difference between thins or people. d- tell off: reprimand, speak someone angrily about sth they have done. e- tell on: refer a person to someone in authority, for sth thay have done. Complete the sentences with a suitable phrase with tell. 1- Annette remained calm throughout most of her training, but as the day of the race drew near, the pressure. 2- These to cars are so alike, its impossible to .. 3- Come on, what have you done? I promise I wont ..you. 4- So, what happened? Well, Im not absolutely certain, but,George asked her to marry him and Fiona turned him down. 5- Now, I know you said it would happen, so don say! ..!

6- It looks as though i-pods and MP3s will render CDs obsolete, but.. 7- Does Alice like Jane? You with Alice; one minute she likes you, the next,
she doesnt want to know you. 8- I wouldnt trust Alex, if I were you. Shes a bit of a.,and is bound to talk with Mum. 2)- GRAMMAR: Expressions to express the future.

a- I very nearly picked up the phone.


I was justup the phone. ABOUT I was on ..up the phone. POINT b- John is sure to pass his exam. John is ..his exam. BOUND It is his exam. CERTAIN c- I think its very likely that everyone will have a computer. In my opinion theres a good have a computer. CHANCE I very much ..have a computer. DOUBT d- He is due for a promotion. He ..promoted. SHOULD Its .promoted. TIME 3)- Word Formation A 2,000-year-old mechanical a computer salvaged from a Roman (1)in 1900 1-Ship has astounded scientists who have finally unraveled the secrets of how the sophisticated device works. The machine was lost among cargo in 65BC when the ship carrying it sank off the coast of a Greek Island. Since its discovery, scientists have been trying to (2)..the device, 2-Contruct which is now known to be an (3)calendar capable of tracking with 3-Astronomy remarkable (4)the position of the sun, several heavenly bodies and the phases 4-Precise of the moon. Archeologists working on the recovered objects noticed gear wheels, dials, clocklike 7

hands and a wooden and bronze casing hearing ancient Greek (5). 5-Inscribe Though to date back to 150-100 BC, the object had 37 gear wheels (6)it to 6-Enable Follow the movements of the moon and the sun through the zodiac, predict eclipses and even recreate the (7).orbit of the moon. 7-Regular (8)..,scans showed the device uses a type of gear that was previously 8-Remarkable th believed to have been invented in the 16 century. The level of miniaturization and complexity of its parts is (9) to that of 18th century clock. Experts believe it to be the 9-Compare earliest-known device to use gear wheels and by far the most sophisticated object to be found from the ancient and medieval periods. No one knows why the Greek technology invented for the machine seemed to (10). No other civilization is believed to have created 10-Appear anything as complex for another 1,000 years. On the question of the corporal punishment We live in civilized times, or so we keep telling ourselves. Yet, the increasing level of (1)behavior and violence in schools has led a number of teachers to start 1-discipline demanding the reinstatement of an archaic and, to most of us, (2)..law. 2-Humane They feel that the present laws regarding punishment in schools are (3)..... 3-Adequate to deal with adolescents students who are constantly (4)..,leaving teachers 4-Obey feeling exposed and (5) As a result, a group of teachers have petitioned 5-Protect the Government to (6).the question of permitting corporal punishment 6-Consider in schools. Although this has caused some (7).and debate among the 7-Agree Government officials, the Minister of Education remains (8).on the 8-Flexible matter. In a moving speech, he stated that a return to the age of beatings, with the cane would be totally (9).., going against the UN convention on the rights of the child. The problems 9-Accept of (10)behavior should be dealt with in others ways, since it has been proved that treating violence with violence doesnt work. Dirty is good for you! It would be wrong to call dairy farming a dirty job. But workers on dairy farms do have to deal with vast quantities of manure. In fact, they (1)end up breathing in a lot of dust 1-Inevitable consisting largely of dried manure, along with all the bacteria that grew in it. That sounds (2).and in some ways it is, but it does have one benefit: dairy farmers are as 2- Health five times less likely to develop lung cancer. 3-Epidemiology As strange as it sounds, (3)..are starting to uncover some (4) 4-Expect links between our exposure to dirt and germs, and our risk of cancer later in life. Children who attend day care in their first few months are much less likely to develop leukemia than those who stay at home, for instance, while some tuberculosis vaccines reduce the risk of skin cancer. Such (5).point towards a curious possibility: one way to avoid dying of cancer 5-Find may be a hefty dose of germs. The notion that (6)..dirty has benefits may ring a bell. Researchers have 6- Live been debating the hygiene hypothesis for years, but it is (7)discussed as 7-Typical an explanation for the rising incidence of allergies and asthma in developed countries, not cancer. The idea is that our immune system evolved to conduct a (8)..war on pathogens, 8-Cease parasites, and others microbes, but modern lifestyles mean we face fewer threats. This throws our immune systems out of kilter, making them prone to (9)to certain stimuli like 9-React pollen or peanuts. Now some researchers are starting to wander whether the higher incidence of certain cancers in 8

affluent populations-including breast cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma- might also have sth to do with sanitized, infection-free living. If theyre right, the (10)..are huge. 10-Imply 4)Key word transformation BE Mr Smith..his teaching methods. b- She learned how to dance the tango three years ago. ABLE She.the tango for three years. c- Although weve been friends for a long time, but I dont always understand her. HAVE We.................a long time, but I dont always understand her. d- There have been rumours that Peter and Jane are getting married. HAS It..Peter and Jane are getting married. e- They finally got married last year, after living together for 12 years. BEEN When they finally got married last year, ..12 years. f- It is likely that local residents will be suspicious of the companys plan for development in the area. MAY The companys plan for development .with suspicion by local.. g- It definitely wasnt Paul you saw with that girl, because hes in Glasgow on business! SEEN Youthat girl, because hes in Glasgow on business! h- Jason intends to visit the ancient ruins of Machu Picchu when he goes to Peru next month. IS When Jason goes to Peru next month, he .the ancient ruins of Machu Pc. i- What do you intend to do about your appalling school grades, Matt? GOING Your grades are appalling, Matt! Whatthem. j- Peter will definitely pass his driving exam. BOUND Peter.his driving test. k- The future of the sport is looking uncertain. HOLD No one knows .for the sports. l- Were celebrating the companys tenth anniversary next month. BUSINESS Next month, the company..for the years. m- Ill see you outside the cinema at 8 oclock tonight WAITING I..the cinema at 8 oclock tonight. n- Scientists have almost discovered how to make objects invisible. POINT Scientists ..how to make object invisible. o- Daves available to help us move house next weekend. COMING Dave .with the move next weekend. p- Be careful! The buildings about to collapse!. TO Look out! The building ..collapse!. UNIT 5 Safe and Sound Crime words: arson(deliberately making sth burn, especially a building-arsonist), computer hacking ( illegal way of gaining info from someone elses computer), drug trafficking, fraud(the crime of deceiving people in order to gain sth, such as money), kidnapping (taking someone and holding them captive in order to gain money from their family), murder(intentionally killing someone), crimeware (illegal computer software), victim (someone who suffers as a result of sth bad happening to them). Verbs: a-. convict of: to prove that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a court. b-. cope with: to succeed in dealing with a difficult situation or problem. c-. resort to: to do sth bad, extreme or difficult because you cant think in other way to deal with the problem. d-. confide in: to tell someone about sth very private or secret, especially a personal problem, because you feel you can trust them. 9

a- People sometimes criticize Mr Smiths teaching methods.

e-. inform on/against: to tell the police or an enemy information about someone that will harm them. f-. charge with: to state officially that someone may be guilty of a crime. g-. blame for: to say or think that someone or sth is responsible for sth bad. h-. find sb guilty of sth. i-. be guilty of. j-. to be sentence to. k-. suspect of. l-. arrest for. m-. punish for. n-. capture o-. escape from. p-. to be discharged from. q-. accuse sb of sth. r-. confess: to admit to having committed a crime, or done sth wrong. s-. incriminate: to make someone appear guilty of a crime. t-. acquit: to decide in a court of law that someone is not guilty of a crime. u-. implicate: to show or suggest that someone is involved in a crime. 1)- Phrasal verbs: TURN a-. turn in: to stop doing sth and go to bed. Eg. Im exhausted from studying all day. I think Ill turn in now./to take sb to the police because they have committed a crime. Eg. I know about his illegal actvs. So Ive decided to turn him in. b-. turn to: to get help from /go for/ask for/resort to c-. turn over: to deliver/produce outcome d-.turn down: refuse. Eg. Lenny asked Sarah to marry him, but she turned him down. e-.turn on: attack suddenly. Eg. I was walking on the street when a dog suddenly turned on me, and bit my arm. f-. turn off: stop the supply of. Eg. They turned off the water supply for a while due to a broken tube. g-. turn out: force to leave. Eg. Sams landlord turned him out of hid flat because he hadnt paid the rent for three months. h-. turn out to be: is discovered to be i-. turn into: make someone become. h-.turn over: dar vuelta Circle the correct preposition to complete the sentences. a-. Mandy didnt know what to do, so she turned is/to her father to help. b-. Last night, Charlie was tired and turned in/out early. c-. The officer asked Maria to turn out/off her engine while he wrote the ticket. d-. The business turned over/down a profit of $3o million last year. e-. Mum said the eggs will need to be turned to/over in two minutes. 2)- Key word: LAW a-.to be above the law: do not obey it. b-. be against the law: to do sth illegal. c-. break the law: to sth illegal. d-. by law: the whole system of rules. e-. enforce the law: f-. lay down the law: to tell other people what to do in an impolite way. g-. law-abiding: respectful of the law and obey it. h-. law and order. 10

i-. law enforcement: the job of making sure that the law is obeyed. j-. lawsuit: a complaint or a problem that a person or org brings to a court to be settled. k-. obey the law. l-. take the law into your own hands: to do sth illegal in order to put right sth that you think isnt fair. m-. within the law: follow the law. 3)- GRAMMAR: verbs followed by infinitives or ing. Infinitive with to Without to Pretend to be-agree to- advise toMake (someone) doArrange to- ask to-attempt toLet do Choose to- dare to- decide toDare (as a modal) Encourage to- expect to- fail to Order to- practice to- refuse tothreaten to- invite to- persuade toremind to

-ing Contemplate- appreciate-avoidDeny- enjoy- face-involve practice.

Key word transformation 1- Give me your money or Ill shoot you! said the thief to the old lady. THREATENED The thief if she didnt give him her money. 2- I didnt take the wallet from your bag, sir, honest! cried Ronald. DENIED Ronaldfrom his teachers bag. 3- When you went into the room, Mrs Smith, did you notice anything unusual? asked the police. REMEMBER The police asked if ..when she went into the room. 4- I cant phone her at this time of the night, its so late! LIKE I ..so late. 5- Diane told the police she hadnt intended to burn her ex-husbands house down. MEAN I fire to my ex-husbands house, officer, really! UNIT 6 Hale and Hearty 1)- Food idioms: a-. something smells fishy around here: sth is wrong. b-. to spill the beans: to reveal a secret. c-. to bite off more than you can chew: to do more than you can. d-. You cant make an omelette without breaking eggs: everything demands sacrifice,used to say that it is impossible to achieve anything important without causing a few problems. e-. bread and butter issues: the most important ones. f-. to have ones cake and eat it: to have all the advantages of something without its disadvantages. g-. to be the salt of the earth: someone who is a honest and good person. h-. piece of cake: easy i-. sth is sold like hot cakes: very easily. j-. a bad egg: not a good person. k-. a nest egg: money you save for a future purpose. l-. an egghead: an intellectual person. m-.save your bacon: save your life from a threatening situation. n-. to take sth with a pinch of salt: not completely believable. o-.butter wouldnt melt in sbs mouth: used to say that someone seems to be very kind and sincere but is not really. 11

p-.know which side your bread is buttered on: to know which people to be nice to in order to get advantages for yourself. q-.have a finger in every pie: to be involved in many activities and to have influence over a lot of people, used especially when you think someone has too much influence. r-.bring home the bacon: to provide enough money to support your family. 2)- Key word: LIFE a-. roar to life: to suddenly start working. b-. a fact of life. c-. to be the life and soul of the party: someone who enjoys social occasions and is fun and exciting to be with. d-. a new lease of life: fills you full of optimism or energy to start again. e-. a matter of life or death. f-. to risk life and limb: your life and physical health - used especially when this is threatened in some way. g-. to lay down ones life: die in order to save other people or because of a strong belief. h-. lifelong: for a long time. 3)- GRAMMAR: CONDITIONALS Key transformations a- If he temperatures increases, Im going to call the doctor. INTEND Unless his temperature ..the doctor. b- I didnt have time today so I didnt have any lunch. HAD If I .had lunch today. c- If William hadnt advised me to continue, I would have given up. KEEP ButI would have given up. d- Drop in and see us if you ever come to Manchester. HAPPEN Should you Manchester, drop in and see us. e- I was so short that I couldnt reach the top shelf. WOULD If I .been able to reach the top shelf. f- You wouldnt visit the dentist so often, if you eat fewer sweets. CUT Were.sweets, you wouldnt visit the dentist so often. g- I dont care if the doctor prescribes antibiotics-Im not going to take them. EVEN I object.the doctor prescribes them. h- You only beat me in that race because I am too old. WOULD If I were you in that race. Complete the collocations in the sentences below with the correct verb.

abcdefgh-

There are several factors you need to into account if you are considering their offer. Garlic is reputed to.wonders for ones health. If you smoke, you.a much greater risk of getting cancer. You shouldnt ..fun of Natalie just because she has to wear glasses. Low levels of vitamin D can..rise to a number of problems. After her grandfather died, the house began to.into disrepair. They tried to tease Nicole, but she wouldnt ..for it.(pay attention to) Please us know if you decide to visit our town.

UNIT 7 Wish you were there.. 1)- Describing places: buildings

atmosphere

Personal reaction 12

Grandeur(impressive beauty, power, or size), run down ( in very bad condition), sparkling snow (shining), shoddy (awful, horrible), magical, slums (in very bad condition, where very poor people live), touristy, crumbling (break into a lot of small pieces), gothic, old.

Eerie(strange and frightening), industrious, threatening, remarkable, sober (plain and not at all brightly coloured), plain (without decoration), unique, lovely fresh air.

Amazing, disgusting, like home, open mind, appealing, dusty, horrible, passion, breathless, it has it all.

2)- Phrasal verbs. LOOK a-. look out for each other: take care b-. look forward to: be excited and pleased about sth. c-. look ahead: think about what might happen in the future. d-. look someone up: visit someone when you go to their town (longer visit). e-. look up to someone: respect and admire to someone. f-. look into: investigate, try to learn the truth. g-. look to someone: depend on someone to provide help or advice. h-. look down on someone: think you are better than another person. i-. look sth up: find out what sth means. j-. look through someone: understand what they really are like. k-. look in on someone: to make a short visit to someone. Phrases with LOOK a-. look sb in the eye: to fix your eyes in another persons eyes. b-. look the other way: ignore something bad that is happening and not try to stop it . c-. overlook: to not pay attention to sth. d-.by the looks of it: the way it sth is happening. e-. someone is not much to look at: to not find someone attractive. f-.get a look-in: g-. to not like the look of sth. Complete the sentences with one of the phrases making any grammatical changes necessary. a- The weather was getting worse, and she didnt ,so she went home. b- Phil might not have been but I thought he was a really nice guy. c- My dad got on so well with my boyfriend that they spent all day talking about cars, and I didnt ..! d- Paula had seen the boy steal the CD and she couldnt .,so she shouted, Stop Thief. e- Sarah ..and said coldly, Youre a liar f- As this is the first youve played truant, Tedd, Ill..it, but dont do it again.! Said the headmaster. g- In any business, its important to ..and anticipate changes in the market. h- Heather and John are together all the time and, therell be wedding bells soon. 3)- Key word: ROAD 13

a-.road house: restaurant or bar on a main road outside the city or town. b-.road rage: angry, violent behavior of car drivers. c-.road test: practice of checking that a car is safe to drive. d-. road side: the edge of the road. e-. road hog: someone who drives carelessly without thinking of anyones safety. f-. road map: a guide showing the road network of a particular country. g-.road works: repairs that are being carried out on a road. h-. road block: point on the road where the police are stopping cars. i-. road sign: a board next to the road which gives info to drivers. j-. road show: group of people who travel round the country, entertaining. 4)- Word formation I just wanted to tell you my news. Our school went on an (1)to Blackpool 1-out yesterday, and the students had a great time. You havent been this area of England before, so Ill tell you a few things about this place. Blackpool 2-sea is a (2).town, and so its really (3). It used to be 3-tour really popular years ago, and if you ignore the run down and boarded up places, many of the houses along the sea have kept that air of (4).from the days when the town was booming. 4-grand Its making a comeback now, though, with the help of (5)from some 5-invest local businessmen, and more people are starting to visit it again. I took my class to Pleasure Beach fairground, and they went on all sides. Julie Kerr was sick after going on the roller coaster, but that didnt stop any of the others going! Then Pete won a prize in an Elvis (6)..contest and everyone teased him. 6-look We had some (7)problems on the way home, caused by roadworks on the 7-foresee motorway, but that didnt dampen the kids spirits. They sang all the way. All in all it was one of the most (8)school trips Ive ever been on. 8-memory 5)- GRAMMAR: Inversion Invert the following sentences. a-. This cleaning gel will clean your kitchen surfaces, and also make your pans shine! Not only b-.As soon as I opened the door, flames swept into the room. No sooner.. c-. This is the first time anything like this has happened in this town! said the major. Never before d-.Visitors must not take photographs inside the museum under any circumstances. Under no circumstances.. e-. This is the only opportunity you will have to buy our product at this price! Never again.. f-.The details of the scandal were only made known to the public later. WERE g-. She left as soon as she arrived. SOONER h-.The concert had barely started when there was an explosion. BARELY i-. You seldom see cormorants in this part of the country any more. DO . j-. You mustnt contact him on any account! NO 14

. k-. I have never seen such poor acting! HAVE l-. No sooner had the fisherman come out than the building collapsed. JUST The fisherman.............. the building collapsed. m-.You wont be allowed into the country until they have checked your passport. WILL Not until they.be allowed into the country. n-. Shortly after the plane took off, one of its engines failed. WHEN Hardly ..one of its engines failed. o-. Tom never apologized for his rudeness to the teacher. APOLOGISE At no..for being rude to the teacher. p-. It was only when the bus driver stopped that he realised a passenger was missing. DID Only when..realise that a passenger was missing. UNIT 8 Making our mark 1)- Phrases verbs: BRING a-. bring out: cause a particular behaviour in someone/introduce a new product. b-. bring about: cause sth to happen c-.bring down: cause a government, an aeroplane or a person to fall. d-. bring off: manage to do sth successfully. e-. bring along: take someone or sth with you when you go to somewhere. f-. bring forward: arrange for a meeting or event to happen earlier than previously arranged. g-. bring back: recall a memory, reintroduce a rule or a law. h-. bring in: invite someone to do a job. i-. bring up: to mention a subject or to raise(criar) children. Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb. a-. The revolution managed to bringthe government. b-. Gillian and Mark have decided to bring.the date of the wedding to March. c-. They are hoping that the sale of the Christmas cards will bringenough money for the childrens charity. d-. I dont know how Angela manages to bring.running a business and raising three kids. e-. A week at the seaside has managed to bring.. the best of Rupert. 2)- Phrases with: BRING a-. bring the house down: to greatly impress an audience or critic. b-. bring into the world: to give birth to. c-. bring it alive: to make sth more interesting. d-. bring it home to me: to make sb realise sth. e-. bring it all back: to make sb remember sth. f-. bring up the rear: to be the last person in a moving line. g-. bring sb to sbs knees: to defeat someone. h-. bring oneself: to defeat someone. Complete using phrase with bring. a-. Fred is thinking of bringing an ..against the newspaper. b-.Seeing the farm again brought it..to me how happy I had been there. c-. Angela could not bring.to sell the old house. d-. He had a difficult illness that almost brought him to his, but hes fine again now. 15

e-. The doctors brought all their skills toon the patient, but were unable to save him. f-. Why dont you use a few good adjectives to bring your description .? 3)-Word Formation Easter Island Its a familiar tale of greed, stupidity and self-destruction. For hundreds of years the (1) 1-inhabit of one of the most remote islands on Earth vied with each other to build ever more impressive statues, pillaging their resources to feed their obsession. (2)disaster was inevitable. As the 2-ecology islands last tree was (3)., the society collapsed into a holocaust of war, starvation 3-fell and (4). Rival clans toppled each others statues. Armed with deadly spears, the 4-cannibal workers rose up against their rulers. The vanquished were either (5).or eaten. 5-slave This version of events on Easter Island has become not only received wisdom, but a dark warning about a possible fate for our entire planet. The parallels between Easter Island and the whole modern 6-chill world are (6)..obvious, writes Jared. Easters (7) makes 7-isolate it the clearest example of a society that destroyed itself by overexploiting its own resources. Here 8illustrate is the perfect (8)of the idea that (9)contains the seeds 9-human of its own destruction. But is it true or, in our (10)to think the worst of our 10-eager species, have we been seduced by mythologists. What should we eat? The more we read about our health, the more we learn about how important diet is. It seems we have a number of (1)..about whats good for us and what isnt. Most people assume 1-preconceive that the (2)of great quantities of fish and meat will provide us with plenty 2-consume of protein. The truth is that cooking meat and fish all way through results in the (3).. 3-destroy of up to 95% of its protein content, yet we are not able to eat raw meat. In fact, most plants foods can provide us with all the protein we need. We also believe that our (4) 4-digest system were designed for large heavy meals high in animal protein. Actually our very long intestine is ideal for breaking down plant foods-animal proteins are difficult for us to digest and create acids in the stomach. One good (5)for eating more raw fruit and 5-motivate vegetable is that it allows for the (6).of a strong immune system, 6-restore especially if it is has been weakened by illness, (7)or stress. A strong 7-tired immune system in turn ensures that the body receives proper (8), protects 8-maintain us from disease and other (9).., and reduces the number of times we have 9contaminate to rely on (10)drugs. 10-prescribe Termites Mounds The termites of sub-Saharan Africa have sth very important to teach us about the way we build our homes. The remarkable, seemingly random piles of mud which they build are renowned for their ability to regulate and control the internal environments of their homes, within our own bodies. They are able to do this by forming (1)systems which heat and cool their 1-ventilate structures. No other (2)..on earth is known to engineer the environment 2-organ to this level. With literally millions of (3)..in a single mound, located in a nest buried 3-inhabit approximately a metre beneath the ground, termites face a formidable challenge maintaining temperature control whilst protecting the (4). ..from the 4-colonise (5)of the outside environment where they surely perish. These termites have 5-harsh 16

become so specialised in their method of (6)..that they must construct their 6-survive habitats with the same due (7)..as we would in placing a human being 7-diligent on another planet. Where we struggle to derive enough energy to thrive with our current technologies, termites have 8-construct evolved (8)..methods relying solely on the (9).. 9-utilise of renewable energy sources. To us, it is currently inconceivable that renewable energy resources alone can supply enough power for our race. So how successful is the race? Current (10).. .suggests there to be some 500km of termites for every human alive, which 10-estimate shows they must be doing sth right. UNIT 9 Brushstrokes and Blueprints 1)- Key word: PAY a-. pay attention to: listen to and watch someone or sth carefully. b-. pay tribute to: say sth good about someones work. c-. pay homage to: do sth to show your admiration for someone or sth. d-. pay someone back for: make someone suffer for doing sth wrong. e-. pay someone respect: be polite and considerate towards someone. f-. pay someone a compliment: say sth good about someones appearance or character. g-. pay my respects to: visit or send a polite greeting or wishes to someone. h-. pay the penalty: experience sth unpleasant because you have done sth wrong. i-. pay my way: pay for everything without depending on anyone else. j-. pay through the nose: pay more for sth than it is really worth. k-.pay out: distribute. l-. pay this check into: deposit. m-.put out on: set. n-. pay someone off: pay for the work he/she have done and then ask them to leave. Complete the sentences with a suitable phrase. a-. Its not like Alan to on my appearance! I wonder what he wants? b-.Shefor that dress, and it isnt even well made. c-. That was a horrible thing to do! Illyoufor that! d-. I must go and .to Mrs Smith, whose husband died last week. e-. In his speech, the managing director the innovative work. 2)-Key word transformation a-. I like going on holiday, but not the journey. WHAT I like going on holiday,..is the journey. b-.Paul didnt break the window, John did said Claire. IT According to..........................who broke the window. c-. She has so many commitments that I cant understand how she manages to stay calm. HOW With all her commitments, , is a mystery to me. d-. Susans music is bothering the neighbours, not me. BUT Its Susan is bothering with her nusic. e-. Even if it rains, we wont cancel the match. MAY Rain ..wont be cancelled. f-. Some children in class 3 painted pictures of the sea and won an award. WHOSE The children in class 3 won an award. g-. Wed thought Helen would be angry, and she was. AS 17

Helen..wed expected. h-. You just tell him you dont want to go when he arrives. ALL When he arrives, .you dont want to go. i-. In his speech, the college principal spoke highly of the third year science students who had won an award. PAID The college principal..the award-winning third year students in his speech. j-. Harry didnt write that poem, Peter did said Mandy. WAS According to.who wrote that poem. k-. Although she is clever, she is very arrogant. MAY Clevershes very arrogant. l-. I like all kinds of sweets, but my favourites are lemon sherbets. MOST Although I like all kind of sweets, are lemon sherbets. m-. If Mr Smith hadnt intervened, the boys would have seriously hurt each other. BUT The boys would have seriously hurt each other, intervention. n-. Ive never been so moved by an opera, and Ive been quite a few. BEFORE Ive seen many operas, butso moved by one. o-. The last time she spok to her grandfather was five years ago. SPOKEN She..for five years. UNIT 10 The good life 1)- Fixed phrases a-. alarm bells started to sound: sth that makes people feel worried or concerned about sth. b-.nitty gritty: the most basic or most important factor that you have to consider in a situation. c-. rock the boat: to cause problems for other members of a group by criticizing something or trying to change the way something is done : He kept his feelings to himself, not wanting to rock the boat. d-. stresses and strains: various problems and pressures that are a part of a situation. e-. take its toll on: to have a bad effect or cause a lot of suffering. f-.the bottom line: used to tell someone what the most important part of a situation is, or what the most important thing to consider is: In radio you have to keep the listener listening. That's the bottom line. g-. tough going: to get up and leave a place to go somewhere else. 2)-Key word: PULL a-. pull out of: to stop doing sth or being involved in it. b-. pull on/at: to take hold of sth and pull it several times. c-. pull off: to succeed in doing sth difficult. d-.pull down: to destroy sth, such as a building or to make someone less successful or happy. e-. pull over: to drive to the side of the road and stop. f-. pull away/out: to start to drive away from a place where you had stopped. g-. pull sth together: to improve sth by organizing it more effectively. h-.pull through: to stay alive or survive a difficult experience. i-.pull back: to get out of a bad situation or dangerous place. j-.pull apart: to carefully examine sth or someone, in order to criticize them/to separate sth into pieces. Complete the sentences with a suitable phrasal verb. a-. Armed forces werefrom the front, but kept in position in case there was an escalation of the conflict. b-. Its about time they..that old building-it was about to fall down anyway. c-. oh come on, Amanda -.yourself.and stop crying about this boy. d-. Everyone clapped when the trapeze artist managed toa triple backwards somersault in mid air. 18

e-. A leg injury forced the athlete to.the next race. f-. The police car flashed its sirens in order to tell the driver to..to the side of the road. g-. He was so ill we werent sure if he was going to ..or not. h-. James, why dont you.a chair and come and join us?. 3)- Fixed phrases: PULL a-. pull a face: change your expressions to make people laugh to show that you are angry, disappointed, etc. b-. pull a fast one on someone: c-. pull a muscle: injure a muscle. d-. pull yourself together: to force yourself to stop behaving in a nervous, frightened, or uncontrolled way, With an effort Mary pulled herself together. e-.pull strings: to secretly use your influence with important people in order to get what you want or to help someone else. Francis pulled strings to get him out of trouble. f-.pull out the stops: to do everything you possibly can to make something happen and succeed, The hospital staff pulled out all the stops to make sure the children had a wonderful day. g-. pull somebody's leg: to tell someone something that is not true, as a joke, I haven't won, have I? You're pulling my leg. h-pull your weight: to do your full share of work, He accused me of not pulling my weight. Complete the sentences with one o the phrases. a-. He didnt warm up properly before the race, so its not surprising he b-. If you want to win this match, youre going to have to c-. The little girl ..as soon as her teachers back was turned. d-. Kevin told me hed won the lottery, but I think he must have been again. e-. If you dont ..Annie, Im going to have to slap you ! f-. She only got the part in the play because her uncle was able towith the theatre manager. g-. If you dont start .around here, youll have to find somewhere else to live. h-. Jimmy is a bit of a prankster. He tried to..the new teacher by changing the signs on the staff toilet doors! 4)- GRAMMAR: reported and direct speech. Key word transformations. a- I had nothing to do with the robbery said Adrian. DENIED Adrianthe robbery. b- You are coming home for some lunch and I wont take no for an answer! Tom said to me. INSISTED Tom.home for lunch. c- Its going to snow next week, I can tell. William announced. PREDICTED William.that week. d- Im sorry for what I said yesterday, said Andrew. FOR Andrew..the day before. e- I really dont want you get a tattoo!, Mm said. OBJECTED Mum.tattoo. f- You really should try our local Thai restaurant- it has fantastic food, said Lewis. RECOMMENDED Lewis..their local Thai restaurant g- Please dont leave me!, said Mathew to Sarah. BEGGED Mathew..him. h- You do that one more time and m telling Mum, she said. THREATENED Sheif he did it again. i- If I were you, Id get that arm seen by a doctor Mike said to Jim. ADVICED Mike.by a doctor. 19

ADMITTED Annie..a snack before lunch. k- Come on Susan, I know youll pass the test if you take it, her mother said. ENCOURAGED Susans ..the test. l- Its your fault that we missed the bus! Sally said to Tony. BLAMED Sally..they had missed the bus. m- Id like you to bring me another beer-this one is warm! Mr Roberts told the waiter. COMPLAINED Mr Roberts.and asked the waiter to bring him another one. UNIT 11 Making ends meet 1)- Idiomatic phrases with OUT and MONEY a-. out of question: you cant complain about that decision/it is definitely not possible or not allowed. b-. out of the blue: unexpectedly. c-. out of our mind: crazy. d-. out of this world: amazing, extremely good, enjoyable. e-. be out of luck: to be prevented from getting or doing something by bad luck, The team were out of luck again at Scarborough on Saturday f-. out of order: when sth doesnt work. Verbs: a-. put out: extinguish. b-. hand out: deliver. c-. find out: investigate. d-. work out: try to know how much sth will cost. e-. sort out: classify. 2)- Key word: MONEY a-. Money talks you know: you get thing if you pay for them. b-. to give someone a good run for her money: not let someone to win easily. c-. pump money into sth: give money to a company or business to help it to become successful. d-. not be made of money: not be able to afford everything. e-. have money to burn: have enough money to be able to buy a lot of unnecessary things. f-. get your moneys worth: get sth that is worth the money you paid for it. g-. put your money on sth: bet money on the result of a race or a competition. h-. put your money where your mouth is: show by your actions that you really believe what you say. i-. money is no object: it doesnt matter how much you spend on sth. j-. raise money: to collect money for a specific purpose. k-. throw money: to spend money on sth or sb. l-. save money. Complete the sentences with a suitable phrase with money. a- The school is holding a sponsored walk round the town to.for charity. b- I cant afford to buy you a car, Im not .., you know! c- My father my graphic design company to help me get started. d- You can on clothes by recycling old outfits. e- Heres my credit card, so go and buy what you like. Honestly ! f- If you really believe that, why dont you .,and show me! g- Theyve just come back from a week in Paris, and now theyre off to Lisbon, so they must! h- Im sure if you give the waiter a good tip, hell get us the best tableyou know!

j- Its true- I did have a snack before lunch, Annie told her mum.

20

i- That restaurant was quite reasonable, and we really ..at the salad bar,
where we fill our plates for $2. j- James, dont ..at her, as it wont make her love you any more. 3)- Word Formation Just for the fun of it! A (1)..law student found a novel way to free himself from (2)..1-penny difficulty. Using his computer, he embarked on a number of (3)..actvs which 2-finance involved obtaining credit card and bank details from (4).websites. He then used 3-fraud them in (5)..to buy cars, clothes and cash to the grand sum of $250,000. 4-secure I felt like a bit of fun, he said, when questioned, and a pastime which developed into an easy way of 5-transact making money. He even sent one of his victims a bouquet of flowers, paid for by their stolen bank details! He admits he became too confident. I thought it would be impossible to get caught and just got 6-care carried away!. His (6)ways soon aroused the (7).of the 7-suspect fraud prevention service, eventually leading to his arrest. He was charged with (8). 8-conspire to defraud, and served a three and a half year prison sentence. The general view among (9).who specialize in studying the motivation of such 9-criminal fraudsters is that the apparent ease of fraud conducted via internet is encouraging people to commit crime, since they believe the risk of getting caught is negligible. However, one of them did get caught, and, needless to say, any (10)..law firm is hardly likely to imply a graduate 10-respect from the wrong side of the prison bars! 4)- Key word transformation a- I dont know why you bother going to that German class, since you never do your homework! WELL You never do your homework for German, sogive it up b- Sally decided then and there to go to France as a nanny for a year. BECOME I know! I..go too Franc for a year! said Sally. c- Why didnt you offer to pay for the damage to that womans car, since as the accident was your fault? OFFERED You for the damage to that womans car, since the accident. d-. Kathy doesnt like David so much, so shes not going to be easily persuaded to go to his party said John to himself. PERSUADE John realised that.Kathy to go to Davids party, as she didnt. e-. Those kids next door keeps playing basketball against my living room wall! STOP I wish those kids ..against my living room wall! UNIT 12 Behind the silver screen 1)- Key word transformation a- I think its terrible you didnt apologise to her for breaking that vase! MIGHT You ..breaking that vase! b- I demand to see the manager at once! said the angry customer. INSISTED The angry customer ..immediately. c- We went for a coffee because the train was delayed. BEEN The train, we went for a coffee. d- The managing director of the company was an old schoolmate of her fathers, so she got the job. STRINGS Maria got the job after her father.managing director of the company, with whom hed been at school. e- Wed thought Dale would cancel the dinner, but he didnt. AS 21

Dale.wed expected. f- Although she had no idea where she was going, she packed her bags and left. KNOWING She packed her bags and left, she was going. g- Although I dont particularly like my work, I do enjoy going on business trips. WHAT My job is nothing special, .going on business trips. h- My poor head! Someone please tell Nick to stop practicing on his drums! WOULD I wish.stop practicing on his drums! Ive got a headache. UNIT 13 Getting the message across 1)- Nouns followed by particles. Attempts at- the search for- monument to- the question of- alternative to- in dispute over- authority on- channel ofContact with- communication with- access to- communication betweenComplete the sentences with the correct particle: for, to, of, over, with. 1- I have a terrible fearheights. 2- We need to find a solution.this problem quickly! 3- Access..the building is situated down that alleyway round the corner. 4- Isnt there any alternative.having an operation, doctor? 5- The fire officer was given an award in recognition..his services to the community. 6- The writers are working in collaborationscientists in order to produce a comprehensive book on space exploration. 7- She was on the verge.tears, so I asked her what was wrong. 8- The city council and refuse collectors are in dispute .wages again. 2)- Key word: SET a-. set in her ways: be settled in certain habits and find it difficult to change. b-. set against: to not approve of. c-. set to: due to d-. set menu: a fixed choice of food. e-.set on: is determined to. f-. set about: start doing sth which takes time and effort. g-. set someone against someone: cause someone to start a fight with someone else. h-.set apart: make someone look different or special compared to others. i-. set aside: keep sth such as money for a particular purpose. j-. set back: delay the development of sth. k-. set down: write sth down in order to keep a record of it. l-. set in: start and seem likely to continue for a long time. m-. set off: make an alarm start ringing. n-. set out: begin with the intention of doing sth specific. o-. set up: start a business. 3)- Key word transformation. a- There is a lot of disagreement among politicians about government spending on space travel. DISPUTE Politicians are.government spending on space travel. b- A teacher is responsible for providing her students with knowledge and ideas. IMPART It is the job of a teacher to..her students. c- An impression of what life was like thousands of years ago can be gained from the cave paintings. CONVEY The cave paintings..what life was like thousands years ago. 22

d- Dont bother trying to stop Stephen- hes determined to go. SET efghStephen., so dont bother trying to stop him. Scientific information is available to the genral public via the university website. ACCESS The university website allowsscientific info. Last night I saw a terrible car accident as I was walking home from work. WITNESS As I was walking home from work last night, a car accident. Darren used examples of local businesses to illustrate his idea. CLARIFIED Darrenputting forward examples from local businesses. Just as we were leaving to go on holiday, mu boss called me to say there was an emergency meeting! SET We..holiday, when my boss called me to an emergency meeting.

UNIT 14 Gaias legacy 1)- Idioms for nature: a-. someone has just come up in the world: they have more money and a better social position that they had before. b-. sth or sbs are world apart: thay are very different. c-. to be in deep water: to be potentially in a lot of trouble. d-. to get bogged down in sth: prevented from making progress or getting a job done. e-. the tip of the iceberg: we see a very small part of a much larger problem. f-. to not be yet out of the woods: to still have difficulties or problems. g-. to get wind of sth: to hear sth that you werent supposed to hear about. h-. to clear the air: need to resolve a problem or disagreement with someone. Complete the sentences with the following idioms: clear the air- bogged down in- get wind of-in deep water- tip of the iceberg- out of the woods. a- Jillian thought shes avoided her fathers anger, but when he called her into her study she knew he wasnt .yet. b- The children tried to keep my birthday party a secret, but things as being as they are, I managed to..it. c- I told Sarah we really needed to get together and talk if we wanted to d- I told Bill hes find himselfif he didnt do what his parents had told. e- Claude has been in his room for hours-hes always.in his physics book f- We think weve seen the effects of climate change already- but thats just the. 2)- Adjectives followed by particles: ashamed of- serious about- obsessed with- good at- immune to- distressed by- eligible for- deficient in- keen on3)- Key word: WORLD a-. make the best of both worlds: to be caught between 2 contradictory situations. b-. all the time in the world: not be in a hurry or under any pressure. c-. dead to the world: to be fast asleep. d-. dont have a care in the world: to be free from pressures, worry or strife. e-. have the world at ones feet: to have lots of power and can do anything one wants. f-. out of this world: to have an amazing experience to tell. g-. think the world of someone: to think that a person is wonderful and you respect them greatly. *Earth: a-. come back to earth: face reality again after a period of great excitement. 23

b-. down-to-earth person: someone who is practical minded. c-. cost the earth or paid the earth: when sth is very expensive. d-. hell on earth: a very bad or unpleasant experience. 4)-GRAMMAR: unreal past. Key word transformation a-. why dont you turn off the TV and got some fresh air! HIGH Its the TV and got some fresh air. b-. Instead of colonizing another planet I think we should try to save this one. RATHER I..this planet than colonise another one. c-. Its a pity I was so careless and ignorant in my youth. WISH I.careless and ignorant in my youth. d-. It will be amazing if you see a blue whale! IF Imagine .a blue whale! e-. The Colorado River dolphin become extinct because the river was so polluted. BEEN If the river, the Colorado dolphin wouldnt have become extinct f-. It would be better if we could go to an organic health food shop than a supermarket. SOONER Id.....an organic health food shop than a supermarket. g-. Id like to join an environmental group but Im going to change career. WOULD If.an environmental group. h-. Miriam doesnt know everything but she sometimes behaves like she does. IF Sometimes Miriam behaves ..she doesnt. i-. I think you should stop wasting your life! TIME It..your life. j-. Its a pity you couldnt come to my opening night. WISH Ito my opening night. k-. He behaves like he is my father. THOUGHT He acts.my father!!!!!! l-. You should take some sun protection cream with you. BETTER You..sun protection cream with you. m-. Id love to know how Sarah is doing at school. KNEW I..doing at college. n-. It would be better if you call me first. SOONER I.first. o-. I regret not going sky-diving when I had the chance. ONLY If.when I had the chance. p-. Id prefer you to help in the kitchen. RATHER I.in the kitchen. 5)- Word formation Biodiversity and humanitys place in it. It is estimated that approximately 1.4 million species of organisms have been discovered, yet the total number alive on Earth is unknown. Some experts estimate that there are somewhere between 10 and 100 million species, although no one can say with (1)..which of these 1- confident figures is closer. Fewer than one in ten of all the species that have been given (2). names have been closely studied. 2science We have to (3)our goals in studying species because, unlike the 3-broad rest of science, the study of biodiversity has a time limit. Species are disappearing at an accelerating rate as a consequence of human actvs, primarily the (4)of natural 4-destroy 24

habitats but also ever-increasing pollution and contamination of pristine environments by introduced species. 20 % or more of the species of plants and animals could vanish or be doomed to early (5)by the year 2020 unless we do sth drastic to save them. The loss of 5-extinct many species mean that new sources of scientific info and incalculable potential (6). 6-biology wealth will be destroyed. We should also be aware of the dangers of overlooking the services that ecosystems provide humanity. Human beings coevolved with the rest of life on earth. It would be (7).to suppose that we can continue to diminish biodiversity 7-mad (8)..without threatening our own existence. 8-define One of the reasons why humans have failed (9)..to save life on earth is because 9-intellect We prefer to be ignorant of our common origins with the rest of life. We therefore have a misplaced sense of (10).over the other species on earth. But human beings are a part 10-superior of nature, a species that evolved among other species. The more closely we (11).. 11-identity the more quickly we will be able to acquire the (12)on which to build a 12-know new direction for the earth as a whole. PLANET EARTH Planet earth is an award-winning nature documentary series narrated by David A. The first episode illustrates a journey around the globe and reveals the effect of gradual climatic change and (1)..transitions en route. During Antarcticas winter, emperor penguins endure four 1-season months of darkness, with no food, in temperatures of-70C. Meanwhile, as spring arrives in the Artic, polar bears cubs take their first steps into a world of (2).thawing ice. In northern 2-rapid Canada, the longest overland (3)..of any animal-over 2,000miles-is that of three 3-migrate million caribou, which are hunted by wolves. The forests of eastern Russia are home to the Amur leopard: with a population of just 40 individuals, it is now the worlds rarest cat. This is (4) ..4-primary because of the destruction of its habitat, and David states that it symbolizes the (5) 5-fragile of our natural heritage. However, in the tropics, the jungle that covers 3% of the planets surface supports 50% of its animals. The second installment focuses on the mountains. All the main ranges are explored with(6) 6-extend aerial photography. Ethiopias ERTA ALE is the longest (7).erupting volcano- 7- continue for over 100 years. On the nearby highlands, geladas inhabit precipitous slopes nearly three miles up, in troops that are 800-strong: the most (8)..of their kind. Alongside them live 8-numerate the critically (9).walia ibex, and both species take turns to act as lookout for 9-danger (10)..Ethiopian wolves. 10-predator UNIT 15 Our global heritage 1)- Phrases with PASS a-. let it pass: dont do anything about sth that someone had made you. b-. to pass with flying colours: to pass with honour, the best things. c-. to pass my lips: sth that will never someone will say. d-. to pass the buck: to say that it was the fault of somebody else when it was really yours. 2)-Phrasal verbs: PASS a-. pass off: misrepresent sth or someone. b-. pass down: leave or give sth to the next generation. c-. pass by: go near to a place. d-. pass out: lose consciousness. e-. pass up: fail to take sth (especially an opportunity). f-.pass on: communicate sth. g-. pass over: fail to choose someone.

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Complete with the correct particle to complete the phrasal verbs. a- Arnolds been passed..for promotion again-its no wonder hes upset. b- Could you pass the message ..to Roger when you see him? c- Do you really think I would pass .the chance of a free holiday to Florida? d- She tried to pass himas her brother but I know she doesnt have a brother. e- Unfortunately, his father passed..last week after a long battle with cancer. f- His skin is so dark that he could easily pass ..an Italian. g- Emily passedat the sight of the cut on my finger. h- If you passthe supermarket on your way home, could you get some milk? Key word transformation a- No sooner had the plane stopped than everyone started to get up. WHEN Hardlyeveryone started to get up. b- I got wet because I forgot to take an umbrella with me. CONSEQUENTLY I forgot to take an umbrella with mewet. c- To ensure hed get the job, John researched the background of the company. ORDER John researched the background of the company ..sure hed get the job. d- Its such a wonderful afternoon, so why dont we go out? SEEING Lets go out.a wonderful afternoon! e- I was the only person with any money, so I paid for everyone. BEING I paid for everyone with any money. f- If you dont put that back I will tell Mum you take it. OTHERWISE Put the back..Mum you took it. g- Even though he hated thrillers he decided to go to see the film. SPITE He decided to go to see the film he hated thrillers. h- I wanted to get fit, so I took up cycling. WHY The..cycling was because I wanted to get fit. UNIT 16 Endings-and new beginnings a-.break off: b-.call off: c-. give up: d-. hand over: e-. lay off: f-. nail down: g-. pull out: h-. push off: i-. put out: j-. round off: k-. wind up: l-. wrap up:

Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verbs. a- Our company .production of this model last year. b- The two parties agreed to..the dispute out of court. c- After battling with the flames for three hours, the firemen managed to..the fire. 26

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The chairmanhis speech by thanking the sales team for all their hard work over the last. As a result of your failure to submit the work on time, we have decided toyour contact. Juanita has just .a four year course in English, passing the FCE with a B. The architects are..plans for the new shopping mall to be built on the outskirts of town. Have you..writing that letter to the principal yet? The coast guard had to.the rescue operation due to high winds. The Prime minister has asked both sides tofire for a while, so that peace talks may begin.

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