Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

Section A

1. (a)

Classification according to one physical property:

Substances with colour: nitrogen dioxide and iron(III) oxide

Substances without colour (white): ammonia, carbon dioxide, magnesium oxide and potassium oxide

(b)

Classification according to one chemical property:

Acidic substances: carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide

Basic substances: ammonia, magnesium oxide, iron(III) oxide and potassium oxide

2. (a)

Relative atomic mass means the average isotopic mass of the natural isotopes of an element on the 12C (=12.000) scale.

(b)

(i)

Potassium (Y) should be stored under paraffin oil because potassium is a reactive metal and reacts readily with oxygen in air.

(ii)

Argon (X) is used to fill a light bulb because argon is chemically inert and will not react with the hot tungsten filament.

(iii)
2000-CE-CHEM I-1

Sulphur (W) forms an oxide which dissolves in water to give a solution

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

with pH less than 7. Sulphur can form sulphur dioxide which, when dissolved in water, give H2SO3 acidic solution.

3. (a)

Copper is used to make electrical wiring because copper has high electrical conductivity.

(b)

Aluminium is used to make ove3rhead high voltage cables because it has low density.

(c)

Bronze is used to make ship propellers because it has high corrosion resistance.

4.

In order to determine the percentage by mass of copper powder in the sample, sulphuric acid can be added to dissolve the copper (II) oxide so that the mass of copper powder can be obtained for calculation. The procedures are as follows:

Firstly, excess dilute sulphuric acid (hydrochloric acid) is added to the sample in a beaker. The copper powder in the sample does not react while the copper (II) oxide will be dissolved to give a bluish green solution. The equation for the reaction is as follows: CuO(s) + H2SO4(aq) CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l)

Then, upon filtration, the copper powder in the sample is left on the filter paper.

2000-CE-CHEM I-2

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

Finally, the powder is washed with water and allowed to dry. The mass of copper powder is weighted. The percentage by mass of copper powder can be calculated by the following formula:

Percentage by mass of copper powder in the sample = mass of copper powder x100% mass of the sample

5.

There are many kinds of food preservatives; the followings show some of the examples. (any three of the followings)

Acids can provide an unfavorable medium for the growth of bacteria (or micro-organisms). One of the examples is the pickling of onions (or cucumbers).

Adding toxic preservatives is also a kind of food preservation which can kill micro-organism (or bacteria). Using benzoic acid (or sodium benzoate) in oyster sauce (fruit juice) (or sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate in beacon) is an example of this kind of preservation.

Salting (or sugaring) can remove water from food. One of the examples is keeping fruits in thick syrup (or keeping fish or meat with salt).

Anti-oxidant can prevent food from being oxidized by air. The use of sulphur dioxide in wine (or the use of BHT (or BHA or vitamin E) in

2000-CE-CHEM I-3

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

cooking oil) is one of the examples.

Section B

1. (a)

(i)

(1)

The chemical equation: 2ZnS + 3 O2 2ZnO + 2SO2

(2)

The gaseous product can be used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid.

(ii)

Zinc oxide can be converted to zinc sulphate solution by dissolving zinc oxide in sulphuric acid.

(iii)

(1)

Zinc is added to displace ions of less reactive metals from the zinc sulphate solution.

(2)

Zinc ions will be preferentially discharged and ions of more reactive metals will remain in the solution.

(3)

At anode: 4OH

2H2O + O2 2 e Zn

4e

At cathode: Zn2+ +

(iv)

Zinc can be used to make electrodes in zinc-carbon cells.

(b)

(i)

(1)

Chlorine is added to the river water to kill the micro-organisms.

2000-CE-CHEM I-4

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

(2)

Calcium hydroxide is added to the river water to react with acidic substances in fresh water.

Cl
(ii) (1) The structure of trichloromethane:

C Cl

Cl

(2)

Trichloromethane is suspected to be a carcinogen so it is harmful to human beings.

(3)

The amount of organic matter in the river water can be reduced by restricting the emission of organic wastes into the river through legislation.

(c)

(i)

Incomplete combustion of coal produces carbon monoxide which combines with haemoglobin in blood and interferes the transportation of oxygen. So the person gets dizzy soon.

(ii)

Detergents have a hydrocarbon tail which is hydrophobic (oil attracting) and an ionic head which is hydrophilic (water attracting). The oil can easily be broken up into tiny droplets. Hence, detergents can be used to clean up oil spillage in the sea.

7. (a)

(i)

Weak acid is an acid which undergoes partial ionization in water.

(ii)
HO
2000-CE-CHEM I-5

CH2CO2H C CO2H +

CH2CO2Na

3 NaOH HO

CO2Na +

3 H2O

CH2CO2H

CH2CO2Na

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

(iii)

(1)

Number of moles of NaOH used= 0.30

10.0 = 0.003mol 1000

Molarity of citric acid in orange juice = 0.0033=0.001 mol

Concentration of citric acid in orange juice =

0.001 = 0.04moldm 3 25 1000

= 0.04192gdm-3

= 7.68gdm-3

(2)

One assumption in the calculation is that citric acid is the only substance in orange juice, which reacts with sodium hydroxide.

(3)

Use the pipette to transfer 25.0 3 of the 1.20M NaOH to the100.0 3 volumetric flask. Then add distilled water to the volumetric flask until the graduation mark is reached.

(b)

(i)

The diagram of the set-up used for heating the mixture under reflux:

2000-CE-CHEM I-6

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

water out

water out

Mixture of kerosene and styrene

Heat

(ii)

Anti-bumping granules can be added to prevent bumping.

(iii)

(1)

Styrene has carbon-carbon double bond which enables it to act as a monomer.

(2)

(iv)

(1)

Polystyrene is expanded to improve the heat insulating properties of the lunch boxes.

(2)

Landfilling is better than incineration for the disposal of polystyrene wastes because landfilling causes less air pollution problems.

2000-CE-CHEM I-7

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

8. (a)

(i)

The principle underlying the fractional distillation of crude oil: Vapour of alkanes with low relative molecular mass, which have lower boiling points, condenses at lower temperatures.

(ii)

(1)

Petrol is mainly used as fuel for motor cars. The rapid growth in the number of motor cars makes the demand for petrol much greater than that for kerosene.

(2)

Catalytic cracking: Heating kerosene in the presence of a catalyst (zeolite) in the absence of air at a much lower pressure.

(iii)

(1)

Using naphtha instead of coal to manufacture town gas produces less air pollutants.

(2)

An additive with a foul smell is added to town gas to alert consumers of the leakage of town gas which contains carbon monoxide which is toxic.

(iv)

Fraction X is used as lubricating oil in cars.

(b)

(i)

Burning gasohol produces a smaller amount of carbon monoxide, thus causes less air pollution than burning petrol.

(ii)

Ethanol can be manufactured by catalytic hydration of ethene. Chemical equation for the reaction: CH2=CH2 + H2O CH3CH2OH

2000-CE-CHEM I-8

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

(iii)

Ethanol can also be manufactured by fermentation of carbohydrates from agricultural materials.

(iv)

Fermentation is better for the manufacture of ethanol in gasohol because petroleum is a non-renewable energy source.

(c)

(i)

False. The high melting point of sodium chloride is due to the strong electrostatic attraction between ions. The low melting point of methane is not due to the existence of covalent bonding between C and H atoms but due to the weak van der Waals forces between the molecules.

(ii)

False. Dilution of concentrated sulphuric acid is a highly exothermic process. The heat evolved may cause the acid to splash out.

9. (a)

(i)

Reactivity: Y < Z < X Y is the least reactive because only the oxide of Y decomposes on heating. X is the most reactive because only X can react with water.

(ii)

No. of moles of O2 produced = Chemical equation:

60 = 0.0025mol 24000 O2

2 YO 2 Y +

According to the equation, no. of moles of YO = 0.00252 = 0.0050 Hence, formula mass of YO = 1.08 = 216 0.005

Relative atomic mass of Y =21616 = 200

2000-CE-CHEM I-9

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

(b)

(i)

Carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels.

(ii)

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can be consumed through photosynthesis.

(iii)

(1)

Carbon dioxide can cause the greenhouse effect because it absorbs (infra-red) radiation re-radiated from the earth surface and traps the energy.

(2)

The greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are important to the living things because the atmosphere can be maintained in a temperature range suitable for plant and animal growth.

(3)

Global warming can cause the melting of ice in the polar caps which may cause flooding of the low-lying areas.

(c)

(i)

(ii)

During lightning, nitrogen combines with oxygen to give nitrogen dioxide. Nitrogen dioxide dissolves in rain water to give nitrates.

(iii)

When animals die, the animal proteins decay to give soluble nitrogen

2000-CE-CHEM I-10

HKCEE Paper I running answer text 2000 Chemistry

compounds.

(d)

Agree. The application of fertilizers can increase crop yield and reduce the chance of famine.

2000-CE-CHEM I-11