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GERMAN AIRPORT

GERMAN AVIATION

PERFORMANCE

BENCHMARKING

Internet: www.gap-projekt.de Contact: info@gap-projekt.de

Benchmarking Airport Terminals: A Simplified Toolkit for Estimating Peak Capacity

partner/sponsor:

Dipl. Wirt.-Ing. Branko Bubalo GAP Research Project


branko.bubalo@googlemail.com

German Aviation Research Society Workshop (G.A.R.S.) at HWR 2010 Berlin, November 26th 2010
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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Personal Background
Graduate in Business Administration and Engineering from Berlin School of Economics and Law and University of Applied Sciences Berlin Diploma Thesis (2009): Benchmarking Airport Productivity and the Role of Capacity Utilization A Study of selected European Airports 4th year in German Airport Performance Research Project at Berlin School of Economics and Law Conducted Benchmarking studies of European Airports and Airlines (over 70 Airports, 30 individual Airlines) Consultation work in MIME Project (study on noise mitigation around airports by the means of permit trading), funded by EU Commission Looking for a University for writing my Dissertation and doing Research

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Contents 1. The Airport Process Chain


2. Difficulties with Airport Terminal Benchmarking

3. Methods for Measuring Terminal Processes


4. New Approach to Terminal Benchmarking through the use of IATA Formulae and Airport Schedule Scanner 5. Preliminary Results

6. Outlook

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

The Airport Process Chain


Strong interrelations between Airport Processes A combination of Queues and Servers Certain capacity limitations exist Capacity Bottlenecks influence Passenger flows up- and downstream Each flow and therefore airport client has different infrastructure requirements

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Difficulties with Airport Terminal Benchmarking


Passenger and baggage flows in the airport facilities show highly dynamic behaviour Benchmarking of terminals has not been adequately included in past research Particularly difficult to divide different flows of PAX inside the terminal from available data
Arriving PAX/hr = Terminating PAX/hr + Direct Transit PAX/hr + Transfer PAX/hr Departing PAX/hr = Originating PAX/hr + Direct Transit PAX/hr + Transfer PAX/hr
GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo Page 5

GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Methods for Measuring Terminal Processes


Methods: (Particle) Passenger Flow Simulation Handbooks (e.g. FAA AC 150/5360-13 or IATA Airport Development Reference Manual 1995 & 2004) Books and Papers (e.g. by Kanafani, de Neufville, Horonjeff, Odoni, de Barros) Spreadsheet models (e.g. by TRB ACRP 2010)

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Methods for Measuring Terminal Processes


Check-In Economy Check-In Business class Passport Control Inbound Passport Control Outbound Baggage Claim

Level of Service and Maximum Waiting Time Guidelines ( in Minutes)

An Excellent level of service. Conditions of free flow, no delays and excellent levels of comfort.
High level of service. Conditions of stable flow, very few delays and high levels of comfort. Good level of service. Conditions of stable flow, acceptable delays and good levels of comfort. Adequate level of service. Conditions of unstable flow, acceptable delays for short periods of time and adequate levels of comfort. Inadequate level of service. Conditions of unstable flow, unacceptable delays and inadequate levels of comfort. Unacceptable level of service. Conditions of cross-flows, system breakdowns and unacceptable delays; an unacceptable level of comfort.

B
C

0-12

0-3

0-7

0-5

0-12

0-3

12-30

3-5

7-15

5-10

12-18

3-7

Levels of Service Framework and Maximum Waiting Times (IATA 2004) GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo Page 7

Security

GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Methods for Measuring Terminal Processes

Source: Kanafani 1981; Bubalo 2009 GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo Page 8

GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Methods for Measuring Terminal Processes


Conversion coefficients for estimating the number of DPH PAX from annual number
0.130% 0.125% 0.120% 0.115% 0.110% 0.105% 0.100% 0.095% 0.090% 0.085% 0.080% 0.075% 0.070% 0.065% 0.060% 0.055% 0.050% 0.045% 0.040% 0.035% 0.030% 0.025% 0.020% 0.015% 0.010% 0.005% 0.000% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Total annual PAX (2007) Design Hour Factor x=HP/AP

DPH PAX as a percentage of Total annual PAX

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Methods for Measuring Terminal Processes


Airport AMS ARN ATH BCN BHX BRU BSL CDG CGN CIA DRS DUB DUS EDI FMO FRA GLA GRZ HAJ HAM HEL HHN IST LBA LCY LEJ MIN MCT 00:40 00:15 00:55 00:45 00:45 00:40 00:30 01:30 00:30 01:00 01:00 00:45 00:35 01:00 00:20 00:45 00:45 00:30 00:30 00:35 00:40 01:00 01:30 01:00 00:30 01:00 MAX MCT 01:20 01:00 00:55 00:45 00:45 00:50 00:30 02:00 00:30 01:00 01:00 00:45 00:35 01:00 00:20 00:45 00:45 00:30 00:30 00:35 00:40 01:00 01:30 01:00 00:30 01:00 Airport LGW LHR LIS LYS MAD MAN MUC MXP NCE NUE OSL PMI PRG PSA RHO RTM SCN STN STR SXF SZG TXL VIE WAW WRO ZAG ZRH MIN MCT 00:45 00:45 01:00 00:45 00:45 00:45 00:30 00:50 00:30 00:30 00:50 00:45 00:45 00:45 01:00 00:20 01:00 00:45 00:30 01:00 00:30 00:30 00:30 01:00 00:40 00:40 00:40 MAX MCT 01:15 02:00 01:00 00:45 02:45 00:50 00:45 02:00 01:00 00:30 00:50 00:45 00:55 00:45 01:00 01:00 01:00 00:45 00:30 01:00 00:30 00:45 00:30 01:00 00:40 01:00 00:40

Source: Amadeus GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo Page 10

GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Methods for Measuring Terminal Processes


Typical Arrival Distribution of Originating PAX 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 Time before Scheduled Departure in minutes

Cumulative percentage of PAX

% of PAX

Source: Horonjeff 2010 GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo Page 11

GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

A New Approach to Terminal Benchmarking


Spreadsheet model approach, based on IATA formulae from ADRM 1995 Basically a reprogramming of IATA CAPASS Software
Passport-Control Departure Desks & Area Gate Hold area Passport-Control Arrival Desks & Area Departure Lounge

Security Check

Check-in Area & Desks Departure Arrival Concourse

Baggage Claim Area & Devices

Customs Positions & Area Departure Curb Arrival Curb

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

A New Approach to Terminal Benchmarking


Data sources: Flightstats -> Airport Schedule OAG -> De-/Coding Tables Eurostat -> Shares Int/Dom Passengers IATA Airport Capacity/Demand Profiles 2003 -> Declared Terminal Capacities National Slot Coordination -> Declared Runway CAPs Airport Websites -> missing or more recent information

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

A New Approach to Terminal Benchmarking


Software-Tool Overview:

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

A New Approach to Terminal Benchmarking


Inputs:
o o o o o o o o Peak hour total passengers Peak hour number of originating passengers Peak hour number of departing passengers Peak hour number of terminating passengers Share of Direct Transit passengers (checked airside) Direct Transit passengers (checked airside) Proportion of transfer passengers not checked airside during peak hour Peak hour number of transfer passengers not checked airside Peak hour number of terminating and international/domestic transfer passengers (arriving passengers) Proportion of long-haul departing passengers during peak hour Proportion of short-haul departing passengers during peak hour Proportion of terminating passengers arriving by wide-body aircraft during peak hour Proportion of terminating passengers arriving by narrow-body aircraft during peak hour Time of arrival of first passenger at gate hold rooms (minutes before standard time of departure of largest aircraft handled at the gate)
GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

o Time last passenger should board (minutes before standard time of departure) o Number of visitors per originating passengers o Number of visitors per terminating passengers o Number of passengers per wide-body aircraft at 80% load factor o Number of passengers per narrow-body aircraft at 80% load factor o Maximum Number of Seats on largest aircraft handled at gate o Maximum Number of Seats on largest aircraft handled at airport

o o

o
o o

o Average occupancy time of departure lounge per departing long-haul passenger o Average occupancy time of departure lounge per departing short-haul passenger o Proportion of Passengers to be customs checked o Average processing time per passenger at check-in desk o Average processing time per passenger at Passport Control - Departure o Average processing time per passenger at Passport Control - Arrival o Average processing time per passenger at Customs Arrival
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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

A New Approach to Terminal Benchmarking


Outputs:
Formula 1.6.5.1 1.6.5.2 1.6.5.3 1.6.5.4 1.6.5.5 1.6.5.6 1.6.5.7 1.6.5.8 1.6.5.9 1.6.5.10 1.6.5.11 1.6.5.12 1.6.5.13 1.6.5.14 Process DEPARTURES CURB DEPARTURES CONCOURSE QUEUING AREA - CHECK-IN CHECK-IN DESKS (Centralized, Common Check-In) PASSPORT CONTROL - DEPARTURE SECURITY CHECK - CENTRALIZED DEPARTURE LOUNGE (excluding Concessions except BAR/SNACK FACILITIES) SECURITY CHECK - GATE HOLD ROOM GATE HOLD ROOMS ARRIVALS HEALTH CHECK (where required) QUEUING AREA - PASSPORT CONTROL - ARRIVAL PASSPORT CONTROL - ARRIVAL BAGGAGE CLAIM AREA (excluding claim devices) NUMBER OF BAGGAGE CLAIM DEVICES Variable Curb length required Area required Area required Number of required check-in desks Number of required passport positions X-ray Units required Area required X-Ray Units Required Area required Control Positions Required Area required Control Positions Required Area required Claim devices required for Wide-body aircraft Claim devices required for Narrow-body aircraft Required Claim Length Wide-body Required Claim Length Narrow-body Area required Number of Customs positions required Area required Curb length required Seats required
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1.6.5.15 1.6.5.16 1.6.5.17 1.6.5.18 1.6.5.19

QUEUING AREA - ARRIVALS CUSTOMS ARRIVALS CUSTOMS ARRIVALS CONCOURSE WAITING AREA (excluding Concessions) ARRIVALS CURB RESTAURANT SEATING CAPACITY TO MEET IRREGULARITIES
GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Preliminary Results from the Formulae


Flightschedule Date Airport Terminal Size Peak hour Departing PAX Peak hour Arriving PAX Peak hour Transfer PAX Total Peak hour PAX Peak Hour DEPARTURES CURB DEPARTURES CONCOURSE QUEUING AREA - CHECK-IN CHECK-IN DESKS (Centralized, Common Check-In) PASSPORT CONTROL - DEPARTURE SECURITY CHECK - CENTRALIZED DEPARTURE LOUNGE (excluding Concessions except BAR/SNACK FACILITIES) SECURITY CHECK - GATE HOLD ROOM GATE HOLD ROOMS ARRIVALS HEALTH CHECK (where required) QUEUING AREA - PASSPORT CONTROL - ARRIVAL PASSPORT CONTROL - ARRIVAL BAGGAGE CLAIM AREA (excluding claim devices) NUMBER OF BAGGAGE CLAIM DEVICES QUEUING AREA - ARRIVALS CUSTOMS ARRIVALS CUSTOMS ARRIVALS CONCOURSE WAITING AREA (excluding Concessions) ARRIVALS CURB RESTAURANT SEATING CAPACITY TO MEET IRREGULARITIES Units Capacity available Capacity reached m2 CAP DEM ACDP 20102003 07-01 LCY 7000 1000 2400 0 3400 LCY 5140 876 872 0 1739 18 64 1807 241 32 5 3 CAP ACDP 2003 LGW 5400 5500 12000 DEM 201007-01 LGW 21092 3872 2664 387 6082 06 256 7506 1065 142 21 13 CAP ACDP 2003 FRA 745000 10500 9000 14000 DEM 201007-01 FRA 42406 6935 6682 2081 11921 14 357 11729 1907 254 38 23 CAP ACDP 2003 VIE 54800 3000 3100 1200 4400 DEM 201007-01 VIE 24613 4100 4092 820 5638 10 241 7441 1127 150 23 14 CAP ACDP 2003 DUS 231000 DEM 201007-01 DUS 19660 3094 3912 391 5820 06 199 5885 849 113 17 10 CAP ACDP 2003 HAM 16000 3500 3500 DEM 201007-01 HAM 13876 2653 2158 432 4126 06 163 4925 728 97 15 9

meters m2 m2 Desks Positions Units 26 2

327 N.A. 15

378 58 80

84 15 32

162 38 26

43 5 9

m2 units m2 positions m2 positions m2 WB NB devices devices m2 positions m2 meters seats 6

1007 1 115 3 216 8 863 0 4 27 5 863 55 127 6 5 7

5962 1 291 3 754 28 2637 3 4 84 15 2793 168 478 9 12 22

11905 2 435 3 2161 80 6615 6 9 209 37 7444 420 478 3 1 6

5917 2 353 3 1214 45 4051 1 10 128 23 4381 258 388 Not available 8 12

3989 1 333 3 967 36 3873 3 7 123 22 3641 222 366 2 4 6

3271 1 333 3 533 20 2136 0 6 68 12 1882 109 366

27

80

20

28

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Preliminary Graphical Results from the Software


Cum ulative Operations and Delays

Demand Diagram for ATM Distribution and hourly average delay per ATM

500 450

43:12

70

0:17
400

38:24

Maximum Technical Hourly Capacity (IFR/VFR) Maximum Declared Capacity/Slots

59 48 238 236 474 237 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 99.58%

33:36
Cumulative Delay time (hh:mm)

60

0:14

350

Avg. Delays per Scheduled Flight in min

Cumulative Operations

28:48 300 24:00 250 19:12 200 14:24 150 100 50 0


01 03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23

Daily Scheduled Arrivals Daily Scheduled Departures Total Daily Scheduled Flights Daily Actual Arrivals

50 0:11

Ops per hour

40 0:08 30 0:05 20 0:02

Daily Actual Departures


Total Daily Actual Flights Cancellations Delayed Arrivals

235
472 2 41

99.58%
99.58% 0.42% 17.23%

9:36

4:48

10

0:00

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Time of Day
Average Delays in Minutes per Scheduled Flight Scheduled Departures HAM 2010-07-01 Total Delayed Flights >15 Min Actual Departures HAM 2010-07-01 Maxim um Declared Runw ay Capacity Scheduled Arrivals HAM 2010-07-01 Total Scheduled Flights Actual Arrivals HAM 2010-07-01 Total Actual Flights Maxim um IFR Capacity

0:00
Cum ulative Cum ulative Cum ulative Cum ulative Cum ulative Cum ulative Cum ulative Cum ulative Cum ulative

Tim e of Day Declared Arrival Delays >15 Min Declared Departure Delays >15 Min Total Declared Delays >15 Min Scheduled Arrivals HAM 2010-07-01 Scheduled Departures HAM 2010-07-01 Total Scheduled Flights Actual Arrivals HAM 2010-07-01 Actual Departures HAM 2010-07-01 Total Actual Flights

Delayed Departures
Delayed Total Flights Daily Arrival Delays (hh:mm:ss) Daily Departure Delay (hh:mm:ss) Daily Total Delay (hh:mm:ss) Average Delay per Delayed Arrival Average Delay per Delayed Departure Average Delay per Delayed Flight

26
67 22:26:00 17:04:00 39:30:00

11.02%
14.14% 56.79% 43.21% 100.00%

0:32:50in min 0:39:23in min 0:35:22in min 0:05:39in min 0:04:20in min 0:05:00in min 23Ops/hr 4.85% 133 2607 0% 100% 0% 100%

Passenger Distribution
4500 4000 3500
PAX per hour
Departures
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0

C ap aci t y Envel o p e p er Ho ur

Average Delay per Scheduled Arrival Average Delay per Scheduled Departure Average Delay per Scheduled Flight Peak Hour Flights

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23


Time of Day

Total PAX Terminating Originating

Peak Hour to Daily Scheduled Flights Ratio Peak Hour Seats per Aircraft Peak Hour PAX (SLF 85%) % Light Class Aircraft
10 Arrivals Scheduled Flights Actual flights 20 30

% Medium Class Aircraft % Heavy Class Aircraft Mix Index

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Outlook and further Refinement


Obtaining detailed floor plans Passenger flow simulation for locating terminal bottlenecks (e.g. wrong arrangement of facilities & servers) Runs regarding sensitivity to varying seat load factor Runs regarding sensitivity to different schedules Runs regarding sensitivity to different levels-of-service Runs regarding sensitivity to different transfer rates

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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GERMAN AIRPORT PERFORMANCE

GERMAN AVIATION BENCHMARKING

Thank you for your attention! Questions?


Suggestions and Comments are welcome. branko.bubalo@googlemail.com www.gap-projekt.de

GARS Benchmarking Workshop Berlin 26.11.2010 Branko Bubalo

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