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Summary of Papers

1.P.SauerandM.Pai,PowerSystemSteadyStateStabilityandtheLoadFlowJacobian,IEEE TransactionsonPowerSystems,Vol.5,No.4,Nov.1990 2.V.AjjarapuandC.Christy,TheContinuationPowerFlow:AToolforSteadyStateVoltage StabilityAnalysis,IEEETransactionsonPowerSystems,Vol.7,No.1,Feb.,1992. 3.S.Greene,I.Dobson,andF.Alvarado,SensitivityoftheLoadingMargintoVoltageCollapse withRespecttoArbitraryParameters,IEEETransactionsonPowerSystems,Vol.12,No.1, Feb.1997,pp.232240. 4.S.Greene,I.Dobson,andF.Alvarado,ContingencyRankingforVoltageCollapsevia SensitivitiesfromaSingleNoseCurve,IEEETransactionsonPowerSystems,Vol.14,No.1, Feb.1999,pp.262272.

Voltage Security Voltagesecurityistheabilityofthesystemtomaintain adequateandcontrollablevoltagelevelsatallsystemloadbuses. Themainconcernisthatvoltagelevelsoutsideofaspecified rangecanaffecttheoperationofthecustomersloads. Voltagesecuritymaybedividedintotwomainproblems: 1.Lowvoltage:voltagelevelisoutsideofpredefinedrange. 2.Voltageinstability:anuncontrolledvoltagedecline. Youshouldknowthat lowvoltagedoesnotnecessarilyimplyvoltageinstability nolowvoltagedoesnotnecessarilyimplyvoltagestability voltageinstabilitydoesnecessarilyimplylowvoltage
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Resources Therehavebeenseveralindividualsthathavesignificantly progressedthefieldofvoltagesecurity.Theseinclude: AjjarapufromISU VanCutsem:SeethebookbyVanCutsemandVournas. Alvarado,Dobson,Canizares,&Greene: Thereareacoupleothertextsthatprovidegoodtreatmentsof thesubject: CarsonTaylor:PowerSystemVoltageStability PrabhaKundur:PowerSystemStability&Control
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Ourtreatmentofvoltagesecuritywillproceedasfollows: Voltageinstabilityinasimplesystem Voltageinstabilityinalargesystem Brieftreatmentofbifurcationanalysis Continuationpowerflow(pathfollowing)methods Sensitivitymethods

Voltageinstabilityinasimplesystem Considertheperphaseequivalentofaverysimplethree phasepowersystemgivenbelow: V1 V2 Node1 + V1 _ S12 SD=S12 I Z=R+jX Node2 + V2 _

Z = R + jX Y = G jB

NoteB>0

S12 = P 12 + jQ12
2 P = | V | G | V1 || V2 | G cos(1 2 )+ | V1 || V2 | B sin(1 2 ) 12 1

Q12 =| V1 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos(1 2 ) | V1 || V2 | G sin(1 2 )


LetG=0.Then.

P 12 =| V1 || V2 | B sin(1 2 ) Q12 =| V1 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos(1 2 )

NowwecangetSD=PD+jQD=(P21+jQ21)by exchangingthe1and2subscriptsinthepreviousequations. negating

PD = P21 = | V1 || V2 | B sin( 2 1 ) =| V1 || V2 | B sin(1 2 ) QD = Q21 = | V2 |2 B + | V1 || V2 | B cos( 2 1 ) = | V2 |2 B + | V1 || V2 | B cos(1 2 )


Define12 =1 2

PD =| V1 || V2 | B sin 12 QD = | V2 |2 B + | V1 || V2 | B cos 12
7

Define: isthepowerfactorangleoftheload,i.e.,

= V2 I
Thenwecan as: *alsoexpressSjD

S D = V2 I =| V2 || I | e

=| V2 || I | (cos + j sin ) sin =| V2 || I | cos (1 + j ) cos = PD (1 + j tan )


Define=tan.Then

S D = PD + jQD = PD (1 + j )

Notethatphi,and thereforebeta,is positiveforlagging, negativeforleading.


8

Sowehavedevelopedthefollowingequations.

PD =| V1 || V2 | B sin 12 QD = | V2 |2 B + | V1 || V2 | B cos12

S D = PD + jQD = PD (1 + j )
EquatingtheexpressionsforPD andforQD,wehave:
QD = PD = | V2 |2 B + | V1 || V2 | B cos12

PD =| V1 || V2 | B sin 12

PD + | V2 |2 B =| V1 || V2 | B cos12

Squarebothequationsandaddthemtoget..

PD + ( PD + | V2 |2 B ) 2 =| V1 |2 | V2 |2 B 2 (sin 2 12 + cos 2 12 )
2

PD + ( PD + | V2 |2 B ) 2 =| V1 |2 | V2 |2 B 2
2

Manipulationyields:

(| V | )
2

2 2

2 2 P P D 2 + | V1 | | V2 |2 + D2 1 + 2 = 0 B B

Notethatthisisaquadraticin|V2|2.Assuch,ithasthesolution:

PD | V1 | PD PD | V1 | 2 | V2 | = + | V1 | 2 B B B 4
2 4 2

1/ 2

10

Letsassumethatthesendingendvoltageis|V1|=1.0pu andB=2pu.Thenourpreviousequationbecomes:

1 PD ( PD + 2 )] 2 1 PD [ | V2 | = 2

1/ 2

Youcanmake thePVplotusing thefollowing matlabcode.

%pf=0.97lagging beta=0.25 pdn=[00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.78]; v2n=sqrt((1beta.*pdn sqrt(1pdn.*(pdn+2*beta)))/2); pdp=[0.780.70.60.50.40.30.20.10]; v2p=sqrt((1beta.*pdp+sqrt(1pdp.*(pdp+2*beta)))/2); pd1=[pdnpdp]; v21=[v2nv2p]; %pf=1.0 beta=0 pdn=[00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.90.99]; v2n=sqrt((1beta.*pdn sqrt(1pdn.*(pdn+2*beta)))/2); pdp=[0.990.90.70.60.50.40.30.20.10]; v2p=sqrt((1beta.*pdp+sqrt(1pdp.*(pdp+2*beta)))/2); pd2=[pdnpdp]; v22=[v2nv2p]; %pf=.97leading beta=0.25 pdn=[00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91.01.11.21.3]; v2n=sqrt((1beta.*pdn sqrt(1pdn.*(pdn+2*beta)))/2); pdp=[1.31.21.11.00.90.70.60.50.40.30.20.10]; v2p=sqrt((1beta.*pdp+sqrt(1pdp.*(pdp+2*beta)))/2); pd3=[pdnpdp]; v23=[v2nv2p]; plot(pd1,v21,pd2,v22,pd3,v23)

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Plotsofthepreviousequationfordifferentpowerfactors

|V2|

Realpowerloading,PD
12

SomecommentsregardingthePVcurves: 1.Eachcurvehasamaximumload.Thisvalueistypicallycalledthe maximumsystemloadorthesystemloadability. 2.Iftheloadisincreasedbeyondtheloadability,thevoltageswill declineuncontrollably. 3.Foravalueofloadbelowtheloadability,therearetwo voltagesolutions.Theupperonecorrespondstoonethatcanbe reachedinpractice.Theloweroneiscorrectmathematically,butI donotknowofawaytoreachthesepointsinpractice. 4.Inthelaggingorunitypowerfactorcondition,itisclearthatthe voltagedecreasesastheloadpowerincreasesuntiltheloadability. Inthiscase,thevoltageinstabilityphenomenaisdetectable,i.e., operatorwillbeawarethatvoltagesaredecliningbeforethe loadabilityisexceeded. 5.Intheleadingcase,oneobservesthatthevoltageisflat,orperhaps evenincreasingalittle,untiljustbeforetheloadability.Thus,in theleadingcondition,voltageinstabilityisnotverydetectable. Theleadingconditionoccursduringhightransferconditionswhenthe loadislightorwhentheloadishighlycompensated.

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QVCurves Weconsideroursimple(lossless)systemagain,withtheequations

PD =| V1 || V2 | B sin 12 QD = | V2 |2 B + | V1 || V2 | B cos12
Now,againassumethatV1=1.0,andforagivenvalueofPD andV2,compute12 fromthefirstequation,andthenQfromthe secondequation.RepeatforvariousvaluesofV2 toobtainaQV curveforthespecifiedrealloadPD. YoucanmakethePVplotusingthefollowingmatlabcode.
v1=1.0; b=1.0; pd1=0.1 v2=[1.1,1.05,1.0,.95,.90,.85,.80,.75,.70,.65,.60,.55,.50,.45,.40,.35,.30,.25,.20,.15]; sintheta=pd1./(b*v1.*v2); theta=asin(sintheta); qd1=v2.^2*b+v1*b*v2.*cos(theta); plot(qd1,v2);

Thecurveonthenextpageillustrates.

14

QVCurve

|V2|

QD

15

Homework 1.DrawthePVcurveforthefollowingcases,andforeach,determinetheloadability. a.B=2,|V1|=1.0,pf=0.97lagging b.B=2,|V1|=1.0,pf=0.95lagging c.B=2,|V1|=1.06,pf=0.97lagging d.B=10,|V1|=1.0,pf=0.97lagging Identifytheeffectonloadabilityofpowerfactor,sendingendvoltage,andlinereactance. 2.DrawtheQVcurvesforthefollowingcases,andforeach,determinethemaximumQD. a.B=1,|V1|=1.0,PD=0.1 b.B=1,|V1|=1.0,PD=0.2 c.B=1,|V1|=1.06,PD=0.1 d.B=2,|V1|=1.0,PD=0.1 IdentifytheeffectonmaximumQD ofrealpowerdemand,sendingendvoltage,andline reactance.
16

SomecommentsregardingtheQVCurves Inpractice,thesecurvesmaybedrawnwithapowerflowprogram by 1.modelingatthetargetbusasynchronouscondenser(a generatorwithP=0)havingverywidereactivelimits 2.Setting|V|toadesiredvalue 3.Solvingthepowerflow. 4.ReadingtheQofthegenerator. 5.Repeat24forarangeofvoltages. QVcurveshaveoneadvantageoverPVcurves: Theyareeasiertoobtainifyouonlyhaveapowerflow(standard powerflowswillnotsolvenearorbelowthenoseofPVcurves buttheywillsolvecompletelyaroundthenoseofQVcurves.)

17

Voltageinstabilityinalargesystem: Influentialfactors: Loadmodeling Reactivepowerlimitsongenerators Lossofacircuit Availabilityofswitchableshuntdevices Twoimportantideasonwhichunderstandingoftheabove influencesrest: 1. Voltageinstabilityoccurswhenthereactivepowersupply cannotmeetthereactivepowerdemandofthenetwork.
Transmissionlineloadingistoohigh Reactivesources(generators)aretoofarfromloadcenters Generatorterminalvoltagesaretoolow. Insufficientloadreactivecompensation

2.Reactivepowercannotbemovedveryfarinanetwork (varsdonottravel),sinceI2Xislarge. Implication:TheSYSTEMcanhaveavarsurplusbutexperience voltageinstabilityifalocalareahasavardeficiency.

18

Loadmodeling Inanalyzingvoltageinstability,itisnecessarytoconsiderthenetwork undervariousvoltageprofiles. Voltagestabilitydependsonthelevelofcurrentdrawnbytheloads. Thelevelofcurrentdrawnbytheloadscandependonthevoltageseen bytheloads. Therefore,voltageinstabilityanalysisrequiresamodelofhowthe loadrespondstoloadvariations. Thus,loadmodelingisveryinfluentialinvoltageinstabilityanalysis.

19

Exponentialloadmodel Atypicalloadmodelforaloadatabusistheexponentialmodel:

V P = P0 V 0

V Q = Q0 V 0

wherethesubscript0indicatestheinitialoperatingconditions. Theexponents and arespecifictothetypeofload,e.g., Incandescentlamps 1.54 Roomairconditioner 0.50 2.5 Furnacefan 0.08 1.6 Batterycharger 2.59 4.06 Electroniccompactflorescent1.0 0.40 Conventionalflorescent 2.07 3.21
20

Polynomialloadmodel TheZIPorpolynomialmodelisaspecialcaseofthemoregeneral exponentialmodel,givenbyasumof3exponentialmodelswith specifiedsubscripts:

V 2 V P = P0 p1 V + p2 V + p3 0 0

p1 + p2 + p3 = 1.0

V 2 V Q = Q0 q1 V + q2 V + q3 0 0

q1 + q2 + q3 = 1.0

whereagainthesubscript0indicatestheinitialoperatingconditions. Usually,valuesp2 andq2 arethelargest. Sothismodeliscomposedofthreecomponents: constantimpedancecomponent(p1,q1) lighting constantcurrentcomponent(p2,q2) motor/lighting constantpowercomponent(p3,,q3) loadsservedbyLTCs

21

EffectofLoadmodeling Understandingtheeffectofeachcomponentonvoltageinstability dependsonunderstandingtwoideas: 1.Voltageinstabilityisalleviatedwhenthedemandreduces.This isbecauseIreducesandI2Xreactivelossesinthecircuitsreduce. 2.Sincevoltageinstabilitycausesvoltagedecline,alleviationof voltageinstabilityresultsifdemandreduceswithvoltagedecline. Thisgivesthekeytounderstandingtheeffectofloadmodeling. constantimpedanceload(p1)isGOODsincedemand reduceswithsquareofvoltage. constantcurrentload(p2)isOKsincedemandreduces withvoltage. Constantpowerload(p3)isBADsincedemanddoes notchangeasvoltagedeclines.

22

Someconsiderationsinloadmodeling Theeffectsofvoltagevariationonloads,andthusofloadson voltageinstability,cannotbefullycapturedusingexponentialor polynomialloadmodelsbecauseofthefollowingthreeaspects. Thermostaticloadrecovery Inductionmotorstalling/tripping Loadtapchangers

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Thermostaticloadrecovery Heatingloadisthemostcommontypeofthermostaticload,andit isoneforwhichweareallquitefamiliar.Althoughmuchheatingis donewithnaturalgasastheprimaryfuel,someheatingisdone electrically,andevengasheatingsystemsalwayscontainsome electriccomponentsaswell,e.g.,thefans. Otherthermostaticloadsincludespaceheaters/coolers,water heaters,andrefrigerators. Whenvoltagedrops,thermostaticloadsinitiallydecreaseinpower consumption.Butaftervoltagesremainlowforafewminutes,the loadregulationdevices(thermostats)willstarttheloadsorwill maintainthemforlongerperiodssothatmoreofthemareonat thesametime.Thisisreferredtoasthermostaticloadrecovery, andittendstoexacerbatevoltageproblemsatthehighvoltage level. 24

Inductionmotorstalling/tripping Threephaseinductionmotorscompriseasignificantportionof thetotalloadandsoitsresponsetovoltagevariationisimportant, especiallysinceithasaratheruniqueresponse. Considerthesteadystateinductionmotorperphaseequivalent model.


Za=R1+jX1 X2 I2

V1

Zb= Rc//jXm

R2+R2(1-s)/s =R2 / s

25

Inductionmotorstalling/tripping The(referredtostator) I '2 rotorcurrentisgivenby:

Vth = Z th + ( R'2 / s ) + jX '2


and

Zb Vth = V1 where Z a + Zb

Z a Zb Z th = Z a // Z b = Z a + Zb

Undernormalconditions,theslipsistypicallyverysmall,lessthan0.05 (5%).Inthiscase,R2/s>>R2,andI2 issmall. ButasvoltageV1 decreases,theelectromagnetictorquedeveloped decreasesaswell,themotorslowsdown.Ultimately,themotormaystall. Inthiscase,s=1,causingR2/s=R2.Thus,oneseesthatthecurrentI2 is muchlargerforstalledconditionsthanfornormalconditions.BecauseofX1 andX2 oftheinductionmotor,thelargestallcurrentrepresentsalarge reactiveload. Largemotorshaveundervoltagetrippingtoguardagainstthis,butsmaller26 motors(refrigerators/airconditioners)maynot.

Tapchangers:
Loadtapchangers(LTC,OLTC,ULTC,TCUL)aretransformersthat connectthetransmissionorsubtransmissionsystemstothedistribution systems.Theyaretypicallyequippedwithregulationcapabilitythat allowthemtocontrolthevoltageonthelowsidesothatvoltage deviationonthehighsideisnotseenonthelowside.

t:1
V1 andtare giveninpu. HVside

V1

V1/t

LVside

Inperunit,wesaythatthetapist:1,where tmayrangefrom0.851.15pu asinglestepmaybeabout0.005pu(5/8%=0.00625isverycommon) achangeofonesteptypicallyrequiresabout5seconds. thereisadeadbandof23timesthetapsteptopreventexcessivetapchange

Underlowvoltageconditionsatthehighside,theLTCwilldecreaset inordertotryandincreaseV1/t. 27

Tapchangers: Thus,aslongastheLTCisregulating(notatalimit),avoltage declineonthehighsidedoesnotresultinvoltagedeclineatthe load,inthesteadystate,sothateveniftheloadisconstantZ, itappearstothehighsideasifitisconstantpower.Soasimple loadmodelforvoltageinstabilityanalysis,forsystemsusingLTC, isconstantpower! Thereare2qualificationstousingsuchasimplemodel(constantpower): 1.Fastvoltagedipsareseenatthelowside(sinceLTC actiontypicallyrequiresminutes),andifthedipislowenough, inductionmotorsmaytrip,resultinginanimmediatedecreasein loadpower. 2.OncetheLTChitsitslimit(minimumt),thenthelowside voltagebeginstodecline,anditbecomesnecessarytomodel theloadvoltagesensitivity. 28

Generatorcapabilitycurve:
Fieldcurrentlimitduetofieldheating, enforcedbyoverexcitationlimiteronIf.

Q
Qmax

Typical approximation usedinpower flowprograms.


Qmin

Armaturecurrentlimitdueto armatureheating,enforcedby operatorcontrolofPandIf.

Limitduetosteadystateinstability(small internalvoltageEgivessmall|E||V|Bsin), andduetostatorendregionheatingfrom inducededdycurrents,enforcedby 29 underexcitationlimiter(UEL).

Effectofgeneratorreactivepowerlimits:
1.Voltageinstabilityistypicallyprecededbygeneratorshittingtheirupperreactive limit,somodelingQmax isveryimportanttoanalysisofvoltageinstability. 2.MostpowerflowprogramsrepresentgeneratorQmax asfixed.However,this isanapproximation,andonethatshouldberecognized.Inreality,Qmax isnotfixed. ThereactivecapabilitydiagramshowsquiteclearlythatQmax isafunctionofPand becomesmorerestrictiveasPincreases.AfirstorderimprovementtofixedQmax istomodelQmax asafunctionofP. 3.Qmax issetaccordingtotheOvereXcitationLimiter(OXL).Thefieldcircuithasa ratedsteadystatefieldcurrentIfmax,setbyfieldcircuitheatinglimitations.Since 2 I dt heatingisproportionalto ,weseethatsmalleroverloadscanbetolerated f overload forlongertimes. time Therefore,mostmodernOXLsaresetwithatimeinversecharacteristic: 4.AssoonastheOXLactstolimitIf,thenno furtherincreaseinreactivepowerispossible. 2.0 OXLcharacteristic WhendrawingPVorQVcurves,the If actionofageneratorhittingQmax,will Irated manifestitselfasasharpdiscontinuity 120 1.0 inthecurve. 10 30 Overloadtime(sec)

EffectofOXLactiononPVcurve:
Onegeneratorhitsreactivelimit

|V| o
Noreactive limitsmodeled

P (demand)

Note:GeorgiaPowerCo.modelsitsloadability limitatpointx,notpointo.
31

Lossofacircuit Comparereactivelosseswithandwithoutsecondcircuit AssumebothcircuitshavereactanceofX. I/2


X

I
X

I/2

P Qloss=I2X

Qloss=(I/2)2X+(I/2)2X=I2X/2

Implication:Lossofacircuitwillalwaysincreasereactivelosses inthenetwork.Thiseffectiscompoundedbythefact thatlosingacircuitalsomeanslosingitslinecharging 32 capacitance.

Kundur,onpp.979990,hasanexcellentexamplewhichillustrates manyoftheaforementionedeffects.Theillustrationwasdoneusing alongtermtimedomainsimulationprogram(Eurostag).

33

Influenceofswitchedshuntcapacitors I P I P

|V|
Without capacitor Withcapacitor

P (demand)

34

But,shuntcompensationhassomedrawbacks: Itproducesreactivepowerinproportiontothesquareofthe thevoltage,thereforewhenvoltagesdrop,sodoesthereactive powersuppliedbythecapacitor. Ithasamaximumcompensationlevelbeyondwhichstable operationisnotpossible(Seepg.972ofKundur,andnextslide). (AsynchronouscondenserandanSVCdonothavethese2drawbacks) ItresultsinaflatterPVcurveandthereforemakesvoltage instabilitylessdetectable.Therefore,astheloadgrowsinareas lackinggeneration,moreandmoreshuntcompensationisusedto keepvoltagesinnormaloperatingranges.Bysodoing,normal operatingpointsprogressivelyapproachloadability.
35

V1=1.0

V2 PL QL=0

S=|V2|2B*Sbase with|V2|=1.0
675Mvar 450Mvar 950Mvar

EachQVcurve/Capacitorcharacteristic intersectionshowstheoperatingpoint.Note thatforthefirstthreeoperatingpoints,a smallincreaseinQcomp(indicatedby arrows)resultsinvoltageincrease,butfor thelastoperatingpoint(950),moreQcomp (say960)resultsinavoltagedecrease.

|V2| 300Mvar 1.2

1.0

QV-curves drawn using synchronous condensor approach.

0.8

0.6

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200
36

CapacitiveMvars

Bifurcationanalysis(ref:A.GaponovGrekhov,Nonlinearitiesinactionand
alsoVanCutsem&Vournas,Voltagestabilityofelectricpowersystems.)

Abifurcation,foradynamicsystem,isanacquisitionofanew qualitybythemotionthedynamicsystem,causedbysmallchanges initsparameters.Apowersystemthathasexperiencedabifurcation willgenerallyhavecorrespondingmotionthatisundesirable. Considerrepresentingthedynamicsofthepowersystemas:

& = F ( x, y , p ) x

0 = G ( x, y , p )

Eqts.1

Adifferentialalgebraicsystem(DAS): Herex representsstatevariablesofthesystem(e.g.,rotorangles,rotor speed,etc),y representsthealgebraicvariables(busvoltagemagnitudes &voltageangles),andp representstherealandreactivepowerinjections ateachbus.ThefunctionF representsthedifferentialequationsforthe generators,andthefunctionG representsthepowerflowequations. 37

Typesofbifurcations Thereareatleasttwotypesofbifurcation: Hopf:twoeigenvaluesbecomepurelyimaginary: abirthofoscillatoryorperiodicmotion. Saddlenode:adisappearanceofanequilibriumstate. Thestableoperatingequilibriumcoalesceswithanunstable equilibriumanddisappears.Thedynamicconsequenceofa genericsaddlenodebifurcationis: amonotonicdeclineinsystemvariables. Sowethinkitisthesaddlenodebifurcationthatcauses voltageinstability.

38

TheunreducedJacobian: TheJacobianmatrixofeqts.1is

F X J = G X

FY GY
Eqt.2

anditisreferredtoastheunreducedJacobianoftheDAS,where

& x x 0 = J y

39

ThereducedJacobian: Wemayreduceeq.2byeliminatingthevariable y

Thismeansweneedtoforcethetoprighthandsubmatrixto0,whichwecan dobymultiplyingthebottomrowbyFYGY1 andthenaddingtothetoprow.


1 & x F X F Y G Y G X 0= G X

& F X x 0 = G X

F Y x y GY

Thisresultsin:

& = F X F Y G Y G X x x A = F X F Y GY G X
40

0 x G Y y
1

SothatthereducedJacobianmatrixisaSchurscomplement:
1

Stability: Fact1:Theconditionsforasaddlenodebifurcationare & = F ( x, y , p ) x 1. Equilibrium: F X J = 0 = G ( x, y , p ) 2. SingularityoftheunreducedJacobian G X det(J)=0(a0eigenvalue,J noninvertible).

FY GY

Implication1:ThestabilityofanequilibriumpointoftheDASdependson theeigenvaluesoftheunreducedJacobianJ.Thesystemwillexperiencea SNBasparameterp increaseswhenJ hasazeroeigenvalue. Fact2:ThedeterminantofaSchurscomplementtimesthedeterminantof GY givesthedeterminantoftheoriginalmatrix:det(J)=det(A)*det(GY) ifGY isnonsingular.

Implications2: 1. IfGY isnonsingular,thensingularityofA impliessingularityofJ so thatwemayanalyzeeigenvaluesofA toascertainstability. 2. ThefactthatGY maybenonsingular,yetA singular,meansthat loadflowconvergenceisnotasufficientconditionforvoltage 41 stability.

SingularityofloadflowJacobian: Implications2: 1. IfGY isnonsingular,thensingularityofA impliessingularityofJ so thatwemayanalyzeeigenvaluesofA toascertainstability. 2. ThefactthatGY maybenonsingular,yetA singular,meansthat loadflowconvergenceisnotasufficientconditionforvoltage stability. Singular Nonsingular GY A Singular Nonsingular J Singular (unstable) Nonsingular (stable)

42

SingularityofloadflowJacobian: SovoltageinstabilityanalysisusingonlyaloadflowJacobianmayyield optimistic resultswhencomparedtoresultsfromanalysisofA, thatis,stablepoints(basedonGy)maynotbereallystable. =>However,Ibelieveitistruethatpointsidentifiedasunstableusing theloadflowJacobianwillbereallyunstable(Schurscomplement doesnotsupportthatsingularityofGY impliessingularityofJ, however,becauseitisonlyvalidifGY isnonsingular). Singular (unstable) Nonsingular (stable) Singular (unstable) Nonsingular (stable) Singular (unstable) Nonsingular (stable)

GY

Note:SauerandPai,1990,provideanindepthanalysisoftherelation betweensingularityofGY andsingularityofJ,andshowsomespecial 43 casesforwhichsingularityofGY impliessingularityofJ.

SingularityofloadflowJacobian: So,weassume thatloadflowJacobiananalysisprovidesanupper boundonstability.

Fact:Thebifurcation(zeroeigenvalueofGY)oftheloadflow Jacobiancorrespondstotheturnaroundpoint(i.e.,thenose point)ofaPVorQVcurvedrawnusingapowerflowprogram. Thiscanbeprovenusinganoptimizationapproach. Seepp.218220ofthetextbyVanCutsemandVournas. WehavepreviouslydenotedthepowerflowequationsasG(x,y,p)=0, butnowwedenotethemasG(y,p)=0,withoutthedependenceonthe statevariablesx (whichrelatetothemachinemodelingandinclude, minimally, and ofeachmachine). 44

Soweturnourefforttoidentifyingthesaddlenodebifurcation (SNB)forthepowerflowJacobianmatrix. TheJacobiancanreachaSNBinmanyways.Forexample,


increasetheimpedanceinakeytieline increasethegenerationlevelatageneratorwithweaktransmission,while decreasinggenerationatallothergenerators. |V| increasetheloadatasinglebus increasetheloadatallbuses.

Inallcases,wearelookingforthenosepointofthe V curve,where istheparameterthatisbeingincreased.)

Mostapplicationsfocusonthelastmethod(increaseloadatallbuses). Keyquestionshereare:
directionofincrease:arebusloadsincreasedproportionally,orinsomeotherway? dispatchpolicy:howdothegeneratorspickuptheloadincrease?

Wewillassumeproportionalloadincreasewithgovernorloadflow (generatorspickupinproportiontotheirrating)

45

Define:criticalpoint theoperatingconditions,characterized byacertainvalueof,beyondwhichoperationisnot acceptable. Question1: Whatcancausethecriticalpointtodiffer fromtheSNBpoint? |V|

Question2: Howcanknowledgeofthecriticalpointprovideasecurity measure? Question3: DoesthePVcurveprovideaforecast ofthesystemtrajectory?


46

Solutionapproachestofinding*, thevalueof correspondingtoSNB. Approach1:Searchfor* usingsomeiterativesearchprocedure.


1.i=1 2.Using(i),solvepowerflowusingNewtonRaphson. Here,weiterativelysolveG(y,p)=0.Ateachstep, wemustsolvefory intheeqt:GYy =p 3.Ifsolved, (i+1)=(i)+ . i=i+1 goto2 elseifnotsolved, *=(i+1) endif 4.End

Butbigproblem:as getscloseto*,GY becomesillconditioned (closetosingular).Thismeansthatatsomepointbeforethecritical point,step2willnolongerbefeasible.


47

Approach2:Usethecontinuationpowerflow(CPF).

Predictorstep Correctorstep

Pass*? Yes. Stop

No.

Select continuation parameter

48

Thepredictorstep: Thepowerflowequationsarefunctionsofthebusvoltagesand busanglesandthebusinjections:

0 = G ( y, p)
0 = G ( y, )
V

Augmentthepowerflowequationssothattheyarefunctionsof (dependenceonp iscarriedthroughthedependenceon). pp0 Nowrecognizethat y =

sothat

0 = G ( , V , )

IfwewanttocomputethechangeinthepowerflowequationsdG duetosmallchangesinthevariables,V,and, thatmoveusclosertotheloadabilitypoint aswemovefromonesolutionitoanotherclosesolutioni+1,then dG=G((i),V(i),(i)) G((i+1),V(i+1),(i+1))=0 0=0


49

dG dG dG dV + d dG = d + d dV d
Here,eachsetofpartialderivativesareevaluatedattheoperatingconditions correspondingtotheoldsolution.Ifthepowerflowequationsarelinearwiththe3 setsofvariablesintheregionbetweentheoldsolutionandthe(close)newone,the followingissatisfied:

dG dG dG dG = d + dV + d = 0 d dV d
Eq.3

[G

GV

d G ]d V = 0 d

BUT,wehaveaddedoneunknown,, tothepowerflowproblemwithoutaddinga correspondingequation,i.e.,inG(,V,)=0,thereareareNequationsbutN+1 variables,sothatineq.3,thematrix[G GV,G],hasNrows(thenumberofeqts beingdifferentiated)andN+1columns(thenumberofvariablesforwhicheacheqt isdifferentiated). Soweneedanotherequationinordertosolvethis.Whattodo?


50

Theanswertothiscanbefoundbyidentifyinghowwewillbeusingusingthe solutiontoeqt.3.Notethesolutioncorrespondingtothenewpointis:

(i +1, p ) (i ) d ' (i +1, p ) (i ) V = V + dV ' (i +1, p ) (i ) d '

Herethepindicates thatthisisthe predictedpoint.

Ifwedefine tobethestepsize,thenwecanrewritethisas

(i +1, p ) (i ) d (i +1, p ) (i ) where d ' d = + V V d V d V ' = d V ( i + 1 p ) ( i ) d d ' d


51

Wecalltheupdatevector(withthedifferentials)the tangentvector,denotedbyt.

d t= dV d
Thisvectorprovidesthedirection tomoveinorder tofindanewsolution(i+1,p)fromtheoldone(i). Wecanthinkofthisintermsofthefollowingpicture..

52

Tangentvector |V|

53

Note:Inspecifyingadirectionusinganndimensionalvector,onlyn1ofthe elementsareconstrained oneelementcanbechosentobeanyvaluewe like.

Forexample,considera2dimensionalvector.

x2=x1tan(30)so: x2
Direction =30o

x1

thedirectionisspecifiedby selectingx1=1,x2=0.5774, thedirectionisspecifiedby selectingx1=0.5,x2=0.2246.

Sowecansetoneofthetangentvectorelementsto anyvaluewelike,thencomputetheotherelements. Thisprovidesuswithourotherequation.

54

Supposethatwesetthekthparameterinthetangentvectortobe 1.0.Thenourequationgivenaseq.3canbeaugmentedtobecome:

G
where

GV ek

d G 0 dV = 1 d
1 k 0 ... 0]

ek = [ 0

...

Toselect,wewouldhave:

ek = [ 0

...

...

1]

Whichwould forced=1.

55

Theparameterforwhichweselectkiscalledthecontinuation parameter,anditcanbeanyloadlevel(orgroupofloadlevels), oritcanbeavoltagemagnitude.Initially,whenthesolutionis farfromthenose,thecontinuationparameteristypically.

(i +1, p ) (i ) d (i +1, p ) (i ) dV = + V V (i +1, p ) (i ) d

( i +1, p )

=y

(i )

+ t

Theparameter iscalledthestepsize,anditcanbeselected usingvarioustechniques.Thesimplestoftheseistojust setittoaconstant.Letstrythisonoursimpleproblem formulatedatthebeginningoftheseslides. 56

HOMEWORK#2,DueMonday,Jan26.
1.Usingtheequationsatthebottomofslide7,withthelefthandside(PD andQD)andalsoV1givenbytheproblemstatement,weknoweverything exceptV2andtheta. 2.Now,justbringtherighthandsideofthese2equationsovertothe lefthandside,andyouhavethe2equationsthatcorrespondtoG(y,p)=0. 3.Solvetheseequationstogetthecorrespondingpowerflowsolution(but youdonotneedNewtonRaphsontodothis youcanjustusetheequation atthebottomofslide10). 4.NowyouneedtoreplacethevaluespecifiedintheequationsforPD (whichis0.4accordingtotheproblemstatement)with0.4*lambda.This givesyoutheequationsintheformofslide49:0=G(theta,V,lambda). Note,however,thatGisreallytwoequations:G1andG2. 5.Nowyouneedtoformulatetheequationsontheslide55.Thisisamatter oftakingderivativesandthenevaluatingthosederivativesatthe solutionthatyouobtainedabove.Note,however,theeachelementinthe matrixofslide55actuallyrepresents2elements.Thatis:

PD =| V1 || V2 | B sin 12 QD = | V2 |2 B + | V1 || V2 | B cos12

|dG1/dtheta dG1/dV dG1/dlambda| |dG2/dtheta dG2/dV dG2/dlambda| #9and#10willbe |0 0 1 | 6.Evaluateeachoftheabovematrixelementsatthesolutionobtainedin explainedinnext step3. fewslides. 7.Thensolvetheseequationsforthetangentvector.Youcandothisby invertingtheabovematrix(usematlaboracalculatortodothis)and thenmultiplytherighthandsidebythisinvertedmatrix. 8.Thentakeastepusinganappropriatelychosenstepsizeperthe equationonslide56. 9.Beginningfromyourpredictedpointthatyouidentifiedinstep8of#2a,develop equationsforapproacha,solvethem,andidentifytheresultingcorrectedpointintermsofvoltageandpower. 10.Repeat#9exceptimplementapproachb.

57

Correctorstep Note,however,thatthepredictedpointwillsatisfythe powerflowequationsonlyifthepowerflowequationsare linear,whichtheyarenot. Soourpointneedscorrection.Thisleadstothecorrectorstep. Therearetwodifferentapproachesforperformingthe correctorstep. Approacha: Perpendicularintersectionmethod. Approachb: Parameterizationmethod

58

Approacha:perpendicularintersection Here,wefindtheintersectionbetweenthepowerflow equations(thePVcurve)andaplanethatisperpendicularto thetangentvector. |V| Solvesimultaneously, fory(i+1) y(i) t y(i+1,p) y(i+1)

0 = G( y

( i +1)

{y

( i +1)

( i +1, p )

} t = 0

, )

Thelastequationsaystheinner (dot)productof2 vectorsiszero.

UseNewtonRaphsontosolvetheabove(requiresonly13iterationssincewehave goodstartingpoint).Ifnoconvergence,cutstepsize()byhalfandrepeat.

59

Approachb:Parameterization Thecorrectorstepisperformedby identifyingacontinuationparameter (seeslide62) canbe fixingitatthevaluefoundinthepredictorstep; thensolvingthepowerflowequations. |V|


Solvesimultaneously, fory(i+1)
Verticalcorrections correspondtoafixed loadcontinuation parameter,horizontal correctionstoafixed voltagecontinuation parameter.

y(i)

t y(i+1,p) y(i+1)

G ( y , ) =0 ( i +1) y k
( i +1)

Here,yk(i+1) isthecontinuationparameter;itisthevariableyk(i+1) thatcorrespondstothekth elementdyk(i+1) inthetangentvectorandisusually atfirstbutoftenbecomessomethingelse asthenosepointisneared.Theparameter isthevaluetowhichyk isset,whichwouldbethe valuefoundinthepredictorstep. Asinapproacha,wecansolvethisusingNewtonRaphson. 60 Ifnoconvergence,cutstepsize()byhalfandrepeat.

Detectionofcriticalpoint: Wewillknowthatwehavesurpassedthecriticalpoint whenthesignofd inthetangentvectorbecomes negative,becauseitisatthispointwheretheloading reachesamaximumpointandbeginstodecrease. |V| increasing

x decreasing
61

Selectionofcontinuationparameter: Thecontinuationparameterisselectedfromamong Theonechanging andthestatevariablesiny accordingtotheonethatis themostwith is mostsensitiveandchangingthemostwith.Thiswillbetheparameterthat representsa hasthelargestelementinthetangentvector. variablethatwe wanttobecareful relativelyunstressedconditions(farfromnose):generally withaswelookfor anothersolution, relativelystressedconditions(closetonose):generallythe soitmakessenseto keepitconstant. voltagemagnitudeoftheweakestbus,asitchangesagreat dealas ischanged,whenwearecloseto*.

Typically,yk isgoingtobe oneofthese.

(i +1, p ) (i ) d (i +1, p ) (i ) = V + dV V (i +1, p ) (i ) d


62

Selectionofcontinuationparameter(unstressedcondition): Thecontinuationparameterisselectedfromamong andthestatevariablesiny accordingtotheonethatis changingthemostwith.Thiswillbetheparameterthat hasthelargestelementinthetangentvector. relativelyunstressedconditions(farfromnose):generally. =>Thislookslikebelow. |V| y(i) y(i+1,p) y(i+1)
Here, isfixed.

63

Selectionofcontinuationparameter(stressedcondition): relativelystressedconditions(closetonose):generallythe voltagemagnitudeoftheweakestbus.Here,thevoltagebeing plottedischosenasthecontinuationparameter. |V| y(i) y(i+1,p) y(i+1)


Here,|V|isfixed.

Essentially,avariableisfixedasaparameter(thevoltage),and theparameter()istreatedasavariable.Thisprocessofselecting avariabletofixissometimescalledtheparameterizationstep. ScottGreene,Ph.D.dissertation,1998. 64

Acentralquestion: Howdoesthecontinuationtechniquealleviatetheill conditioningproblemexperiencedbyaregularpowerflow? Refertothesolutionsproceduresforthetwocorrectorapproaches.


Perpendicularinteresection Solvesimultaneously, fory(i+1) Parameterization Solvesimultaneously, fory(i+1)

0 = G( y

( i +1)

, )

{y

( i +1)

y (i +1, p ) t = 0

G ( y (i +1) ) =0 ( i +1) y k
65

Inbothcases,weuseNewtonRaphsontosolve,soweneedtoobtainthe Jacobian.ButtheJacobianisslightlydifferentthaninnormalpowerflow.

TheJacobianofthepowerflowequationsisjustGy,butthe Jacobianoftheequationsinthetwocorrectorapproaches willhaveanextrarowandcolumn.

G y C y

G xk C xk

Here,Cistheadditionalequation,andxk istheselected continuationparameter. ThisadditionofarowandcolumntotheJacobianhasthe effectofimprovingtheconditioningsothatthepreviously singularpointscaninfactbeobtained.Inotherwords,the additionalrowandcolumnprovidesthatthisJacobianis nonsingularat* wherethestandardJacobianissingular.


66

Knowncodesforcontinuationmethods: 1. ClaudioCanizarresatUniversityofWaterloo:Ccode Seehttp://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/~claudio/claudio.html


UWPFLOWisaresearchtoolthathasbeendesignedtocalculatelocalbifurcationsrelatedtosystem limitsorsingularitiesinthesystemJacobian.Theprogramalsogeneratesaseriesofoutputfilesthat allowfurtheranalyses,suchastangentvectors,leftandrighteigenvectorsatasingularbifurcation point,Jacobians,powerflowsolutionsatdifferentloadinglevels,voltagestabilityindices,etc

2. IhaveMatlabcodethatdoesit fromScottGreene. 3. VenkataramanaAjjarapu(ISU):Fortrancode 4. Powertechhasaprogram

67

Calculationofsensitivitiesforvoltageinstabilityanalysis Whatisasensitivity?
Itisthederivativeofanequationwithrespecttoavariable. Itshowshowparameter1changeswithparameter2. Itis:exactwhenparameter2dependslinearlyonparameter1. Itisapproximatewhenparameter2dependsnonlinearlyonparameter1, butitisquiteaccurateifitisonly usedclosetowhereitiscalculated.

68

ConsiderthesystemcharacterizedbyG(y).Then isthesensitivityoftheequationGwithrespecttoy, evaluatedaty*.

G y

y*

G(y) y

SlopeisG/y evaluatedaty*.

y Itsusefulnessisthatonceitiscalculated,itcanbeusedto QUICKLYevaluatef(y)fromG(y)G(y*)+(G/y|y*)y,
BUTONLYASLONGASyISCLOSETOy*.
69

y y*

Considerparameterp:wedesiretoobtainthesensitivityof G(y,p)top.Typicalparameterspwouldbeabusload,abus powerfactor,oragenerationlevel. Veryimportanttodistinguishbetween voltagesensitivities voltageinstabilitysensitivities Whatisthedifferencebetweenthemintermsof whattheymean? howtocomputethem?

70

Sensitivitiesforbusvoltage Thesewecomputeatthecurrentoperatingcondition. Foragivencontinuationparameter,theycanbeobtained fromthefirst predictorstepinthecontinuationpowerflow. Recallthatthisprovidesuswith d thetangentvector,givenby: t = dV d


Current operatingpoint

|V|

Thetangentvectoristhevectorof sensitivitieswithrespecttoasmall changein,sotheportionofthevector designatedasdV isexactlythevoltage sensitivities. 71

Sensitivitiesforvoltageinstability Here,itisimportanttorealizethatthemeasureofvoltageinstability, theloadingmargin,dependsonanoperatingcondition differentfromthepresentoperatingcondition.


Theimplicationisthatwemustlookatsensitivities oftheloadingmargin,notofthevoltage.

|V|

Loadingmargin

Current operatingpoint

Sowewantthesensitivities evaluatedatthispoint,i.e., theSNBpoint.

72

DerivationofloadingmarginsensitivitiesatSNBpoint.

LetS bethevectorofrealandreactiveloadpowers, andk bethedirectionofloadincrease.

S = S0 + k
Also,defineLastheloadingmargin(ascalar),sothat theloadpowersresultingintheSNBpointaregivenby:

S = S 0 + Lk
WedesiretofindthesensitivityoftheloadingmarginLtoa changeintheparameterp.WedenotethissensitivitybyLp.
73

Considerthesystemcharacterizedby G(y,S,p)=0

Wewantthesensitivityof theloadingmargintop.

Assumption:thesystemhasaSNBat(y*,S*,p*),i.e.,: 1.G(y*,S*,p*)=0 (anequilibriumpoint) 2.Gy(y*,S*,p*)issingular(zeroeigenvalue),and w isalefteigenvectorofGy(y*,S*,p*),corresponding tothezeroeigenvaluesothat(bydefinitionoftheleft eigenvector) wT Gy(y*,S*,p*)=0wT=0 NotethatGy(y*,S*,p*),beingsingular,cannotbeinverted,but wecancomputeit(thatis,Gy(y*,S*,p*)),anditseigenvectors. 3.wT GS(y*,S*,p*) 0
74

Thepoints(y,S,p)satisfyingnumbers1and2correspondtoSNB points, andwecanobtainacurveofsuchpointsby varyingpaboutitsnominalvaluep*. LinearizationofthiscurveabouttheSNBpointresultsin

G y y + G S * S + G p p = 0
* *

wherethenotation|* indicatesthederivativesareevaluatedattheSNBpoint.

Premultiplicationbythelefteigenvectorw resultsin:

w G y y + w G S * S + w G p p = 0
T T T * *

By#2onthepreviousslide,thefirsttermintheaboveiszero.So... 75

w G S * S + w G p p = 0
T T *

Eqt.*

Nowrecalltherelationoftheloadpowerstotheloadingmargin.

S = S 0 + Lk S = L k
Substitutingthisexpressionfortheloadpowersintoeqt.*,

w G * L k + w G p p = 0 L w G * k = w G p p
T T T T * *

Andtheloadingmarginsensitivitytoparameterpis:

Lp

L w G p * = = T p w G S k
T *

Sopmaybe,forexample, realpowerloadatabus(to detectthemosteffectiveload shedding)orreactivepower atabus(todeterminewhere 76 tositeashuntcap).

SomecommentsaboutcomputingLp
Thelefteigenvectorw mustbecomputedforthe JacobianGyevaluatedattheSNBpoint.

Lp =
*

w Gp
T T *

w GS k

Youonlyneedtocomputew andGS once,independentof howmanysensitivitiesyouneed.Methodstocomputethelefteigenvector w includeQRorinverseiteration. Thevectorofderivativeswithrespecttotheparameterp,whichisGp, is typicallysparse.Forexample,ifyouwanttocomputethesensitivitytoa buspower,thentherewouldbeonly1nonzeroentryinGp. Thematrixofderivativeswithrespecttotheloadpowers,GS,usingconstant powerloadmodels,isadiagonalmatrixwithonesintherowscorresponding toloadbuses.ThisisbecauseaparticularloadvariablewouldONLYoccur intheequationcorrespondingtothebuswhereitislocated,andforthese equations,thesevariablesappearlinearlywith1ascoefficient.
77

Somecommentsaboutextensions
MultiplesensitivitiesmaybecomputedusingGp (amatrix)insteadofGp (avector). Inthiscase,theresultisavector. T

Lp =
*

w Gp
T *

w GS k

Gettingmultiplesensitivitiescanbeespeciallyattractivewhenwewanttofind thesensitivitytoseveralsimultaneouschanges.Onegoodexampleistofindthe sensitivitytochangesinmultipleloads. AspecialcaseofthisistofindthesensitivitytochangesatALLloads,whichis verytypical,givenaparticularloadingdirectionk.Then

Lall loads * = ki L pi
i

Asensitivitytoalineoutagemaybeobtainedbylettingp containelements correspondingtotheoutagedlineparameters.


78

Somecommentsaboutextensions
Asensitivitytoalineoutagemaybeobtainedbylettingp containelements correspondingtotheoutagedlineparameters:R(seriesconductance),X(series reactance),andB(linecharging).Thenusethemultipleparameterapproach.

Lp =
*

w Gp
T T *

Zpq=R+jX
*

w GS k

p jB jB

L = L p * p
Here,p =[RXB]T.

Notethatp isNOTSMALL!ThereforeLmayhaveconsiderableerror. Forthatreason,thisoneneedstobecarefulaboutusingthisapproachto computetheactualloadingmarginsfollowingcontingencies. However,itcertainlycanbeusedforRANKINGcontingencies.Onemight considerhavingaquickapproximationandalongexactriskcalculation. 79

Somecommentsaboutalternatives Greene,etal.,alsoproposeaquadraticsensitivity which requirescalculationofasecondordertermLpp .Thisisused togetherwiththelinearsensitivityaccordingto

Itrequiressignificantlymorecomputationbutcanprovidegreater accuracyoveralargerrangeofp. InvariantSubspaceParameticSensitivity(ISPS)byAjjarapu. Advantages:


basedondifferentialalgebraicmodel providessensitivitiesatANYpointonthePVcurve
80

1 L = L p p + L pp (p ) 2 * 2 *