Researches and Applications in Mechanical Engineering (RAME) Volume 2 Issue 1, March 2013
Thermal Sinusoidal Vibration and Transient Response of Magnetostrictive Functionally Graded Material Plates without Shear Effects
C.C. Hong
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung, 412 Taiwan, ROC
Abstract
The study of laminated magnetostrictive functionally graded material (FGM) plate without shear deformation under thermal sinusoidal vibration and transient response is calculated by using the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. In the thermoelastic stressstrain relations that containing a powerlaw function of a twomaterial FGM plate , the linear temperature rise and the magnetostrictive coupling terms with velocity feedback control. Four edges of rectangular laminate d TerfenolD FGM plate with simply supported boundary conditions are considered. The suitable product value of coil constant and control gain can be used to reduce the amplitude of center displacement into a smaller value .
Keywords
Magnetostrictive; FGM; Shear Deformation; Thermal Vibration; GDQ; Velocity Feedback Control
Introduction
is
usually made of different phases constituent materials, for example, the ceramic and metal used in
withstand
the
Typical functionally
graded
material
to
(FGM)
engine
combustion
chamber
ultrahightemperature and 
to 
reduce 
the 
stress 
singularities, respectively. Chi 
and Chung 
(2006) 
presented the mechanical analysis
subjected to transverse load. There were several
of FGM plates
studies 
in 
the 
transverse 
displacements 
for 
the 

laminated 
plate 
including 
the 
shear deformation 
effect. Amabili and Farhadi (2009) made the research of the shear deformable versus classical theories for nonlinear vibrations of rectangular isotropic and laminated composite plates. The overprediction of natural frequencies in the solution without shear deformation was found. Ray and Shivakumar (2009)
the
analyzed the effect
of
shear
deformation
on
piezoelectric fiberreinforced composite plate by using the finite element method (FEM). Nguyen et al. (2008) obtained the static numerical results for the FGM plate with the effect of shear deformation.
Magnetostrictive material TerfenolD has the magnetoelectric coupling property under the action of magnetism and mechanism. Hong (2009) used the computational generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method to study the transient responses of magnetostrictive plates under thermal vibration. Thermal stresses and center displacement with and without shear effect were calculated in the thin and thick plate, respectively. Ramirez et al. (2006) obtained the free vibration solution for magnetoelectroelastic laminates through the Ritz approach. Lee and Reddy (2005) analyzed the nonlinear response of laminated plate of magnetostrictive material under thermomechanical loading by using the FEM. Lee et al. (2004) obtained the transient vibration values of displacement for the TerfenolD plate including the effect of shear deformation by using the FEM. Hong (2007) used the GDQ method to make the thermal vibration study for the TerfenolD magnetostrictive laminated plate with the firstorder shear deformation. Hong (2012) used the GDQ method to make the TerfenolD FGM plate analyses under rapid heating induced vibration with the shear deformation effect. It is interesting to study thermal vibration of the transverse center displacement and thermal stress in the Terfenol D FGM plate without the shear deformation effect by using the GDQ method.
Formulation 

FGM 

Most 
materials 
of FGM 
can 
be 
used 
in 
the 
environment of higher temperature 
and 
can 
be 
11
Researches and Applications in Mechanical Engineering (RAME) Volume 2 Issue 1, March 2013
expressed in 
series 
form 
as 
follows 
by 
Chi and 
Chung (2006). 
κ fgm
(
=κ +κ
2
1
)/ 2
.
(3e)
where _{E} is the Young’s modulus, _{ν} is the
is the thermal
expansion coefficients, _{κ} is the thermal conductivity,
the subscript _{f}_{g}_{m} represents the FGM plate, the
m subscripts 1 and 2 represent the constituent material
1 and 2, respectively. The property terms
=
n
m
∑
P
fgm
PV
i
i
n
. Poisson’s ratio, _{ρ}
is the density, _{α}
i = 1
is the material properties of FGM,
(1)
where
is the number of materials mixed to form the FGM,
P
fgm
E
1
E
2
V i is the volume fractions, and
n
m
∑
V
i
= 1
for all
ν
1
ν
2
ρ
1
ρ
2
α
1
α
2
κ 1 are expressed
κ
2
i = 1
corresponding to term
P
i
in equation (2).
constituent materials,
P i is the individual
constituent material properties, usually with the form as follows.
GDQ Method
derivatives
(
x
i
,
y
j
)
of
The GDQ method approximates the derivative of
. function, and the firstorder and the secondorder
coordinates
_{(}_{i}_{,} _{j}_{)} can be discretized in
as
P
_{i} =
P
0
(
P
−
1
T
−
1
+ 1 +
P , P
0
−
1
, P , P
1
2
_{T}
PT
1
and
+
P T
2
P
3
2
+
P T
3
are
)
(2)
the
3
function
f
*
(
x
,
y
)
at
in
temperature coefficients, environment.
which
of grid point
is the temperature of
series forms by Shu and Du (1997 ) and rewritten follows:
= 2)
We denote the parameters for a twomaterial (
FGM plate as follows. _{a} and _{b} is the length in the
_{x} , _{y} direction of the plate, _{h} ^{*} is the total thickness
of magnetostrictive layer and FGM plate,
thickness of magnetostrictive layer,
are the thickness of FGM material 1 and FGM material 2, respectively, _{p} _{1} and _{p} _{2} are the inplane distributed forces, _{q} is the applied pressure load.
The sum of volume fractions is in the form :
n
m
h
3
and
is the
h
2
h
1
V
1
+ V = 1
2
, the variation form of
V
2
= (
z
V
+ h / 2
2
)
powerlaw function is
h
used in the
R
n
, where
_{z}
is the thickness of
FGM plate,
material properties for equation (1) can be assumed for the simple calculation and expressed as follows by Hong (2012).
is the powerlaw index. And the
is the thickness coordinate,
_{h}
R
n
E
fgm
=
(
E
2
−
E
1
)(
z
+
h / 2
h
)
R
n
+
E
1
,
(
ν =ν +ν
fgm
2
1
ρ
fgm
α
fgm
= (
ρ +ρ
2
1
(
=α +α
2
1
(3a)
,
(3b)
,
(3c)
,
) / 2
)/ 2
)/ 2
(3d) 

shear 
stresses 
and 
shear 
strains 
in 
the 
laminate 
i
,
i
,
j
j
≈
N
∑ A
l = 1
(1)
i , l
≈
M
∑
m = 1
B
(1)
j , m
f
f
*
l
, j
,
(4a)
*
i m
,
,
(4b)
2
*
∂
f
2
i
,
j
∂
x
≈ 
N 

∑ A 
(2) 
f 
* 

i , l 
l 
, j 
, 

l = 1 

(4c) 

2
*
∂
f
2
i
,
j
∂
y
≈ 
M 

∑ B 
(2) 
i , m 

j , m 
, 

m = 1 

(4d) 

2
*
∂
f
∂∂
x
y
( m
and
B i
, j )

i 
, 
j 
≈ N M ∑ ∑ A (1) i l , B 
(1) j , m 
l , m 
. 

l = 1 
m = 1 

(4e) 

where 
, _{j} ^{)} ( m _{A} _{i} 
denote the weighting 

coefficients 
for 
the _{m} th order 
derivative 
of 
the 

function 
f 
* 
( 
x 
, 
y 
) with 
respect to 
_{x} 
and 
_{y} 

directions. 
Thermo
Magnetostrictive Effect
We
magnetostrictive FGM plate of the length a, b in the _{x} ,
Elastic
StressStrain
a
Relations
with
consider
rectangular
laminated
uniformly
distributed load and thermal effect. There are no
without shear effect assumption. The plane stresses
_{y}
direction,
respectively,
under
12
Researches and Applications in Mechanical Engineering (RAME) Volume 2 Issue 1, March 2013
in a laminated FGM plate with magnetostrictive
effect
following
equations by Lee and Reddy (2005):
for
the
_{k} ^{t}^{h}
layer
are
in
the
ε ,ε
x
y
and
ε
xy
are
Q
16
the
= Q = Q = 0
26
inplane
.
(6d)
strains,
45
σ
σ
x
y
σ
xy
(
k
)
=
Q
Q
11
Q
12
16
Q
12
Q
22
Q
16
Q
26
ε
ε
∆ T
x
y
− − ∆ T
α
x
y
α
∆T = T x y t +
(
,
)
z
h
*
T
1
(
x
,
y
,
t )
_{i}_{j}
is the temperature
0
,
difference between the FGM plate and curing area,
_{z} is the coordinate in the thickness direction, _{h} ^{*} is
the
magnetostrictive
magnetic field intensity, expressed in the following
(2004),
feedback
equation
_{e} ^{~} is the transformed
is the
Q
26
Q
0
0
0
−
66
(
k
0
0
0
)
ε
~
e
~
e
~
e
xy
31
32
36
− ∆ T
α
xy
(
k
)
0
0
~
H
z
(
(
k
k
)
)
z
plate
total
(
x
,
y t
,
) =
by
k
c
~
I
(
x
,
y t
,
~
I
(
thickness,
coupling
Lee
~
I
(
x
,
y t
,
)
) =
( )
c t
∂ w
∂ t
modulus,
et
with
~
H
z
(5)
_{α} _{y} are the coefficients of thermal
expansion, _{α} _{x}_{y} is the coefficient of thermal shear,
where _{α} _{x} and
al.
velocity
~
H
control
, in which
k
is the coil
c
_{Q} _{i}_{j} is the stiffness of magnetostrictive FGM plate,
as
the simpler 

follows. 



B 

Where 
f , f 1 2 
11
A
A
11
16
+
B
16
=
, f
f
1
f
2
f
3
FGM are
Q
11
=
Q
22
Q
12
Q
=
16
A
=
B
A
16
55
2
12
+
A
+
B
12
Q
66
+
66
B
2
u
0
∂
2
u
0
∂∂ x y
=
66
∂
=
=
1
0
0
0
1
0
ν
+ν
fgm
)
,
(6c)
A
A
66
26
+
B
∂
26
2
v
0
B
2
∂
x
0
2
A
A
16
0
66
v = v
0
(
B
12
∂
2
v
A
+
0
∂
y
2
x
,
x
,
y , t
in
)
+
A
12
2
B
66
A
26
+
66
2
∂
2
w
∂
x
2
y t
,
the
B
26
∂
2
B
w
∂∂ x y
+ H
0
0
1
A
A
26
22
26
+
B
22
∂
2
w
_{(}
∂
y
0
0
1
p
1
_{,}
2
t
0
0
0
2
0
_{)}
0
0
0
forms
of
_{Q} _{i}_{j} for
given
E fgm
constant,
control gain.
)
is the coil current, _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)} is the
Dynamic Equilibrium Differential Equations
, Without shear deformation effect, the time dependent of tangential displacement equations is
1 −ν
2
fgm
(6a)
fgm
E
fgm
assumed
and the transverse displacement
equation of the middleplane is assumed in the form:
_{w} _{=} _{w}_{(}_{x}_{,} _{y}_{,}_{t}_{)} in which t is time. The dynamic
equilibrium differential equations in terms of displacements including the magnetostrictive loads are expressed in the following matrix forms by Hong
(2009):
forms:
u = u
0
(
x
,
y , t
)
1 −
ν fgm
2
,
(6b)
E fgm
2(1
Q
44
0
0
0
16
66
+
∂
2
B
v
∂∂ x y
2
∂
B
2
u
66
0
∂
y
2
0
0
− 1
t
2
∂
x
2
∂ u
∂
∂ v
t
t
t
2
2
0
∂
2
∂ w
2
∂
2
∂ u
∂
v
∂
∂ t
2
0
2
p
2
_{,}
q
+
ρ
(7)
3
are the expressions of thermal loads
_{(}_{N} _{,} _{M} _{)} , mechanical loads
and
magnetostrictive loads
~
(N
,
~
M )
,
14
Researches and Applications in Mechanical Engineering (RAME) Volume 2 Issue 1, March 2013
(
N
x
,
M
x
)
(
N
y
(
N
xy
,
M
y
)
,
M
xy
f
1
f
2
=
=
=
h
*
∫−
2
h
*
2
h
*
= ∫−
2
h
*
2
(
(
)
=
h
*
∫−
2
h
*
2
∂
N
x
∂
x
+
∂
N
xy
∂
y
∂
N
xy
∂
x
+
∂
N
y
∂
y
+
+
p
p
1
2
+
+
~
N
∂
x
+
~
N
∂
xy
∂
x
N ~
∂
xy
∂
x
+
∂
y
N ~
∂
y
∂
y
,
,
∆T
= [
T
0
(
x
,
w
=
y
) +
w
z
(
h
*
x
,
y
) sin(ω
mn
t
),
(8c)
T ( x, y)]sin( t )
1
γ
.
(8d)
f
3
=
∂
M
x
∂
x
+ 2
+
∂
~
M
x
∂
x
Q
11
α +
x
Q
12
α +
y
∂
M
xy
+
∂
M
y
where the term _{ω} _{m}_{n} is the natural frequency of
plate, _{γ} is the frequency of applied heat flux.
∂
y
+ 2
∂
~
M
xy
∂
y
∂
y
+
∂
~
M
y
∂
y
Q
16
α
xy
)(
T
0
,
z
z
h
*
T
1
)
+ q
We apply the weighting coefficients of discretized
, equations (4) in the twodimensional GDQ method to
discrete the differential equations (7). And we use the
following nondimensional parameters under sinusoidal temperature
dz
(T _{0} = 0,
T
1
= T
1
sin(
π x
/
a
) sin(
π y
/
b
)
).
Q
12 α
x
(
Q
16
α
x
+ Q
22
α y
+
Q
26
α
y
~
( N
x
~
( N
y
,
,
~
M
x
~
M
y
)
)
=
=
+ Q
26
α xy
)(
T
0
,
+
Q
66
α
xy
)(
h
*
∫−
*
2
h
h
2
*
∫−
*
2
h
~
e
31
~
e
32
H
z
H
z
T
0
(1,
(1,
,
z
z
z
z
h *
z
h
*
,
T 1 )
dz
,
T
1
,
)
dz
2
)
dz
,
z
2
)
dz
,
= x / a ,
(9a)
Y = y /b,
(9b)
,
(9c)
,
(9d)
.
(9e)
Thus, we can obtain the dynamic discretized matrix
equations as in the paper by Hong (2009).
X
U
=
u
0
/ a
/b
0
=
10
V v
=
*
h w
/(
α
x
T a
1
2
)
W
2
(
A
ij
,
B
ij
,
D
ij
)
=
~
( N
h
*
∫−
*
2
h
2
xy
,
~
M
xy
)
Q
ij
(1,
z
,
=
z
2
h
*
∫−
*
2
h
2
) dz
~
e
36
H
z
(1,
z
2
)
dz
,
_{,}
(i, j = 1,2,6),
(
ρ
,
H
)
=
h
*
∫−
*
2
h
2
ρ
0
(1,
z ) dz
.
in which
the inplane distributed forces,
pressure load.
ρ
0
is the density of ply,
_{q}
_{p} _{1} and
is
_{p} _{2} are
the applied
Dynamic Discretized Equations
Without the shear deformation effect and under the following vibration of time sinusoidal displacement and temperature:
u
v
= [
=
[
u
v
0
0
(
(
x
x
,
,
y
y
)]sin(
t
ω
mn
,
(8a)
,
(8b)
)
)]sin(
ω
mn
t
)
Some Numerical Results and Discussions
We like to consider the FGM plate consisting of two
materials, of which the FGM material 1 is SUS304
(Stainless
(Silicon Nitride). The temperaturedependent
used to calculate
coefficients
Steel),
P , P
0
the
FGM
material
P
3
2
is
Si N
3
4
−
1
, P , P
1
2
and
material property terms, and
E
1
E
2
ν
1
ν ρ
2
1
ρ
2
α
1
α
2
and
κ 1 of these two typical
κ
2
constituent materials are listed in Table 1 by Shariyat
(2008). The upper surface magnetostrictive layer of
the threelayer _{(}_{0} _{/} _{0} _{/} _{0} _{)}
under four sides simply supported is considered, the
superscript of _{m} denotes magnetostrictive layer.
The elastic modules, material conductivity and
specific heat of the TerfenolD magnetostrictive material are used the same value as in the paper by Hong (2007). We use the grid points for the GDQ
computation as in the following coordinates:
laminates FGM plate
°
m
°
°
14
Researches and Applications in Mechanical Engineering (RAME) Volume 2 Issue 1, March 2013
^{x}
i
= 0.5[1
−
cos(
i
N
− 1
− 1
π )]
,
a i
= 1,2,
, N
,
(10a)
^{y} j
=
0.5[1
−
cos(
j − 1
M − 1
b
π )] ,
j
=
1,2,
,
M
.
(10b)
The dynamic convergence results are obtained for
center displacement amplitude _{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)}
without shear effects in the thermal vibration of
sinusoidal temperature only (T _{0} _{=} _{0}_{,}
time
shape
_{T}
1
= 100
°
mode
_{K} ,
_{p} _{1} =
_{m} _{=} _{n} _{=} _{1} , with
_{p} _{2} = _{q} _{=} _{0} )
at
t =
6s,
value
control
gain
_{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)} _{=} _{0} ,
c
aspect ratio
ratio
_{a} _{/} _{b} _{=}
0.5, 1 and 2, sidetothickness
mm,
,
a / h
3
= 1
(unit
h
T
= 300
mm)
_{2}_{1}_{×} _{2}_{1}
*
=
100, 50, 20, 10
mm,
h
1
=
h
2
=
°
K
. Table
in
the
2
grid
shows
point
29 × 29 and
and 5,
0.1
the
h
mm,
*
= 1.2
R
n
= 1
_{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)}
_{N} _{×} _{M} = _{1}_{7} _{×}_{1}_{7} 33 × 33 of GDQ
25 × 25
method for the laminated TerfenolD FGM plate at
time _{t} _{=} _{6} s. We find the _{N} _{×} _{M} = _{3}_{3} _{×} _{3}_{3} grid
point have the good _{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)} convergence
result and use further in the GDQ analyses of time
responses for displacement and stress for 20 and 100.
of applied heat
TerfenolD
1s,
frequency
We obtain the lowest frequency _{γ}
= 5,
a / h
*
flux
FGM
and
plate
vibration
ω
11
time
of
t =
( _{m} _{=} _{n} _{=} _{1} ), at
0.001s,
2s,…and
9s,
_{N} _{×} _{M}
=
_{3}_{3} _{×} _{3}_{3} ,
_{h} ^{*} =
1.2
mm,
h
3
= 1
mm,
h
1
=
h 0.1 mm,
2
=
_{a} _{/} _{b} _{=} _{1} ,
_{q} _{=} _{0} ,
shown in
Table 3. For the magnetic coil constant
the _{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)} (unit mm) of vibration under the
constant gain value _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)} = 1, time _{t} = 6 s,
without shear, we obtain the sketch of _{w}_{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)}
vs.
R
n
= 1 ,
T
= 653
°
K ,
T
1
= 100
°
K
,
as
k
c
effect on
a
/
h
*
=
5
k
c
as shown in Fig. 1. The suitable product
and _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)} can be used to reduce the
_{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)} into a smaller value
value of 
k 
c 
amplitude 
of 
_{w}
near 0.00, there is an amplitude peak value at _{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)}
= 7.16E08, we find _{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)} = 1.56E09 for
c
a
/
h
*
=
5
c
thick plate can be chosen as the best suitable product values.
Firstly, thermal sinusoidal vibration is investigated with time step equal to 0.1s, the suitable chosen
product _{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)}
of coil constant and controlled gain
c
values 
versus 
time 
t 
for 
R 
n 

a 
/ 
h 
* 
= 5 
and thin plate 
a 

T 
= 
653 
° 
K , as shown in Table 4. 
= 1
/
*
h
, thick
=
plate
at
20, 100
Fig. 2 shows the _{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)} (unit mm) versus
time t of GDQ method for the laminated Terfenol D
FGM plate
without shear effects. At time t = 0.001s, there is a
great amplitude value of displacement with
uncontrolled value ( _{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)}
,
plate
_{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,} _{b} _{/} _{2}_{)} = 0.22975 mm for thin
of
are
smaller than the amplitudes of _{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)} with
0.156429 mm for
, 20 and 100, respectively
a
/
h
*
=
5
= 0), w (a / 2,b / 2) =
plate
mm
for
a
/
h
*
thin
=
5
the
amplitudes
_{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)}
c
values
c
thick
_{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)} = 4.31174
a h
/
*
plate
=
a
/
20
h
*
,
=
_{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)}
100
.
with
We
find
controlled
uncontrolled value ( _{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)} = 0), generally by using
c
the GDQ method. We can use the suitable product
to reduce the amplitude
values of controlled _{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)}
c
of _{w} _{(}_{a} _{/} _{2}_{,}_{b} _{/} _{2}_{)} into a smaller value near 0.00.
Fig. 3 shows the time response of the dominated
dimensional stress
of upper surface
for the laminated TerfenolD FGM plate
20 and 100, respectively without shear effects
. We find the maximum
response values of
and 20,
controlled _{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)}
case are almost equal to the
response values of
uncontrolled case ( _{k} _{c}_{(}_{t}_{)} = 0), generally by using the
GDQ method.
Fig. 4 shows the compared nondimensional
, 20 and 100
without / with shear effects, for TerfenolD FGM plate, at time t = 6s, _{m} _{=} _{n} _{=} _{1}_{,} _{N} _{×} _{M} = _{3}_{3} _{×} _{3}_{3}
for the case of without shear and _{1}_{7} _{×}_{1}_{7} for the
=
,
0. In the shear
effect case, we use the YNS firstorder shear deformation theory for the time dependent of displacement field, the value for shear correction
and
σ
x
=
c
σ
x (unit GPa) at center position
Z = 0.5h
*
with respective to time
a
/
h
*
=
5
,
σ
xy
= 0
σ
x
= 9.13E04GPa for
a
/
h
*
=
5
for
a
/
h
*
=
100
with
= 9.12E04GPa with
9.12E04GPa
σ
x
c
a
/
h
*
=
5
α
xy
= 0
W(X ,b 2,6) versus X of
case of with shear, _{h} ^{*} = 1.2 mm,
h
2
T
=
0.1
= 653
°
mm,
K
,
T
1
_{a} _{/} _{b} _{=} _{1}
= 100
°
K ,
,
h
3
= 1
mm,
R
n
h
1
= 1
_{q} _{=} _{0}
,
k c(t)
c
=
15
Researches and Applications in Mechanical Engineering (RAME) Volume 2 Issue 1, March 2013
used in the dynamic
equilibrium differential equations by Hong (2012).
For
of
without
shear case are smaller than that with shear case. The maximum value _{W}_{(}_{X} _{,}_{b} _{2}_{,}_{6}_{)} = 0.0821655 occurs at
coefficients
k
α
=
k
β
plate
= 5 / 6
a
/
h
*
the
thick
=
5
the
_{X}
values
, displacement _{W}_{(}_{X} _{,}_{b} _{2}_{,}_{6}_{)} versus
_{X} = 0.5 of the with shear case, and _{W}_{(}_{X} _{,}_{b} _{2}_{,}_{6}_{)} =
0.0325304 occurs at _{X} = 0.691342 of the without
, the values
shear case. For the thin plate
of displacement
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