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Joes pain & fear, Simons personality

Fear: 1. Speculates on feature using modals Simon would be ripped off the mountain 2. Use of Direct speech to express fear and try to calm himself 3. Rhetorical questions e.g. Alone? 4. His reactions, I screamed 5. Ellipsis when trying to reassure himself if maybe Ive just ripped something 6. Very vivid visual imagery to convey panic teetering on the edge of panic. 7. Short sentences & ! express both pain and fear as though he is gasping for breath. Pain: 1. Metaphor~ pain flooded, fierce, burning fire 2. Power of three~ ruptured, twisted, crushed emphasizes extent of injury 3. Use of sound words~ bone grated makes pain very real. 4. Very vivid visual description of leg~ grotesque distortion 5. Alliteration~ searing spasm we can almost hear the pain 6. Very direct strong blunt language to convey reality of situation~ the impact had driven my lower leg. Simons personality: 1. Logical~ decides Joe had stopped moving because of an obstacle. 2. Cautious~ I began...cautiously 3. Prepared~ I kept tensed up 4. Dispassionate~ My immediate thought come without any emotion 5. Realistic~ Youre dead 6. Appears unsympathetic~ He looked pathetic 7. Rational~ use of modals to speculate on future, I could get down 8. Sees situation clearly~ use of !-no two ways about it! 9. Calm~ short, clear sentences- I think he knew it too. I could see it on gis face Reminders: 1. Skip 1-2 lines 2. No evidence in topic sentences 3. Topic in writing!

Iron, sarcasm, satire

Irony Implies the opposite of what is said Intention: opposite/ hidden meaning to be understood by the readers Tone: conveys the meaning Example: in a empty cinema- fortunately we booked Sarcasm Occurs when one thing is said, but something else is intended/ understood Purpose: to express of hurting, insulting, humiliating, mean, readers feel bad Example: weakest student- worked very hard Satire Sharp wit, irony or sarcasm used to highlight, expose or ridicule human, social or political weaknesses or stupidities, satirize people Aim: to change the situation, educate and entertain through humour Often used in plays, cartoons, politics and comic strips Example: Boys& explorers

A Hero
Summary: the story is very economically and dynamically told. Ironic humour is central to its impact. It is important for students to think about these points, and about how R K Narayan engages our interest and shapes our response to the story, through use of language (including dialogue), the structure of the story and so on. There are many examples of stylistic features, but it is less important for students to show knowledge of technical terms than to show how these work to further the writers purposes. A good understanding of the central characters is also essential, and of the themes, which include family relationships, growing up and differing concepts of courage. Nature of the Socio-cultural Contexts in R. K. Narayans Novels Through his novels R. K. Narayan portrayed Indian society and culture as he viewed them.Within the Indian society, his primary focus was on the Tamil and South Indian Hindu society. For demonstrating the socio-cultural pattern in the Tamil community (especially the Tamil Brahmin community), he created the world of Tamil atmosphere by giving Tamil and other familiar South Indian names to his characters, like Swami, Purohit, Veena, Pooja, Malathi, Raju, Rajam, Pandit, Nataraj, Sastri, Lakshmi, Saraswathi, etc. The other names are Mani, Vasu, Sampath, Krishnan, Susila, etc. These names show that his focus was especially on Hindu way of life.Narayans novels have heroes like Swami and these are typically Indian Hindu names. The novels assume and reveals the notions, feelings, taboos and morals of Indian culture, mostly as portrayed through the Brahmin community. Womans Place in Society In Tamil society, a womans proper place is the house and the hearth. She must confine herself to the domestic duties and to give proper care to her husband and children in a bid to retain respect in the family and society. She must be a dutiful and loving wife and she must raise her children well. She must be submissive and cooperative and should tolerate the excesses and deviations of her husband from the conjugal norms. In The Dark Room, Savitri is furious with herself and the helplessness of the traditional Indian wives. Her outburst to express their miserable plight is touching. The Joint Family As a descriptive narrator of stories, Narayan portrays the joint family in several novels. It is difficult to brand Narayan as a supporter or opponent of the joint family system. Narayan writes from within a community where joint family has been the norm. Swaminathan, Chandran, Krishnan, Nataraj, Ramani, Raju, Sampath, Margayya, Jagan, Sriram and Raman, are usually the members of Hindu joint families. They have strong bonds and attachment to their protective parents, children, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, brothers and sisters. The individuals of Narayans novel grew up or grow up in the joint family environment and their characters are shaped by the overwhelming influence of the members of the joint family. The character has to defer to the decisions of the elders in his or her family, even in crucial matters like choosing a career and spouse. The family itself observes the age-old customs, traditions and beliefs of the Hindu religion. But Narayan does portray the problems and inconvenience of the joint family system as well, at least in some small measure in a humorous way. For example, Rajus mother serves food to the maternal uncles in different rooms to avoid clashes

Explorers or boys messing about? Either way, taxpayer gets rescue bill
Explorers or boys messing about? Explorers suggests bravery but boys messing about implies that the explorers did something immature, creates question as to whether the explorers are experienced/ irresponsible.

Either way, taxpayer gets rescue bill Taxpayer- Reference to audience makes readers keen to read. Shortened title to make it stand out more. Bill- Change the focus of the story from accident to paying for the boys messing about Their last expedition ended in farce when the Russians threatened to send in military planes to intercept them as they tried to cross into Siberia via the icebound Bering Strait. The writer starts by explaining about previous failures making this biased and highlights the mens irresponsibility to influence, pursuade readers. Planes- excessive measures for 2 men Yesterday a new adventure undertaken by British explorers Steve Brooks and Quentin Smith almost led to tragedy when their helicopter plunged into the sea off Antarctica. Yesterday- time connective to put a chronological order to the story. Plunged- dramatic line The men were plucked from the icy water by a Chilean naval ship after a nine-hour rescue which began when Mr Brooks contacted his wife, Jo Vestey, on his satellite phone asking for assistance. Shows the length of the rescue and the difficulty taken to rescue them. Commas used to separate important people in article. The rescue involved the Royal Navy, the RAF and British coastguards. 1. Using a life creates a multiplying effect to show how many powerful forces (resources) were required to rescue these 2 men (expanding effect) 2. Triad

Last night there was resentment in some quarters that the men's adventure had cost the taxpayers of Britain and Chile tens of thousands of pounds. Night- Time connective taxpayers- taxpayers relate to readers making them feel angry Britain and Chile- excessive forces required to rescue 2 men tens of thousands of pounds- emphasis on the amount of money required to pay for these people (anger in readers mind) Experts questioned the wisdom of taking a small helicopter - the four-seater Robinson R44 has a single engine - into such a hostile environment. Helps add information to the article (provoke readers) hostile environment- Bad judgment by the men, highlighing their irresponsibility, miscalculation (irony) But Ms Vestey claimed she did not know what the pair were up to, describing them as "boys messing about with a helicopter." Shows the wifes unsupportiveness and her confusion in what they were trying to achieve The drama began at around 1am British time when Mr Brooks, 42, and 40-year-old Mr Smith, also known as Q, ditched into the sea 100 miles off Antarctica, about 36 miles north of Smith Island, and scrambled into their liferaft. Long sentences to help describe people and lots of punctuation is used. She said: "He said they were both in the liferaft but were okay and could I call the emergency people?" 1. Immature 2. Unable to appreciate the gravity of situation 3. Wrong tense Meanwhile, distress signals were being beamed from the ditched helicopter and from Mr Brooks' Breitling emergency watch, a wedding present. Meanwhile- time connective Watch- shows that they have some preparation but this is not emphasized

The signals from the aircraft were deciphered by Falmouth coastguard and passed on

to the rescue coordination centre at RAF Kinloss in Scotland. The use of different countries show the big impact this small event has had on countries (Britain, Chile, Scotland...) The Royal Navy's ice patrol ship, HMS Endurance, which was 180 miles away surveying uncharted waters, began steaming towards the scene and dispatched its two Lynx helicopters. The efficiency of the British Navy making them look professional compared to the men. Though the pair wore survival suits and the weather at the spot where they ditched was clear, one Antarctic explorer told Mr Brooks' wife it was "nothing short of a miracle" that they had survived. survival suits- shows some more preparation but this is only mentioned in an off and manner without muck emphasis and is surrounded by other information which is criticizing their actions. Both men are experienced adventurers. Balances the attack on them. However is later undermined by Despite (a twist) which suggests that all their expertise was put to no use and that these boys dont learn from previous mistakes (dilute heavy attack on them) Author: give credits to explorers, being very kind.

Despite their experience, it is not the first time they have hit the headlines for the wrong reasons. Counter arguments to the information that redeemed them above But they were forced to call a halt after the Russian authorities told them they would scramble military helicopters to lift them off the ice if they crossed the border. Halt- emphasis on their failure

Stanza 1 wheeled chair Indirectly implies passivity, impotency, entrapment and inability. waiting for dark Suggests the passive action of waiting, probably signifies waiting for death/ waiting to die Mood created: gloomy, dark, negative, poignant and regretful shivered A strong and negative verb which embodies fear & weakness Ghastly suit of grey Again the colour scheme of the poem is dark & greyish, dull and lifeless Ghastly- terrifying, like an empty/ hollow shell Voices of boys, voices of play & pleasures Symbolize the fun & entertainment, the carefree life that he will never be able to experience again A nostalgic mood is created through the repetition of voiced Alliteration- play & pleasure, vibrant, energetic Despite dreadful injuries he takes pleasure from the boys playing Stanza 2 Used to Flashback/ nostalgic swing so gay Fun & youth, happy & joyful glow- lamps, budded and light- blue trees Vibrant, joyful, happy, energetic, youthful imagery Contrasted with the gloomy picture in the 1st stanza, further shows/ exphasises how negative & pessimistic man he is, because he cant enjoy this

girls , he will never feel again how slim girls waists are and how warm their subtle hands Again, nostalgically he sighs for the inability to enjoy womens company anymore. For a man, this almost means another kind of disability, a loss of masculinity Physical impairment and psychological impairment (Title: disabled) Final stabbing line: the girls touched him like some queer disease Alienation, isolation, lack of confidence, being marginalised, acknowledge Queer- gay, social displacement, in minority, lack of sense of belonging Stanza 3 Appearing to be aging, losing youth Lost his colour Description of his appearance his back will never brace Back injury, cant sit up straight, lack of confidence Symbolises physically and psychologically loss of pride & confidence Stanza 4 He was gifted footballer a blood- smear down his leg Injured in the match after the matches carried shoulder- high Wasnt scared of injuries, only through of glory and pride war wound Only in boys minds look a god in kilts Looking good in a soldiers uniform Attractive, appearance

to please his Meg To woo women, thinking that women love men who go to the war he asked to join Active, voluntary Escprit de corps A feeling of pride in the group to which one belongs (french) To be a member, a part of the majority Herd instinct Fear of being different Stanza 5 his lie He was so eager, willing to lie about his age to enter the war Never thought of serious situation, the enemies, the danger and the fear The danger and fear is unknown jewelled hilts, daggers, smart salutes, drum and cheers All the superficial benefits or attractions of being a soldier Popularity, pride, the weapons and appearance, the image he got Unrealistic, illusion Stanza 6 only a solemn man, thanked him Not the welcoming that he wanted, expected Not glorious, not glamorous the man inquired about his soul Again enchoing his mental impairment Stanza 7 few sick years Intensifying the sadness and helplessness pity Passive and pathetic

noticed how the womens eye passed from him to the strong men that were whole Incomplete, important, traumatized, abnormal, empty, inferior, undesirable Girls view post- war soldier in horror or embarrassment he is imcomplete cold and late Atmosphere, mood Repetition of why dont they come and put him into bed Needy, babyish, suicidal, bleak, belitted Wants to end the torment temporarily Meeds mothering or wants to escape The repeated rhetorical question show how much he wished to get away from the sights and thoughts which have been troubling him end of day End of life