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King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

Hafr Al-Batin Community College

Co-op Training Program

In

Saudi Aramco

Juaymah Gas Plant

Expansion Division

Final Report

Prepared by:

Maitham Hussain Helal Al-Mubarak

ID No # 21112

Co-op Advisor:

Mr. Michael Beacher

Mechanical Engineering Technology

Contents:

Topic:……………………………………………………

……………

…………………Page

No.

Acknowledgment

5

Summary………………………………………………………………….….…………6

Objectives……………………………………………………………………… …

7

Safety Rules……………………………………………………………….….………

8

Introduction

9&10

My Work During Co-op

1. Use of Piping & Instrument Diagrams.………………

…….………11

2. Fabrication shop……

…………………………………………

13

3. Tie-ins………….……………………………….…………….…

…15

A. Cold cut & normal Tie-ins…………………………………

 

15

1. Socket-Weld Fitting………………………….…

15

2. Butt-Weld Fitting…………………………………

16

B. Hot Tap & Stopple…………………….…

17

4. Heat Exchangers

………………………

26

A. Shell and tube heat exchangers……

26

B. Double pipe heat exchangers……………………………

28

C. Induced draft Air-Cooled heat exchangers……

30

5. Post weld heat treatment…………………….……………………….…

31

6. Positive material identification…………………………….……

 

33

7. Pumps

…………………………………………………….……….…

34

A. Centrifugal pumps……………………………………

………………34

B. Positive displacement pumps………………………………….….…

44

8. Valves.……………………………….………

48

Conclusion………………………………………………………………….………

49

References…………………………………………………………………

50

List of Figures:

Topic:

Page No

Figure (1): P&ID…………………………………………………………… …….………11

Figure (2): Spool before fabrication ……………………………………………… …… 14

Figure (3): Spool after fabrication ……………………………………………… ……

14

Figure (4): Butt weld …………………………………………………………….… …

16

Figure (5): (UT) Reading sheet …………………………………………….….…

18

Figure (6): Hot tap calculation sheet ……………………………………….……

19

Figure (7): Types of hot tap ………………………………………………….…

20

Figure (8): Hot tap machine ……………………………………………………………

21

Figure (9): Hot tap cutting tools……………………………………………………

…21

Figure (10): Hot tap completed………………………………………………….…

……21

Figure (11): Stopple components…………………………………………………

….….22

Figure (12): Stopple machine………………………………………………….…

23

Figure (13): By pass procedure…………………………………………… ……… ……24

Figure (14): Shell & Tube heat exchanger……………………………………… …

26

Figure (15): Pin hole………………….…………………………………….……

…… 27

Figure (16): Cover after machining………………………………………….……

….….27

Figure (17): Drill hole…………………………………………………….……

……….27

Figure (18): Support plates with out tubes……………………………….………

…… 27

Figure (19): Tube bundle………………

……………………………….…….….…

…27

Figure (20): Tube sheet with plastic…………………………………….……….…

27

Figure (21): Double pipe heat exchanger……………………………….…….……

28

Figure (22): Corrosion on the fins of the tube………………………………….… ….….29

Figure (23): Induced draft Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers…………………………………30

Figure (24): Programmer for post weld heat treatment……………………….…… ……31

Figure (25): Connection of equipment on welding area…………………….…… …

…31

Figure (26): Graph for post weld heat treatment…………………………….…….…

…32

Figure (27): Identify the material by using analysis…………

…………………….……33

Figure (28): Test result……….…………………………………………………….…… 33

Figure (29): Component of centrifugal pump……………………………………

….… 34

Figure (30): Vertically suspended, single casing, two stage, diffuser pump……….…… 35

Figure (31): Pump flow path………………………………………………………….…

35

Figure (32): Open suction bell to check the impeller……………………………….….…36

Figure (33): Check the crack………………………………………………………

…37

Figure (34): Vertically suspended, single casing, volute pump………………….….…….38

Figure (35): Sulphur solidifying on pump parts………………………………….…

39

Figure (36): Shaft alignment…………………………………………………….…

……39

Figure (37): Friction between impeller and wear ring……………………………

40

Figure (38): Vertically suspended, single casing, enclosed shaft, Axial-flow pump…… 41

Figure (39): Axial-flow impeller………………………………………………………….42

Figure (40): Heated the line-shaft coupling……………………………………………….42

Figure (41): Parts of the end suction pump……………………………………………….43

Figure (42): The shaft is broken………………………………………………………… 43

Figure (43): Three-screw pump…………………………………………………………

44

Figure (44): Parts of screw pump…………………………………………………………45

Figure (45): Problem on the inner housing…………………………………………….….45

Figure (46): Vacuum pump……………………………………………………………….46

Figure (47): The plat is broken……………………………………………………………46

Figure (48): Parts of booster pump……………………………………………………….47

Figure (49): Gate Valve………………………………………………………………… 48

Figure (50): Performed hydro-static test on valve……………………………………… 48

Acknowledgment:

For all people who wonderfully assisted me in Saudi Aramco, "Thank you"

seems inadequate to show how much their kindness and special care have meant. But

thought the words are simply, hope you know the great and the special warmth the

represent.

Thanks also to my supervisor and technicians for supporting, invaluable

assistance, guidance & working with me as a team member.

I also give my thanks to Hafr Al-Batin Community College for giving me the

opportunity to complete my co-op training.

I wish to express my special thanks to the Dean of the college and to Dr.Fouad

Attar for giving me the chance to work under his supervision. I'm grateful to Mr.

Michael Beacher for his help during co-op training period.

Summary:

This report covers the work I did in Saudi Aramco, JU’AYMAH GAS PLANT

during my Co-op Training Period from 18/2/2006 to 23/5/2006. This report summarizes

the skills that are needed by mechanical technicians. It explains the mechanical

procedures required to make mechanical work and maintenance on different areas of

the plant and equipments such as Piping & Instrument Diagrams, Fabrication, Piping

Tie-ins (Cold Cut & Normal Tie-ins, Hot Tap & Stopple), Heat Exchangers, Post weld

heat treatment, Positive material identification, Pumps, and Valves. In addition, I have

stated benefits I gained from different site like Heat Exchangers shop, maintenance

shop, and Fabrication shop.

Objectives:

My objectives in carrying out this training are:

1. To complement my theoretical studies in an Associate degree at HBCC with

Actual hands on field experience.

2. To learn and to assist in procedures that is done in the gas plant.

3. To learn how to work in a team and follow industrial safety procedures.

4. To gain practical experience in mechanical maintenance in the shop.

Safety Rules:

Saudi Aramco Company takes care about safety rules. They attend safety

orientation and familiarize with Project Management Team safety program to remind

employees about the important things such as:

1. The necessary Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for each employee:

a. Safety Shoes.

b. Helmets.

c. Goggles.

d. Ear Plugs.

2. Emergency Procedures

In an emergency, or if a “stop-work-alarm” sound:

a. Stop work.

b. Shut-down equipment.

c. Evacuate personnel to assembly points.

d. Account for every man.

e. Re-enter

work

area

only

company representative.

3. Emergency call:

with

permission

from

the

Give clear information when calling in an emergency:

a. Describe your exact location.

b. Explain the emergency and services needed.

c. Give your name and badge number.

d. Stay on phone, do not hang up!

Introduction:

The roots of Saudi Aramco go back nearly seven decades. In 1933, shortly after

Saudi Arabia was unified, the Government granted a concession to standard Oil of

California, who recognized the potential of oil as a valuable export commodity and a

source of revenue to begin building our nation. Standard Oil of California, the parent

company of Chevron, was joined later by several other major oil companies and the

venture became known as Aramco – the Arabian American Oil Company. In 1938,

after five long years of exploration, oil was discovered in commercial volume when a

well named Dammam Number 7, near today's headquarters in Dhahran, began to flow

and ushered in a new era for Saudi Arabia. Things moved quickly, and in 1939 King

Abd al-Aziz visited Ras Tanura to inaugurate the first shipload of Saudi crude oil ever

exported. The young Kingdom was now officially launched into the international

petroleum industry.

For many years much of the gas produced in association with crude oil was not

recovered because of economical and technical factors. The Saudi Arab Government in

1975 decided to gather and process the associated gasses for industrial use. It requested

Aramco to develop and utilize the Kingdom's major natural resource and to proceed

with the design construction and operation of the Master Gas System.

The Master Gas System not only makes possible full use of a key resource, but also

ensures a clean, relatively low-cost supply of fuel gas and feedstock's for the gigantic

industrial plants planned for both the Eastern and Western Provinces.

The Ju'aymah Gas Plant was brought on stream in 1980. It is designed to process C 2 +

NGL liquids from the new southern area NGL centers at the rate of 330,000 BPD, and

C 3 + NGL liquid from the Berri Gas Plant at the rate of 100,000 BPD. Overall plot size

of the Ju'aymah Gas Plant is more than 1,000 acres.

I started my co-op training from 18/2/2006 in Juaymah Gas Plant (Expansion

Division). I met Mr. Islam J. Al- Safwani (supervisor), he rotated and shows me all

parts of the plant and he teaches me the job assignment.

The following pages explain the work I did in the Ju'aymah Gas Plant where I

worked on:

Piping & Instrument Diagrams.

Fabrication shop.

Tie-ins.

Post weld heat treatment.

After that I went to mechanical shop and I worked on:

Heat exchangers.

Positive materials identification.

Pumps.

Valves.

Here is a summary of my work week-by week:

Week no.

Location & Activity

1

Registration with the company, security clearance and safety course.

2

P&ID, micro station, & UT Reading and Radiography.

3

Valve, Hot-Tap, and P&ID.

4

Hot-Tap/Stopple.

5

Fabrication Shop, Socket & Butt weld, and Cold cut.

6

Post weld heat treatment, positive material identification, Tie-in package, & planning meeting.

7

Tie-in package (Butt weld) & Hot-Tap.

8

Shell & tube Heat Exchangers and Double pipe Heat Exchangers. (Saturday was a company holiday)

9

Double pipe Heat Exchangers and Centrifugal pump(vertical type).

10

Rotary vane pump, booster pump, vertical pump, and End suction pump.

11

Air-cooled Heat Exchangers, Axial-flow pump.

12

Hot-Tap.

13

Hot-Tap, and Tie-ins package (Butt weld).

14

Valve and Positive material identification.

15

Tie-ins package (I also attended my graduation ceremony and took 1 day to close my training with the company).

1. Use of Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P&ID): ○ Description: Piping and Instrument Diagram

1. Use of Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P&ID):

Description:

Piping

and

Instrument

Diagram

details

all

Mechanical

equipment,

Instrumentation and Processes for a particular section of a plant. The Piping &

Instrument Diagram will show line sizes and equipment design information. However,

the drawing is only schematic and it does not show dimensions.

However, the drawing is only schematic and it does not show dimensions. Figure (1): P&ID for

Figure (1): P&ID for Utility Plant.

It used by Operation, Maintenance and Engineering. It is useful to show the pipe

routing and to see the changes for the new design.

Problems:

Wrong routing for the pipes for example: the pipe which normally going

to pump is shown going to equipment.

Wrong locations for fittings.

Activity:

I used P&ID in the plant with Mechanical Engineering from (19/2/2006) and

(1/3/2006) to find the location of hot tap or other things. I learned how to use it and

how to solve the problem.

2. Fabrication Shop:

Description:

Fabrication shop is a place where the pipes are fabricated by adding branches or

fittings like flanges.

Fabrication can be involved in the following steps:

1. Fit-up:

Fittings with pipe according to the Isometric drawing.

2. welding:

Hot path, First path & Second path.

3. X-ray:

Radiography of welded joints.

4. Sand blasting:

To clean the spool by using high pressure air.

5. Painting:

Primer & Top coat.

6. Hydro testing:

To hydro test the spool to make sure there is no leak.

Problems:

Weld defects.

Leak during the hydro-static test.

Activity:

I worked with fabrication group for a week from (11/3/2006) to (13/3/2006) in

the shop and we made many of spools with different size and design depend on

isometric and we test them, after that we take them to the site to install them.

isometric and we test them, after that we take them to the site to install them.

Figure (2): Spool before fabrication.

isometric and we test them, after that we take them to the site to install them.

Figure (3): Spool after Fabrication by adding one more branch.

3. Tie-Ins:

It is connection of new pipe with existing pipe.

There are different types of Tie-ins. They are as follow:

A. Cold cut & normal Tie-ins:

It is cutting the line with cutting machine, but gas cutting is not used in this Tie-

ins. In this case we must isolate the line.

1. Socket weld fittings:

A socket weld type fitting attachment is designed with a recess in its end to

permit the pipe to be inserted. The pipe is withdrawn approximately (1.5mm) from the

bottom of the recess, then fillet welded between the pipe outside diameter and the end

of fitting. The gap is needed in order to provide space to permit differential thermal

expansion, which occurs during welding and normal operation. On this type of welding

we use it only if the pipe is less than (2 in.), and we can use also TIG weld if the pipe

size from (1/2 in to 4 in.).

On socket weld fittings they use Magnetic Particle Testing (MPI) to cheek the

welding, on following way:

Clean the welding area by using cleaner.

Spray the white contrast on welding area.

Put Magnetic machine on welding area.

Spray the MPI – Ink.

Activity:

I worked with welding team on many of socket fittings from (14/3/2006) to

(15/3/2006). We cut the pipe after that we weld fittings and we tested it with inspection.

2. Butt weld fittings:

A butt weld type fitting are used in pipe sizes 50 mm (2 in.) and above. As

their name implies, they are welded directly to the connecting pipe section by using

full-penetration butt welds. Using butt-welded fittings in sizes smaller than (1.5 in.).

On butt weld fittings they use Radiographic Testing (RT) to cheek the welding.

Activity:

I

worked

with

welding

team

on

butt

weld

fitting

from

(14/3/2006)

to

(15/3/2006). We isolated the line after that we cut the pipe with a cutting machine and

we welded the branch by use Arc weld machine finally we tested it with inspection and

I

prepared

package

from

(21/3/2006),

(22/5/2006) & (23/5/2006).

(25/3/2006)

to

(27/3/2006),

(10/5/2006),

Figure (4): Butt Weld for Process Pipe. B. Hot Tap & Stopple: Hot Tap: Hot

Figure (4): Butt Weld for Process Pipe.

B. Hot Tap & Stopple:

Hot Tap:

Hot tapping is technique, performed using specialized equipment for cutting a

hole in a pipe, vessel or tank through a welded or bolted branch connection while under

pressure.

Hot tap can be done is as follows:

Locate the hot tap location by engineering designer.

Design by special contractor and review it by Saudi Aramco.

Check the wall thickness by take the minimum and the maximum pipe wall

thickness at the tie-in weld area by using a continuous ultra sonic testing (UT)

scan along the line to be weld as show in the Figure (5).

Prepare the hot tap package based on pressure, temperature, wall thickness and

pipe size. These are effective factors. As show in the Figure (6).

Identify type of reinforcement fitting to be used as split tee, full reinforcement

pad and welding outlet according to Saudi Aramco standards as in Figure (7).

Prepare required calculation which is depending on types of materials and

header size. This calculation will show MAP & MEP which will check the

ability of using suggest design. As show in the Figure (8).

Install reinforcement fitting, fit-up and weld it.

Perform Magnetic Particle Testing (MPI) or Penetrate testing (PT). For fillet

weld.

Apply pressure test by using pressurized water (Hydro static test).

Install valve, gasket, bolts, nuts and tight them.

Perform hydro test against valve seat.

Install hot tap machine.

Again apply hydro test on hot tap machine.

Drill and cut the coupon.

Close the valve after cutting.

Remove the hot tap machine and install blind flange/spectacle. As show in the

Figure (10).

Figure (5): UT reading to check the minimum and maximum wall thickness. (From ref. 3)

Figure (5): UT reading to check the minimum and maximum wall thickness. (From ref. 3)

Figure (6): Calculatio n sheet to show the temperature and pressure. (From ref. 3) 21

Figure (6): Calculation sheet to show the temperature and pressure. (From ref. 3)

Figure (7): types of hot tap. (From ref. 3) 22

Figure (7): types of hot tap. (From ref. 3)

Figure (8): hot tap machine installed on pipe. Figure(9):Hot tap cutting tools. Figure (10): hot
Figure (8): hot tap machine installed on pipe. Figure(9):Hot tap cutting tools. Figure (10): hot

Figure (8): hot tap machine installed on pipe.

Figure (8): hot tap machine installed on pipe. Figure(9):Hot tap cutting tools. Figure (10): hot tap

Figure(9):Hot tap cutting tools.

machine installed on pipe. Figure(9):Hot tap cutting tools. Figure (10): hot tap completed and split tee

Figure (10): hot tap completed and split tee welded on header.

Activity:

I worked with my team on many hot tap from (20/2/2006) to (22/2/2006) ,

(26/2/2006) to (28/2/2006) , (28/3/2006) to (29/3/2006) , (29/4/2006) to (3/5/2006) &

(6/5/2006) to (9/5/2006) to make new branch we took first UT reading after that we

weld the split tee, check the weld, connected the other fittings, installed hot tap machine

and cut the coupon.

Stopple:

A stopple is an articulated pipe plugging device, normally inserted through a

stopple split tee with a full line size hot tapped opening, while the line is pressurized.

Note: A stopple split tee is a specialized fitting with dimensional requirements to suit the stopple

Plugging head.

with dimensional requirement s to suit the stopple Plugging head. Figure (11): stopple components. (From ref.

Figure (11): stopple components. (From ref. 3)

There are two methods were adopted in executing stopple activity are as follows:

1. Stop flow completely:

In this case we start with the same procedure for hot tap but once we complete

installation for the spilt tee then we start with new procedure:

Install sandwich valve which is a special gate valve with a short face to

face dimension use as temporary valve for stopple. They are also used for

hot tapping when the connection will only be temporarily. These valves

cannot be operated unless the pressure is equalized across the gape.

Apply hydro test on sandwich valve.

Install hot tap machine.

Again apply hydro test on hot tap machine.

Drill and cut the coupon.

Close sandwich valve and remove hot tap machine.

Install stopple machine as show in the Figure (12) and block the flow.

machine as show in the Figure (12) and block the flow. Figure (12): Stopple machine. •

Figure (12): Stopple machine.

Complete the required work on existing line.

Remove stopple machine and install hot tap machine.

Then, install Lock-O-Ring flange (L.O.R) which is a special flange use to

plug the split tee (Reinforcement fitting) while the pipeline under pressure.

Remove hot tap machine and sandwich valve.

Finally, install the blind flange.

2. Continuous flow (By Pass):

In this case we can use by pass (Extra Branch) in an emergency cases and we

will use here four sandwich valves instead of one as show in Figure (13) and we will

go with the same procedure of stop flow completely.

(13) and we will go with the same procedure of stop flow completely. Figure (13): by

Figure (13): by pass procedure. (From ref. 3)

Activity:

I worked with my team on stopple from (4/3/2006) to (8/3/2006) we blocked the

line in one side by use stopple machine to solve the problem in the other side of the line

and we used stopple on another line but in this case we used by pass because we won’t

block the line.

4. Heat exchangers:

Description: (1)

A heat exchanger is a device use to transfer heat from a hot fluid to a colder

fluid through the combined mechanisms of conduction and forced convection. In most

heat exchangers, a metal wall separates the two fluids. All heat exchangers are similar

in their principle of operation.

There are different types of Heat Exchangers. They are as follow:

A. Shell and Tube heat exchangers: (1)

In shell and tube heat exchangers, one fluid, known as “tube side” fluid, flows

inside a set of parallel tubes known as the “tube bundle”. These tubes are enclosed

within a metal shell. The other fluid, known as the “shell side” fluid, flows inside the

shell but over the outside of the tube. Both the metal shell and tubes are pressurized. As

show in Figure (14).

shell and tubes are pressurized. As show in Figure (14). Figure (14): Shell and Tube Heat

Figure (14): Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers.

Problems:

(From ref. 1)

Leak in tube and gasket during the hydro-test.

Pin hole on tube.

Corrosion in the tube.

Activity:

I worked with my team on shell and tube heat exchangers from (2/4/2006) to

(4/4/2006). We opened the heat exchangers and found many problems like corrosion on

stationary tube sheet, some corrosion on tube & pin holes on the tubes, as shown in

Figure (15). We then removed the tubes by using a puller-machine and we sent the

cover of heat exchanger to the welding shop to apply a monel coating to protect it from

corrosion .After that, we machined it as shown in Figure (16), and we sent the

stationary and floating tube sheet to the machine shop to drill the holes of tube, as

shown in Figure (17).Then we replaced the support plates, tie-rods, stationary &

floating tube sheet and tubes, as shown in Figures (18) & (19). For connecting the

tubes we used a tube-expander machine which connected the tube with the stationary

tube sheet to prevent leaks. After that we replaced the tube protector at the end of the

tube which is small peace of plastic used to prevent corrosion of the tube sheet, as

shown in Figure (20).

Finally, we inserted the tube inside the shell and performed a

hydro-static test to check for leaks.

shell and performed a hydro-static test to check for leaks. Figure (15): Pin hole. Figure (18):

Figure (15): Pin hole.

test to check for leaks. Figure (15): Pin hole. Figure (18): Support plates with out tubes.

Figure (18): Support plates

with out tubes.

(15): Pin hole. Figure (18): Support plates with out tubes. Figure (16): Cover after machining. Figure

Figure (16): Cover after

machining.

plates with out tubes. Figure (16): Cover after machining. Figure (19): Tube bundle. Figure (17): Drill

Figure (19): Tube bundle.

(16): Cover after machining. Figure (19): Tube bundle. Figure (17): Drill hole. Figure (20): Tube sheet

Figure (17): Drill hole.

Cover after machining. Figure (19): Tube bundle. Figure (17): Drill hole. Figure (20): Tube sheet with

Figure (20): Tube sheet

with plastic.

B. Double pipe heat exchangers: (1)

Double pipe heat exchangers often are used when the required heat transfer

surface is less than approximately 10 square meters. Typically, a double-pipe heat

exchanger

is

used

to

cool

lubricants

and

hydraulic

fluids

for

large

machines.

Sometimes, double-pipe heat exchangers are used to cool samples and liquids for

process analyzers.

A double pipe heat exchanger consists of a tube-within-a-tube. One of the fluids

flows inside the inner tube, and the other fluid flows in the annulus between the tubes.

Tubes in a double-pipe heat exchanger are occasionally long and the may be U-shaped.

Typically, the inner tube has external longitudinal fins. In very clean services, the inner

and outer tubes can be a single forging, or the inner tube can be welded to the outer

tube. The inner tubes are made with bolted-on covers on the U-bend end of the shell to

make it easier to clean the tubes, as show in the Figure (21).

it easier to clean the tubes, as show in the Figure (21). Figure (21): Double Pipe

Figure (21): Double Pipe Heat Exchanger. (From ref. 1)

Problems:

Leak in shell cover gasket during the hydro-test.

Pin hole on tube.

Corrosion in fins of the tube.

Activity:

I worked on double-pipe heat exchangers from (5/4/2006) to (9/4/2006).

We

opened exchangers from the U-bend side. After that we removed the tubes and we

found some corrosion on the fins, as shown in Figure (22). We applied solvent cleaner

and then cleaned it by using high pressure water with air and changed the tubes that had

pin holes with new one. Finally, we inserted it inside the shell and then performed a

hydro-static test to check for leaks.

and then performed a hydro-static test to check for leaks. Figure (22): Corrosion on the fins
and then performed a hydro-static test to check for leaks. Figure (22): Corrosion on the fins

Figure (22): Corrosion on the fins of the tube on double pipe heat exchanger.

C. Induced draft Air-Cooled heat exchangers: (1)

Air-Cooled heat exchangers are used to cool process fluids that flow through

tubes. The tubes are fitted with external cooling fins in order to enhance the transfer of

heat from the fluid to the ambient-temperature air. In induced draft heat exchanger, the

fan is located above a hood that covers the tube bundle. The air is pulled across the tube

bundle and is exhausted through the hood, as shown in Figure (23).

is exhausted through the hood, as shown in Figure (23). Figure (23): Induced draft Air-Cooled heat

Figure (23): Induced draft Air-Cooled heat exchangers. (From ref. 1)

Problems:

Leak in tube bundle.

Leak in the headers.

Activity:

I worked with my team from (22/4/2006) to (24/4/2006) on induced-draft air-

cooled heat exchangers. We first opened the headers and then removed the old tubes

and inserted the new tubes. After completing insertion of the new tubes, we connected

the headers and performed a hydro-static test to check for leaks.

5. Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT):

Description:

Heat treatment carried out after welding in order to decrease residual welding

stress and change the micro structure.

We use this when the flow in the pipe is chemical.

Post Weld Heat Treatment can be done is as follows:

1. Prepare equipment of heat treatment like:

Furnace or heat equipment.

Programmer for the heating process. As show in Figure (24).

Equipment for measuring and recording of temperature.

Cooling equipment.

2. Connect the equipment on welding area. As show in Figure (25).

the equipment on welding area. As show in Figure (25). Figure (25): Connection of equipment O

Figure (25): Connection of equipment

On welding area. (From ref. 4)

O n w e l d i n g a r e a . (From ref.

Figure (24): programmer for

(PWHT). (From ref. 4)

Problems:

It takes long time to do it.

Problem in generator.

Activity:

I

worked

on

Post

Weld

Heat

Treatment

(PWHT)

from

(18/3/2006)

to

(19/3/2006) on chemical pipe. We connected the cable with insulators on the pipe, and

then we connected the cable to the generator.

When the connections were completed

we adjusted the program to the required temperature, and then applied the graph

between temperature and stress. As shown in the Figure (26).

temperature and stress. As shown in the Figure (26). Figure (26): Graph for PWHT between Temperature

Figure (26): Graph for PWHT between Temperature & stress.

6. Positive Material Identification (PMI):

Description:

Positive Material Identification is a machine which is used to identify the

composition of material based on the standard specification, as shown in Figure (27).

Activity:

I worked on positive material identification for one day on (20/3/2006) &

(17/5/2006).

We applied this method on fittings, valves and elbows to verify that the

elements of material are stainless steel or not, because we wanted to connect these

materials with stainless steel lines for the processes, but, we found some of materials

were not stainless steel, as shown in Figure (28).

were not stainless steel, as shown in Figure (28). Figure (27): Identify the material by using

Figure (27): Identify the material by using analysis.

steel, as shown in Figure (28). Figure (27): Identify the material by using analysis. Figure (28):

Figure (28): Test result.

7. Pump:

It is a mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction.

A. Centrifugal pump: (2)

A centrifugal pump is a mechanical device that consists of a set of rotating

vanes (impeller or rotor) enclosed within housing or casing that continuously imparts

kinetic energy to fluid.

A centrifugal pump has two main components:

1. A rotating component comprised of an impeller and a shaft.

2. A stationary component comprised of a casing, casing cover, and bearings.

Components of centrifugal pump:

casing cover, and bearings. Components of centrifugal pump: Figure (29): Components of centrifugal pump. (From ref.

Figure (29): Components of centrifugal pump. (From ref. 2)

Vertically suspended pump: (2)

A pump is classified as a vertically suspended pump when the liquid end of the

pump is suspended vertically from a column and a mounting plate. This suction of a

vertically suspended pump is not typically connected to a piping system but is

submerged in the pumped liquid. Vertically suspended pumps are commonly used as

deep well pumps, sump pumps, and cooling tower pumps. Vertically suspended pumps

Can be classified by the type of casing: diffuser, axial flow, or volute.

They are different types of centrifugal pumps (Vertically suspended).

They are as follow:

A. Vertically suspended, single casing, diffuser pump: (2)

Description:

Vertically suspended single casing pumps are constructed with a single diffuser

casing, and they can be single staged or multistage. The pump shaft runs from the

driver through a column to the pump. The pump section is called diffuser bowl

assembly. The diffuser bowl assembly consists of the suction bell, the impeller, the

stage diffuser bowls, the suction, and pump bearings, as show in Figure (30). The fluid

in diffuser pump discharge through the pump column, as show in Figure (31).

discharge through the pump column, as show in Figure (31). Figure (30): Vertically suspended, single casing,

Figure (30): Vertically suspended, single casing,

two stage, diffuser pump. (From ref. 2)

Figure (30): Vertically suspended, single casing, two stage, diffuser pump. (From ref. 2) Figure (31): Pump

Figure (31): Pump flow path.

Maintenance Activity:

I worked on centrifugal pumps (vertical type) on (16/4/2006). We opened the

suction bell to check what happened to the pumps because the shaft was not rotating,

and found that the problem was from failed bearings & impeller, as shown in Figure

(32). During overhauling the pump we replaced the bearings.

Problems:

The shaft was not rotate because the bearing was stick.

We found impeller was damaged.

the bearing was stick. • We found impeller was damaged. Figure (32): Open suction bell to

Figure (32): Open suction bell to check the impeller.

Dy-chek Penetrant Test:

We applied Dy-chek on impeller to check the crack, as show in Figure (33) in

the following way:

Clean the parts to be inspected.

Apply uniform film of dy-chek penetrant over area to be inspected.

Allow penetrant to remain on surface for a minimum of five minutes.

All penetrant should be removed from the surface.

Spray a very light even coat of dy-chek / fluro-chek NAD developer

over the area being inspected. Flow indications will become visible as

developer dries. A void too heavy a film of developer.

After using, invert can and depress valve to clean nozzle.

After using, invert can and depress valve to clean nozzle. Figure (33): Check the crack. Result

Figure (33): Check the crack.

Result of Dy-chek penetrant test:

We found some cracks in the impeller, so it was an unacceptable defect.

B. Vertically suspended, single casing, volute pump:

Description: (2)

The vertically suspended, single casing, volute pump does not discharged

through the pump column like the diffuser pump. The vertically suspended volute pump

discharges fluid through a discharge pipe. The pump shaft can be open or enclosed, but

a shaft seal is not required because the shaft penetration through the driver pedestal is

not under pressure. A bearing seal is typically used to prevent fluid from entering the

bearing housing. The vertically suspended volute pump can be equipped with semi-

open or closed impellers. The clearance between the impeller and suction cover is

typically adjusted by adjusting bolts on the bearing housing. As show in Figure (34):

bolts on the bearing housing. As show in Figure (34): Figure (34): vertically suspended, single casing,

Figure (34): vertically suspended, single casing, volute pump. (From ref. 2)

Activity:

I worked with my team on two (volute type) centrifugal pumps from (10/4

/2006)

to

(12/4/2006)

&

(18/4/2006)

to

(19/4/2006).

One

pump

was

already

disassembled and found that the bearings, shaft, bushings and impeller were damaged.

I disassembled the second pump that was used to pump sulphur, but on this pump every

thing was damaged because the sulphur had solidified, as shown in Figure (35):

the sulphur had solidified, as shown in Figure (35): Figure (35): Sulphur solidifying on pump parts.
the sulphur had solidified, as shown in Figure (35): Figure (35): Sulphur solidifying on pump parts.
the sulphur had solidified, as shown in Figure (35): Figure (35): Sulphur solidifying on pump parts.

Figure (35): Sulphur solidifying on pump parts.

Maintenance:

During assembly we replaced new bearing, new shaft and new impeller, but the

bushing we fabricated in the machining shop and we change lubrication tube with new

one, & applied shaft alignment on shaft, as show in Figure (36). But for sulphur pump

we are waiting for new parts.

on shaft, as show in Figure (36). But for sulphur pump we are waiting for new

Figure (36): Shaft alignment.

Problems:

After replaced the parts of the pump we test the shaft is free or not and we found

the shaft was not rotate, then we open the suction cover we found the impeller

was friction with wear ring case on suction cover, As show in Figure (37), we

opened the wear ring and we sent it to machining shop to machine the surface,

after that we replace it.

shop to machine the surface, after that we replace it. Figure (37): Friction between impeller &

Figure (37): Friction between impeller & wear ring.

Sulphur pump was difficult to assemble and every thing was damaged.

C. Vertically suspended, single casing, enclosed shaft, Axial-Flow Pump:

Description: (2)

The Vertically suspended, single casing, enclosed shaft, Axial-Flow Pump, also

known as a vertical propeller pump, is similar to the vertically suspended, single-

casing, diffuser pump with the exception of the impeller design, as shown in Figure

(38). An axial flow impeller is used to delivers a high volume at a very low head, as

shown in Figure (39).

a high volume at a very low head, as shown in Figure (39). Figure (38): Vertically

Figure (38): Vertically suspended, single casing, enclosed shaft, Axial-Flow Pump. (From ref. 2)

Figure (39): Axial-Flow impeller. ○ Activity: I worked from (25/4/2006) to (26/4/2006) 0n the vertically

Figure (39): Axial-Flow impeller.

Activity:

I worked from (25/4/2006) to (26/4/2006) 0n the vertically suspended, single casing,

enclosed shaft, Axial-Flow Pump. I only disassembled the pump.

Problems:

During disassembly we found the shaft and line-shaft bearings were damaged.

We also found a problem when we tried to open the shaft. The problem was that

the line-shaft coupling had frozen, we used a torch to heat it the coupling

enough to permit us to separate it from the shaft, in Figure (40).

enough to permit us to separate it from the shaft, in Figure (40). Figure (40): Heated

Figure (40): Heated the line-shaft coupling.

End suction pump (centrifugal pump):

It is a mechanical device which is used for chilled water. In this design the fluid

enters the center of the impeller at the end of the pump and is discharged out the nozzle

shown at the top of the pump. The bearings are located on only one side of the impeller.

Activity:

are located on only one side of the impeller. ○ Activity: I worked on one end

I worked on one end suction pump for one day (17/4/2006).

pump, as shown in Figure (41).

for one day (17/4/2006). pump, as shown in Figure (41). I only disassembled the Figure (41):

I only disassembled the

Figure (41): Parts of the end suction pump.

Problems:

We found the shaft was broken from impeller side, as show in Figure (42).

We found bearings were damaged.

from impeller side, as show in Figure (42). • We found bearings were damaged. Figure (42):

Figure (42): The shaft is broken.

B. Positive displacement pumps: (2)

A pump is classified as positive displacement pump when the pump moves a

fixed volume of fluid per unit of time, regardless of the pump discharge head. Positive

displacement

pumps

are

further

classified

into

reciprocating

or

rotary

pumps,

depending on type of movement of the pressure producing.

A rotary type pump uses relative movement between the rotating and stationary

elements of the pump to impart energy to the fluid. Rotary pumps are typically used for

high viscosity liquids. The types divided in rotary (e.g. screw pump, gear pump)

They are different types of positive displacement pumps. They are as follow:

A. Screw pump: (2)

Screw pump is rotary positive displacement pump in which the flow through the

pump is axial. The pumped fluid is trapped and forced through the pump by the action

of rotating screw.

There are two types of screw pump classifications based on the number of

intermeshing screws: three screw and twin screw.

based on the number of intermeshing screws: three screw and twin screw. Figure (43): Three-screw pump.

Figure (43): Three-screw pump. (From ref. 2)

Activity:

I also worked on one screw type pump that was used to pump asphalt on (17/4/

2006). I disassembled the pump and found the inner housing had worn out and the idler

screw was damaged. As shown in Figure (44):

and the idler screw was damaged. As shown in Figure (44): Figure (44): Parts of screw

Figure (44): Parts of screw pump.

Maintenance:

We replaced all new parts such as power screw, idler screw, inner housing,

bushing, bearing, seal and gasket as required.

Problems:

After we replaced most of the parts, we tried to insert the rotor screw into the

inner housing, but found that we could not completely insert it into the inner

housing, as shown in Figure (45).

We then re-opened the pump, removed the

rotor screw and inner housing, turned the inner housing around and re-inserted

it, followed by the rotor screw and then closed the pump.

and re-inserted it, followed by the rotor screw and then closed the pump. Figure (45): Problem
and re-inserted it, followed by the rotor screw and then closed the pump. Figure (45): Problem

Figure (45): Problem on the inner housing.

B. Rotary vane pump (vacuum pump):

Vacuum pump is a pump that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in

order to leave behind a partial vacuum.

a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. Figure (46): Vacuum pump. ○

Figure (46): Vacuum pump.

Activity:

On (15/4/2006), I worked on one vacuum pump. The pump was disassembled; I

found that the problem was the plates of rotor were broken and had bearing damage.

As shown in Figure (47).

broken and had bearing damage. As shown in Figure (47). Figure (47): The plate is broken.

Figure (47): The plate is broken.

Maintenance:

During overhauling we replaced the plates, rotor, bearing, and rubber grove ring

of the pumps as required.

Problems:

We found problem on the grove nut of shaft, we opened the shaft and machine it

after that we closed the pump completely.

C. Booster Pump:

It is a kind of gear pump which is used for high speed. It contains impeller, oil

filter, oil pump, mechanical seal, high speed gear, gasket, and bearings.

Activity:

I worked on one booster pump on (16/4/2006). I only disassembled the pump as

shown in Figure (48):

I only disassembled the pump as shown in Figure (48): Figure (48): Parts of booster pump.

Figure (48): Parts of booster pump.

Problems:

We found The gear was damaged.

The bearing was damaged.

8. Valve:

Description:

A valve is a device that regulates the flow of the fluids (either gases, or liquids)

by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

Gate Valve:

A gate valve is a valve that opens by lifting around or rectangular gate out of the

path of the fluid.

around or rectangular gate out of the path of the fluid. Figure (49): Gate valve. (From

Figure (49): Gate valve. (From ref. 4)

Activity:

I worked with my team on many gate valves with different sizes on (25/2 /2006)

& from (13/5/2006) to (16/5/2006). We performed the following three hydro-static tests

to check the valves. They are:

Seat test to confirm that the seals in the valves were properly seated.

Shake the body to confirm there were no leaks.

Back seat test to confirm the valves did not leak while open.

no leaks. • Back seat test to confirm the valves did not leak while open. Figure

Figure (50): Performed hydro-static test.

Conclusion:

Co-op

training

programs

are

very

important

for

students

in

their

occupational life, it becomes as a main entrance to the perfect employee. The training

period is the best chance to use studying skills, knowledge and to gain practical

experience with good supervision.

There are many things have been learnt form this project I worked for. However, it

shows the different between theoretical part and practical one.

The main things in Ju'aymah Gas Plant Project are as follows:

1. Worked in the Fabrication shop fabricating spools and

after completion.

split-tee and painting

2. I learned about executing the Tie-ins by welding socket, butt weld joints and

Hot -Tap on site.

3. In The Maintenance Shop I worked during Technical Inspection Schedule (T&I)

on Heat Exchangers for the coolant and cool lubricant.

4. I dealt with seven different types of pumps in the same shop.

Finally, I learn how to work with every body in a team and how to resolve problems

during a short time. Working in a safety way in every where which will make the

working environment more comfortable.

References:

1. Saudi Aramco Engineering Encyclopedia for Basic Heat Exchanger Concepts

.

2. Saudi Aramco Engineering Encyclopedia for Classifying Pumps.

3. Saudi Aramco Engineering procedure for Hot Tap and Stopple connections.

4. http//: www.saudi aramco.com (Ju'aymah gas plant).