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SPECIALTY ALLOY

WELDING

James Kelly Director of Technology September, 2002

Heat Resistant Alloy Welding Carbon Steel versus Stainless Surface Preparation Shielding Gases Cold Cracking versus Hot Cracking Distortion Penetration Fabrication Time Welding Austenitic Alloys Alloys Under 20% Nickel Alloys Over 20% Nickel 10 Age Hardening Alloys

1 2 2 3 4 5 7 7 8 9

Martensitic Stainless

Copper and Copper-Nickel Alloys

Dissimilar Metal Welds

Welding Processes 11 Gas Metal Arc Welding 11 Flux Cored Arc Welding 13 Shielded Metal Arc Welding 14 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding 16 Plasma Arc Welding 17 Submerged Arc Welding 18 Resistance Welding 19

Weld Fillers Suggested Weld Fillers 20 Guidelines for Dissimilar Metal Joints 21 Heat Resistant Weld Filler Chemistries 22 Heat Resistant Alloy Specifications, Base Metal 23 Weld Filler Specifications & Tradenames, American vs. German 24 Bolts 25 Weld Filler Consumption 2 6 References 2 7

Bulletin 200 James Kelly Rolled Alloys 2001


Revised May 23, 2001. Issued March 10, 2001 Heat Resistant Alloy Welding is based on Rolled Alloys experience and information from suppliers such as Avesta Welding AB and Sandvik AB. For additional copies of this pamphlet, contact Marketing Services, FAX +1-734-847-3915 e-mail marketingservices@rolledalloys.com

To buy on-line, or for technical information on all Rolled Alloys products, log on to our new website www.rolledalloys.com

Disclaimer Clause: The information in this document represents Rolled Alloys experience and opinions, and is believed to be reliable. However, this material is not intended as a substitute for competent professional engineering assistance which is a requisite to any specific application. Rolled Alloys makes no warranty and assumes no legal liability or responsibility for results to be obtained in any particular situation, and shall not be liable for any direct, special or consequential damages. This material is subject to revision without prior notice.

Welding heat resistant alloys is touched on in our Bulletin No. 115, and covered in more detail in Bulletin Numbers 201 & 207 for RA330 , 202 for RA 253 MA, 209 for RA 353 MA, 211 for RA alloy X, and Bulletin 120 for RA333 welding products. Corrosion resistant alloy welding is discussed in Bulletins 203, for alloy AL-6XN, 205 for 20Cb-3 stainless and 1071 for RA2205 duplex stainless. These alloys are all weldable but they do require more shop time, and a DIFFERENT approach than stainless, or carbon steel. A few important rules: 1. Make reinforced, stringer beads. Do not weave. Shallow fillet welds or broad, flat weld beads tend to crack down the center as they solidify. Cover or fill in craters, to prevent them from cracking.

2. Keep heat input low. Do not ever preheat, except to dry moisture off of the metal. Keep the temperature of the metal between weld passes low, below 212F (100C).

3. For RA330 specifically, use RA330-04 or RA330-80-15 weld fillers. Do not use AWS E330 weld wire, as it will be crack sensitive. Do not try to weld RA330 with stainless rods such as E308, E309, or E310 as they are very likely to crack. E312 electrodes are often sold under various tradenames for general shop repair welding and dissimilar metal welds. Because of its very high Ferrite Number, E312 may make a sound weld in RA330. However, E312 weldments are not suited for high temperature service. They embrittle severely with exposure above 600F (1100C). At red heat E312 welds are very weak, as well as brittle. E312 should be reserved for weldments to be used near room temperature never for austenitic heat resistant alloy.

1 4. Make full penetration weld joints. Incompletely welded areas will open up as cracks during normal heat treat thermal cycles. Incompletely penetrated weld joints are the most common cause of weld failures in high temperature service. Weld joints in fans, in particular, must be fully penetrated.

Let us back up a bit, and first describe some of the differences between welding carbon steels, and welding either stainless or nickel alloys. Then, we will cover the important differences between stainless (under 20% nickel) and the higher nickel alloys.

CARBON STEEL
This book is written assuming the reader understands how to weld ASTM A 36 structural steel (plain low carbon steel). Welding higher strength carbon steel requires a somewhat different procedure, to ensure that the weld does not crack. Welding is essentially a heat treating operation, as far as the steel is concerned. In order to keep the weldment from cracking, it is important that it not form martensite on cooling, i.e., that it not harden. This is not an issue with A 36 steel. If the steel near the weld bead hardens, it is subject to hydrogen induced cracking, within a few hours after the weld cools. This is also called underbead cracking,

because of its usual location. If there is no source for hydrogensuch as moisture in the flux coating, shielding gas or surface contamination this cracking will not occur. Even without hydrogen, a hard martensitic zone in the weldment may be unable to withstand impact loading in service. As the carbon content increases, along with manganese, and especially when chromium and molybdenum are added, the potential for hardening during welding increases. To prevent hardening, the steel may be pre-heated a few hundred degrees. On cooling, this pre-heated steel now has time to transform to some phase other than martensite by the time it reaches room temperature. This reduces hardness and internal stresses. Steel in the range of 0.300.50% carbon usually requires some preheat, along with low hydrogen welding practice. Preheat and interpass temperatures in the 200400F range cover most medium carbon steels. Alloy steels such as 4130 may require preheat in the 300 450F range, and 4140 350500F. ASTM A 387 Grade 11 preheat may range up to450F, with a required post-weld heat treatment range of 11501350F, air cool. The higher preheats are suggested for thicker sections. This subject is covered well in the AWS Welding Handbook, Eighth Edition, Volume 4, Part 2. Some pre- and post-heats are given in the ANSI/AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code. More detail, including required post-weld heat treatments, is in the Welding Research Council bulletin 191, March 1978. High sulphur free-machining steels, such as the AISI 11xx and 12xx series, may also be subject to solidification cracking. This is usually a crack down the center of the weld bead, or crater cracking. A higher manganese weld filler is suggested in such cases.

C.D. Lundin, P. Liu, C.Y.P. Qiao, G. Zhou, K.K. Khan, M. Prager, An Experimental Study of Causes and Repair of Cracking of 1 Cr Mo Steel Equipment, Welding Research Council, Bulletin 411, May 1996

CARBON STEEL VERSUS AUSTENITIC STAINLESS


Some important differences between welding the carbon or low alloy structural steels and the austenitic stainless and nickel alloys include: A. Surface Preparation B. Shielding Gases C. Cold cracking vs Hot Cracking D. Distortion E. Penetration F. Fabrication Time. A. Surface Preparation When fabricating carbon steels it is common practice to weld right over scale, red rust and even paint. A so-called mill finish is a layer of blue-black oxide, or scale, on the metal surface. Carbon steel weld fillers normally contain sufficient deoxidizing agents,

such as manganese and silicon, to reduce these surface iron oxides back to metallic iron. The resultant Mn-Si slag floats to the weld surface. Iron oxide, or scale, melts at a lower temperature, 2500F (1371C)1, than does the steel itself. One can see this in a steel mill when a large ingot is removed from the soaking pit for forging the molten scale literally drips off of the white hot steel. Stainless steel, by contrast, must be clean and free of any black scale from hot rolling, forging or annealing operations. Of course, stainless normally comes from the mill with a white or bright finish. A few users of heat resistant alloys, though, do prefer black plate, that is, plate with the mill hot rolling scale intact. This scale is thought to provide additional environmental protection at red heat. Stainless steel melts at a lower temperature than does its chromium oxide scale, and the stainless weld filler chemistry is not capable of reducing this scale back to metallic chromium. As a result, with gas shielded processes it is difficult to get the weld bead to even wet, or stick to, a scaled piece of stainless. With SMAW a weld of sorts can be made, as the coating fluxes away most of the scale. The need to clean or grind down to bright metal is more likely to cause trouble when stainless is being joined to carbon steel. That is because in this dissimilar metal joint it is necessary to grind that carbon steel to bright metal, on both sides of the joint, free of all rust, mill scale, grease and paint. Incidentally, the best weld fillers for this particular joint, to minimize the hard martensitic layer on the steel side, are alloy 182 covered electrode, ENiCrFe-3, or alloy 82 bare wire, ERNiCr-3. Alloy 62 bare wire, ERNiCrFe5, and ENiCrFe-2 covered electrodes are also appropriate. E309 electrodes are commonly used but may leave a hard layer on the steel side, subject to cracking in service. Both those stainless and high nickel alloys which are designed for corrosion resistance are produced to very low carbon contents, less than 0.03% and sometimes less than 0.01% carbon. Any higher carbon will reduce the metals corrosion resistance if welded. For this reason it is necessary to clean these alloys thoroughly of all traces of grease and oil before welding. Also the very high nickel alloys, such as 400 alloy (Monel, UNS N04400), or commercially pure nickel 200/201, are sensitive to weld cracking from the sulphur in grease. Metallic zinc paint is a common way to protect structural steel from corrosion. Even a small amount of that zinc paint overspray on stainless or nickel alloy will cause the metal to crack badly when welded. Consider completing all stainless welding before painting the structural steel in the area. Keep inorganic zinc paint away from any austenitic alloy! B. Shielding Gases For gas metal arc welding (a.k.a. MIG) carbon steel the shielding gases are usually 95% argon 5% oxygen, 75% argon 25% CO2 (carbon dioxide) or 100% CO2. These are

suitable with carbon or low alloy steel welding wire but far, far too oxidizing for use with stainless or nickel alloys. It is not unknown to hear the complaint . . . clouds of red smoke are coming off when I weld your 310. . . heavy spatter. . . and then learn that the shielding gas used was 75%Ar 25%CO2. A fine gas for carbon steel but absolutely not for stainless. One exception to this high CO2 prohibition is when using flux cored wire, either stainless or nickel alloy. Some of these cored wires are specifically formulated to run best with 75%Ar 25%CO2. 4 Stainless and nickel alloys have been GMAW spray-arc welded with 100% argon. Weldability may be greatly improved by adding from 10 to 20% helium. 75% argon 25% helium is used, although it will not give a true spray-arc. At this lower level of argon, arc transfer somewhat resembles globular transfer. The weldability of stainless steel is impaired by the stable oxide film which exists on the metal. A helium addition provides a little hotter arc, which helps to burn away that oxide. A very small amount of CO2, about 1% or less, tends to stabilize the arc (prevents arc wander). Two proprietary gases from Air Liquide, ArcalTM 121 and BlueShieldTM 20, are designed specifically for stainless and nickel alloy GMAW. The heat resisting alloy RA 602 CATM requires a nitrogen addition to the shielding gas to avoid hot cracking. The recommended gas is CRONIGON HT, a patented gas available from AGA and HOLOX in the USA, and from Linde Gas AG in Europe. This is an argon-based gas with significant nitrogen, and small additions of active gases. Strictly speaking, it is for MAG welding, Metal Active Gas, in European terminology. CRONIGON HT may also be used for other highly alloyed heat resistant grades. It is required for gas metal arc welding RA 602 CA. Short-circuiting arc welding generally requires the 75%Ar 25%He mix, but a 90%He 7 1/2%Ar 2 1/2%CO2 tri-mix is commonly used. Carbon dioxide helps reduce arc wander, by increasing emissivity of electrons from the work surface. The potential for carbon pick-up from the CO2 is not an issue when welding heat resistant alloys. Shortcircuiting arc welding is used for sheet gages. With plate it may be necessary to grind starts and stops to minimize lack of fusion defects. C. Cold Cracking versus Hot Cracking Carbon steel weldments may harden, and crack, as they cool from welding. High hardness, and the resulting cracking, are more likely when the steel contains over 0.25% carbon. Alloying elements which increase hardenability, such as manganese, chromium, molybdenum, etc., can make steels of lower carbon content also harden. Hydrogen pickup from moisture in the air causes underbead cracking in steels that harden as they cool from welding. To prevent such cracking the steel is usually preheated before welding, to retard the cooling rate of the weld and avoid martensite

formation. Postweld heat treatment, or stress relief, is also applied to some steels, or for certain applications. Austenitic stainless and nickel alloys do NOT harden no matter how fast they cool from welding. So, it is not necessary to preheat stainless, nor to post weld heat treat it. As a matter of fact preheating stainless, beyond what may be necessary to dry it, can be positively harmful. Stress relief 1100-1200F (600-650C) as applied to carbon steel is only partially effective with stainless or nickel alloys, and may be damaging to the aqueous corrosion resistance. 5 Stainless steel welds generally do not crack unless contaminated. This may be from a surface smear of zinc or copper, less commonly by aluminum. High nickel alloys are susceptible to cracking in restrained joints, or heavy sections. This is a hot tearing (solidification cracking), not a cold crack. That is, the weld bead tears rather than stretching, as the weld bead contracts upon solidifying. This hot tearing/hot cracking has nothing to do with hardness. The faster a nickel alloy weld freezes solid, the less time it spends in the temperature range where it can tear. For this reason preheating, which slows down the cooling rate, is actually harmful, as it permits more opportunity for hot tearing to occur. D. Distortion2,3 Stainless steel has poor thermal conductivity, only about one fourth that of plain carbon steel, such as A 36 structural steel. This means the welding heat tends to remain concentrated, rather than spread out. Stainless also expands with heat about half again as much as does carbon steel. The combination of these two factors means that stainless or nickel alloy fabrications distort significantly more than similar designs in carbon steel. Among other things, tack welds need to be more closely spaced in stainless or nickel alloy welds. Welds should be sequenced about the neutral axis of the fabrication to balance welding stresses, hence minimize distortion. Back step welding is also helpful. Tacks should be done in sequence, as well

6 If the tacks are simply done in order from one end, the plate edges close up

Weld runs should be done symmetrically about the joint's center of gravity to balance stresses

12 8 4 1 3 6 9 7 11

10 5 2

Double V - joint

Flange to cylinder

7 Back step welding helps reduce distortion

E. Penetration The arc will not penetrate a stainless nearly as deeply as it will carbon steel. Penetration is even less in high nickel alloys. Increasing welding current will not solve the problem! Stainless, and especially nickel alloy, joints must be more open, single or double beveled, with a root gap, so that the weld metal may be placed in the joint. Lack of weld penetration is the single most important reason why austenitic alloy weldments fail in high temperature service.

F. Fabrication Time Cleanliness, distortion control measures, maintaining low interpass temperatures and even machining add up to more time spent fabricating stainless than carbon steel. A shop experienced with stainless may require 1.6 times as long to complete the same fabrication in stainless, as in carbon steel. A good carbon steel shop encountering stainless or nickel alloys for the first time can easily spend twice as long, maybe even three times as long, to do the stainless fabrication, as it would the same job in carbon steel. 8

WELDING AUSTENITIC ALLOYS


The fundamental problem to be overcome in welding austenitic nickel bearing alloys is the tendency of the weld to hot tear upon solidification. This matter is readily handled in alloys under about 15% or so nickel. In these stainless grades the weld metal composition is adjusted, usually by slightly higher chromium and reduced nickel, to form a small amount of ferrite upon solidification. The amount of ferrite in the weld may be measured magnetically, and is reported as a Ferrite Number, FN. This ferrite acts to nullify the effects of the elements responsible for hot cracking in the Ni-Cr-Fe austenitics. These elements are chiefly phosphorus, sulphur, silicon and boron. In higher nickel grades, over about 20% nickel, it is metallurgically impossible to form any measurable amount of ferrite. Therefore other means of minimizing hot cracking must be used. Foremost among these is to use high purity raw materials in the manufacture of weld fillers. Phosphorus cannot be removed from stainless steel by current refining methods. Whatever phosphorus comes from the raw materials, mostly from the iron, will end up in the weld wire. Low silicon, when feasible, is desireable, sulphur may be removed by the AOD refining process. Phosphorus, in particular, must be kept below 0.015% in the weld wire itself.

Certain alloy additions such as manganese, columbium (niobium), molybdenum and carbon serve in one way or another to reduce the austenitic propensity for weld hot cracking. Manganese ranges from about 2% in AWS E310-15 covered electrodes to 5% in RA330-04 wire & electrodes and 8% in alloy 182 (ENiCrFe-3) covered electrodes. A low level of columbium, such as the 0.5% in 347 stainless, is harmful, whereas 2 to 4% columbium is quite beneficial in many nickel base weld fillers. Molybdenum isnt necessarily added specifically for weldability but it does enhance the properties of RA333-70-16 covered electrodes. High molybedenum may be responsible for the popularity of the various C type electrodes (15Cr 15Mo balance Ni) in repair welding. 2% Mo contributes to 316 as being the most weldable of the stainless steels. Carbon is slightly elevated in 310 weld fillers, to about 1/10%. The one welding electrode specifically using high carbon to promote sound welds is the heat resistant grade RA330-80-15 (UNS W88338). A weld deposit chemistry of some 0.85% carbon permits this electrode to make sound welds in both wrought and cast 35% Ni high silicon heat resistant alloys. 9 The distinction between the lower nickel stainless grades, which depend upon ferrite to ensure weldability, and the high nickel alloys, which require high purity weld fillers, is an important one to remember. Most ferrite containing (stainless) weld fillers are useless with nickel alloy base metal, as dilution of the weld bead with nickel from the base metal eliminates this ferrite. Likewise a high purity nickel alloy weld filler, such as ER320LR, may be not quite so crack resistant when contaminated by phosphorus from use on cast alloy 20 (CN-7M), 316L or carbon steel base metal. With respect to welding there are some distinctions between those alloys intended for use above 1000F (540C), and those meant for aqueous corrosion service. One difference is in carbon content. Corrosion resistant grades are generally limited to 0.03% carbon maximum, and typically much lower. They may have small additions of columbium or titanium. Restriction of carbon, or tying it up with a stabilizing element (Cb or Ti) is necessary to prevent heat affected zone (HAZ) intergranular corrosion and polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking (PASCC) due to carbide precipitation. Heat resistant alloys by contrast typically require 0.04 - 0.010% carbon for good hot strength. RA 602 CA is even higher, near 0.2%, while RA330HC belt pin stock and the cast heat resistant alloys have a nominal 0.4% carbon. In the absence of a wet corrosive environment a little intergranular carbide precipitation is not particularly harmful. In both classes of material, incompletely penetrated welds and open crevices must be avoided in fabrication design. Serious aqueous corrosion can begin in crevices. In high temperature carburizing service, crevices are where carbon (soot) can deposit, grow, and pry the joint apart like tree roots in rock.

For either heat or corrosion resistant alloys, weldability alone is not the entire issue. The weld filler must also have the mechanical and environmental resistance required for its intended service. Usually this point is addressed in fabricating corrosion resistant alloys, where a higher alloy weld filler is often used. It is sometimes overlooked in heat resistant alloy fabrication. It is even less often considered in repair of high temperature alloy fixturing. ALLOYS UNDER 20% NICKEL

Most austenitic grades containing less than 20% nickel are joined with weld fillers that utilize perhaps 4-12 FN (Ferrite Number) to ensure weldability. Wrought heat resistant alloys with 20% or less nickel include 304H, 321, RA 253 MA, RA309, RA310. All save RA310 depend upon some level of ferrite in the weld bead to prevent solidification defects. Ferrite does a good job of ensuring sound weldments. The covered electrodes used to weld stainless steel are almost invariably AC/DC titania coated, designated either 16 or 17. Such electrodes have good welder appeal, and run exceptionally well when direct current is used.

Schaeffler-de Long diagram from AvestaPolarits web site. www.avestapolarit.com/template/page_2389.asp-16x

RA310 stands in an odd position between the stainless and the nickel alloys, having neither ferrite nor any particular alloy addition for weldability. Not surprisingly, 310 welds have a reputation for fissuring. The current AWS specification for ER310 weld wire permits 0.030% phosphorus maximum. At this level of phosphorus austenitic weld beads are very sensitive to hot cracking. For ER310 welding wire to be of practical use the phosphorus must be kept under 0.015% maximum. Because 310 is a difficult alloy to weld, the preferred choice in E310 covered electrodes are the DC lime-type electrodes, usable only with direct current. The lime coating tends to ameliorate the effects of impurities such as phosphorous. Even so, the phosphorus level should be no higher than 0.015%. Titania coatings tend to be more crack sensitive. It may be difficult to achieve sound welds in 310 base metal using an AWS E310-16 AC/DC electrode. In the past it was possible for 310S (UNS N031008) base metal to contain as much as 1.50% silicon in the ASTM/ASME specifications. Heats on the high side of silicon and phosphorus were a problem to weld (Rolled Alloys had traditionally limited silicon in RA310 to 0.75% max). With the advent of 310H (UNS S31009), ASTM limited silicon to 0.75% maximum as well. In practice all 310 varieties now melted in North America have less than 0.75% Si, which is of some benefit to weldability. ALLOYS OVER 20% NICKEL Heat resistant alloys in this category include RA800H/AT, RA330 , RA 353 MA, 803, alloy X (UNS N06002), RA333, 617, Haynes alloys HR-120, 230 and 214, 601, RA 602 CATM, 600, and Nimonic 75. The cobalt alloys N155, 556, 188, L605, and HR-160 may be treated in similar fashion with appropriate weld fillers. Many nickel alloys are joined with matching composition weld fillers, modified only by restrictions on phosphorus, sulphur, silicon and boron. Titanium may be added for deoxidation. Other nickel weld fillers contain manganese, high carbon, columbium or molybdenum to improve resistance to fissuring and hot cracking. Such chemistry modifications are rarely as effective as is the use of ferrite in the lower nickel stainless weld fillers. Welding technique and attention to cleanliness, then, become increasingly important to ensure the soundness of fully austenitic welds. Techniques include reinforced, convex stringer beads and low interpass temperature.

Cleanliness includes NOT using oxygen additions to the GMAW shielding gases for nickel alloys. 11 It is worth repeating here that high nickel alloys cannot be reliably welded using stainless steel weld fillers. Stainless steel (308, 309, etc.) depends upon a small amount of deposited ferrite to ensure a sound weld. When a stainless rod is deposited on a high nickel base metal, the resultant weld bead will include some nickel from the base metal. It may be possible for that additional nickel to make the weld bead fully austenitic, with no ferrite at all. Without ferrite, the stainless weld bead, already typically a little high in phosphorus, may crack down the center. While stainless steel welding electrodes are usually AC/DC titania, nickel alloy covered electrodes are often produced with a lime-type DC coating. Shops accustomed to stainless welding need to remember to switch to direct current, and to pay attention to polarity. Normally one uses Reverse Polarity, that is, electrode positive, workpiece negative. RA333-70-16 is an exception among the high nickel electrodes, having an AC/DC titania coating. For this reason it runs well, and tends to be readily accepted by welders.

S.J. Matthews, M.O. Maddock and W.F. Savage, How Copper Contamination Affects Weldability of Cobalt Superalloys, Welding Journal, May 1972 R.J. Castro and J.J. deCadenet, Welding Metallurgy of Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steels, Cambridge University Press, 1975 Berthold Lundqvist, Sandvik Welding Handbook, Sandvik AB, Sandviken Sweden 1977 E.F. Nippes and D.J. Ball, Copper Contamination Cracking: Cracking Mechanism and Crack Inhibitors, Welding Research Supplement, Welding Journal, March 1982 T.G. Gooch Solidification Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steel, pp31 -40, Weldability of Materials, ed. R.A. Patterson and K.W. Mahin, ISBN: 0-87170-401-3, ASM International 1990

AGE HARDENING ALLOYS


The two age hardening (also called precipitation hardening) alloys to be covered here are 17-4PH stainless, and the nickel alloy 718. 17-4PH metallurgy and welding 17-4PH is a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel. It is strengthened by a four hour aging (precipitation hardening) treatment. 17-4PH is normally sold in the annealed condition. Usually we think of annealed as meaning soft and ductile.

Annealed 17-4PH isnt especially hard, typically about Rockwell C30. But since annealed 17-4PH is really untempered martensite, it has very low ductility and notch impact strength. Light gage 17-4PH may be welded in the annealed condition. This is followed by a postweld precipitation hardening treatment of 4 hours. Temperature should be in the range of 950 to 1150F. When making welds in heavy cross-sections, it is generally best to first age the metal to condition H-1100 or H-1150. This makes the base metal more ductile, and less likely to crack from welding stresses. The heat of welding will leave some zone of the base metal in the annealed condition. Likewise, any matching 17-4PH filler metal will be in the annealed condition. So after welding, the fabrication should again be aged for 4 hours, to regain strength and ductility in the weld area. For heavy sections, treatments in the 950 to 1025F range are often used. 12 From the strict metallurgical viewpoint, it would be preferable to give the welded fabrication a 1900F solution anneal. Then cool to room temperature, and age harden. However that 1900F treatment becomes quite impractical with a large fabrication. In practice, most 17-4PH fabrications are simply age hardened only, after welding. For dissimilar welds involving 17-4PH stainless fillers such as 309 have been used. The preferred fillers are alloy 82 (ENiCrMo-3) bare wire or the covered electrodes 182 (ERNiCrFe-3) and INCO-WELD A (ENiCrFe-2). These high nickel fillers have thermal expansion coefficients more closely matching those of the 17-4PH. Their lower strength and good ductility reduce the welding strains on the base metal, as the weldment cools and contracts. Heat treatments for 17-4PH and their designations Designation Condition A* Processing Heated at 1900F 25F for 12 hour, air cooled or oil quenched to below 90F. This is the anneal, or solution treatment, normally performed by the steel mill. Condition A material which has been heated at the specified temperature for 4 hours and air cooled. Condition A material heated at 1400 25F for 2 hours, air cooled, then heated at 1150 15F for 4 hours and air cooled. This heat treatment is used for maximum toughness, and for cryogenic applications to 320F.

H 925, H 1025, H 1075, H 1100 H 1150-M

* For most applications, 17-4PH should not be used in Condition A. This is true even though the desired
tensile strength may be provided by that condition. While the alloy is relatively soft in Condition A, the structure is untempered martensite that has low fracture toughness and ductility, with poor resistance to

stress-corrosion cracking. Superior service performance is assured by using 17-4PH in the age hardened condtion.

Weld Fillers for 17-4PH 17-4PH is welded with fillers similar, but not identical, to the base metal.The specifications for matching covered electrodes are AWS A5.4 E630, UNS W37410, AMS 5827. Bare welding wire is in AWS A5.9 ER630, UNS S17480, AMS 5826

13 718 Metallurgy and Welding 718 is a fully austenitic nickel alloy. It is strengthened by a precipitation hardening (a.k.a. age hardening) reaction involving columbium. A commonly used heat treatment is to anneal 1700-1850F, rapid air cool or quench. This is the condition in which 718 normally is provided by the mill or by Rolled Alloys. Strength is achieved by aging at 1325F for 8 hours, furnace cool to 1150F, hold at 1150F for a total time of 18 hours in the furnace, then air cool. Cleanliness of both the base metal and the weld wire affect welding this grade. Freshly cleaned 718 may be covered with plastic wrap to maintain cleanliness before welding. E-Grade 718 weld wire GTAW wire with thoroughly mechanically cleaned surface is available from stock for critical welding applications. Heat input and interpass temperature should be low. Do not preheat. Make small stringer beads, and remove all oxide film before depositing the next bead. 718 may be welded either in the annealed, or in the precipitation hardened condition. For many non-aerospace applications the only heat treatment required after welding is the 1325/1150F aging, to strengthen the weld bead and base metal near the fusion line. This does leave a zone near the weld in an over-aged, relatively low strength, condition. To maximize the properties of the weldment it is necessary to re-anneal sheet gauges 1700-1850F, followed by 1325/1150F age. For highly restrained joints where some reduction in weldment strength is permitted, fillers such as 625 (ERNiCrMo-3) or Hastelloy W (ERNiMo-3) are sometimes used. 625 offers more strength than alloy W. GTAW shielding is commonly argon torch and back-up gas, for material up to 1/4 thick. Helium torch and back-up gas is preferred for heavier sections. Weldments in 718 are subject to formation of a brittle Laves phase during solidification. This reduces the strength and toughness of weldments. The effect is more pronounced in plate gauges (over 3/16) than in sheet. Solution annealing 1900-1950F should redissolve the Laves phase and increase the tensile ductility of the weldment. Following

this higher temperature solution anneal the normal aging treatment is 1400F 10hours, furnace cool to 1200F, hold at 1200F for a total aging time in the furnace of 18 hours, air cool. For highly restrained joints where some reduction in weldment strength is permitted, fillers such as 625 (ERNiCrMo-3) or Hastelloy W (ERNiMo-3) are sometimes used. 625 offers more strength than alloy W. 14 GTAW shielding is commonly argon torch and back-up gas, for material up to 1/4 thick. Helium torch and back-up gas is preferred for heavier sections. Weldments in 718 are subject to formation of a brittle Laves phase during solidification. This reduces the strength and toughness of weldments. The effect is more pronounced in plate gauges (over 3/16) than in sheet. Solution annealing 1900 -1950F should redissolve the Laves phase and increase the tensile ductility of the weldment. Following this higher temperature solution anneal the normal aging treatment is 1400F 10hours, furnace cool to 1200F, hold at 1200F for a total aging time in the furnace of 18 hours, air cool.

F.G. Harkins, Welding of Age-Hardenable Stainless Steels, WRC Bulletin 103, February 1965 M.Prager and C.S. Shira, Welding of Precipitation-Hardening Nickel Base Alloys, WRC Bulletin 128, February 1968

MARTENSITIC

COPPER AND COPPER NICKEL

REACTIVE METALS Titanium Zirconium

Titanium Design Handbook for Industrial Applications, Section V: Design and Fabrication, TIMET, 1999 Broadway, Suite 4300, Denver, Colorado 80202 USA Zirconium Welding Brochure, Bulletin TWCA-8902W, Wah Chang, PO Box 460, Albany, Oregon 97321 USA

DISSIMILAR METAL WELDING Suggested Weld Filler Guidelines, Ni-Cr-Fe Austenitic Alloys
Considerations in selecting a filler metal for a dissimilar metal weld joint include the expected service conditions at the joint, relative thermal expansion coefficients of the three metals involved, and freedom from weld metal hot cracking. The final selection should be approved by the end user and weld procedures qualified by the fabricator. These suggestions are from experience and general metallurgical knowledge. 602 CA is a new alloy, data incomplete

Base Metals
RA330 RA800H/AT RA333

Carbon Steel
182 RA330-04 182 RA333

Stainless (304,316)
RA330-04

RA 253 MA

RA 602 CA Cast Alloys HK, HT, HP


617A RA330-04 617
A

RA333

RA330-80-15

RA330-04 RA333

RA333 RA330-04

RA333-70-16

RA 353 MA 182 RA 353 MA RA 353 MA RA 253 MA E309-16 RA 602 CA


TM

RA 353 MA

-RA 353 MA RA330-80-15 617A S 6025 6225 Al 82 182 S 6025 6225 Al 82B B 182 82B B 182 82B B 182 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 A 617

RA 253 MA 182 82 82 182 82 182 E309-16 ER309 E309-16 E310-15 E309-16 E310-15

182 82 82 182 82 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 E310-15

RA 253 MA RA333 A 617

RA600

RA333 RA333-70-16 RA333 RA333-70-16 E309-16 RA 253 MA RA 253 MA -E309-16 RA 253 MA-17

RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA330-80-15

RA601

RA309

RA310

RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA333-70-16 --

RA446

Note: The carbon steel joint must be ground to bright metal. A mill finish is not acceptable. All rust, blue-black hot rolling scale and paint must be removed before welding with any stainless or nickel alloy weld wires. Nickel alloy weld wire lacks the deoxidation characteristics of carbon steel weld wires. A 617 (ERNiCrCoMo-1) lacks the oxidation resistance of RA 602 CA B These high nickel fillers are quite unsuitable for sulphur bearing environments

Welding Dissimilar Metals, ed. N. Bailey, The Welding Institute, 1986

WELDING PROCESSES

Five different arc welding processes are generally used with heat resisting alloys. The most common, in North America, is Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), formerly known as MIG (Metal Inert Gas), using spooled bare wire filler. Next in popularity is Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), or just plain stick welding, with covered electrodes. The least volume of work is done by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), formerly called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and originally trade named Heliarc . Two other methods are Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) and Submerged Arc Welding (SAW). In addition resistance welding, particularly cross wire resistance welding, is often used in heat resistant alloy fabrication.

There are two basic types of welding machines, Constant Current, and Constant Potential. A constant current machine is used for GTAW (TIG) and SMAW (stick) welding. Practically speaking it wont work for GMAW (MIG) welding. The dial on a Constant Current machine reads in amperes, and the current is regulated by this dial. Constant Potential (voltage) machines are used for GMAW (MIG) welding. They dont work well with covered electrodes (SMAW). The dial regulates voltage, and is marked with numbers in the 20-40 range.

15 Gas Metal Arc Welding In this process, the weld filler metal is bare wire. The most common size is 0.045 (1.14 mm), though 0.035 (0.89 mm) and 0.0625 (1.59 mm) are also stocked, typically on 2530 pound (11-14 kg) spools. Wire is fed continuously through a hollow cable to the welding gun, where it makes electrical contact. The arc between weld wire and workpiece melts the metal. Molten weld filler transfers as either a spray of fine drops, or as larger globs. The metal is protected from oxidation by a continuous flow of shielding gas, usually argon, through the weld torch and around the wire. Current is always Electrode Positive (DCRP, direct current reverse polarity). The GMAW process is fast and well suited to high volume work. It can be automated, as for welding long tubes. Welding with relatively high current, about 190-220 amperes for 0.045 (1.14 mm) wire, and argon shielding is used for the spray -arc transfer mode. In this mode, molten weld metal crosses the arc to the work as a fine spray. At lower current, roughly 100 amperes for 0.035 (0.89 mm) wire, with 75% argon 25% helium shielding, the molten weld metal transfers as large, individual drops. This is known as short-arc, or short-circuiting arc, welding, characterized by a noisy arc, spatter, and low heat input. Choice of shielding gas is important. First, do not use oxygen additions to the gas when welding nickel alloys and NEVER use 75% argon 25% carbon dioxide for GMAW welding either stainless or nickel alloys. Oxygen above 2% starts burning out major alloying elements. CO2 above 5% adds carbon to the low carbon stainless grades. Although very small amounts of CO2 may be used in argon, at above 15% CO2

in argon the arc transfer mode is no longer spray, but rather a hot globular transfer with a great deal of spatter. For spray-arc welding the most common gas has been 100% argon. To improve bead contour and reduce arc wander, respectively, from 10 to 20% helium and a small amount of CO2 may be added to the argon. One such gas from Air Liquide, their BlueShieldTM 20 is a nominal 81% argon 18% helium and 1% carbon dioxide. A mix of 75%Ar 25%He is also used, although the transfer mode will then not quite be a true spray-arc. For short-circuiting arc transfer 75% Ar 25% He is used, as is the commonly available 90% He 7 1/2% Ar 2 1/2% CO2. Because the welding wire must be pushed through a cable, ranging from 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4 1/2m) long, there may be feeding problems. The result can be a tangle of wire known, appropriately, as a birds nest. This shuts down the operation until the welder clears it. The care with which the filler metal is wound on the spool does affect how smoothly the wire feeds. The manufacturer, then, is often blamed for feeding problems. However, more often than not, proper attention to machine set up will ensure freedom from birds nests. 16 Smooth feeding depends on the cast and helix of the spooled wire. Both AWS A5.9 for stainless, and A5.14 for nickel alloy wire require cast and helix of wire on 12 inch (300mm) spools to be4 such that a specimen long enough to produce a single loop, when cut from the spool and laid unrestrained on a flat surface, will do the following: 1. Form a circle not less than 15 in. (380mm) in diameter and not more than 50 in. (1300mm) in diameter 2. Rise above the flat surface no more than 1 in. (25mm) at any location Our RA 253 MA wire, for example, typically has 36 to 42 inch (915 to 1070mm) cast and 1/2 inch (12.7mm) helix. The following discussion is based on information from Ron Stahura, Avesta Welding Products, Inc.: Many heat and corrosion resistant alloy weld wires are much higher in strength than stainless wire (e.g., ER308, ER316L), and therefore require more care to feed smoothly. When tangling, or birds nest, occurs the first thing we suggest is to examine machine set-up. Does this problem occur on more than one machine? How long is the cablethe longer the cable, the more tension in the feed rolls. Are the feed rolls, inlet guide and outlet guide all clean? Incidentally, V groove rolls are used with solid stainless/nickel alloy wire, U groove for copper or aluminum, and serrated rolls for flux cored wire. Use minimal pressure on the feed rollsmore is not better. A rule of thumb is to hold the wire between the fingers as it enters the feed rolls. If you can hold it back, there is not enough pressure. Adjust the pressure until you just can not hold the wire, then give it another half turn beyond that.

For 0.045 inch (1.14mm) wire, consider using a 1/16 inch (1.6mm) conduit, instead of a 0.045/1.14mm conduit. The oversize conduit wont hurt, and will give more room for the wire to flex. A heavy duty contact tip is preferred instead of a standard contact tip. When spray-arc welding the tip runs hot, and the wire may swell into the tip and jam it. The heavy duty tip simply has more copper, and can handle more heat. 17

Gas Metal Arc Welding GMAW, a.k.a. MIG) Flux Cored Arc Welding FCAW is similar to GMAW except that the wire used is tubular, with flux and metal alloy powders inside. Because this wire contains its own flux, gas shielding may be 75% Argon 25% CO2, even with nickel alloys! The advantage of flux cored wire is greater overall productivity than when solid wire is used, and the arc is softer. Flux cored wire is sensitive to moisture pick -up, and should be left in its sealed plastic bag until ready to use.

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) 18 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Covered welding electrodes consist of an alloy core wire and a flux coating. The core wire is usually, but not always, similar to the base metal in composition. Often, however, various alloy additions are made in the coating, so that the weld bead chemistry will not be the same as the chemistry of the core wire itself. In the case of RA330-80-15 or -16, and most RA330-04-15 covered electrodes, a 35%Ni 15%Cr AWS E330 core wire is used. The additional carbon, manganese and chromium required in the weld deposit are added to the flux coating. During welding, these additions melt in and adjust the chemistry of the weld bead to the specified composition. RA333-70-16 electrodes do use RA333 core wire. The electrode coating does four basic jobs: 1. 2. Provides a gas that shields the metal crossing the arc from oxidation Produces a molten slag which further protects the molten weld bead from oxidation, affects out-of-position weldability, and controls the bead shape Adds more alloying elements, such as manganese, carbon or chromium Promotes electrical conductivity across the arc and helps to stabilize the arc, important when alternating current (AC) is used

3. 4.

There are three types of coatings used on Rolled Alloys electrodes. Coating type is designated by a -15, a -16, or, more recently, a -17.

DC lime-type coatings are designated -15. RA330-04-15 and RA330-80-15 both have DC (Direct Current) lime coatings. This means that these electrodes can ONLY be used with direct current. Normally the current is reverse polarity (DCRP, or Electrode Positive). That is, the electrode is the positive, and the workpiece is negative electrical pole of the circuit. Electrons are emitted from the work and go toward the electrode. If the welder attempts to use a DC electrode with an AC (alternating current) setting on the welding machine, the electrode simply wont run. He will not be able to keep the arc going. This would seem to be very basic knowledge, but every couple of years someone complains that RA330-04-15 wont run. Well, it will indeed run on DC current, but not on AC. That is, not unless that AC current is turned up so high that the whole electrode glows red and the coating spalls off. The AC/DC titania coated electrodes are designated -16. RA333-70-16 and RA330-8016 both have AC/DC coatings. These electrodes may be used with 19 alternating current (AC). They have compounds of potassium and titanium in the coating which stabilize the arc. This means it will not extinguish itself as the current reverses direction (and goes to zero) 60 times a second on normal 60 cycle current (50 cycle in Europe). AC/DC electrodes may also be used with direct current, DC. In fact, they run the best when using DC. Weld repair with RA333-70-16 covered electrodes is best accomplished using direct current, reverse polarity (DCRP). The newer coating designation is -17, which also operates on alternating current, as well as on direct current. At this writing RA 253 MA-17 is the only electrode we stock with this coating. Remove all slag or flux after welding! If there is any residual weld flux on the fabrication, that flux will continue to do its job when put into high temperature service. The result will be one form or another of hot corrosion, dependent upon the atmosphere. Fluoride containing fluxes are wonderful getters for sulphur. Residual flux may lead to local sulphidation attack even though the sulphur level is quite low in the surrounding atmosphere. This has been well illustrated in work published by the former Huntington Alloy Products Division, now Special Metals. In carburizing environments, Rolled Alloys experience has been tha t the flux will promote rapid carburization, hence embrittlement. In carbon and sulphur free oxidizing environments that flux will increase local oxidation rates.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

In GTAW, the arc is struck between the workpiece and a tungsten electrode, which remains unmelted. The argon shielding gas, which protects both the hot tungsten electrode and the molten weld puddle, is brought in through a nozzle or gas cup which surrounds the electrode. This process used to be called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), and was originally patented as Heliarc , a name still used occasionally. For both stainless and nickel alloys the current used is DCSP, direct current straight polarity. The work is electrically positive and the tungsten electrode is the negative electrical pole. The electrode is usually thoriated tungsten, that is, tungsten metal with 1 or 2% thorium oxide added to improve the emissivity of electrons. Rare earth oxides are also used. For welding aluminum the electrode is pure tungsten, used with AC (alternating current). 20 Shielding gas is normally pure argon or helium. Argon is used for manual welding. A helium addition may be used for automated welding, where a hotter arc is preferred. No oxygen or carbon dioxide can be tolerated or the tungsten electrode would literally burn up. For the new heat resistant nickel alloy RA 602 CA, it is necessary to add 2.5% nitrogen to the argon. In this particular alloy, nitrogen reduces hot cracking susceptibility. The arc between the tungsten electrode and the work is what melts the workpiece. The weld filler metal is fed by hand into the molten puddle. GTAW weld wire for heat or corrosion resistant alloys is sold as 36 (914 mm) straight lengths of bare wire, in 10 pound (4 1/2 kg) tubes. The welder has the most control when using gas tungsten arc, and this process makes the best quality weld, but it is relatively slow. It may be automated for volume production. In automatic GTAW the wire is fed into the joint from a spool of wire, just like GMAW wire. For faster welding speed helium is added to the argon shielding gas, making the arc hotter. GTAW is often used to make the root pass in pipes or whenever the joint can only be made from one side. The rest of the weld may be built up with either GMAW or SMAW, both of which are faster. Rememberthe core wire of RA330-04-15 covered electrodes is AWS ER330, and not RA330-04 chemistry. Welders sometimes knock the coating off an electrode and use the core wire as GTAW filler. Do not do this with RA330-04-15 or the RA330-80 electrodes. This AWS ER330 will make a crack-sensitive weld, without the benefit of the alloying elements which were in the coating. Atmospheric contamination, as from strong winds or too long an arc length, is a potential cause of porosity. Look at work to tip distance, shielding gas flow rates, cup size and consider the use of a gas lens. When using a 2 4% nitrogen addition for welding RA 602CA or some of the corrosion resistant alloys, the shielding gas will be just that much more sensitive to atmospheric contamination. Minimize the arc length, no more than 1/4 to 3/8 inch (6-9.5mm). The longer the arc length, the greater the opportunity to entrain air into the shielding gas. Gas cup size

depends upon what diameter tungsten electrode is being used. A 3/32 (2.4mm) electrode should use anywhere from a No. 6 to No. 8 cup (9.5-12.7mm cup dia), No. 7 (11mm) being about right. An 1/8 inch (3.2mm) electrode requires a No. 8 (12.7mm) cup. Consider using a gas lens, a wire screen which serves to reduce turbulence of the shielding gas flow. It is this turbulence which causes air to get mixed in with the argon shielding gas.

21

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW, a.k.a. TIG)

Plasma Arc Welding The plasma arc torch is roughly analogous to a GTAW torch. It generates intense heat in a very narrow zone, and has been used to weld RA330 without added filler (with GTAW this would be extremely difficult). PAW is an excellent welding process for heat resisting alloys.
For the corrosion resistant alloy AL-6XN , plasma welding is less desirable. This 6% molybdenum grade requires the use of an over-alloyed weld filler, typically ERNiCrMo-3, to maintain corrosion resistance in the weld bead. With plasma arc welding so little filler is used that the weld bead is heavily diluted with base metal and has reduced corrosion resistance due to molybdenum micro segregation. A full 2150F (1177C) anneal is necessary to restore full corrosion resistance in plasma welds of AL-6XN.

Submerged Arc Welding Submerged arc uses a spool of weld wire, much like GMAW. Instead of shielding gas, a hopper feeds granulated flux into the arc to shield the arc and molten weld puddle.

While it is possible to use 0.045 (1.14 mm) dia. wire, larger sizes such as 1/16 or 3/32 (1.6 or 2.4 mm) are generally preferred. For nickel alloys such as RA330 a strongly basic flux must be used, such as Avesta Flux 805 or Bhler-Thyssens RECORD NiCrW. Absolutely do not use acid fluxes or any flux meant for stainless steel. Heat input must be as low as possible, and for this reason 1/8 (3.2 mm) wire is not suggested with nickel heat resistant alloys.

22

SAW is process naturally inclined to high heat input, but this heat must be kept to a minimum to avoid centerbead cracking in fully austenitic alloys. It is for this reason that 3/32 (2.4mm), rather than 1/8 (3.2mm), wire is suggested for use with nickel heat resistant alloys.

Resistance Welding3

23

Spot and seam welding parameters for heat resistant alloys will differ from those used with stainlesses such as 304L or 316L, and markedly from those used for carbon steel. Heat resistance alloys may have twice the yield strength of stainless and considerably higher electrical resistivity. Electrode force, welding current and time, and electrode tip contours may all need to be modified accordingly. A restricted-dome electrode is suggested for spot welding. Average dome radius may be 3 inch (76 mm) for material up to 11 gage (3mm). For a larger nugget size in material 16 to 11 gage (1.6 to 3mm) a 5 to 8 inch (127 to 203mm) radius dome is sometimes preferred.

In seam welding heat time should be adjusted to ensure that the wheel maintains pressure until the weld nugget has solidified, to avoid porosity and cracking. Likewise cool time should be sufficient that welded areas are not remelted. The metal must be clean and free of all grease, or a sound weld cannot be made.

24 Suggested Weld Filler Selections Base Metal RA330 RA333 RA 602 CATM Preferred bare wire covered electrodes RA330-04 -RA333 RA330-04-15 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 Alternates RA333 , RA82 RA333-70-16 ERNiCrWMo-1 617 (2.4627, ERNiCrCoMo-1) --

S 6025 6225 Al (SG-, EL- NiCr25FeAlY) S 6025 RA333 82 RA 353 MA RA 253 MA RA333 556 6225 Al

RA601

RA600 RA 353 MA RA 253 MA RA800H/AT

182 RA 353 MA RA 253 MA-17 RA333-70-16 --

RA330-04 -RA333, RA333-70-16 ERNiCrCoMo-1 RA330-04 82, ENiCrFe-2 RA 253 MA-17 RA330-04* E312-16

RA309 RA310 RA446

ER309 ER310 ER309 ER310

E309-16 E310-15 E309-16 E310-15

HK, HT, HU

RA330-80-15 DC lime is the preferred 35% nickel rod for cast heat resistant alloys. Alternates RA333-70-16, RA330-04-15

General: Do choose the weld filler for its performance under the expected service conditions, as well as for weldability issues. *Where sulphidation is an issue, do not use high nickel fillers such as RA330-04 Do not useany stainless weld filler on nickel alloys (e.g., on RA330, RA333, RA600, RA601, RA 353 MA, RA 602 CA). The welds will crack. We suggest not using alloy X (ERNiCrMo-2, ENiCrMo-2) weld fillers on RA333 base metal. The X weld bead may be subject to catastrophic oxidation at the higher service temperatures where RA333 is commonly used. Alloy 617 (ERNiCrCoMo-1) welds are strong, but they significantly lack oxidation resistance compared with RA 602 CA for extreme temperature service.

25 Dissimilar Metal Joints, Suggested Weld Filler Guidelines


Considerations in selecting a filler metal for a dissimilar metal weld joint include the expected service conditions at the joint, relative thermal expansion coefficients of the three metals involved, and freedom from weld metal hot cracking. The final selection should be approved by the end user and weld procedures qualified by the fabricator. These suggestions are from experience and general metallurgical knowledge. 602 CA is a new alloy, data incomplete

Base Metals
RA330 RA800H/AT RA333

Carbon Steel
182 RA330-04 182 RA333

Stainless (304,316)
RA330-04

RA 253 MA

RA 602 CA Cast Alloys HK, HT, HP


617 RA333 617A 617A 6225Al S 6025 6225 Al 617A
A

RA333

RA330-80-15

RA330-04 RA333

RA333 RA330-04 RA 353 MA 617A

RA333-70-16

RA 353 MA 182 RA 353 MA RA 353 MA RA 602 CATM 182 82 RA 253 MA E309-16 182 82 RA 253 MA E309-16 82 182 82 182 E309-16 ER309 E309-16 E310-15 E309-16 E310-15

RA 353 MA RA330-80-15 617A

RA 253 MA RA333 RA333 RA333-70-16 RA333 RA333-70-16 E309-16 RA 253 MA RA 253 MA -E309-16 RA 253 MA-17

RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA330-80-15 RA330-80-15

RA600

82 182 82 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 182 E309-16 E310-15

82 182 S 6025 6225 Al 82 182B 82 182B 82B 182B


B B

RA601

RA309

RA310

RA330-80-15 RA333-70-16 RA333-70-16 --

RA446

Note: The carbon steel joint must be ground to bright metal. A mill finish is not acceptable. All rust, blue-black hot rolling scale and paint must be removed before welding with any stainless or nickel alloy weld wires. Nickel alloy weld wire lacks the deoxidation characteristics of carbon steel weld wires. A 617 (ERNiCrCoMo-1) lacks the oxidation resistance of RA 602 CA B These high nickel fillers are quite unsuitable for sulphur bearing environments

26 Dissimilar Metal Weldments Involving Carbon Steel

27

Heat Resistant Alloy Weld Filler Metals Grade UNS AWS ----------E309-16 E310-15 ERNiCrFe-12 ENiCrFe-12 ERNiCrWMo-1 ERNiCrCoMo-1 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3 Cr 19 17.5 17.5 17.5 25 25 21 21 28 28 23 26 25 25 22 22 19 16 Ni 35 33.5 33.5 33.5 45 45 10 11 34 35 13 20 63 62 59 52 72 65 Mo ----3 3 --------2 9 --Co ----3 3 ---------12.5 --W ----3 3 --------14 ---Si 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 1 1 1.6 1.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.03 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.6 Mn 5.2 5.2 2.2 1.7 3 2.5 0.6 0.7 1.7 1.5 1.9 1.8 0.05 0.1 0.6 0.5 3 7.8 C 0.25 0.22 0.85 0.85 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.03 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.18 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.02 0.04 Fe 39 43 45 45 17 18 66 65 35 34 61 51 9 10 1.5 1.5 2 7.5 Other ------0.16 N 0.05 Ce 0.17 N 0.04 Ce N, Ce 0.15 N 0.03 Ce --2.2 Al 0.08 Y 2.3Al 0.1Ti 0.3 Al 1.2 Al 0.4 Ti 2.7 Cb 0.5 Ti 2Cb

RA330-04 N08334 RA330-04-15 W88334 RA330-80-15 W88338 RA330-80-16 W88338 RA333 N06333 RA333-70-16 W86333 RA 253 MA S30815 RA 253 MA-17 W30816 RA 353 MA - RA 353 MA-15 - 309-16 W30910 310-15 W31010 S 6025 N06025 6225 Al -230-W N06231 617 N06617 82 N06082 182 W86182

23

Heat Resistant Alloy Specifications alloy RA333 UNS Product Form ASME ASTM AMS W.Nr, EN

RA330

RA 602 CATM RA 253 MA

N06333 Plate, sheet, strip Bar Smlss pipe & tube Welded pipe Welded tube N08330 Plate, sheet, strip Bars & shapes Billets & bars Smlss pipe & tube Welded pipe Welded tube Fusion weld pipe N06025 Plate, sheet Rod, bar,wire S30815 Plate, sheet, strip Bars and shapes Pipe Welded tube S35315 Plate, sheet, strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate, sheet, strip Rod and bar Smlss pipe & tube Plate, sheet, strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate, sheet, strip Bars and shapes Pipe Plate, sheet, strip Plate, sheet, strip Rod, bar, wire Smlss pipe & tube Plate,sheet, strip Rod, bar, wire Bar, forgings,rings Smlss pipe & tube 24

RA 353 MA

RA800H/AT

N08811 (N08810) S30908

RA309

RA310

S31008

RA446 RA600

S44600 N06600

RA601

N06601

-B 718 5593 2.4608 -B 719 5717 -B 722 -B 723 -B 726 SB-536 B 536 5592 1.4886 SB-511 B 511 5716 -B 512 SB-535 B 535 SB-710 B 710 -B 739 -B 546 -B 168 - 2.4633 -B 166 SA-240 A 240 - 1.4893 SA-479 A 479 1.4835 SA-312 A 312 SA-249 A 249 ASME Code Case 2033-1 SA-240 A 240 - 1.4854 SA-479 A 479 SA-312 A 312 SB-409 B 409 - -SB-408 B 408 - (1.4876) SB-407 B 407 SA-240 A 240 - 1.4833 SA-479 A 479 1.4833 SA-312 A 312 SA-240 A 240 5521 1.4845 SA-479 A 479 5651 1.4845 SA-312 A 312 -A 176 - 1.4763 SB-168 B 168 - 2.4816 SB-166 B 166 5665 SB-167 B 167 SB-168 B 168 5870 2.4851 SB-166 B 166 --5715 SB-167 B 167

Weld Filler Specifications & Tradenames, American versus German Grade RA330-04 RA330-04-15 RA333 Alloy X 601 S 6025 6225 Al 617 62 82 182 80-20 UNS No. N08334 W88334 N06333 N06002 N06601 --N06617 N06062 N06082 W86182 N06076 AWS ---ERNiCrMo-2 ERNiCrFe-11 --ERNiCrCoMo-1 ERNiCrFe-5 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3 ERNiCr-6 W. Nr. --2.4608 2.4613 -2.4649 -2.4627 -2.4806 2.4620 2.4951 DIN Designation --NiCr26MoW SG-NiCr21Fe18Mo -SG-NiCr25FeAlY EL-NiCr25FeAlY SG-NiCr22Co12Mo -SG-NiCr20Nb EL-NiCr16FeMn NiCr 20Ti

25

Boltsanother means of joining heat resistant alloys Bolts are commonly used at elevated temperature to withstand a shear load. For example, RA330 alloy threaded rod, nuts and washers are used to assemble high temperature equipment where loose joints are desired to accommodate thermal expansion & contraction during thermal cycling. A good discussion of fasteners in the chemical process industry has been presented by Robert Smallwood6. At high temperatures relaxation is the primary limitation to the use of threaded fasteners to maintain a clamping load. The most common alloy choice for applications up to 1150 or 1200F (620-640C) is RA718, an age hardening nickel base alloy. A286, a less expensive age hardening stainless, is sometimes suggested but it does not have as high a temperature capability as does RA718, and is not nearly so available in various bar sizes. Above this temperature, to about 1400-1500F (760-816C) the choices narrow down to Ren 41 or WASPALOYTM. More of this high temperature bolting experience has been with WASPALOY. In addition to selecting a strong bolt material it is important to look at the relative expansion coefficients of the alloy to be clamped, and the alloy from which the bolt is made. If the metal to be clamped expands faster than the bolt, that expansion will add to the tensile load in the bolt and may stretch it, so that the assembly is loose once it comes back down to room temperature. What appear to us as fairly liberal alloy selection suggestions are offered by the Industrial Fasteners Institute as7: Below 450F (230C), low alloy steel. 450 to 900F (230 to 480C), one of the grades in ASTM A 193. From 900 to 1200F (480 to 650C), A286 and 718 . Above 1200F up to 1600F (650 to 870C), Rene 41 or WASPALOY. Some cautions. Never, NEVER use anti-seize compounds containing copper anywhere near high temperature equipment. If some of that copper gets carried into an area where the metal is operating above 1981F (1083C) it will melt. Molten copper alloys will embrittle or eat holes through any austenitic alloy they touch. Zinc or galvanized coatings embrittle austenitics and can also embrittle steel bolts at moderately elevated temperatures, even without melting the zinc (melting point 787F/419C). Bolted connections are often difficult or impossible to disassemble after high temperature exposure. One of the reasons is that a chromium oxide scale forms on the alloy. This oxide tends to bond male and female threads together. There are ways to minimize the strength of this bond. One is to coat both parts with magnesium hydroxide, commonly available from the local drug store as Phillips Milk of Magnesia. This will calcine to magnesium oxide, quite inert and harmless to heat resistant alloys. The magnesia simply acts as a parting compound. Another approach is to use a braze stop-off, such as one of those available from Wall Colmonoy Corporation, www.colmonoy.com.

26

Weld Filler Consumption Filler metal requirements range from about 2-1/2 to 5 percent of the weight of plate involved in a fabrication. Estimated weight of covered electrodes and spooled wire for various joint configurations is given below.

APPROXIMATE WEIGHT, IN POUNDS, OF JOINT DESIGN PLATE THICKNESS, inch WELD METAL DEPOSITED PER LINEAL FOOT WITH REINFORCEMENT 0.032 0.072 0.13 0.29 0.52 0.80 0.37 0.62 0.85 0.77 0.95 1.32 1.83 COVERED ELECTRODES REQUIRED (A) GMAW, GTAW WIRE REQUIRED (B) 0.038 0.085 0.15 0.34 0.60 0.94 0.43 0.73 1.00 0.90 1.12 1.55 2.16

SINGLE FILLET

1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 1/2 5/8 3/4 1

0.064 0.144 0.26 0.58 1.03 1.61 0.73 1.23 1.7 1.53 1.90 2.63 3.65

"V" GROOVE

DOUBLE "V" GROOVE

(A) Assumes 50% deposition efficiency (B) Assumes 85% deposition efficiency

27 References 1. Thaddeus B. Massalski, Editor-in-Chief, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, Volume 1, ISBN 0-87170-262 American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, U.S.A., 1986 I

2. Avesta handbook for the welding of stainless steel, Inf. 8901, Avesta Welding AB, S-74401 Avesta, Sweden 1989 3. Berthold Lundqvist, SANDVIK Welding Handbook, Sandvik publication 0,34 E, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Sweden June, 1977 4. Specification for Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods, ANSI/AWS A5.14/A5.14M-97, ISBN 0-87171-543-0, American Welding Society, Miami, Florida, U.S.A. 5. Resistance Welding Manual, 4th Edition, ISBN 0-9624382-0-0, Resistance Welder Manufacturers Association, 1900 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 USA, 1989 6. R.E. Smallwood, Fastener Problems in the Process Industry, Corrosion 91 Paper No. 161, NACE, Houston, Texas 7. Fastener Standards, 6th Edition, available from: Industrial Fasteners Institute, 1505 East Ohio Building, 1717 East Ninth Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44114 U.S.A. The best general reference we know for welding this class of materials is: R. J. Castro & J.J. de Cadenet, Welding Metallurgy of Stainless and Heat-resisting Steels, ISBN 0 521 20431 3, Cambridge University Press, 1975. First published, in French, as: Mtallurgie du soudage des aciers inoxydables et rsistant chaud, by Dunod, Paris, 1968.

28

Weld Filler Specifications & Tradenames, American versus German Grade Nr. RA330-04 RA330-04-15 RA333 RA333-70-16 Alloy X 601 N06601 S 6025 -NiCr25FeAlY 6225 Al -NiCr25FeAlY 617 N06617 NiCr22Co12Mo 62 N06062 82 N06082 182 W86182 NiCr16FeMn 80-20 N06076 ---A5.14 A5.11 UNS No. AWS Classification DIN Designation F No. N08334 --W88334 --N06333 --2.4608 NiCr26MoW W86333 --N06002 A5.14 ERNiCrMo-2 2.4613 SG-NiCr21Fe18Mo ERNiCrFe-11 --ERNiCrFe-12 -2.4649 ENiCrFe-12 ERNiCrCoMo-1 ERNiCrFe-5 ERNiCr-3 ENiCrFe-3 ERNiCr-6 --2.4627 -2.4806 2.4620 2.4951 ASME W.

----?? -SGELSG-

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43 43

-SG-NiCr20Nb ELNiCr 20Ti