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ARBE2100

Construction Technology 2

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ARBE2100 Week 3

Derren Lowe 2010

ARBE2100

Construction Technology 2

ARBE2100 Construction Technology 2 Week 3: Timber Framed Construction Timber framing, linings and typical openings.

Week 3: Timber Framed Construction

Timber framing, linings and typical openings.

ARBE2100

Construction Technology 2

Framing in Timber

Selected Readings and references used in this lecture:

Ching, F., Building Construction Illustrated

this lecture: Ching, F., Building Construction Illustrated Mike Riley & Chris Howard, Construction Technology 1 –

Mike Riley & Chris Howard, Construction Technology 1 – House Construction 2002

Australian Government: Department of Forest and Wood Products, www.timber.org.au/default.asp

In detail : building simply / Christian Schittich

Journals

Cooper, H. B. a. J. (1996-). UME. Point Lookout, Qld: University of Melbourne.

ARBE2100 Week3

Timber Characteristics

Timber is a natural material.

Each piece tells part of the story of the tree that produced it.

Branches that are engulfed by the growing tree cause knots.

Insect attack causes the tree to lay down extra wood to protect the tree giving a lump or ʻburlʼ, or may produce a resin or sap pocket.

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extra wood to protect the tree giving a lump or ʻ burl ʼ , or may
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Australian Forestry

From the Australian Government.

http://www.daff.gov.au/forestry/national

Forest industries are Australia's second largest manufacturing industry, with an annual turnover of $23 billion.

The industry contributes: around 0.7 per cent to Australia's Gross Domestic Product, and 5.8 per cent of manufacturing output.

Australia has 149 million hectares of forests comprising 147.4 million hectares of native forests and 1.97 million hectares of plantations

These forests cover about 19 per cent of the continent. This is about 7 hectares of forest for each Australian.

In contrast, about half (52 per cent or 1,015,000 hectares) of Australia’s plantations are exotic conifers (predominantly Pinus radiata), often referred to as softwood plantations, while the other half (48 per cent or 950,000 hectares) are hardwood (predominantly eucalypt) plantations.

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Forestry Product

In 2008-09, 25 million cubic metres of logs were harvested from Australiaís production forests for a gross value of around $1.7 billion.

Around two-thirds of this log harvest was from plantations with the remainder from native forests.

Australia’s total log harvest has increased by 21 per cent over the past ten years.

Over the same period the harvest of hardwood logs from plantations increased nearly 7 fold, while there was a 17 per cent decrease in logs harvested from native forests.

During 2008-09, Australia’s log harvest produced: 4.7 million cubic metres of sawnwood, 1.6 million cubic metres of wood based panels; and 3.3 million tonnes of paper and paperboard.

The main export from Australia is wood chips with 5.2 million tonnes exported during 2008-09 with a value of nearly $1 billion

This represents 43 per cent of Australia’s wood product exports.

Of Australia’s total woodchip exports in 2008-09, 82 per cent was to Japan.

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Timber Milling (Production)

Sawmilling methods.

Timber Milling (Production) Sawmilling methods. 11 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Shrinkage

Water loss from the cells of timber.

After the initial water loss (after being cut down), the remaining water is slowly released from the drying timber.

Tangential shrinkage is the highest.

The growth rings tend to shorten as the timber dries.

Timber shrinks at different rates in different directions.

Once dry (“seasoned”), it will expand & contract to be in equilibrium with changing local conditions.

(“seasoned”), it will expand & contract to be in equilibrium with changing local conditions. 12 ARBE2100
(“seasoned”), it will expand & contract to be in equilibrium with changing local conditions. 12 ARBE2100
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Drying Timber

Drying timber increases its:

Strength;

Stiffness;

Stability:

timber increases its: Strength; Stiffness; Stability : Durability & Ease of fastening. It is ideally dried

Durability &

Ease of fastening.

It is ideally dried to a moisture content in equilibrium with its service environment.

After the timber is milled it is stacked in a crossover grid and left to season or air dry, allowing moisture to evaporate.

Alternatively and to accelerate the process it can also be “kiln

dried” in a heated and low humidity kiln or oven.

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to accelerate the process it can also be “kiln dried” in a heated and low humidity

Hardwood + Softwood

Form:

Hardwoods have broad leaves, while softwoods are conifers and have more needle-like leaves.

When the formation of the cell wall is complete, lignin gradually extends through the cell walls, acting as a bonding agent that “glues” the cells together.

The newly formed cells on the inner side of the cambium, become one of the following types of wood tissue:

Cells in Softwoods or,

Vessels in Hardwoods.

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Cells in Softwoods or, Vessels in Hardwoods. 14 ARBE2100 Week 3 Softwood x80 magnification Hardwood x80
Cells in Softwoods or, Vessels in Hardwoods. 14 ARBE2100 Week 3 Softwood x80 magnification Hardwood x80

Softwood x80 magnification

Hardwood x80 magnification

Hardwood + Softwood

Colouring:

Hardwoods often have a darker coloured wood, whilst softwoods are invariably lighter in colour (there are however a number of species of hardwoods with light coloured woods).

a number of species of hardwoods with light coloured woods). 15 ARBE2100 Week 3 Cypress Pine
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of hardwoods with light coloured woods). 15 ARBE2100 Week 3 Cypress Pine - a Softwood Selection

Cypress Pine - a Softwood

Selection of typical Australian Hardwoods

Hardwood + Softwood Cell Structure

The terms “softwood” and “hardwood” do not strictly indicate softness or hardness of particular timbers.

In fact, some hardwoods are softer and lighter than softwoods.

The main differences between hardwoods and softwoods are botanical, and relate to the way the tree grows and the way in which the wood is produced.

The essential difference between the wood from hardwoods and softwoods is the presence of vessels in hardwoods.

These are continuous pipes running the length of the tree and serve as conduits for water and nutrients in the outer layers of wood in a growing tree.

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as conduits for water and nutrients in the outer layers of wood in a growing tree.

Hardwood

Softwood

Hardwoods vs. Softwoods

Hardwoods have a relatively non-porous cell structure:

The moisture must diffuse through the cell wall to dry and thus more time is required for the moisture to leave Hardwood cell structure.

Softwoods, alternatively have a porous cell structure:

Thus they can be grown, harvested, milled and dried quite quickly compared to hardwoods.

In practical building and construction application, softwoods such as Pine have become the main and most common framing material.

Hardwoods are more durable and are selectively utilised in structural elements, outdoor exposed elements, feature elements or any combination of the above.

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in structural elements, outdoor exposed elements, feature elements or any combination of the above. 17 ARBE2100
in structural elements, outdoor exposed elements, feature elements or any combination of the above. 17 ARBE2100
in structural elements, outdoor exposed elements, feature elements or any combination of the above. 17 ARBE2100

Other Timber Characteristics

The Appearance Grading of Timber can be identified by specifying a grade. “A” being “best” or most free from “blemishes” or knots.

Knots generally occur where a branch starts to grow out of the trunk of a tree and the newly laid-down wood cells in the trunk have to bend and grow around the branch.

Fires also cause damage that is often reflected in resin pockets, or may result in the tree trying to heal itself by laying down a new cambium that traps bark.

These, and other tree growth experiences contribute to the character of each piece of wood, and makes each length of timber unique.

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contribute to the character of each piece of wood, and makes each length of timber unique.

More Timber Characteristics

Hardness is required for surfaces that will take impact loads like floors.

The density is influenced by cell structure and size, thickness of the cell walls and moisture content.

Most hardwoods have thicker cell walls than softwoods.

Therefore most hardwoods often have higher densities than softwoods.

Timber is a natural insulator. Air pockets within its cellular structure make timber a natural barrier to heat and cold.

Acoustic An important property of timber is its ability to damp vibrations. Its cellular network of minute interlocking pores converts sound energy into heat energy by frictional and viscous resistance within these pores and by vibration of their small fibres.

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Attackers of Timber

Termites -

Termite resistance is influenced by cell size, and type of extractives. Mechanical prevention is the most common method - barriers that are impenetrable to termites.

Lichen growth -

Are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner usually a green algae. Depending on the variety of lichen, it may or may not be harmful to the timber.

And of course,

Fire.

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Depending on the variety of lichen, it may or may not be harmful to the timber.

Termites in Australia

Termites in Australia 21 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Termites in Australia 21 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

Fire Resistance in Timber

The Fire resistance is influenced by density, and type of extractives.

Some spieces of timber are more fire resistant than others.

It can be enhanced by various treatments including pressure application of fire retardants or surface application of fire retardant coatings.

RFS (Rural Fire Service) POSITION:

In addition, RFS has done further investigation based on the empirical formula and has determined that the maximum radiation levels for the seven timber species classified as fire-retardant-treated timbers for a duration of 120 seconds. The calculated maximum radiation levels are tabled below for your information.

Timber Species

Density (kg/m3)

Maximum Radiant Heat Flux (kW/m2)

Blackbutt

770

31.6

Spotted gum

920

33.1

Turpentine

995

33.8

Red Ironbark

1090

34.6

Red River Gum

915

33

Silver Top Ash

865

32.5

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Australian Standards

AS 1720.2-2006 Timber structures - Timber properties

AS 1720.4-2006 Timber structures - Fire resistance for structural adequacy of timber members

AS 2796.3-1999 Timber - Hardwood - Sawn and milled products - Timber for furniture components

AS 4785.3-2002 Timber - Softwood - Sawn and milled products - Timber for furniture components

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Framed Construction: Composite Timber

Selected Readings and references used in this section:

Australian Government: Department of Forest and Wood Products,

www.timber.org.au/default.asp

In detail : building simply / Christian Schittich

CHH Futurebuild

Journals

Cooper, H. B. a. J. (1996-). UME. Point Lookout, Qld: University of Melbourne.

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Timber Products

Timber is available in a wide range of products and species including:

Solid sawn sections,

Veneers (laminated),

Plywoods (laminated) and

Wood panels (moulded)

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including: Solid sawn sections, Veneers (laminated), Plywoods (laminated) and Wood panels (moulded) 25 ARBE2100 Week 3
including: Solid sawn sections, Veneers (laminated), Plywoods (laminated) and Wood panels (moulded) 25 ARBE2100 Week 3
including: Solid sawn sections, Veneers (laminated), Plywoods (laminated) and Wood panels (moulded) 25 ARBE2100 Week 3

The Development of Panel - Shaped Composite Timber

The development of panel-type products made of wood did not begin in the 20th century.

It has been established that the Egyptians were already gluing veneers together to produce a kind of plywood around 5000 years ago.

Although the emphasis in those days was on the enhancement of noble woods and the prevention of cracks forming in solid woods, the introduction of industrially produced plywood sheets around the year 1890 greatly extended the use of wood as a raw material.

This development led to a departure from exclusively pole or beam-type constructions in favour of planar materials.

Further developments quickly followed: the fibre- and particleboards.

These techniques create relatively high quality products from inferior quality wood and from waste products such as wood chippings and wanes from other production processes (sawmills, planing, carpentry).

It is therefore hardly surprising that the first boom phase, for particleboards in particular, coincided with the economy and scarcity during and after the 2nd World War.

Pictured is a WW2 De Havilland Mosquito – built from plywood.

during and after the 2nd World War. Pictured is a WW2 De Havilland Mosquito – built
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The Development of Panel - Shaped Composite Timber

But it was not until the second half of the 20th century that, due to falling production costs for composite wood boards and driven by developments in the field of adhesives, large format boards were used in construction.

This was made possible by a combination of the mechanisation and automation of timber acquisition and processing.

This trend is sure to continue and be reflected once again in timber construction in the foreseeable future.

Products such as oriented-strand boards (OSB) in construction, and medium density fibreboards (MDF) in interior finishing and furniture making are popular materials.

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The Development of Panel - Shaped Composite Timber

The most important reason for this is the amount of skilled labour required and the costs associated with this work, which are necessary for the traditional methods such as sawn wood, half-timbering or post and beam construction, but also for framed construction.

With the help of panels, construction processes can be simplified.

A further reason for the decline of this method lies in the increasing shortage of high quality solid wood for building

This forces all those involved in the wood chain to make better use of secondary products such as sawdust or inferior insect-damaged wood.

The spectrum of panels available for the widest variety of uses and made from various basic materials, from simple sawdust to solid wood, is constantly increasing.

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and made from various basic materials, from simple sawdust to solid wood, is constantly increasing. 28

Manufactured Timber Products

Panels made from wood or wood fibres bound together with glue, or other binder and produced by several manufacturers:

Particleboard (pictured top)

Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) – (pictured bottom)

Hardboard

Core board

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(pictured top) Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) – (pictured bottom) Hardboard Core board 29 ARBE2100 Week 3
(pictured top) Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) – (pictured bottom) Hardboard Core board 29 ARBE2100 Week 3

Joining Timber

Finger jointed illustrated.

Often used for smaller pieces of timber that will eventually be painted e.g. “Finger jointed pine skirting board.”

Precision finger-joint cutting

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eventually be painted e.g. “Finger jointed pine skirting board.” Precision finger-joint cutting 30 ARBE2100 Week 3

Glue Laminated Sections

Small pieces of timber glued together to form a larger element.

Used as both a structural and finishing element.

Size is limited only by transport capacity.

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Used as both a structural and finishing element. Size is limited only by transport capacity. 31

Blockboard

Smaller sections of timber formed here for example to make a solid core door.

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Blockboard Smaller sections of timber formed here for example to make a solid core door. 32

Timber Veneers

With veneers, thin layers of solid wood are sliced from a flitch or peeled from a log and then dried.

High quality material is used as a decorative finish.

Lower grade material is used to make plywood, LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber) and similar products.

This method was utilised quite often in the past and is becoming now increasingly common and the norm especially as a sustainable use of often rare timbers.

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becoming now increasingly common and the norm especially as a sustainable use of often rare timbers.

Plywood

Extremely rigid and can be utilised as a shear plane and as bracing.

Usually specified by structural and appearance grade of the facing surface visible and composed of varying thicknesses determined by number of glue laminated layers:

Plywood is identified primarily by the number of laminated layers.

Plywood is made by slicing wood into thin veneers and gluing the veneers together to form a sheet.

By alternating the grain direction for each successive layer, the sheet has similar areas of grain in the direction of both the width and the length of the sheet.

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the sheet has similar areas of grain in the direction of both the width and the
the sheet has similar areas of grain in the direction of both the width and the

Plywood Properties

Plywood sheets have properties that are nearly the same in both directions in the plane of the sheet, making it ideal as a membrane.

By using thin slices of timber in the manufacture of these products, the size and influence of any natural characteristic or indeed defects, is limited to the thickness of the veneer.

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of any natural characteristic or indeed defects, is limited to the thickness of the veneer. 35

Plywood

Because of the veneer composite of plywood differing appearance grades can be utilised on a single sheet, incorporating even more flexibility.

For example, a sheet can be specified “A-C” or “A- D” grade meaning -

“A” appearance grade on one side and “C” or “D” on the other non finished or unobserved side of the panel.

Specialty plywoods can also besides being a substrate for high class timber veneers, also be a substrate for other materials, for example metals like copper, zinc, titanium or many others.

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be a substrate for other materials, for example metals like copper, zinc, titanium or many others.

Plywood

An example of trade literature in regards to Plywood grades.

Plywood An example of trade literature in regards to Plywood grades. 37 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Plywood

“Flush” butt joints require accurate construction and may compromise waterproofing.

“Expressed” joints result in de-laminating as the veneer layers absorb moisture and come away.

Difficult to maintain a good finish on “natural” ply.

One option might be to use a hardwood veneer and regularly maintain the surface with a good penetrative oil preservative.

However a more durable solution is to utilise timber cover battens and the logic of the sheet junctions at joints and then to apply a paint finish.

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cover battens and the logic of the sheet junctions at joints and then to apply a

Plywood

When plywood is attached to a timber frame it creates one whole integral structural unit, much stronger than a normal timber frame.

The strength of this means that stud spacing can be wider than normal, i.e. 600mm

It also means that the noggings (the horizontal members between the studs) are not necessary, their role taken over by the plywood.

As the wall acts as one structural unit, rafters or trusses do not have to fall directly above studs.

The strength of the plywood lining and cladding, acting in composite with the timber frame, creates a very strong and rigid structure, resisting roof uplift, an important consideration in cyclonic and high wind areas.

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Plywood

Plywood can eliminate the need for separate bracing elements.

Unlike a lot of other cladding materials plywood can be worked and fixed with normal wood working tools and is easily bent to clad curved surfaces.

Plywood offers some environmental benefits to the design, building and construction industry.

It is manufactured from plantation-grown timber, a sustainable resource.

Compared to other materials, low amounts of energy are used in its manufacture.

It’s high strength to weight ratio means plywood structures are very economical in the amount of material used.

It can be used as a base for a wide variety of finishes and textures e.g. perforated for acoustics.

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It can be used as a base for a wide variety of finishes and textures e.g.
It can be used as a base for a wide variety of finishes and textures e.g.

LVL

Laminated Veneer Lumber

LVL is quite similar to the vertically laminated glulam beams, but is made in a similar manner to plywood.

LVL is manufactured from veneers that are rotary peeled, dried and laminated together under heat and pressure with an adhesive.

The grain on each ply is usually oriented in the same direction as the length of the member.

Because LVL is a manufactured product, it can be made to large depth dimensions (600mm + ).

LVL can come in profiles resembling steel beam sections and solid sections resembling traditional timber.

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come in profiles resembling steel beam sections and solid sections resembling traditional timber. 41 ARBE2100 Week

Framed Construction: Post and Beam

Selected Readings and references used in this section:

Ching, F., Building Construction Illustrated

Mike Riley & Chris Howard, Construction Technology 1 - House Construction 2002

Australian Government: Department of Forest and Wood Products

www.timber.org.au/default.asp

In detail : building simply / Christian Schittich

NSW Timber Framing Manual

Australian Architecture in Detail Vol 1 & 2, Pegrum

Journals

Cooper, H. B. &. J. (1996-). UME. Point Lookout, Qld: University of Melbourne.

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Post & Beam

Post and beam construction is one of the earliest typologies of vernacular or traditional construction.

It has also lent itself well to modern architecture and construction , but great care must be taken to achieve frame stability through bracing or, in some instances, rigid joints.

Post and beam construction, which on the surface may look simpler than traditional framing, requires much finer tolerances in assembly and careful detailing.

Post and beam construction is based on a system of supporting posts and walls under a grid of primary and secondary beams.

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is based on a system of supporting posts and walls under a grid of primary and
is based on a system of supporting posts and walls under a grid of primary and

Post & Beam

Typical detail.

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Post & Beam Typical detail. 44 03 ARBE2100 Week 3

Portal Frame

Portal Frame 45 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
Portal Frame 45 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Portal Frame

Portal Frame 46 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Designing + Building to the 300 module

When perusing trade literature and working with materials you will note that the sizes of most materials used in the Australian building industry are multiples of a 300mm module.

This dimension is the rough metric equivalent of the imperial foot, and the size of most building materials are multiples of this module.

By designing a building to a structural grid based on the standard sizes of building materials, the designer and/or builder can ensure that all the elements used within a design relate to one another.

This approach helps minimize material wastage and reduces labour costs caused by the need to trim, cut and manipulate building materials.

This can also allow for pre-fabrication and use of standard componentry and material.

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Prefabrication Steel portal frame . Made off site and transported to the site by truck

Prefabrication

Steel portal frame.

Made off site and transported to the site by truck - remote location in East Arnhem land.

Elemental construction.

All components are left visible.

Precision required for the assembly.

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Typical Specification

An example of a written “specification”.

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Typical Specification An example of a written “specification”. 49 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

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Typical Specification

A fuller description of the construction, fixtures, fittings,fasteners, finishes, colours et.al. than that described in the drawings proper or in more detail.

More will be presented on specifications later in the course program.

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proper or in more detail. More will be presented on specifications later in the course program.

Portal Frame

Structure and framing of the portal frame used as architectural expression.

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Portal Frame Structure and framing of the portal frame used as architectural expression. 51 ARBE2100 Week

Portal Frame

Section Drawing

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Portal Frame Section Drawing 52 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

Portal Frame

Frame highlighted.

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Portal Frame Frame highlighted. 53 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

Mesh Frame

Here is a pavilion forming a column-free enclosure approximately 25 x 15 m in plan

The walls are typically 3 m tall and the roof reaches

a

maximum height of 5.5 m above ground.

It

synthesises contemporary design and fabrication

techniques with a traditional construction

vernacular.

The column-free roof and walls are formed from an undulating, offset grid of timber beams.

The geometry is based on a quadrilateral plan and has wall and roof curvatures defined by arcs in plan and elevation respectively.

Serpentine Gallery Pavilion by Architect Aviro Siza

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by arcs in plan and elevation respectively. Serpentine Gallery Pavilion by Architect Aviro Siza 54 ARBE2100

Mesh Frame

Here is a mesh portal frame utilising bamboo as the structural material.

Architect: Shigeru Ban

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Here is a mesh portal frame utilising bamboo as the structural material. Architect: Shigeru Ban 55

Framed Truss

Stretching across the 28-metre-wide gully, this bridge of naturally finished timber poles uses the materials of the Alpine landscape.

Log Bridge in Alto Adige

Architects: monovolume Innsbruck - Lukas Burgauner, Patrik Pedo and Timon Tagliacozzo, University of lnnsbruck

monovolume Innsbruck - Lukas Burgauner, Patrik Pedo and Timon Tagliacozzo, University of lnnsbruck 56 ARBE2100 Week
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Framed Truss

To avoid the flood damage that the old bridge had repeatedly suffered during the spring thaw, the local authorities decided that the new structure should span the entire gully.

the spring thaw, the local authorities decided that the new structure should span the entire gully.
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Framed Truss

The construction restricts itself to only two materials.

The structural elements are made exclusively of round, weather resistant larch poles with connections of galvanized steel.

Designed to resist compression and shearing stresses, it consists of two parallel arches connected by cross beams.

The timber poles forming the parabolic arches are set out tangentially.

Each member functions as a single-span beam, cantilevered at one end.

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are set out tangentially. Each member functions as a single-span beam, cantilevered at one end. 58

Framed Truss

The maximum moment is reduced by the cantilevers, which together with the necessary steel cable stays, also create the balustrade at the centre of the bridge.

Tension cables on the underside provide wind bracing.

The timber pedestrian ramps are simply bolted to the structure.

The selection of local untreated timber lends the bridge a natural, homogeneous quality, allowing it to blend into its environment, and simultaneously minimises transport costs.

Despite the raw, untreated surfaces of the bridge, its clarity of detail and constructional simplicity endow it with a graceful weightlessness.

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bridge, its clarity of detail and constructional simplicity endow it with a graceful weightlessness. 59 ARBE2100

Framed Truss

The framed structural truss highlighted.

Framed Truss The framed structural truss highlighted. 60 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
Framed Truss The framed structural truss highlighted. 60 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Framed Truss

Detail.

Framed Truss Detail. 61 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Framed Truss Detail. 61 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

Framed Truss

Connections.

Framed Truss Connections. 62 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Framed Construction: Stud Frame

Selected Readings and references used in this section:

Ching, F., Building Construction Illustrated

Mike Riley & Chris Howard, Construction Technology 1 - House Construction 2002

Australian Government: Department of Forest and Wood Products

www.timber.org.au/default.asp

In detail : building simply / Christian Schittich

NSW Timber Framing Manua

Australian Architecture in Detail Vol 1 & 2, Pegrum

Journals

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Stud Frame

Many members.

Timber sizes are usually 90 x 38mm F7 pine.

Like a solid wall with openings.

All members carry small amounts of load.

Members are strapped together.

A stud wall replaces the “beam” in post and beam construction.

The “post” is broken up into relatively closely spaced “columns”.

Requires wall bracing for stability.

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is broken up into relatively closely spaced “columns”. Requires wall bracing for stability. 64 ARBE2100 Week

Short History of Stud Frame

In Chicago, around 1830, George Washington Snow further developed the post-and-beam method to create the so-called balloon frame.

The post-and-beam method differed from half timbering primarily in the formation of the joints (basically: wooden tenons vs. iron nails), and therefore in the method of bracing the skeleton, but the frame construction method represented a small revolution

The skeleton no longer had to be fixed together in the vertical plane, beam by beam, but could constructed horizontally on the floor as whole wall panels, including the openings, using thin studs, and then erected wall by wall.

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floor as whole wall panels, including the openings, using thin studs, and then erected wall by

Short History of Stud Frame

This construction method has been further developed in many variations and is called a stud frame in Australia.

The construction is typically braced using diagonal metal straps and/or plywood sheets.

In addition to the comparatively thin studs, produced as inexpensive semi-finished products, a second important prerequisite for frame construction was the sinking price of the most important jointing material, the nail, made of iron (and later of steel).

These were first produced on an industrial scale from around 1790.

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of iron (and later of steel). These were first produced on an industrial scale from around

Stud Framing Elements

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Stud Framing Terminology

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Stud Wall Members

The frame consists of horizontal members at the bottom and at the top of the wall, called the bottom and top plates respectively.

The evenly spaced vertical members between the top plate and the bottom plate are called studs

Between the studs are 1, 2, 3 or more rows of horizontal members called noggings. Non-structural timber elements may be positioned to help fram or fasten other items and they are called simply “blocking”.

The plates, studs and noggings are the basic components of a timber framed wall, but a wall framed of these members only will rack or skew.

To stop this diagonal member(s) are added to brace the frame (note forming triangles to spread loads to the ground and also being the most stable geometric shape), or a shear plane of plywood that acts simarlarly structurally.

Openings in framed walls require beams over the head of the opening.

Traditionally these beams have been in timber, but there are also many engineer-designed, mass manufactured steel and aluminium head beams available.

The metal heads have gained wide popularity because they are strong and light, and their lightness reduces the weight of the wall that has to be lifted from the ground or floor, where it was assembled, to the final vertical position as a wall.

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Stud wall assembly methods

It was traditional in timber frame construction to make trenches in the

top and bottom plates to receive the studs. This was due to the use of

green or unseasoned timber.

This trenching was primarily to make the distance from the bottom of the bottom plate to the stud the same all the way along the plate so that studs of the same length could be used; the distance from the top of the top plate to the top of the studs was also trenched to an even thickness.

Plates are normally joined to studs by driving 100 mm nails through the plate into the stud, a stronger joint is achieved if these nails are driven so that they enter the plate at an angle to it and when two nails cross, locking the joint.

This is known as skew nailing.

When nailing the noggings into place it is not necessary to keep them in

a straight line if the wall is to be lined with plaster board, as it is much easier to nail the noggings if they are staggered.

If the noggings are to be used to nail-fix vertical or diagonal boarding

then it is advisable to keep the noggings in line so that all nail heads can

be lined up on the face of the boarding; this is still advisable even if secret nailed boards are used. Ultimately, it depends on the cladding or lining finish desired.

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if secret nailed boards are used. Ultimately, it depends on the cladding or lining finish desired.

Australian Standard

AS1684.1-1999 - Residential Timber Framed Construction

AS1684.1 - Amendment 1 - 2002.

You have access to Australian Standards from within the University of Newcastle Library website.

http://www.newcastle.edu.au/service/library/ database/ auststand.html

An excellent Timber website:

http://www.timber.net.au/

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database/ auststand.html An excellent Timber website: http://www.timber.net.au/ 78 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

Framing Member Sizes

“Span Table” for Timber.

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Framing Member Sizes “Span Table” for Timber. 79 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

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Framing Member Sizes

Method of sizing an F7 Bearer spanning 1500mm, spaced 3600mm apart: here nominating a 125 x 75 bearer.

Hence a “125 x 75 @ 3600 centres”. SPAN is the distance between supports. SPACING or CENTRES is the distance parallel with each other.

SPAN is the distance between supports. SPACING or CENTRES is the distance parallel with each other.
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Framing Member Sizes

The same methodology for all structural members.

Identify the structural member.

Determine the maximum spans.

Determine the loads. (e.g. tile or sheet roof?, load-bearing or non load-bearing wall…)

Determine parallel spacings or centres between members.

Cross reference to determine options for size and / or strength of timbers.

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Bearers

Usually timber unless the bearer span is significantly long (say > than 2400mm )

In these situations steel might then be used.

Most materials and manufacturers of timber products come with information about their structural spanning characteristics.

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of timber products come with information about their structural spanning characteristics. 82 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

Joists + Platform Flooring

Fixed to the Bearers are the Joists.

Joists sit at closer spacings or centres and normally support the flooring materials.

A substrate panel or manufactured sheet material such as “Yellow Tongue” typically 19mm thick usually spans 450mm.

“Red Tongue” is 22mm thick and can span 600mm although it is less common.

Plywood is also often used although less often.

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thick and can span 600mm although it is less common. Plywood is also often used although

Reducing Framed Floor Thickness

To reduce the overall thickness or “height” of the floor and its structure, particularly on multi-floor structures or where height conditions require, the joists may be within the same space as the bearer vertical dimension.

E.g. Joists are “hung” on joist hangers nailed to the sides of a bearer effectively contained within bearers height not added to it.

This can also be done in a number of different ways, e.g steel bearer with timber joists between connected to the steel by cleats along the steel bearer.

These methods require more work and attention and need to be considered against the design, cost or any other governing factors.

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and attention and need to be considered against the design, cost or any other governing factors.

Bracing

The panel acts to resist lateral movement in the building by restricting the relative movement between the parallel members.

Not all bays of a framed structure require bracing.

For example, a long shear panel in the plane of the ceiling that extends the length of a structure can act to brace the entire building when connected to end wall shear panels.

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length of a structure can act to brace the entire building when connected to end wall

Bracing

This most common bracing member is made out of perforated metal angle.

When fixing the metal angle bracing it is done by simply making a saw cut into the face of the studs and plates, then pushing the leg of the angle in and nailing off when the frame has been squared and plumbed.

A tip is to use two pieces of angle bracing, each about 300 mm longer than half the length of the required bracing member, this allows the bracing to be fixed to the top and bottom plate but still be able to be racked to achieve square.

When the frame is square and plumb, the bracing can then be easily nailed to the studs.

There is also flat strap bracing available but more material is required and it is not such a favourite with builders.

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strap bracing available but more material is required and it is not such a favourite with
strap bracing available but more material is required and it is not such a favourite with

Bracing

Bracing Typical bracing within wall panels. The Structural Engineer will typically calculate bracing requirements for the

Typical bracing within wall panels.

The Structural Engineer will typically calculate bracing requirements for the particular building design (and let you know when he or she thinks there is not enough…)

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Metal Stud Framing

Often marketed as “easy” and “termite proof”.

Built like traditional timber stud framing.

Thickness of the zincalume steel is less than 1mm (usually zincalume and 0.55 or 0.75mm thick).

It is system based and therefore more difficult to rectify on site.

Many builders who are more often than not carpenters do not like using it as it is not as flexible or as easily modified as timber.

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than not carpenters do not like using it as it is not as flexible or as

Lath and Plaster

Might be found on some old traditional houses.

Laths horizontal strips of wood nailed to frame perpendicular or across the stud frame.

Plaster is then applied with a wood float upwards across the interior surface in line with guides usually on the line of the studs behind.

The lath gives “tooth” for the plaster to “stick” to.

This technique has long been replaced by plasterboard sheet lining material.

A rough coat goes on first and finally a smooth finish coat.

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by plasterboard sheet lining material. A rough coat goes on first and finally a smooth finish
by plasterboard sheet lining material. A rough coat goes on first and finally a smooth finish

Roof Beams + Rafters

Are usually timber or steel.

Roof beams are effectively like “bearers” but for roof loads rather than the loads of the whole building distributed by bearers.

Similarly,

Rafters are effectively like “joists” but also for roof loads rather than loads of the whole building.

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are effectively like “joists” but also for roof loads rather than loads of the whole building.

Common Roof Trusses

Are usually timber or steel.

Most often pre-fabricated off site from drawings and design specifications of roofing material, maximum spanning distances etc.

Composed of multiple smaller sized timber sections forming triangular force lines to distribute loads to walls, beams, columns then to the footings and ground.

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triangular force lines to distribute loads to walls, beams, columns then to the footings and ground.

Roof Battens

Are the thinner timber sections fixed to the tops of the rafters that allow the fixing of the roofing material, for example sheet steel or tiles.

They can be flat and parallel or perpendicular at right angles to the rafters.

Orientation and spacing is determined by roofing material.

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at right angles to the rafters. Orientation and spacing is determined by roofing material. 92 ARBE2100

Window Framing + Openings

Jamb

Double studs

Lintel (head)

Sill

Tie down termite treatment

Bracing panel adjacent (plywood).

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Jamb Double studs Lintel (head) Sill Tie down termite treatment Bracing panel adjacent (plywood). 93 ARBE2100

Windows

Detail isometric of typical window head.

Windows Detail isometric of typical window head. 94 ARBE2100 Week 3 03
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Windows

Typical detail isometric of window sill and jamb.

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Windows Typical detail isometric of window sill and jamb. 95 ARBE2100 Week 3 03

THE END

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