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Chapter 12

Title: Annette C Baier: The Need for more than justice

Quote: “Justice as Fairness is not a complete contract theory.”

Expectation: I expect to learn about the Theory of justice.

Book Review:

Annette C. Baier ( née Stoop) (born 1929) is a well known moral philosopher and Hume scholar, focusing in particular on Hume's moral psychology . For most of her career she taught in the philosophy department at the University of Pittsburgh , having moved there from Carnegie Mellon University . She retired to her native Dunedin , New Zealand, where she graduated from the University of Otago . She is also well known for her contributions to feminist philosophy and to the philosophy of mind, where she was strongly influenced by her former colleague, Wilfrid Sellars . Her husband is the philosopher Kurt Baier .

She is a former President of the Eastern Division of the American Philosophical Association , an office reserved for the elite of her profession. Baier received an honorary Doctor of Literature from the University of Otago in 1999. In October 2007, Baier was ranked 72nd in a list of "Top 100 living geniuses" compiled by The Daily Telegraph. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annette_Baier

Annette disapproves with Kantian view because she believes that History will repeat itself. The theory doesn’t show great result in the past. So she sticks with her theory and criticizes Kantian theory. Justice perspective are likely what men likes, and care perspective are likely what women likes but sometimes it can be opposite. Nowadays, more women doesn’t want others to see them asking for help. They want equality with men.

Things I have learned:

I have learned what Justice perspective.

I have learned what care perspective.

Integrity Questions:

Who is Annette?

What is Justice?

What is fairness?

Review Questions:


Distinguish between the justice and care perspectives. According to Gilligan, how do these perspectives develop?

These perspectives develop through women who prefer justice rather than care because women nowadays don’t want to belittle.


Explain Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. What criticisms do Gilligan and Baier make of this theory?

They criticize it as nobody was interested in that theory.


Baier says there are three important differences between Kantian liberals and their critics. What are these differences?

The differences are the emotions, the freedom of choice, and the equality.


Why does Baier attack the Kantian view that the reason should control unruly passions?

She attacks because she believes it was a failure.

Discussion Questions:

1.) What does Baier mean when she speaks of the need “to transvalue the values of our patriarchal past”? Do new values replace the old ones? If so, then do we abandon the old values of justice, freedom, and right?

She means that when there is a good idea . we should adapt it and accept it .

2. )What is wrong with the Kantian view that extends equal rights to all rational beings, including women and minorities? What would Baier say? What do you think?

She thinks that Kantian view is a failure because of what had happened in the past. That why she dislike it.

3.) Baier seems to reject the Kantian emphasis on freedom of choice. Granted, we do not choose our parent, but still don’t we have freedom of choice about many things, and isn’t this very important?

I think it is very important to me because I want to have freedom.