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Chapter2:

QUALITYGURUS/TQM Philosophers

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

TQM Philosophers (GURUS)


Therearemanyindividuals havemadesubstantial contributiontothetheory andpracticesofquality managementbutthe Mahagurus ofquality evolutionintheworldare four:
Prof.WalterA.Shewhart Dr.W.EdwardDeming Dr.JosephM.Juran Dr.PhilipB.Crosby Other Japanese Gurus are: Massaki Imai, Armand V.Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa, Genichi Taguchi, Shigeo Shingo

Walter Alfred Shewhart: (1891-1967)


FounderoftheStatisticalControl Chart OriginatorofthePDSACycle Perhapsthefirsttosuccessfully integratestatistics,engineering andeconomics Books 1. EconomicControlofQualityof ManufacturedProduct (1931). 2. StatisticalMethodfromthe ViewpointofQuality Control (1939)
Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

4phasesPDSA Cycle
1. Plan carefullywhatistobedone 2. Carryouttheplan(doit) 3. Study theresults didtheplanwork asintended,orweretheresults different? 4. Finally,act ontheresultsbyidentifying whatworkedasplannedandwhat didnt.
Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

7stepsinPDSA
1. Identify the Opportunity 7. Plan for the Future 2. Analyse the Process 6. Standardise the solution 3. Develop the optional solution

Study
5. Result 4. Implement

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

JosephM.Juran :(19042008)
Alsowellknownforhelpingimprove JapaneseQuality. MajorContribution: DevelopedtheJuran Trilogyfor managingquality CategorizedCostofQuality Enlightenedtheworldontheconcept ofthevitalfewandtrivialmanywhich isthefoundationforParetoChart Books: 1.QualityControlhandbook(1951)

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

PhilipB.Crosby(19262001)
TheessenceofCrosbysteachingis containedinwhathecallstheFour Absolutesofquality : thedefinition:Conformanceto specification thesystem:Preventionnotappraisal theperformancestandard:Zero defects themeasurement:thepriceofnon conformitytorequirements,notquality indices. BasedonCrosbydevelopeda14step methodology

Books: Quality Is free (1979) and Quality without tears

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

14pointsmethods
1. Management Commitment 2. QualityImprovement Team 3. QualityMeasurement 4. CostOfQuality 5. QualityAwareness 6. CorrectiveAction 7. ZeroDefectPlanning 8.SupervisorTraining 9.ZeroDefectDay 10.GoalSetting 11.ErrorCauseRemoval 12.Recognition 13.QualityCouncils 14.Doitalloveragain

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

MasakiImai
FatherofContinuousImprovement Contribution Kaizen FoundedKaizenInstitute ConsultingGroup(KICG)in1985 Books Kaizen:TheKeytoJapans CompetitiveSuccess Gemba KAIZEN:ACommonsense, LowcostApproachtoManagement

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

KaoruIshikawa(1915 1989) (FatherofQualityCircle)


Professor Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, (1915 89) is known as the Father of Quality circle for his role in launching Japans quality movement in the 1960s. He also developed Ishikawa Cause and Effect Diagram or Fish Bone Diagram. In TQM, Ishikawa advocated the following principles:
Quality is a company wide issue and all must be pervasive influence on the way every issue of business is conducted. Seven simplified tools of quality control to be used by all the people in an organization Remove the root cause, not the symptoms. Quality Circle small groups of similar employees that meet regularly to plan and carry out process changes to improve quality, productivity and the work environment

Genichi Taguchi
Contribution: Developedqualityloss function(deviationfrom targetisalosstosociety) Designofexperiment OfflineQualityControl DesignofExperimentsto productdesign.
Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

ShigeoShingo
Contribution:
Advocatedthereplacementofstatisticalprocess controlwithsourceinspection(controlqualityat source,ratherthanthroughsamplinginspections). SetupPOKAYOKEdevices(mistakeproofingdevices) suchassensorsandmonitorstoidentifydefectsat thepointtheyoccur. Referredtohissystemasa Zerodefect approach becauseitistheultimategoal.
Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

Contribution American, considered a founding father of TQM, PhD Physics, keen statistician trained by Shewhart, Major contributor to Japan. First visited Japan in 1946, and conducted course on statistical process control in the 1950s, when he visited Japan again on invitation from the JUSE. Deming was awarded Japans highest decoration , the Second Order Medal of Sacred Treasure by the Emperor of Japan, 1960.

(Oct14,1900 Dec20,1993)
Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

Each year since 1951, the Japanese industry started awarding Deming Award to a company or individual that or who has actively contributed to the spread and development of statistical techniques for quality improvement.
Major Contribution to Quality Management:

14 Points Methodology 7 Deadly Diseases PDCA Cycle Theory of Variance


Book: - Out

Of Crisis

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

Deming's14pointsMethodology
ofproductandservices 2. Adoptthenewphilosophyforonecannolongeraccept delays,mistakesanddefectiveworkmanship 3. Chasedependencyoninspection toachievequalityby buildingqualityintoproductinthefirstplace 4. EndLowesttendercontracts:Endthepracticeofawarding businessonprice tagalone 5. Improveeveryprocess:Improveconstantlyandforever thesystemof productionservices 6. Institutetrainingonthejob:Institutemodernmethodof trainingonthejob. 7. InstituteLeadership:Adoptandinstitutemodernmethods ofsupervisionandleadership
1. Createconsistencyofpurposeforcontinualimprovement

8.Driveoutfear:encourageeffectivetwoway communication
9.Breakdownbarriers betweendivisions/departmentsand individuals.Theymustworkinteams. 10.Eliminateexhortations:Eliminatetheuseofslogans,posters andexhortationsdemandingzerodefectsandnewlevelof productivityfromtheworkforce. 11.Eliminatearbitrarynumericaltargets:Eliminateworkstandards thatprescribenumericalquotasfortheworkforceand numericalgoalsforpeopleinthemanagement 12.Permitprideofworkmanship:Removebarriersthatrobthe hourlyworkersoftighttoprideinworkmanship 13.EncourageEducation:Instituteavigorousprojectofeducation andencourageselfimprovementorretraining. 14.Definetopmanagementcommitmenttoever improving qualityandproductivity
Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

SEVENDEADLYDISEASES
According to Deming, the following things cause business to performpoorly.Thesebadhabitsshouldberemovedfroman organizationbeforethequestforqualityispursued: 1.LACKOFCONSISTENCYOFPURPOSE 2.EMPHASISONSHORTTERMPROFITS 3.OVERRELIANCEONPERFORMANCE 4.MOBILITYOFMANAGEMENT. 5.OVEREMPHASISONVISIBLEFIGURES: 6.EXCESSIVEMEDICALCOSTSFOREMPLOYEEHEALTHCARE THATINCREASESTHEFINALCOSTOFGOODSANDSERVICES: 7.EXCESSIVECOSTSOFWARRANTYANDLEGALCOSTS:
Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

PDCA CYCLE: Neverendingimprovement


Market Research Product Development

Sales

Production

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012

CHAINREACTIONTHEORY

LeadingQualityGuruandtheirContributionstoTQM
Gurus Walter Alfred Shewart W. Edwards Deming Contribution to Total Quality Management Statistical control chart PDSA to manage the effects the variations - PDCA cycle , - 14 points for quality management, - 7 deadly sins and diseases, - the theory of variance, - Wrote Quality control hand book, called Bible of quality - Habit of quality, Quality Trilogy. - Define quality as Fitness of use - Categorized the cost of the quality - 14 steps for quality improvement - Concept of Zero defects - Written book Quality is free - Propounded the Kaizen concept ( continuous Improvement- Cause and effect diagram or fish bone diagram - Quality circle - 7 Management Tools - Zero quality control (ZQC) using POKA YOKE error proofing 100% inspection

Joseph .M Juran

Philip B. Crosby

Masaki Imai Kaoru Ishikawa

Shigeo Shingo

ComparisonofGurus
GURU Deming Juran Definitions of Emphasis Quality Customer led Customer led Process People Process Performance process People process Process Design Dominant factor Control Variation, of

& Fitness for purpose / use & Conformance to requirements & Company wide quality control / Quality function loss

Crosby Ishikawa

Supply led Value led

Taguchi

Supply led

Thank You

Dr. Shyamal Gomes// Human Resource Management // XISS-2012