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FLOW CHART MUST BE DONE BEFORE LAB BEGINS (no more than one page) All atoms/molecules move

unless at 0 K which is not possible

Gases: Assume no intermolecular forces between gas particles (not quite true) Minimal interaction occurs Takes volume of container Takes shape of container Lowest density Energy increases as you go from ice to steam (fusion and vaporization or sublimation) Energy decreases as you go from steam to ice (condensation and freezing or deposition) PV = nRT at all pressures Boyles Law Inverse relationship between volume and pressure P1V1=P2V2 Charles Law Volume and temperature directly related V1/T1=V2/T2 Avogadros Law V1/n1 = V2/n2 Admontons Law P1/T1 = P2/T2 Temperature = xaxis until instructions say otherwise Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Ideal gas behavior (no intermolecular forces). Think of gas particles as billiard balls with only elastic collisions Vparticle = 0 Vcontainer=infinity Motion results in collisions which create pressure

They collide without any loss of energy because we are assuming there are no intermolecular forces Kinetic energy is directly proportional to temperature (in kelvins) Gases are real so they do have intermolecular forces If at high concentration of particles, intermolecular forces are important Van der Waals Equation (P + (n2a)/(V2))(V nb) = nRT a is proportional to boiling point if n up or V down, then P up b is proportional to the molecular weight larger it is, more volume it takes up if n up then V down Liquids: Intermolecular forces (attraction/repulsion between molecules) They dictate properties of physical states Strength proportional to boiling point and melting point Boiling point is better than melting point Dipole-dipole forces Electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ends of polar molecules Dipole = one end of molecule is slightly positive and other end of molecule is slightly negative Edip-dip = 1 kJ/mol (1% covalent bond energy (energy it takes to break covalent bond)) Hydrogen Bonding (because hydrogen is so tiny) EHbond = 10 kJ/mol (%5 covalent bond energy) London Dispersion Forces (Induced Dipole Forces) Transitory dipole formation: random electron shift Disturbing other molecules/atoms to form more transitory dipoles and weak electrostatic reactions ALL MOLECULES HAVE DISPERSION FORCES (only force in nonpolar molecules)

Vapor Pressure: Pressure of a gaseous chemical over a liquid of the same chemical Measure vapor pressure at equilibrium Vapor pressure goes up with temperature Vapor pressure goes down as intermolecular forces increase Daltons Law Ptot = Pair + vapor pressure Calusius-Clapeyron Equation Ln(VP) = +C

Delta Hvaporization = heat required to transform a gie amount of a liquid substance into gas Delta Hvap increases as intermolecular forces increase y = mx + b (plot temp on y axis) Part A: System = capped flask containing only air is placed into T controlled water bath Measure Piar as a function of T Prove Admontons Law Graphically find absolute 0

Part B: System = same as part A with ethanol in flask Measure Ptot as a function of T Use Admontons law to find Pair at each T Use Daltons Law to find the vapor pressure of Ptot = Pair + VP Clausius-Clapeyron equation to calculate delta Hvap for ethanol