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S a c tc o B o o to o f te ButrPbfgtg

tPoh

THE

BOOK O F T H E DISCIPLINE
V O L U M E V

OF

T H E BOOK T H E DISCIPLINE
(V IN A Y A -P IT A K A ) V O L U M E V

(C U L L A V A G G A )

Translated by I. B . H O R N E R , M .A . A ssocia te o f N ew nham College, Cam bridge

LONDON L U Z A C 46
G
r e a t

&
R

C O M P A N Y
u s s e l l

L T D .
,

t r e e t

W .C .1

1963

F irst published tg5* Second impression 1963

P rinted in Great B ritain by JLowe & Bvydone {Printers) L td ., London

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INTRO D U CTIO N

h e C u lla v a g g a , th e L e s s o r L e s se r D iv is io n o f th e V in a y a , co n sists o f tw e lv e S e c tio n s. T h e first th re e o f th e se h a v e been tra n sla te d b y H . O ld e n b e rg a n d T . W . R h y s D a v id s in Sacred B ooks o f the E a st , V o lu m e X V I I , 1882, a n d th e re m a in in g n in e in S . B . E ., V o lu m e X X , 1885 . T h e P a li V in a y a on w h ic h th e ir tra n sla tio n as w e ll a s m in e is b a se d is th a t e d ite d b y O ld e n b e rg in 1880 a s V o lu m e I I o f h is V in a y a P ita k a m . T h e w e a lth o f d e ta il in crea ses ra th e r th a n d im in ish es in th is L e sse r D iv is io n , a n d a s a n in stru m e n t fo r use b y m o n k s a n d n u n s is a sto n ish in g in its v a r i e t y a n d th e m in u te p re cisio n it la v ish e s on g r e a te r a n d sm a lle r p o in ts a lik e. I t w a s no d o u b t e v e r m o re an d m o re n e c e s sa ry to p u t th e p ro p e r w a y s o f m e e tin g d is tu rb a n c e s in th e O rd e r on a firm b a sis. T h is c e r ta in ly a p p e a rs to be th e p u rp o se o f S e c tio n I w h ic h d e a ls in tu rn w ith se v e n fo rm a l a c ts : (1 ) cen su re fo r q u a rre ls, d isp u te s a n d c o n te n tio n w h ic h p e rh a p s a ro se fro m a n e a rn est e n d e a v o u r to a c t in c o n fo r m ity w ith w h a t h a d been la id d o w n a n d th e n fin d in g th a t th e re w e re o th e r a n d d iffe re n t o p in io n s ; or w h ic h p e rh a p s w ere w a n to n ly m a d e in th e O rd er b y m o n k s w h o , u n a b le to m a s te r th e h ig h e r p ra c tic e s , fo u n d tim e h a n g h e a v y ; (2 ) g u id a n c e fo r a m o n k w h o h a d p e rsiste d in fre q u e n tin g th e la i t y a n d to g u id e h im to co n so rt in ste a d w ith kalyatyamitta a n d so b e co m e le a rn e d a n d e x p e r t in th e d h a m m a an d d isc ip lin e ; (3 ) b a n ish m e n t fo r a m o n k w h o h a d in d u lg e d in th e n u m ero u s " b a d h a b its " sp ecifie d here a n d th e re in th e P a li ca n o n in a s te r e o ty p e d p a ssa g e ; (4 ) re c o n c ili a tio n fo r a m o n k w h o h a d b e en ru d e to a h o u seh o ld er, a n d w h o , w h en he w e n t to a s k fo r h is fo rg iv e n e s s, w a s a llo w e d to ta k e a co m p a n io n w ith h im to a c t a s m e ssen g e r a n d sp o k e sm a n in ca se th e m o n k h im self w a s o v e rc o m e w ith sh a m e a n d e m b a rra ssm e n t an a llo w a n c e w h ic h in S e c tio n X I I Y a s a , th e son o f K a k a n d a k a , a sk e d to be e x te n d e d to h im w h en h e w a s accu sed (w ro n gly) b y th e V a jj is o f V e s a li o f r e v ilin g a n d a b u s in g la y fo llo w e r s ; (5 , 6 , 7 ) th re e a c ts o f su sp e n sio n fo r n o t seein g a n offen ce, fo r n o t m a k in g a m en d s fo r on e, fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w , re s p e c tiv e ly .

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A ll th e se fo rm a l a c ts h a v e b een m e n tio n e d a lr e a d y in th e M a h a v a g g a (B . D . iv ) . B u t o n ly a n in d ic a tio n is g iv e n th e re o f th e o cca sio n s fo r c a r r y in g th e m o u t (as su m m a ris e d a b o v e ). T h e se , w h ile t a lly in g w ith th e o c c a s io n s g iv e n in th e C u lla v a g g a , s p e c ify n e ith e r th e m e th o d to b e fo llo w e d in c a r r y in g o u t e a c h o n e , n o r a n y o f th e g ro u n d s h e ld to b e su ffic ie n t fo r its r e v o c a tio n . A ll th is is h o w e v e r d e a lt w ith b y th e C u lla v a g g a . S o m e o f th e sto rie s ch o se n to illu s tr a te b e h a v io u r w h ic h c a lls fo r o n e o f th e se fo rm a l a c ts to c o rre c t it a p p e a r a lso in o th e r p a rts o f th e V in a y a . F o r e x a m p le , th e e p iso d e o f th e m o n k A r it t h a o ccu rs b o th in P a c . 68 a n d in C V . I . 32 . T h e fo r m e r g iv e s th e h o ld e r o f w ro n g v ie w s a c h a n c e t o re n o u n ce th e m w h ile h e is b e in g a d m o n ish e d u p to th e th ir d tim e . I t is o n ly , a ft e r th is, if h e p e rsists in c lin g in g to h is v ie w s th a t h e in c u rs a n o ffe n ce o f e x p ia tio n . B u t in th e C u lla v a g g a A r it t h a is g iv e n no fin al c h a n c e t o c le a r h im s e lf. O n c e it is fo u n d t h a t h e h o ld s to h is v ie w s , th e O rd e r is to ld t h a t it c a n c a r r y o u t a fo r m a l a c t o f su sp en sio n a g a in s t h im . H e th e re u p o n le ft th e O rd er. A s th e t e x t s ta n d s , G o ta m a is sh o w n a s s a y in g t h a t th e fo rm a l a c t o f su sp e n sio n m a y b e r e v o k e d . T h is w o u ld n o t o n ly b e a n u n c h a r a c te r is tic w e a k n e ss , b u t it d o es n o t fit th e c o n te x t . In fa c t , a s O ld e n b e rg re m a rk s, w e sh o u ld h a v e e x p e c te d a n e g a tiv e h ere, a n d h e n c e ju s t th e o p p o s ite : L e t th e O rd e r n o t re v o k e th e fo rtn a l a c t o f su sp e n sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p th e w ro n g v ie w (C V . I . 34 . x). T h is w o u ld m o r e o v e r h a v e b e en in lin e w ith th e in ju n c tio n n o t to r e v o k e th e a c t o t b a n ish m e n t w h e n th o se a g a in s t w h o m it h a d b e en c a rrie d o u t w e n t a w a y a n d le ft th e O r d e r (I. 16 . x). A t V i n A . 874 A r i t t h a is ca lle d a n e n e m y o f th e B u d d h a 's d is p e n sa tio n , a n d a lth o u g h a s a ru le m o n k s w e re n o t lig h t ly le t g o o f to r e tu rn to th e w o r ld , h is w a s a s tu b b o r n c a se w h e re h is a b se n ce m ig h t w e ll h a v e b e en p re fe rre d to h is p resen ce. T h e O rd e r w a s b y n o w w e ll e s ta b lis h e d b o th in th e p o p u la r e ste e m a n d a s an in s titu tio n ru n n in g e ffic ie n tly b y its o w n in te r n a l arid d e v e lo p e d o rg a n is a tio n , a n d if a m o n k le ft it, th is w o u ld b e a t t r ib u t e d to h is o w n in c o m p e te n c e r a th e r th a n t o a n y d e fic ie n c y in th e te a c h in g a n d tr a in in g . A p a r t fro m e x p u ls io n fr o m th e O rd e r fo r h a v in g c o m m itte d one o f th e fo u r P a r a jik a o ffe n c e s , a n d a p a r t fro m b e in g e x p e lle d fo r a n y o n e o f th e re a so n s g iv e n a t M V . 1. 61- 68 , a m o n k le ft

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o f h is o w n ch o ice. T h e fo rm a l a c t o f b a n ish m e n t is n o t b a n ish m e n t fro m th e O rd er, b u t fro m a p a r tic u la r p la c e w h e re a m o n k had , fo r e x a m p le , e ith e r in d u lg e d in b a d h a b i t s " , been friv o lo u s o r h a rm fu l in b o d y o r sp eech , c a u se d strife a n d c o n te n tio n , o r sp o k en d isp ra ise o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e, d h a m m a or th e O rd er. I f h e c o n d u c te d h im s e lf p r o p e r ly w h ile th e a c t o f b a n ish m en t a g a in st h im w a s in fo rce, h e c o u ld b e re h a b ilita te d , a p riv ile g e im p o ssib le to e x te n d to one w h o h a d b een e x p e lle d . S e c tio n s I I a n d I I I o f th e C u lla v a g g a d e a l in g r e a t d e ta il w ith P r o b a tio n . T h is is n o t p ro b a tio n p re lim in a ry to e n te rin g th e O r d e r ; b u t p ro b a tio n im p o se d on o n e w h o is a lr e a d y a m e m b e r o f it, a n d c o n sistin g o f g o in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g " o f h is tra in in g a n d b e in g su b je c te d to m anatta d iscip lin e- S u c h p ro b a tio n fa lls u n d e r th e fo u r h e a d in g s m e n tio n e d a t V A I J 5 9 : t h a t fo r o ffe n c e s . w h ic h h a v e b een c o n c e a le d , t h a t fo r u n c o n c e a le d o ffen ces, th e c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n a n d th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n . T h is la s t c o u ld b e im p o se d o n m o n k s w h o d id n o t k n o w w h e th e r th e y h a d w o rk e d th r o u g h th is d is c ip lin a ry p erio d o f p ro b a tio n o r n o t. In v ie w o f th e m a n y referen ces to ig n o r a n t in e x p e rie n c e d m o n k s " , su ch h a zin ess in re g a rd t o th e rig h t d a y fo r th e te rm in a tio n o f a p ro b a tio n a r y p e rio d is n o m o re su rp risin g th a n is th e ig n o ra n ce m o n k s m a n ife s te d a b o u t th e s ta rs a n d th e q u a rte rs (C V . V I I I . 6 . 1 ) a n d w h ic h p ro v e d p h y s ic a lly h a rm fu l to th em . S e c tio n I V is d e v o te d to th e d iffere n t w a y s o f s e ttlin g le g a l q u e stio n s. T h e s e le g a l q u e stio n s h a v e a lr e a d y b een m e n tio n ed in th e S u tta v ib h a r ig a . I n th e first p la c e , th e c a se m u st be s e ttle d in th e p resen ce o f th e a ccu se d m o n k . B u t th is v e rd ic t " in th e presen ce o f " is n e c e s s a r y to a ll le g a l se ttle m e n ts . S e c o n d ly th e re is th e v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce g iv e n in fa v o u r o f a m o n k w h o w a s w r o n g fu lly a c cu se d o f a n o ffe n ce. D a b b a th e M a llia n is ta k e n a s th e e x a m p le , a n d his s t o r y is to ld in th e sam e w o rd s as in F o r m a l M e e tin g V I I I . B u t in th e F o r m a l M eetin g th e in te re s t, a t th e en d , is s h ifte d to th e m o n k s w h o a ccu se d h im a n d w h o in c u r a n o ffen ce fo r d o in g so ; w h ile in th e C u lla v a g g a th e in te re s t is c e n tre d o n D a b b a w h o is to h a v e a v e rd ic t o f in n o cen ce a c co rd e d h im . W e m u s t th e re fo re u n d e r sta n d th a t th is is a ca se w h ere tw o se p a ra te a c tio n s o f th e O rd er w ere c a lle d fo r : one d e a lin g w ith th e m o n k s w h o b ro u g h t th e false a c cu s a tio n a g a in s t D a b b a , a n d one fo r a c q u ittin g h im .

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T h e n co m es th e " v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity " , t o be g iv e n fo r m o n k s w h o w ere m a d w h e n t h e y c o m m itte d a n o ffe n ce. A s is u su a l, th e p ro p e rtie s t h a t re n d e r th e a c t le g a lly v a lid o r n o t a re ^enum erated. T h e n fo llo w s th e s e ttle m e n t o f d is p u te s or c o n te n tio n b y th e < r d e cisio n o f th e m a jo r it y " , w h e n a re lia b le m o n k is t o be a g re e d u p o n a s d is tr ib u t o r o f v o tin g - tic k e ts , a n im p o rta n t p o s t (IV . 14 . 26) a n d o n e w h ic h D e v a d a t t a a rro g a te d t o h im s e lf a n d a b u s e d in h is a tte m p ts t o s p lit th e O rd e r ( V I I I . 4 .1 ) . N e x t , th e re is th e d e cisio n fo r sp e c ific d e p r a v it y " w h e n a m o n k , on b e in g e x a m in e d fo r a n o ffe n ce, p r e v a r ic a te s a n d lies. F in a lly th e re w a s th e s e ttle m e n t b y th e " c o v e r in g u p a s w ith g ra ss " , e n a c te d w h e n th in g s h a d been d o n e o r sa id in th e h e a t o f a q u a rre l a n d w h ic h , i f m a d e in to a le g a l q u e stio n , w o u ld o n ly le a d to fu r th e r tr o u b le a n d p e rh a p s sc h ism . L e g a l q u e stio n s su c h a s th is c o u ld be c o v e re d u p b y e a c h c o n te n d in g sid e c o n fe ssin g th r o u g h a c o m p e te n t m o n k w h a te v e r w ere th e o ffen ces t h a t h a d b e en c o m m itte d , u n le ss t h e y w e re se rio u s o ffe n ces (in v o lv in g D e fe a t o r a F o r m a l M e e tin g o f th e O rd er, a c c o rd in g to V A . 1x 9 4 ), o r o n e s t h a t a ffe c te d t h e l a i t y (IV . 13. 2, 3). A n d m o re o v e r, su c h o ffe n c e s c o u ld n o t b e s e ttle d in th is w a y fo r a n y o n e w h o o b je c te d o r w h o w a s n o t p re se n t. O th e rw ise , a le g a l q u e stio n a r is in g fro m d is p u te s c o u ld be s e ttle d b y a c o m m itte e o r re fe re n d u m (I V . 14 . 19 ) or, fa ilin g th is, b y th e d ecisio n o f th e m a jo r it y ( I V . 14. 24). T h e V e n e ra b le R e v a t a c a lle d fo r a re fe re n d u m o f e ig h t m o n k s to s e ttle th e te n p o in ts " p r o m u lg a te d b y th e V a j j i s o f V e s a ll, a n d w h ic h fo rm e d th e b u sin e ss b e fo re th e C o u n c il o f V e s a ll (see S e c tio n X II). T h e w h o le s u b je c t of*th e le g a l q u e stio n s a n d th e ir s e ttle m e n t, a lth o u g h c o m p lic a te d , m u s t b e s tu d ie d b y a n y o n e w h o w ish e s to g ra sp a n im p o rta n t b r a n c h o f th e d is c ip lin a r y p ro c e e d in g s o f th e O rd e r to g e th e r w ith th e v e r y e x a c t m a c h in e r y la id d o w n fo r c a r r y in g th e m o u t. A c e rta in p a tte r n w ill b e fo u n d to em erge. F o r th e " I n te r n a l P o li t y o f a B u d d h is t S a m g h a " , C h a p te r V I or S . D u t t 's E a r ly B u d d h ist M o n a ch tsm m a y be p r o fita b ly c o n su lte d . W it h S e c tio n s V , V I , V I I I a n d I X w e re m a in in th e h e a rt o f th e m o n a s tic life a s it w a s to be liv e d n o r m a lly . B u t w ith S e c tio n V I I , on S c h ism s, w e a r r iv e m o re d e fin ite ly th a n in th e M V . a t t h a t re a l a n d in c re a s in g ly p re se n t d a n g e r o f d is se n tie n t

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v o ic e s risin g to a c h o ru s in s c h is m a tic fa c tio n s. E a c h S e c tio n , b esid es it s scru p u lo u s a tte n tio n to e v e r y p o in t t h a t arises, also c o n ta in s a c e rta in a m o u n t o f n a r r a tiv e m a te ria l. S e c tio n V is so lo a d e d w ith d e ta il a s to m a k e it a lm o s t im p o ssib le to p ic k o u t sa lie n t p o in ts. B u t m e n tio n m u s t b e m a d e o f th e " g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s , w h ic h r e a lly m e a n s a n u m b e r o f m o n k s u n d e r th re e p a irs o f le a d e rs. F o r t h e y a re c o n s ta n tly re fe rre d to a s th e m a le fa c to rs fro m w h o se c o n d u c t, o fte n u n s u ita b le b e c a u se i t re se m b le d t h a t o f h o u seh o ld ers, sp rin g s th e o p p o r tu n ity to reg u la rise b e h a v io u r o n a ll p e rtin e n t p o in ts. T h is is, in a d d itio n , a S e c tio n w e ll w o rth s tu d y in g fo r th e lig h t it th ro w s o n c o n te m p o ra ry m a n n e rs a n d th e th in g s in co m m o n u sa g e . I t is a S e c tio n w h e re th e l a i t y a re m a d e im p o rta n t ; a w o n d e r o f p s y c h ic p o w e r is n o t to b e d is p la y e d in fr o n t o f th e m (V . 8) ; th e ir b o w ls c o u ld b e tu r n e d u p sid e d o w n , a s y m b o lic e x p re ssio n m e a n in g t h a t if t h e y o ffe red fo o d to th e m o n k s, th e s e c o u ld , a fte r a g re e in g to a m o tio n p u t b e fo re th e O rd er, tu rn th eir b o w ls u p sid e d o w n to sh o w t h a t t h e y h e ld a la y m a n in su ch d is g ra c e t h e y w o u ld a c c e p t n o fo o d fro m h im (V . 20), th e r e b y d e p r iv in g h im o f m e rit. T h e r e is a lso th e a llo w a n c e t h a t m o n k s m a y tr e a d on c lo th s w h e n b e in g a sk e d to d o so b y h o u seh o ld ers fo r g o o d lu c k 's s a k e (V . 2 1). T h e n th e re is th e ep iso d e w h e n p e o p le b rin g sc e n ts a n d g a r la n d s to a m o n a s te ry . T h e m o n k s a re a llo w e d t o a c c e p t th e s c e n ts o n c o n d itio n t h a t t h e y p la c e th e fiv e -fin g e r m a rk on a d o o r. T h is h a s th e a p p e a ra n c e o f a p r o te c tiv e m e a su re ; a n d w e k n o w fro m th e B u d d h is t c h a rm s o r sp ells, p artita, one o f w h ic h is to be fo u n d in th is S e c tio n (V . 6), th a t su c h ru n e s o r c h a n ts fo r se lf-g u a rd in g p la y e d a n o t n e g lig ib le p a r t in E a r l y B u d d h is t life . S e c tio n V I is a c o m p e n d iu m o f w h a t is a llo w a b le o r n o t in re g a rd to d w e llin g -p la c e s. F o r n a r r a tiv e m a te ria l, it c o n ta in s th e s t o r y o f h o w A n a th a p in d ik a h e a rd th e w o rd s " A w a k e n e d O n e , buddha, fo r th e first tim e a n d d e te rm in e d to see th e L o rd , w h o a d d re s se d h im b y th e n a m e o f S u d a t t a , u n k n o w n o u tsid e h is fa m ily , a n d sp o k e to h im on d h a m m a . T h e v isio n o f d h a m m a th e re u p o n aro se in A n a th ap in d ik a ^ he b e c a m e a la y fo llo w er, a n d a c q u ire d P rin c e J e t a 's G ro v e a s a g if t to th e O rd er. T h e s to r y o f h is first m e e tin g w ith th e B u d d h a is also to ld , b u t m o re b rie fly , in th e Sa m yu tta . I n th is S e c tio n is also

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to be fo u n d th e T ittira -jd ta k a w h ic h ca m e to b e k n o w n a s th e P a r tr id g e B r a h m a -fa r in g (V I. 6. 3), to ld h ere to e n c o u ra g e m o n k s to be c o u rte o u s a n d p o lite to o n e a n o th e r. H a r m o n y in th e O rd e r w a s c o n s ta n tly b e in g so u g h t, a s a n u m b e r o f e p iso d e s a n d a llu sio n s in th e V in a y a in d ic a te . I t is b y no m e a n s o n ly in S e c tio n V I t h a t p a ss a g e s o c c u r t h a t h a v e p a ra lle ls in o th e r p a r ts o f th e P a li c a n o n o r th e J a ta k a . T h r o u g h o u t th e V in a y a th is is th e ca se , a n d p r o b a b ly a c o n c o rd a n c e o f V in a y a sto rie s w o u ld sh o w o n ly fe w t o b e p e c u lia r to it. S e c tio n V I I b e g in s w it h th e s t o r y o f A n u r u d d h a s g o in g fo r th fro m h o m e to g e th e r w it h B h a d d iy a , a S a k y a n c h ie fta in w h o , w ith in a y e a r , re a lise d th e th re e fo ld k n o w le d g e a n d a c c la im e d his h a p p in e ss. M o n k s, h e a rin g h im , g r e w su s p ic io u s th a t he w a s re m e m b e rin g th e fo rm e r jo y s o f ru le rsh ip . B u t B h a d d iy a w a s a b le to c o n v in c e G o ta m a , in w o rd s r e m in is c e n t o f S . i. 7 2~73> t h a t p r e v io u s ly , a lth o u g h h e h a d h a d a f u ll y a p p o in te d g u a rd , h e h a d b e en n e rv o u s a n d fr ig h te n e d a ll th e sa m e ; b u t, n o w , a lo n e in a fo re s t h e is u n c o n c e rn e d a n d u n ru ffle d . A n e x p la n a tio n o f w h y th is s t o r y is p la c e d a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e S e c tio n o n S c h ism s se e m s c a lle d fo r. I c a n o n ly su g g e st t h a t i f th e m o n k s w h o a lle g e d t h a t B h a d d iy a w a s d is sa tisfie d w ith th e B r a h m a - fa r in g h a d tu r n e d o u t to b e r ig h t, it is n o t u n re a s o n a b le to suppop-e t h e y w o u ld n e x t h a v e re g a rd e d h im as a p o te n tia l s c h is m a tic . T h is w a s th e ro le fo r w h ic h , h o w e v e r , D e v a d a t t a w a s c a s t, a n d fo r fa r m o r e : h e w a s a lso a p o te n tia l m u rd e rer, p re p a re d to g o to g r e a t le n g th s to g e t rid o f th e B u d d h a . In h is o v e rw e e n in g a m b itio n , D e v a d a t t a th o u g h t h e sh o u ld n o lo n g e r b e th e le a d e r a n d c o v e te d th is p o s itio n fo r h im s e lf. N o w , a lth o u g h th o se w h o h a v e p ro g re sse d so m e d is ta n c e o n th e W a y m a y fe e l th e m s e lv e s sa fe a n d im m u n e to a t t a c k s (see B h a d d iy a s s t o r y a n d a lso th e Bhayabherava S u ita o f t h e M a jjh im a ), th e tr a d itio n n e v e r th e le s s re co g n ise s s la y e r s o f a r a h a n ts (see e .g . B .D . iv . 1 1 3 , e tc .), w h ile v a r io u s C o m m e n ta rie s h o ld t h a t M o g g a lla n a , a n a r a h a n t o f lo n g s ta n d in g , w a s a c t u a lly m u rd e re d (J d . v . 12 5 ; D h A . iii. 65). A t K v u . 3 1 3 , h o w e v e r, th e u n tim e ly d e a th o f a n a r a h a n t is a c o n tr o v e r te d p o in t. T a t h a g a t a s , T r u th fin d ers, m u st b e d iffe re n t, fo r a lth o u g h t h e y m a y b e h u r t an d th e ir b lo o d sh e d (B .D . iv . 1 1 3 , e tc ., a n d C V . V I I . 3 . 9), a c c o r d in g to o u r S e c tio n V I I t h e y n e e d n o p r o te c tio n a n d c a n n o t be

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d e p riv e d o f life b y a g g re ssio n (V II* 3. io ) . T h e ir a tta in m e n t o f n ib b a n a (w ith n o re sid u e re m a in in g ) is in fa c t a m a tte r p re c is e ly o f th e ir o w n v o litio n , a s is a ls o a p p a r e n t fro m th e ep iso d e (re ferre d to in C V . X I . 1 . i o ) w h e re A n a n d a fa ils to a s k th e B u d d h a t o p ro lo n g h is life to th e fu ll. H e d ie d w h en he w a s in th e e ig h tie s . T h e a ss u m p tio n is p r o b a b ly th a t he m ig h t h a v e liv e d to be a h u n d re d o r so a s th e P a li c a n o n s ta te s th a t p e o p le so m e tim e s a tta in th is a g e , w h ile S a b b a k a m in w a s so o ld a t th e tim e o f th e C o u n c il o f V e s a li t h a t it w a s 120 y e a r s sin ce h is o rd in a tio n ( X I I . 2. 4 ). H e m u s t p r o b a b ly h a v e b een a t le a s t 140 y e a r s o f a g e th e n , fo r in P a c . 65 it is s a id t h a t o rd in a tio n m u s t n o t b e c o n fe rre d on a n y m a le le ss th a n t w e n t y y e a r s o ld . in S e c tio n V I I w e h e a r o f a n o th e r fo rm a l a c t, o n e t h a t is e x t r a t o th e se v e n d e a lt w ith in S e c tio n I. T h is is th e fo rm a l a c t o f In fo rm a tio n , p a k a sa n iya k a m m a , w h ic h a llo w e d it to b e p ro c la im e d th a t so m e o n e 's n a tu re o r c h a r a c te r h a d a lte re d fo r th e w o rse ( V I I . 3. 2 ). T h e c a u s a tiv e fo rm , p a k d se ti , to g iv e in fo rm a tio n " , o f th e v e r b p a k a sa ti (of w h ic h paka&c n iy a is th e g e ru n d iv e ), is u se d w ith a t le a s t a se m i-te c h n ic a l sense b y th e V a jj is o f V e s a li w h e n s p e a k in g o f Y a s a , th e so n o f K a k a n d a k a , a n d w h o h a d b e en a b le t o c h a n g e th e la y fo llo w e r s ' o p in io n a s t o w h o th e tr u e re clu se s really* w ere (C V , X I I . 1 . 7 ). M u ch o f S e c tio n V I I I c o n sists o f p a ss a g e s o f so m e co n sid e r a b le le n g th , m o st o f w h ic h h a v e a lr e a d y o c cu rre d in th e M V ,, use a lso b e in g m a d e o f S e k h iy a m a te r ia l. B u t th e c o n te x t s are d iffe re n t. F o r e x a m p le , M V . I . 2 5 la y s d o w n th e p ro p e r c o n d u c t fo r th o se w h o sh a re c e lls to w a r d s th e ir p re c e p to rs, w h ile in C V . V I I I . 1 . 2 5 th is sa m e c o n d u c t, la id d o w n in a lm o st id e n tic a l w o rd s e x c e p t fo r a fe w a d d itio n s o r o m issio n s, is to b e o b se rv e d b y a m o n k a r r iv in g a t a m o n a s te r y , a n d a g a in in C V . V I I I . 7 . 2 4 b y m o n k s in re s p e c t o f th e ir lo d g in g s. T h e se are th re e o c ca sio n s w h e re c o n d u c t is, r a th e r n a tu r a lly , to be th e sa m e , fo r a ll th re e c o n c e rn m o n k s a c t u a lly in a m o n a s te ry , e v e n if o n ly ju s t a r r iv e d . Y e t th e in s tru c tio n s s p e c ific a lly fo r re sid e n t m o n k s (C V . V I I I . 2. 23 ) a re c o n n e c te d m o re w ith th e ir b e h a v io u r to in c o m in g mcpnks th a n w ith a n y th in g else* W e h a v e seen t h a t th e sa m e s to r y , fo r e x a m p le th a t o f D a b b a a n d t h a t o f A r it t h a , m a y be to ld so a s to in tro d u c e v a r y in g

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e ffe c ts. S o h ere, th e sa m e b e h a v io u r m a y b e fo llo w e d in v a r y in g c irc u m s ta n c e s . A g r e a t p ro c e ss o f s ta b ilis a tio n w a s a t w o rk . A s th e m a ss o f a llo w a n c e s a n d o ffe n c e s in th e C V . m o s tly th o se o f w ro n g -d o in g p ile u p a n d in crea se , so th e a llu sio n s b e c o m e a ll th e c le a re r. T h u s , b y th e tim e w e g e t to C V . V I I I * 3 . 2 th e n a tu re o f th e c la y g o o d s a n d th e w o o d e n g o o d s t h a t h a v e to b e p a c k e d a w a y b y a m o n k w h o is le a v in g a re sid e n ce , c a n be u n d e rsto o d b y re fe rrin g to C V . V . 37 . F o r it is h ere t h a t G o ta m a a llo w s " , a s re c o rd e d , a ll c la y g o o d s a n d a ll w o o d e n o n es w ith c e rta in sp e c ifie d e x c e p tio n s . T h e n in th S e c tio n , c o n c e rn e d .m a in ly w ith th e le g a lly v a lid a n d th e le g a lly in v a lid su sp e n sio n s o f th e P a tim o k k h a , is in tr o d u c e d b y th e e ig h t b e a u tifu l s im ilitu d e s o f th e g r e a t o c e a n , a p a ssa g e fo u n d also in th e A n g u tta ra a n d th e U ddna. T h e th ird o f th e se sim ile s sh o w in g w h a t, id e a lly , th e m o n k s o u g h t to b e , is p a r t ic u la r ly to th e p o in t th e O r d e r d o es n o t ltv e in c o m m u n io n w ith a n im p u re m o n k , b u t , h a v in g a sse m b le d q u ic k ly , su sp en d s h im , w ith th e r e s u lt t h a t h e is fa r fro m th e O rd e r a n d th e O rd e r is fa r fro m h im ( I X . 1 . 4). T h e re fo re , a lso to th e p o in t, is th e s t o r y t h a t p re c e d e s th e sim ile s o f th e se a . I t is a s t o r y o f h o w th e B u d d h a re fu se d , in s p ite o f a p le a m a d e th re e tim e s b y A n a n d a , t o re cite th e P a t im o k k h a to th e m o n k s. F o r , " th e a s s e m b ly is n o t e n tir e ly p u re , A n a n d a " , h a v in g in it one in d iv id u a l o f a d e p r a v it y so g r a v e th a t h e is d e sc rib e d in s tr o n g ly d e r o g a to r y , i f s te r e o ty p e d , te rm s. T h e T ru th -fin d e r c a n n o t re c ite th e P a t im o k k h a to a n a s s e m b ly c o n ta in in g a m o n k lik e th is ( I X . 1 . 2). I n s te a d , he d e le g a te s h is p o w ers, n o w as it seem s o u t o f d is a p p o in tm e n t a n d d is g u st, w h e re a s fo r m e r ly he h a d d e le g a te d o th e r p o w e rs in th e fu ll tid e o f su cce ss (M V . I. 12 . 1 ) . In b o th c a se s it is r e a s o n a b le to su p p o se t h a t he d id so b e c a u s e th e O rd e r w a s g r o w in g b e y o n d th e c a p a c it y o f one m a n t o h a n d le ; a n d b e c a u se h e h a d th e re fo re in c re a s i n g ly to lo o k to th e m o n k s th e m s e lv e s to m a in ta in th e O rd e r o n th e lin e s la id d o w n b y h im , b o th w h ile h e w a s a liv e a n d a fte r h e w a s w ith th e m n o lo n g e r. A t th e e n d o f S e c tio n I X w e are a t th e e n d o f th e d is c ip lin e fo r m o n k s. M a n y a n d e x c e e d in g ly v a r io u s are th e p o in ts th a t h a v e b e en ra ise d , a n d a r u lin g g iv e n on e a c h . T h e w h o le m e th o d o f c o n d u c tin g B u d d h is t m o n a stic is m fo r th o se w h o fo llo w th e P a li V in a y a is c o n ta in e d in th is a n d a m o u n ts to a

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v e r y c o m p le te sy s te m . A ll d o u b ts a s to w h a t is a llo w a b le a n d w h a t is n o t, o r a ll d o u b ts as to h o w t o a c t e ith e r in c o n c la v e o r as a n in d iv id u a l m a y b e re s o lv e d b y re fe rrin g to th e d iscip lin e t h a t h a s b een la id d o w n . A l l m isd o in gs, w h e th e r serio u s or n o r, h a v e th e ir a p p r o p r ia te p e n a lty a tta c h e d to th em . B e h a v io u r is r ig h t i f i t p ro m o te s o n e 's o w n p ro g ress a lo n g th e W a y o r t h a t o f o th e rs. A s su c h it is s k ilfu l, kusala . A s th e B h ik k h u n i- p a tim o k k h a o r V ib h a n g a fo llo w s th e B h ik k h u - (ca lle d th e G r e a t, m ahd-) V ib h a n g a , so in th e C V ., a t th e clo se o f th e le g a lis e d ru le s a n d p ro c e e d in g s g o v e r n in g th e life o f m o n k s, th e re fo llo w s a S e c tio n d e v o te d to th e O rd e r o f n u n s. I t b e g in s w ith a n a c c o u n t o f th e fo r m a tio n o f th is O rd er, a n d c o n ta in s th e im p o r ta n t s ta te m e n t, a ttr ib u te d to G o ta m a , th a t w o m e n a re c a p a b le o f a tta in in g a ra h a n tsh ip . T h e e ig h t im p o r ta n t ru le s (fo u n d a lso in M o n k s' P a c . 2 1 ) are th e n la id d o w n , th e ir a d o p tio n b y M a h ap aja p a tT , th e in s tig a to r o f th e O rd er o f n u n s, c o n s titu tin g h e r o rd in a tio n . T h e re m a in d er o f th is S e c tio n is ta k e n u p w it h re g u la ris in g fo r n u n s th e r e c ita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a , th e c o n fe ssio n o f o ffe n c e s, th e s e ttle m e n t o f le g a l q u e stio n s, a n d th e ir e x h o r ta tio n , an d so fo rth . T h e n co m e in c id e n ts to ld so a s to e s ta b lis h v a r io u s o ffen ces o f w ro n g -d o in g a n d v a rio u s a llo w a n c e s T h ere fo llo w s on th is th e m e th o d to b e fo llo w e d fo r th e se c o n d o rd in a tio n o f n u n s, th a t b y m o n k s , a fte r t h e y h a v e b e e n o rd a in e d b y n u n s as la id d o w n in th e N uns* P a c it t iy a s . A f t e r m o re o ffen ces o f w ro n g -d o in g , th e re is a re v e rsio n to o rd a in in g , th is tim e th ro u g h a m essen ger, a n d fin a lly m o re o ffe n c e s o f w ro n g -d o in g an d m o re a llo w a n ce s I n th is S e c tio n th e re is in c lu d e d th e p r o h ib itio n o f fo re s td w e llin g fo r n u n s ( X . 23), a p ro h ib itio n n o t, I b e lie v e , p r e c is e ly re p e a te d elsew h ere. T h is re d u ce s th e n u m b e r o f th e ir re s o u r c e s to th re e , in s te a d o f fo u r, a s fo r m o n k s. I t is sa id th a t if a n u n s ta y s in a fo re st th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g d oing. B u t in N u n s ' F o r m a l M e e tin g I I I (V in . iv . 230), i t is sa id th a t a n u n in c u rs a g r a v e o ffe n c e if, w h ile sh e is in a fo rest, sh e g o es o u t o f s ig h t o r h e a rin g o f h e r co m p a n io n n u n , an d a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a F o r m a l M e e tin g o f th e O rd e r o n ce she h a s g o t o u tsid e . T h e w h o le o f th is a m o u n ts to s a y in g th a t n u n s m a y p a ss th ro u g h a fo re s t if t h e y g o tw o to g e th e r, b u t

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t h a t t h e y m u s t n o t s t a y in o n e e ith e r to g e th e r o r s e p a r a te ly . T h is w a s fo r th e s a k e o f th e ir s e c u r it y . A n o th e r in te r e s tin g p o in t is t h a t n u n s, o n r e tu r n in g to th e O rd e r a ft e r t h e y h a d jo in e d o n e o f th e o th e r s e c ts , s h o u ld n o t be o rd a in e d a g a in . T h is p r iv ile g e c o u ld b e e x te n d e d to m o n k s , p r o v id e d t h a t t h e y first u n d e rw e n t a fo u r m o n th s p r o b a tio n (M V . I . 38. i ) . L ife fo r n u n s w a s p r o b a b ly h a rd e r th a n it w a s fo r m o n k s . I n s p ite o f th e s y m p a t h y a n d ju s tic e w ith w h ic h th e ir tr o u b le s w e re m e t, t h e y w e re to so m e e x t e n t d is c rim in a te d a g a in s t. I h a v e re fe rre d to th is on p . x x x i x o f m y I n tr o d u c tio n to B . D . I l l ; a n d in th e n o te s t o V o lu m e s I V a n d V I h a v e m e n tio n e d s u c h d is c r e p a n c ie s a s o c c u r b e tw e e n th e p e n a ltie s in flic te d on m o n k s a n d on n u n s fo r s im ila r b e h a v io u r. P o s s ib ly th e o n ly e x c e p tio n t o th e g e n e r a l tr e n d o f th e h e a v ie r p e n a lt y b e in g im p o se d on a n u n is in th e c a s e o f " g iv in g a b lo w to a m o n k H e re , if a n u n d o e s so, h e r o ffen ce is r a n k e d a s o n e o f w ro n g -d o in g w h ile , i f a m o n k s trik e s a n o th e r m o n k , h is o ffe n c e is o n e o f e x p ia tio n (see b e lo w , P- 3 7 i)In th e M o n k s' P a t id e s a n iy a (C o n fession ) I , b e c a u s e w o m en o b ta in th in g s w it h d iffic u lty " ( B .D . iii. 104 ) it w a s m a d e an offen ce to b e c o n fe sse d i f a m o n k a c c e p te d , w it h c e r ta in re s e r v a tio n s , fo o d fro m th e h a n d o f a n u n w h o w a s n o t a r e la tio n . B u t in th e C V . a n u n is t o o ffe r a n y fo o d th e r e is in h e r b o w l to a m o n k ( X . 1 3 . 2 ). O n th e o th e r h a n d , m o n k s c o u ld o ffe r n u n s fo o d t h a t h a d b e e n s to r e d ( X . 1 5 . 1 ) i f t h e y h a d m o re th a n t h e y w a n te d fo r th e m s e lv e s ; a n d if n u n s w ere s h o rt o f lo d g in g s th e m o n k s m ig h t g iv e th e m so m e te m p o r a r ily , a g a in if t h e y h a d m o re th a n t h e y w a n te d ( X . 1 6 . 1 ). A g r e a t n u m b e r o f w o m e n a re t r a d it io n a lly h e ld to h a v e flo c k e d to th e O rd e r o f n u n s. I t is c o n c e iv a b le t h a t t h e y w ere g e n e r a lly re g a rd e d a s o f p o o re r q u a li t y th a n th e m o n k s , a n d t h a t th e re fo re th e r e h a d t o b e a s e v e r e r t e s tin g in o r d e r to w e e d o u t th o s e w h o h a d e n te r e d w it h o u t h a v in g a re a l v o c a tio n . I t is s ig n ific a n t t h a t in t h e E ta d A g g a s o f th e A ng uttara th e re are fo r m o n k s fo r ty - s e v e n cla sse s o f a tta in m e n ts a n d fo r ty -o n e m o n k s s a id to b e c liie f in th e m (for so m e a re c h ie f in m o re th a n one a tta in m e n t), w h ile fo r n u n s th e re a re o n ly th ir te e n cla sse s o f a tta in m e n ts , a s m a n y n u n s b e in g c h ie f in th e m . A m o n g th e fo rm e r N a n d a k a is c a lle d th e c h ie f o f m o n k s w h o

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e x h o rt n u n s. I h a v e re fe rre d t o th e v ic is situ d e s a tte n d a n t u p o n th e le g a lis a tio n o f th e e x h o r ta tio n fo r n u n s a t B .D . I l l , p . x li, a n d e a n h e re o n ly m e n tio n w h a t lo o k s lik e a g e n e ra l in ju n c tio n fo r n u n s to fo llo w w h e n m o n k s f a il th e m : p d sa d ik en a sam pddetu , s tr u g g le o n , la b o u r o n in frie n d lin e ss (see b e lo w , p . 366). A t th e e n d o f S e c tio n X I , on th e C o u n c il o f R a ja g a h a , b ecau se e x a c t l y fiv e h u n d re d m o n k s w e re th e re , it is s a id t h a t th is c h a n tin g o f th e d isc ip lin e , vinayasam gtti , is in co n se q u e n ce c a lle d th a t o f th e F iv e H u n d re d . T o s p e a k o f a c h a n t in g o f d iscip lin e is r a th e r a cu rio u s a n d lim ite d d e s c rip tio n .1 F o r it is e x p r e s s ly sa id in C V . X I . 8 t h a t A n a n d a u n d e r to o k to a n sw e r q u e stio n s o n d h a m m a , a n d b e g in n in g w ith th e B rahm ajdla a n d th e Sa m an n a ph ala S u tta n la s , d id in fa c t a n sw e r co rre sp o n d in g q u e stio n s a b o u t th e fiv e N ik a y a s . T h is is no le ss a fe a t th a n t h a t p e rfo rm e d b y U p a li, th e g r e a t V in a y a e x p e r t, w h o , h a v in g a n sw e re d q u e s tio n s a b o u t th e fo u r P a r a jik a o ffen ces, th e n w e n t on to a n sw e r q u e stio n s a b o u t th e tw o d isc ip lin e s, ubhatovinaye , a s to ld in X I . 1 . 7 . A ll th e q u e stio n s on d h a m m a a n d d is c ip lin e w e re p u t b y th e le a rn e d K a s s a p a th e G r e a t. I t se e m s t h a t th is e ld e r, r e a c tin g to S u b h a d d a 's u n s a tis fa c to r y a ttit u d e to G o ta m a 's d e a th , w ith g re a t p re v isio n su g g e s te d to th e o th e r m o n k s t h a t d h a m m a a n d d iscip lin e sh o u ld b e c h a n te d b e fo re n o t-d h a m m a a n d n o td iscip lin e sh o u ld sh in e o u t a n d d h a m m a a n d d isc ip lin e be w ith h e ld ( X I . 1 . 1 ). T h e fin a l n a m e : c h a n tin g o f th e d isc ip lin e seem s th e re fo re to su m u p o n ly h a lf th e p ro c e e d in g s d e a lt w ith a t th e first C o u n c il. T h is C o u n c il o r C o n fe re n ce w a s h e ld s h o r tly , so m e C o m m e n ta rie s s a y th re e m o n th s, a fte r G o ta m a h a d d ied . T h e re co rd o f th is C o u n c il is o f th e u tm o s t im p o rta n c e a s th e tr a d itio n o ra l o n ly , it is tru e o f a d h a m m a th a t w a s ta u g h t a n d a d iscip lin e t h a t w a s la id d o w n i f n o t w h o lly b y th e F o u n d e r h im se lf, a t a ll e v e n ts w h ile he w a s s till a liv e . H o w fa r th e ir r e c ita l w a s w e ll b a se d a n d w e ll c a rrie d o u t is b ro u g h t in to a lit t le d o u b t b y th e e p iso d e o f th e m o n k P u r a n a , th e O ld O n e, w h o to ld th e e ld e rs h e w o u ld re m e m b e r d h a m m a a n d d is c ip lin e ju s t a s he h a d h e a rd a n d le a r n t th e m in th e
1 N o t ic e d b y O ld e n b e r g , V in a y a P it a k a m , v o l. i, p . x x i x , n o t e .

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L o r d 's p resen ce. H is w o rd s : " W e ll c h a n te d b y th e e ld e rs " , are p o lite , b u t h e w a s a p p a r e n tly n o t q u ite c o n v in c e d . A c c o r d in g to S e c tio n X I , d is c ip lin e w a s re c ite d b e fo re d h a m m a . T h e r a th e r b a ld n a r r a t iv e g iv e s n o re a so n . T h e C o m m e n ta rie s h o w e v e r c o m e fo r w a r d w it h a n e x p la n a tio n .1 T h e y s a y t h a t K a s s a p a a s k e d th e m o n k s w h e th e r d h a m m a o r d is c ip lin e sh o u ld b e c h a n te d firs t, a n d th e m o n k s re p lie d : D is c ip lin e is c a lle d th e d y u , th e life o r v i t a li t y , o f th e B u d d h a 's d is p e n sa tio n ; w h ile th e d is c ip lin e sta n d s , th e d is p e n sa tio n sta n d s . T h e re fo re le t u s c h a n t d is c ip lin e f ir s t ." T h e sa m e s e n tim e n t is e x p re sse d in th e v e r s e in se rte d b e fo re th e udddna, th e k e y , a t th e e n d o f S e c tio n I o f th e M V . ( B .D . iv . 1 2 7 ). T h e u n d e r ly in g n o tio n is t h a t d is c ip lin e is p r im a r ily c o n c e rn e d w ith stla , o r p u rific a tio n o f th e w a y s o f a c tin g in b o d y a n d sp e e c h , a n d th e re fo re w ith th e first o f th e th re e c a te g o r ie s in to w h ic h th e w h o le sdsana , d is p e n sa tio n or te a c h in g , is g ra d e d . T h e re m a in d e r o f S e c tio n X I is d e v o te d t o A n a n d a . H e is th e c e n tr a l fig u re . F e e lin g t h a t i t w a s n o t s u ita b le in h im to g o to th e C o u n c il w h ile h e w a s s t ill a sekha, a le a rn e r, h e m ad e a n e ffo rt to re a lis e a r a h a n ts h ip a n d , a t a m o m e n t w h e n n o p a r t o f h im w a s to u c h in g th e e a r th , h is m in d 'w a s fre e d fro m th e c a n k e rs. A s th e D A . (v o l. i, p . 10) r i g h t ly p o in ts o u t, w h e n it is s a i d : " i n th is te a c h in g w h e n a m o n k a tta in s a r a h a n ts h ip n e ith e r ly in g n o r s ittin g d o w n , n e ith e r s ta n d in g n o r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n " , i t is t o b e s a id o f A n a n d a . T h e D A . g o es o n to s a y t h a t A n a n d a , n o w th in k in g h e w a s fit to e n te r th e a s s e m b ly , d e lig h te d a n d re jo ic in g , w e n t th e r e sh in in g lik e a fu ll m o o n on a c lo u d le ss n ig h t, lik e a lo tu s b lo o m in g a t th e s u n 's to u c h , h is fa c e p u re a n d r a d ia n t a s th o u g h h e w e re a n n o u n c in g h is a tta in in g o f a r a h a n ts h ip . B u t V i n A . (v o l. i, p . 1 2 13) g iv e s a d iffe re n t v e rs io n , a n d one t h a t a t D A . i. n is a s c rib e d to th e M a jjh im a -b h d n a k a s , o r re p e a te rs, o f h o w h e w e n t to th e'"C o u n cil. A c c o r d in g to th is ; " A n a n d a , n o t w ish in g to te ll o f h is a tta in m e n t o f a r a h a n ts h ip , d id n o t g o w ith th e m o n k s. T h e y a s k e d w h o m a n e m p t y s e a t w a s fo r, a n d h e a rin g it w a s fo r A n a n d a , a s k e d w h e re h e h a d g o n e . A t th is m o m e n t h e t h o u g h t : 4 N o w is th e tim e fo r m e to g o and d is p la y in g h is p s y c h ic p o w e r, p lu n g in g in to th e e a r th , h e
1 V A . i. 1 3 ; D A . i. 1 1 .

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sh o w e d h im s e lf a s it w ere in h is o w n s e a t. S o m e s a y h e s a t do w n a fte r g o in g th r o u g h th e a i r ." H is a ra h a n ts h ip , h o w e v e r, d id n o t a p p e a r to h a v e c o m m a n d e d m u ch re sp e c t. A ft e r th e C o u n c il w a s o v e r , he to ld th e eld ers w h a t th e L o rd h a d sa id a t th e tim e o f h is p arin ib b an a a b o u t a b o lish in g th e lesser a n d m in o r ru le s o f tr a in in g T h is a c te d lik e a g o a d on th e e ld ers a n d t h e y c h a rg e d h im w ith one offence o f w ro n g d o in g a fte r a n o th e r a ll o f w h ic h m u st h a v e b een c o m m itte d b e fo re he a tta in e d a ra h a n ts h ip , e v e n th e im p u te d o ffen ce o f a llo w in g w o m e n to w e e p a n d la m e n t b esid e G o ta m a s b o d y . I k n o w o f no o th e r o c ca sio n re co rd e d in th e P a li ca n o n w h ere an a ra h a n t is a s k e d t o c o n fe ss o ffen ces sa id to h a v e b een c o m m itte d b y h im b e fo re g a in in g lib e ra tio n . T h is ep iso d e th e re fo re n o t o n ly p u ts th e a c c u s in g eld ers in a v e r y d u b io u s lig h t, it a lso in d ic a te s th a t offen ces o f w ro n g d o in g c o u ld be in v e n te d a fte r G o ta m a 's d e a th . B u t a s th e o ffen ces w ith w h ic h A n a n d a w a s c h a rg e d w ere a ll c o n c e rn e d w ith th e F o u n d e r h im se lf, t h e y are n o t lik e ly to be re p e a te d . W h a t m u st b e re g a rd e d as a m o re d ig n ifie d a n d c o rre c t a ttitu d e w a s ta k e n , la te r, b y A n a n d a h im se lf w h e n h e w a s se n t to in flict th e su p rem e or h ig h e st p e n a lty , brahm adanda , on C h a n n a ( X I . 1 . 15 ). C h a n n a w a s so m u c h o ve rco m e b y th e th o u g h t o f s u b m ittin g t o th is p e n a lty o f o stra c ism t h a t he to o k h im se lf s e rio u s ly in h a n d a n d w o n a ra h a n ts h ip th e se c o n d m o n k re co rd e d in th is S e c tio n to d o so. A n a n d a th e n te lls h im t h a t fro m th e m o m e n t he w on it th e h ig h e s t p e n a lt y b e ca m e re v o k e d a u to m a tic a lly fo r h im . T h is is th e C h a n n a w h o w a s G c ta m a s c h a rio te e r w h ile h e w a s s till th e B o d h is a tta . I t w a s b e cau se o f h is a ffe c tio n fo r G o ta m a , an d th e n b e ca u se o f h is p rid e in " o u r B u d d h a , o u r d h a m m a , t h a t h e w a s u n a b le to c a r r y o u t th e sam anadham m a , th e ru le fo r re clu se s ( T h a g A . i. 166 ), u n til he h a d r e c e iv e d th e e m o tio n a l sh o ck , samvega, o f th e im p o sitio n o f th e su p rem e p e n a lt y on him . O ld e n b e rg s ta te s (V in a y a P ita k a m , v o l. I , p . x x v ii) t h a t th e s to r y o f th e F ir s t C o u n c il a s it h a s co m e d o w n to u s in th e C V , is n o t h is to ry , b u t p u re in v e n tio n a n d , m o re o v er, in v e n tio n o f no v e r y a n c ie n t d a te H e b a se s h is a rg u m e n t on a c o m p ariso n w ith th e M a hap arinibbana Suttanta w h ic h , w h ile it c o n ta in s p a ssa g e s w o rd fo r w o rd th e sa m e a s in th e C V ., y e t
B

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m a k e s no a llu sio n e ith e r to K a s s a p a s p ro p o s a l fo r h o ld in g a C o u n c il o r to th e C o u n c il its e lf. O ld e n b e rg c o n c lu d e s th a t th e a u th o r o f th e M h p . d id n o t k n o w a n y th in g o f th e F ir s t C o u n c il. C e r ta in ly h is sile n c e is o th e rw is e h a rd to a c c o u n t fo r u n less w e a llo w th a t " h e (th e a u th o r, w h o sh o u ld r a th e r be sp o k e n o f as th e c o m p ile r o r co m p ilers) d id n o t w a n t to re fer to it. W e a re a c c u s to m e d in th e P a li c a n o n to fin d in g th e sa m e sto rie s ru n n in g p a ra lle l u p to a c e rta in p o in t a n d th e n tu rn in g off in to d iffe re n t e n d in g s. I t is p o ss ib le th a t w e h a v e su c h a ca se h ere ; a n d t h a t th e o p e n in g p a r t o f C V . X I wT as to ld so a s to le a d u p to th e p ro p o s a l t o c o n v e n e a C o u n c il, w h ile th e sa m e s to r y w a s to ld in th e D lg h a (w ith th e tra n sp o s itio n o f th e S u b h a d d a in c id e n t) so a s to le a d u p to th e a c c o u n t o f th e d isp o sa l o f th e relics. T h is a ffe c te d th e B u d d h a 's b o d y , w h e re a s th e C o u n c il o f R a ja g a h a w a s h e ld in th e a tte m p t to g e t c le a r p r e c is e ly w h a t h a d b een h is d h a m m a a n d d is c ip lin e . R e c ite d b y 500 e ld ers, it c o u ld c a r r y w e ig h t. N e v e rth e le s s , th e P a li re ce n sio n o f th e C o u n c il m a y b e n e ith e r w h o lly c o rre c t n o r w h o lly c o m p le te . I t is o n e o f s e v e r a l v e r sio n s ste m m in g fro m d iffe re n t sc h o o ls a n d w h o se c a n o n s m a y v a r y fro m se c t to s e c t. T h e la te P r o fe s s o r P r z y lu s k i w a s o f th e o p in io n t h a t , in re s p e c t o f th is C o u n c il, th e s u tra s m a y c o n ta in o ld e r m a te ria l th a n th e v in a y a s . H e c o lle c te d a n u m b e r o f v e rsio n s o f b o th a n d p r e s e n te d th e m , tr a n s la te d in to F re n c h , in hi_s v a lu a b le w o r k : L e C o n cile de R d ja g rh a , P a ris , 1926 . T h e s tu d e n t is re fe rre d to th is b o o k ; h e w ill th e n b e a b le to m a k e a n y c o m p a ris o n s h e w is h e s b e tw e e n th e P a li V in a y a a c c o u n t a n d th e o th e rs . F o r it is n o t a n e c e s s a r y fu n c tio n o f th is S .B .B . S eries t o s t r a y fro m th e P a li t e x t s th e m se lv e s. T h e T w e lfth S e c tio n , t h a t on th e S e c o n d C o u n c il, h e ld a t V e s a ll a c e n t u r y " a ft e r G o ta m a s p a rin ib b d n a a c e n tu r y b e in g w n o d o u b t a ro u n d n u m b e r is m o re t r u ly c h a r a c te r ise d a t its e n d a s a c h a n tin g o f d is c ip lin e " th a n is S e c tio n X I . F o r th is c h a n tin g b y th e 700 m o n k s is c o n c e rn e d w ith te n p o in ts o f d is c ip lin e o n ly , a n d w h e th e r th e s e c o u ld n o t b e r e la x e d . T h e v e r y fa c t th a t t h e y w e re c a lle d in q u e s tio n sh o w s t h a t , in th e y e a r s t h a t h a d p a ss e d sin c e G o ta m a 's d e a th , a le ss
1 V i n . T e x ts , i, I n t r . , p . x x i i .

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a u ste re a ttitu d e , a m o re d e m a n d in g n o te h a d c re p t in. I t w a s to d e term in e w h ic h w a s to b e fo llo w e d th e le ss a u ste re a t t i tu d e or th e m o re a u s te re one th a t th is C o u n c il w a s h e ld . I t w a s u ltim a te ly th e m o n k Y a s a , th e so n o f K a k a n d a k a , w h o w a s resp o n sib le fo r th e " c h a n tin g o f d is c ip lin e w h ic h , lim ite d to th e te n p o in ts, w a s th e s u b je c t b e fo re th e C o u n c il o f V e sa li. V a rio u s C o m m e n ta rie s re co g n ise th is (e.g. A A . ii. i o ; M A . iv . 114 ) b y re fe rrin g to th is c h a n tin g as Y a saiih era ssa sam gtti, th e R e c ita l o f th e E ld e r Y a s a . H e g o t th e la y p e o p le on h is sid e b y te llin g th e m th re e sto rie s w h e re G o ta m a h a d d e n o u n ced th e a c c e p ta n c e o f g o ld a n d s ilv e r b y m o n k s th e te n th p o in t, a n d p o s s ib ly th e m o st im p o r ta n t ; a n d t h a t he a ro u se d m u c h in te re st a m o n g th e m o n k s is c le a r fro m th e reco rd s. T h e e n d less d is p u ta tio n s t h a t a ro se, th e sp eech es m ad e w h o se m e a n in g s w ere n o t c le a r ( X I I . 2 . 7 ), im p e lle d th e e ld er R e v a t a , w h o se o p in io n on th e te n p o in ts in q u e stio n co in cid ed w ith Y a s a 's , to se le c t a re fe re n d u m o f e ig h t m o n k s to se ttle th e p o in ts. T h e ir d ecisio n s till h o ld s go o d to - d a y in T h e r a v a d in co u n trie s. I n th e tr a d itio n a l w a y o f th e d e m o c r a tic O rd er, a ll th e m o n k s p re se n t w e re a sk e d to a g re e on th e e ig h t eld ers p ro p o sed b y R e v a t a . T h e y fu r th e r a g re e d on a n in th m o n k , A jit a , to a p p o in t th e se a ts fo r th e e ld e rs w h o w o u ld be lis te n in g to th e p ro ce ed in g s. T h e e x a c t p la c e in V e s a li w h e re th e C o u n c il w a s h e ld is d o u b tfu l. T h e V tn a y a (C V . X I I . 2. 7 ) s a y s it to o k p la c e in th e V a lik a m o n a s te ry , a s d o es th e M ahdvam sa ; b u t th e D tpavam sa la y s th e scen e in th e H a ll o f he G a b le d H o u se . I t is p e rh a p s o f n o g re a t im p o rta n c e , e x c e p t a s a d d in g to th e co n fu sio n w h ic h su rro u n d s th e le g e n d s o f th e C o u n c ils . W h a t th e V in a y a re co rd o f th e C o u n c il o f V e s a li c le a r ly in d ic a te s is th a t th e re w a s e n o u g h d is s a tis fa c tio n a m o n g c e rta in m o n k s to b rin g a b o u t a sch ism , i f n o t c h e c k e d , w it h th e a tte n d a n t d a n g e r o f d h a m m a tu r n in g in to n o t-d h a m m a a n d d is c ip lin e in to n o td iscip lin e. I t m a y b e a sk e d w h y th e C u lla v a g g a is ro u n d e d off b y th e S e c tio n s d e a lin g w ith th e first tw o C o u n c ils, a n d w h ic h m a k e th e C V . lo n g e r b y tw o S e c tio n s th a n th e M V . W h e th e r t h e y w ere a la te r a d d itio n o r .n o t, I c a n o n ly su g g e st t h a t t h e y are in c lu d e d , re a s o n a b ly a n d s u it a b ly a s it seem s to m e , a t th e e n d o f th e e n o rm o u sly lo n g c o m p e n d iu m o f d is c ip lin e fo r m o n k s

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a n d n u n s so a s to g iv e a c u lm in a tin g a u t h o r it y a n d sa n c tio n to th is d is c ip lin e , w h ic h a t th e tim e o f t h e C o u n c il o f VesalT, h a d b een te s te d fo r a " c e n tu r y A ll th e w o rd s sp o k e n b y th e B u d d h a b e tw e e n h is a tta in m e n t o f su p rem e s e lf-a w a k e n in g a n d h is p a rin ib b d n a h a v e b u t th e one fla v o u r, t h a t o f fre e d o m (see C V . I X . 1 . 4 , e tc ., a n d V A . i. 16 , D A . i. 16 ). T h is is a c h a r a c te r is tic o f th e B u d d h a v a ca n a . F r e e d o m is t o b e so u g h t a n d re a lis e d b y th o s e w h o h a v e e n te re d o n th e W a y . F o r th e ir h e lp a n d g u id a n c e th e re a re tw o p a rts o f th e B u d d h a v a ca n a , n a m e ly d h a m m a a n d d is c ip lin e . I t is n o fa u lt o f th e P a li c a n o ii i f la te r g e n e ra tio n s h a v e s p lit th e fr e q u e n tly o c c u rrin g c o m p o u n d o f dham m avinaya in to its tw o c o m p o n e n t p a r ts , a n d h a v e t r e a te d e a c h a s i f it fu n c tio n e d m o re o r le ss in is o la tio n fro m th e o th e r. D h a m m a is ro o te d in d is c ip lin e ; a n d d is c ip lin e is a lw a y s b o rd e rin g on d h a m m a , a s slla is o n sa m ddhi a n d b o th on p a n n d , in t u it iv e w isd o m , to g iv e p o in t a n d s u b s ta n c e to a ll its ru le s, re g u la tio n s , o ffe n ces a n d a llo w a n c e s. A ll th e tim e it is tr a in in g d is c ip le s to a tta in su ffic ie n t h a b itu a l p u r it y u lt im a t e ly to e n te r in to th e g o a l o f W is d o m , e v e n o f t h a t " g r e a t w i s d o m " o f w h ic h S a r ip u tta , b e lo v e d a b o v e a ll o th e r d is c ip le s , w a s sa id to b e th e c h ie f (A . i. 23). T h e D is c ip lin e , rig id a n d s t r ic t , is p r e lim in a r y to a n d u s u a lly n e c e s s a ry to th e flo w e rin g o f W is d o m . W it h o u t th e c o n tr o l o f b o d y a n d sp e e c h (d isc ip lin e , m o ra l h a b it), w ith o u t m in d -c o n tro l (c o n c e n tra tio n ), th e fu ll e x p a n sio n o f w isd o m m a }' n e v e r co m e to b e . D is c ip lin e th e re fo re , a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e tr a in in g , is a te a c h in g o f c o m m a n d s, dnddesand, b e in g t a u g h t b y th e L o r d in re s p e c t o f a m u ltitu d e o f c o m m a n d s fo r th o s e m e ritin g c o m m a n d s " ( V A . i. 2 1 , D A . i. 19 ). P r a c t ic a lly e v e r y c o n c e iv a b le th in g a ffe c tin g m o n a stic life fo r m o n k s a n d n u n s, p r a c t ic a lly e v e r y c o n c e iv a b le re la tio n w ith o th e r h u m a n b e in g s, w h e th e r fe llo w m o n k s o r n u n s o r th e la it y , a re b r o u g h t u n d e r r e v ie w a n d le g is la te d fo r in m in u te s t d e ta il th r o u g h th e s e v e n c la ss e s o f o ffe n c e , th ro u g h th e a llo w a n c e s , a n d th r o u g h th e m o st im p o r ta n t a n d th e r e g u la r ly re cu rrin g e v e n ts in a m o n k 's life : O r d in a tio n , O b s e r v a n c e , I n v ita tio n , th e ra in s-re sid e n c e , th e m a k in g u p o f n e w ro b e -m a te r ia l ; th r o u g h th e se v e n o ffic ia l fo rm a l a c t s o f th e O rd er, b e g in n in g w ith t h a t o f c e n su re , a n d th r o u g h th e su sp e n sio n o f th e P a tim o k k h a . I t is a v e r y c o m p le te s y s te m , a v e r y p re cise

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INTRODUCTION

xxi

o rg a n isa tio n , m a rk e d th ro u g h o u t b y th e h u m an en ess an d reaso n ab len ess o f G o ta m a , th e co d ifier to w h o m w ith b u t fe w e x c e p tio n s e v e r y ru lin g is a sc rib e d . I. B. H o r n e r . L ondon, D ecem ber, 19 51 .

C O N T E N T S T r a n s la to r s In tr o d u c tio n V

CULLAVAGGA On F o rm al A c ts O n P r o b a tio n O n S e ttle m e n ts O n L o d g in g s O n S ch ism I


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O n A c c u m u la tio n (of O ffences) O n M in o r M a tte rs

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393

O n S u sp e n d in g th e P a tim o k k h a O n th e F iv e H u n d re d O n th e S e v e n H u n d re d

407

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439

Som e P a li W o rd s d iscu ssed in th e N o te s A b b r e v ia tio n s u sed in th e N o te s

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(C U LLA V A G G A )

P ra ise to this Lord, Perfected O n e , F u lly S elf-A w a k en ed O ne A t one tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o r d w a s s t a y in g a t S a v a tth I in th e J e ta G r o v e in A n a th a p in d ik a s m o n a ste ry . N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a 1 a n d w h o w ere th e m s e lv e s m a k e rs o f s tr ife ,2 m a k e rs o f q u a rrels, m a k e rs o f d isp u te s, m a k e rs o f c o n te n tio n ,2 m a k ers o f le g a l q u e stio n s in an O rd e r ,3 h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d o th er m o n k s w h o w ere also m a k e rs o f s trife . . . m a k e r s o f leg a l q u e stio n s in an O rd er, sp o k e th u s (to th e m ) : D o n o t y o u , v e n e ra b le ones, le t th is one d e fe a t 4 y o u ; a rg u e lo u d a n d lo n g, fo r y o u are w iser a n d m ore e x p e rie n c e d a n d h a v e h e a rd m ore a n d are c le v e re r th a n h e is, d o n o t b e a fr a id o f h im , a n d w e w ill b e on y o u r s id e . B e c a u s e o f th is, n o t o n ly d id strife s arise w h ic h h a d n o t a risen b e fo re , b u t a lso strife s w h ich h a d arisen ro lled on to in crea se a n d m a g n itu d e . || i || T h o se w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic iz e d , sp read it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th e se m o n k s w h o are fo llo w ers o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h it a k a a n d w h o a re th e m s e lv e s m a k ers o f strife , m a k e rs o f q u a rre ls, m a k e rs o f d is p u te s, m a k ers o f c o n te n tio n , m a k e rs o f le g a l q u e stio n s in an O rd er, h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d o th e r m o n k s w h o a re also m a k e rs o f strife . , . m a k e rs o f le g a l q u e stio n s in a n O rd e r, s p e a k th u s to th e m : * D o n o t y o u . . . a n d w e w ill b e on y o u r sid e .' B e c a u se o f th is . . . also s trife s w h ic h h a d a risen ro lle d on to in crease a n d m a g n itu d e . T h e n th e s e m o n k s to ld th is
1 T h e s e w e r e t w o o u t o f t h e g r o u p o f s ix m o n k s ; c f. p p . 8 ff. b e lo w . S e e B . D . i. 2 7 5 , n . 3 ; 3 14 * n . 2. M e n t io n e d a t V A . 6 1 4 ; M A . iii. 1 8 7 s a y s t h a t h a v in g t a k e n t h e i r o w n c o m p a n y { o f f o llo w e r s ) t h e y l i v e d in S a v a t t h I . T h e S a ta p a tta J d ta k a (N o . 2 7 9 ) w a s , s o i t is c l a im e d , g i v e n in r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e m on ks. 2 O f. V i n . i v . 4 5 a n d s e e B . D . ii. 2 5 3 , n . 1 , f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e f iv e t e r m s . S in c e t h e y a ll r e fe r t o d is p u t e s a b o u t le g a l q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e f e r e n c e s g i v e n a t V i n . T e x t s ii. 3 2 9 , n . 2 , t o v a r io u s P a c i t t i y a s h a r d l y a p p l y . S e e a ls o B . D . i v . f 2 2 4 , 2 3 0 f 488 f . , 5 1 0 f. * C f . S a n g h . 8, 9, 10 , e t c . * m d eso a je s i. B*

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m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h e n th e L o r d , on th is o c ca sio n , in th is co n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e s tio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " I s it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, t h a t m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h it a k a [1] are th e m se lv e s m a k e rs o f s tr ife . . . h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d o th e r m o n k s w h o a re also m a k e rs o f s tr ife . . . s p e a k th u s to th e m : * D o n o t y o u * . . a n d w e w ill b e on y o u r sid e ' ? A n d th a t b e c a u s e o f th is . . . s tr ife s w h ic h h a v e a risen ro ll o n to in crea se a n d m a g n itu d e ? " I t is tru e , L o r d ." T h e A w a k e n e d O n e , th e L o rd , re b u k e d th e m , s a y in g : " I t is n o t s u ita b le , m o n k s , i t is n o t b e c o m in g in th e se fo o lish m en , i t is n o t fittin g , i t is n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se, it is n o t a llo w a b le , it is n o t to b e d o n e. H o w , m o n k s, c a n th e se fo o lish m e n w h o are th e m s e lv e s m a k e rs o f s tr ife . . . m a k e rs o f le g a l q u e stio n s in a n O rd e r, s p e a k th u s ; D o n o t y o u . . . a n d w e w ill b e o n y o u r sid e ' ? A n d b e c a u s e o f th is . . . strife s w h ic h h a v e a rise n ro ll o n to in crea se a n d m a g n itu d e . I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a s in g th o s e w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d n o r fo r in c re a sin g th e n u m b e r o f th o s e w h o are p le a se d , b u t, m o n k s, it is d isp le a sin g to th o se w h o a re n o t p le a se d as w e ll a s to th o se w h o a re p le a se d , a n d it c a u se s w a v e r in g in so m e . || 2 || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g re b u k e d th e s e m o n k s, h a v in g in m a n y a figu re sp o k e n in d isp ra ise o f d iffic u lty in su p p o rtin g a n d m a in ta in in g o n eself, o f g r e a t d esires, o f la c k o f co n te n tm e n t, o f c lin g in g (to th e o b s tru c tio n s ), o f in d o le n c e ; h a v in g in m a n y a fig u re sp o k e n in p ra ise o f e a se in s u p p o rtin g a n d m a in ta in in g o n eself, o f d e sirin g little , o f c o n te n tm e n t, o f e x p u n g in g (evil), o f p u n c tilio u sn e ss, o f g ra cio u sn e ss, o f d e cre a sin g (the o b stru c tio n s), o f p u ttin g fo rth e n e r g y ,1 h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed t a lk o n w h a t is b e c o m in g , o n w h a t is fittin g fo r th e m , a d d re sse d th e m o n k s , s a y in g : " W e ll n o w , m o n k s , le t th e O r d e r c a r r y o u t a (fo rm al) a c t o f ce n su re 2 a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a . || 3 || " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld i t b e c a rrie d o u t ; F ir s t, th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h it a k a sh o u ld be re p ro v e d ; h a v in g re p ro v e d th e m , t h e y sh o u ld b e m a d e to
1 C f . V i n . iii. 2 1 ( B . D . i. 3 7 ) , V t n . i. 45, 3 05 l o r th is passage. t a jja n iy a k a m m a . C f . M V . I . 2 5 - 2 2 a n d M V . X X . 7 . 1 - 5 .

I . 4 2 . i ]

CULLAVAGGA

re m em b er ; h a v in g re m em b ere d , t h e y sh o u ld be a c cu se d o f an o ffen ce ; h a v in g a c cu se d th e m o f a n o ffen ce, th e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e . T h e se m o n k s w h o are fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a a n d w h o are th e m se lv e s m a k e rs o f s trife . . . m a k e rs o f le g a l q u e stio n s in a n O rd er, h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d o th e r m o n k s w h o are also m a k e rs o f s trife . . . m a k e rs o f le g a l q u e stio n s in a n O rd er, sp o k e th u s (to th em ) : D o n o t y o u . . a n d w e w ill be on y o u r sid e B e c a u s e o f th is, n o t o n ly d id s trife s a rise w h ic h h a d n o t a rise n b e fo re , b u t a lso s trife s w h ic h h a d a risen ro lled on t o in crea se a n d m a g n itu d e* I f i t seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h e se m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a a n d w h o a re th e m s e lv e s m a k e rs o f s tr ife . . . ro lle d o n to in crea se a n d m a g n itu d e . T h e O rd e r is c a r ry in g o u t a (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a an d L o h ita k a . I f th e c a r r y in g o u t o f a (form al) ac,t o f ce n su re a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e s i l e n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld s p e a k . A n d a se co n d tim e I s p e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h e se m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w ers o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a a n d w h o are th e m s e lv e s m a k e rs o f s trife . . . he t o w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o are fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a is b e in g ca rried o u t b y th e O rd e r. I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er, th e r e fore it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is .' || 4 j| 1 || [2] " M o n k s, i f it is p o ssessed o f th re e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f cen su re co m es t o b e n o t le g a lly v a lid a n d n o t d is c ip lin a r ily v a lid an d one t h a t is h a rd to s e ttle : (th a t is to sa y ) if i t is c a rrie d o u t n o t in th e p resen ce o f ,1 i f it is c a rrie d o u t w h e n th ere is no in te rro g a tio n , if it is c a rrie d o u t w ith o u t th e
1 S e e C V . I V . 14. 1 6 f f., a n d M V . I X . 6 . 1 . V A . v i. 1 1 5 5 s a y s it is n o t c a r r ie d o u t in. t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e O r d e r , d h a m m a a n d d is c ip lin e , t h e in d iv i d u a l, a n d i s c a r r ie d o u t w i t h o u t h a v i n g r e p r o v e d h im , w i t h o u t h a v i n g a s k e d h im (to c o n s e n t ) a n d w i t h o u t h i s h a v i n g a c k n o w le d g e d it-

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a c k n o w le d g m e n t .1 M o n k s, i f it is p o ssessed o f th ese th re e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f c e n su re co m es to b e n o t le g a lly v a lid , n o t d is c ip lin a r ily v a lid a n d o n e t h a t is h a rd t o s e ttle . A n d , m o n k s, if i t is po ssessed o f th re e fu r th e r q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f cen su re co m es t o b e o n e . . . a n d one th a t is h a rd to s e ttle : (th a t is to s a y ) if it is c a rrie d o u t w h en th e re is no offen ce, i f it is c a rrie d o u t fo r an o ffen ce t h a t does n o t le a d on to co n fe ssio n ,2 if it is c a rrie d o u t fo r an o ffe n ce t h a t h a s b e e n co n fe sse d . M o n k s, if it is p o ssessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re . . . one t h a t is h a rd to se ttle . A n d , m o n k s, if it is p o ssessed o f th re e fu r th e r q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f c e n su re co m e s to b e . . . h a rd to s e ttle : (th a t is to sa y ) i f it is c a rrie d o u t w ith o u t h a v in g re p ro v e d h im , if it is c a rrie d o u t w ith o u t h a v in g m a d e h im re m em b er, if it is c a rrie d o u t w ith o u t h a v in g a c cu se d h im o f an offen ce. M o n k s, if it is p o ssessed o f th e s e th re e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re co m es to b e . . . h a rd to settle* A n d , m o n k s, if it is p o ssessed o f th re e fu r th e r q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re co m es to b e . . . one t h a t is h a rd to s e ttle : (th a t is to sa y ) i f it is c a rrie d o u t n o t in th e p resen ce o f, if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le , if it is c a rrie d o u t b y an in c o m p le te a ss e m b ly . M o n k s, if it is p o ssessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f c e n su re co m es t o b e . . . one t h a t is h a rd to s e ttle . A n d , m o n k s, i f it is p o ssessed o f th re e fu rth e r q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f c e n su re co m es to be . . . h a rd to s e ttle ; (th a t is to sa y ) if it is c a rrie d o u t w h e n th e re is n o in te rro g a tio n , if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le, if i t is ca rrie d o u t b y a n in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . M o n k s, i f it is po ssessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re co m es to b e - * . h a rd to s e ttle . A n d , m o n k s , if it is p o sse sse d o f th re e fu rth e r q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f c e n su re . . . h a r d t o se ttle : (th a t is to sa y ) if it is c a rrie d o u t w ith o u t th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t, if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le , i f it is c a r rie d o u t b y a n in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . if it is c a r rie d o u t w h e n th e r e is no o ffen ce, i f it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le , if i t is c a rrie d o u t b y a n in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . i f it is c a rrie d o u t fo r an o ffen ce t h a t d o es n o t le a d on t o co n fe ssio n , i f it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y
1 I.e . o f th e a c c u se d m o n k . 1 a d e s a n u g a m in iy a , i.e . a Parajika o r lD c lu d e c e n s u r e o r c o n fe s s io n .

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2 ,i 3]

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rule, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y a n in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . if it is c a rrie d o u t fo r a n o ffen ce t h a t h a s b e en co n fessed , if it is ca rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le , i f it is c a rrie d o u t b y a n in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . i f it is c a rrie d o u t w ith o u t h a v in g re p ro v e d h im , if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y an in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . * . i f i t is c a rrie d o u t w ith o u t h a v in g m a d e h im re m em b er, if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y a n in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . * . i f it is ca rried o u t w ith o u t h a v in g a c c u s e d h im o f an o ffen ce, if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le , if it is c a rrie d o u t b y an in c o m p le te a sse m b ly . I f, m o n k s, a (form al) a c t o f cen su re is possessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s it co m es to be n o t le g a lly v a lid a n d n o t d is c ip lin a r ily v a lid a n d one t h a t is h a rd to s e t t le ." \ \ I f| T o ld are th e T w e lv e C ases o f (F o rm a l) A c t s th a t are n o t le g a lly v a lid . || 2 || M on ks, if it is po ssessed o f th re e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f cen su re co m es to b e a (form al) a c t th a t is le g a lly v a lid a n d a (form al) a c t t h a t is d is c ip lin a rily v a lid a n d one t h a t is e a s ily s e ttle d : (th a t is to sa y ) if i t is c a rrie d o u t in th e p re se n ce o f, if it is c a rrie d o u t w h e n th e re is in te rro g a tio n , if it is c a rrie d o u t w ith th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t. M o n k s, i f it is p o ssessed o f th ese th re e q u a litie s . . . e a s ily se ttle d . A n d , m o n k s, if it is possessed o f th re e fu rth e r q u a litie s . . . e a s ily s e ttle d : (th a t is to say) i f it is c a rrie d o u t w h e n th e r e is a n o ffen ce, if it is ca rrie d o u t w h e n th e re is a n o ffen ce w h ic h le a d s on t o c o n fe s sion, [3] i f it is c a rrie d o u t w h e n a n o ffe n ce h a s n o t been co n fessed . . . if it is c a rrie d o u t, h a v in g r e p ro v e d h im , i f it is ca rrie d o u t, h a v in g m a d e h im re m em b er, if it is c a rrie d o u t, h a v in g a c cu se d h im o f th e o ffen ce . . . if i t is c a rrie d o u t in th e presen ce o f, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le , i f it is c a rrie d o u t b y a co m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . if it is c a r rie d o u t w h e n th e re is in te rro g a tio n , i f i t is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le , if it is c a rrie d o u t b y a c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . if it is c a rrie d o u t w ith th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le , i f it is c a rrie d o u t b y a c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . i f it is c a rrie d o u t w h e n th e re is an offen ce, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le, if i t is c a rrie d o u t b y a co m p le te a ss e m b ly . . . if it is c a rrie d o u t w h e n th e re is an offence th a t le a d s o n to co n fe ssio n , i f i t is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le , if it is ca rrie d o u t b y a c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . if it is c a rrie d

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o u t w h en a n o ffen ce h a s n o t b e en c o n fe sse d , if it is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y a c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . if it is c a rrie d o u t h a v in g re p ro v e d h im , if it is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le, if it is ca rrie d o u t b y a co m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . if it is c a rrie d o u t h a v in g m a d e h im re m em b er, i f it is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y a c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . . . if it is c a rrie d o u t h a v in g a c cu s e d h im o f an o ffe n ce, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le, if it is c a rrie d o u t b y a c o m p le te a s s e m b ly . I f, m o n k s, a (form al) a c t o f cen su re is p o ssessed o f th e s e th re e q u a litie s it co m es to b e a (form al) a c t t h a t is le g a lly v a lid a n d a (form al) a c t th a t is d is c ip lin a rily v a lid a n d o n e t h a t is e a s ily se ttle d . ||i|[ T o ld a re th e T w e lv e C a ses o f (F o rm a l) A c t s th a t a re le g a lly v a lid . || 3 |j " M o n k s, if a m o n k is po ssessed *o f th re e q u a litie s , a n O rd e r, i f it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re a g a in s t h im ; if h e is a m a k e r o f s trife , a m a k e r o f q u a rre ls, a m a k e r o f d is p u te s, a m a k e r o f c o n te n tio n , a m a k e r o f le g a l q u e stio n s in a n O rd er ; if h e is ig n o ra n t, in e x p e rie n c e d , fu ll o f offen ces, n o t rid o f th e m 1 ; i f he liv e s in c o m p a n y w ith h o u seh o ld ers in u n b e c o m in g a sso c ia tio n w ith h o u se h o ld e rs .2 M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e s e th re e q u a litie s , a n O rd e r, if it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re a g a in s t h im . A n d , m o n k s, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th re e fu r th e r q u a litie s an O rd e r . . . a g a in s t h im : if, in re g a rd to m o ra l h a b it, h e c o m es to h a v e fa lle n a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it 3 ; if, in re g a rd to g o o d h a b its , h e co m es to h a v e fa lle n a w a y fro m g o o d h a b its ; if, in re g a rd to (righ t) v ie w s , h e c o m e s to h a v e fa lle n a w a y fro m (right) v ie w s. M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed * . . a g a in s t h im . A n d , m o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th r e e fu rth e r q u a litie s, an O rd er, if it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in s t h im : if h e s p e a k s d is p ra is e o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e, if h e sp e a k s d is p ra is e o f dham m a , if he s p e a k s d is p ra is e o f th e O rd er. M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s , an O rd er, if it so d e sire s, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in s t h im . || i || M o n k s, if an O rd er d esires, it m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t 1 dpattibahulo anapada.no ; cf. V in . i. 321 (B .D . iv. 461, n. 1). * C f. Vin. iv. 321-322, and B .D . iii. 207, n. 1. 8 C f . Vin. i. 63 (B .D . iv. 82).

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o f cen su re a g a in s t th re e (kin d s of) m o n k s : a g a in s t th e one w h o is a m a k e r o f s trife . . . a m a k e r o f le g a l q u e stio n s in th e O rd er ; a g a in s t th e one w h o is ig n o ra n t, in e x p e rie n c e d , fu ll o f offen ces, n o t rid o f th e m ; a g a in s t th e o n e w h o liv e s in c o m p a n y w ith h o u seh o ld ers in u n b e c o m in g a sso cia tio n w ith h o u seh o ld ers. M o n k s, if th e O rd e r d esires, it m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in st th e s e th re e (kin d s of) m onks* A n d , m o n k s, if th e O rd e r d esires, it m a y c a r r y o u t . I . a g a in s t th ree fu r th e r (kin d s of) m o n k s : a g a in s t th e one w h o , in re ga rd to m o ra l h a b it, co m es to h a v e fa lle n a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it, a g a in s t th e one w h o , in re g a rd to g o o d h a b its , co m es to h a v e fa lle n a w a y fro m g o o d h a b its , a g a in s t th e o n e w h o , in re g a rd to (right) v ie w s, co m es to h a v e fa lle n a w a y fro m (righ t) v ie w s. M onks, if a n O rd er d esires . . . a g a in s t th e se th re e (kin d s of) m o n ks. A n d , m o n k s, i f an O rd e r d esires, it m a y c a r r y o u t . . * a g a in st th re e fu r th e r (kin d s of) m o n k s : [4] a g a in s t th e o n e w h o sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e , a g a in s t th e one w h o sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f dham m a , a g a in s t th e o n e w h o sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e O rd er. M on ks, if an O rd e r d esires, i t m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in s t th e se th re e (kin d s of) m o n k s. || 2 j| T o ld a re th e S ix C a ses on B e in g D e siro u s. [| 4 j| " M o n k s, w h e n a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re h a s b een c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t a m o n k , he sh o u ld c o n d u c t h im s e lf p ro p e rly . T h is is th e p ro p e r c o n d u c t in th is ca se 1 : he sh o u ld n o t o rd a in , he sh o u ld n o t g iv e g u id a n c e ,2 a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d h im ,3 th e a g ree m e n t fo r h im to e x h o r t n u n s 4 sh o u ld n o t b e c o n se n te d to , a n d e v e n if he is a g re e d u p o n n u n s sh o u ld n o t b e e x h o r te d (b y h im ), he sh o u ld n o t fa ll in to th a t (sam e) o ffen ce fo r w h ic h a (form al) a c t o f cen su re ca m e to b e c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t h im b y an O rd er, n o r in to a n o th e r t h a t is sim ila r, n o r in to o n e t h a t is w o rse, h e sh o u ld n o t fin d fa u lt w ith th e (form al) a c t , 6 h e sh o u ld n o t fin d fa u lt w ith th o se w h o c a r r y o u t th e (form al) a c t, he sh o u ld n o t su sp en d a re g u la r m o n k s O b s e r v a n c e ,6 h e below, CV. II. i. 2 ; X. 20 . MV. I. 36 . i. See MV. I. 36 , 37 for this trio. * C f . Monks' Pac. and CV. X. 9 . 4. 6 I.e. the act of censure, V A . vi. 1156. From here to end of ]| 1 || recurs at CV. I.
1 C f. 1 C f.

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C f.

also CV. X.

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sh o u ld n o t su sp en d h is I n v it a t io n ,1 he sh o u ld n o t issu e c o m m a n d s ,2 h e sh o u ld n o t set u p a u t h o r it y ,3 he sh o u ld n o t a sk for le a v e ,4.he sh o u ld n o t re p ro v e ,5 h e sh o u ld n o t m a k e re m em b er, he sh o u ld n o t q u a rre l 6 w ith m o n k s || x [| T o ld are th e E ig h te e n O b se rv a n c e s c o n n e c te d w ith a (F o rm al) A c t o f C en su re. || 5 | | T h e n th e O rd e r c a rrie d o u t a (form al) a c t o f c e n su re a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a . T h e se , w h en th e (fo n n a l) a c t of ce n su re h a d b e en c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t th e m b y th e O rd er, c o n d u c te d th e m s e lv e s p ro p e rly , w ere su b d u e d , m e n d e d th e ir w a y s , a n d h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d m o n k s, t h e y sp o k e th u s : W e , y o u r re v e re n c e s, a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f cen su re w a s c a r rie d o u t b y th e O rd er, are c o n d u c tin g o u rse lv e s p ro p e rly , w e a re su b d u e d , w e a re m e n d in g o u r w a y s . N o w , w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t s h o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y u s ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " W e ll th e n , m o n ks, le t th e O rd e r r e v o k e th e (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a . Ii i Ii " M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f cen su re sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d : if h e o rd a in s, if h e g iv e s g u id a n c e , if a n o v ic e a tte n d s h im , if he c o n se n ts to th e a g re e m e n t fo r h im to e x h o r t n u n s, if h e e x h o r ts n u n s e ve n a lth o u g h a g re e d u p o n . M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e s e fiv e q u a li tie s a (form al) a c t o f ccn su re sh o u ld n o t be r e v o k e d . A n d , m o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e fu rth e r q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d ; if h e fa lls in to th a t (same) o ffen ce fo r w h ic h th e (form al) a c t o f ce n su re w a s ca rrie d o u t a g a in s t h im b y th e O rd e r, o r in to a n o th e r t h a t is sim ila r,
V A . 1156 says : " I am doing the savacanlya of the venerable ones in this matter, do not go one footstep back from this residence while the legal question is not settled/* The word savacaniya occurs again at CV. II. 1 . 2. See Vin. Texts ii. 338, n. 6 ; 386, n. 2. 3 anuvada. V A . 1156 says * * in a vihara he should not take the chief place." 4 I.e. to ask questions; see MV. II. 1 6 . r, IV. 1 6 , 1, 2. 6 Cf. CV. X . 9 . 5. # s a m p a y o j e t i , also meaning to associate. V A . 1 1 5 6 gives both meanings, saying : " having joined one another, a quarrel should not be made.* The sense of to quarrel *' here would be of disputing about legal questions. The foregoing prohibitions indicate that a monk undergoing censure is not expected to have no dealings with his fellow monks. 1 C f . MV. IV. 16 . 2. 2 na savacanlyam katabbam.

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or in to o n e th a t is w o rse, if h e fin d s fa u lt w ith th e (form al) a c t, if he fin d s fa u lt w ith th o se w h o c a r r y o u t th e (form al) a c t. M onks, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e se fiv e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f cen su re sh o u ld n o t be re v o k e d . M on ks, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f e ig h t q u a litie s [5] a (form al) a c t o f cen su re sh o u ld n o t be re v o k e d : i f h e su sp e n d s a re g u la r m o n k 's O b servan ce* if he su sp en d s his I n v ita tio n , if h e issues co m m a n d s, if he se ts u p a u th o r ity , if he a sk s fo r le a v e , if h e re p ro v e s, if he m a k e s rem em b er, if he q u a rre ls w ith m o n k s. M o n k s, i f a m o n k is possessed o f th e se e ig h t q u a litie s th e (form al) a c t o f cen su re sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d . j|2 [| T o ld a re th e E ig h te e n C ases w h ere (a F o r m a l A c t o f C ensure) sh o u ld n o t b e re v o k e d . || 6 || " M o n k s, if a m o n k is po ssessed o f fiv e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f cen su re m a y be r e v o k e d : if he d o es n o t o rd a in , if he does n o t g iv e g u id a n c e , if a n o v ic e d o es n o t a tte n d h im , if he does n o t co n se n t to th e a g re e m e n t fo r e x h o r tin g n u n s, if, a lth o u g h a g re e d u p o n , h e d o es n o t e x h o r t n u n s. M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed . . . m a y b e re v o k e d . A n d , m o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e fu r th e r q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f cen su re m a y b e r e v o k e d : i f he does n o t fa ll in to th a t (sam e) offen ce fo r w h ic h th e (form al) a c t o f cen su re c a m e to b e ca rrie d o u t a g a in s t h im , n o r in to a n o th e r th a t is sim ila r, n or in to one th a t is w o rse, if h e does n o t find fa u lt w ith th e (form al) a c t, if h e d oes n o t find fa u lt w ith th o se w h o c a r r y o u t th e (form al) a c t. M on ks, if a m o n k . . . m a y b e re v o k e d . M onks, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f e ig h t q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f cen su re m a y be re v o k e d ; if h e d o es n o t su s p e n d a re g u la r m o n k s O b se rv a n c e , if he does n o t su sp en d h is I n v i t a tio n , if he does n o t issue co m m a n d s, if he does n o t se t up a u th o r ity , if he does n o t a s k fo r le a v e , if he d o es n o t re p ro v e , if he d o es n o t m a k e rem em b er, if h e d o es n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n ks. M on ks, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th ese e ig h t q u a litie s th e (form al) a c t o f cen su re m a y be r e v o k e d . || x || T o ld a re th e E ig h te e n C ases (w h ere a F o r m a l A c t o f C ensure) m a y b e re v o k e d . || 7 || A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e re v o k e d : T h o se m o n k s w h o are fo llo w ers o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e

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O rd er, h a v in g (each) a rra n g e d th e u p p e r ro b e o v e r o n e sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u re d th e fe e t o f th e se n io r m o n k s, h a v in g s a t d o w n on th e ir h a u n ch es, h a v in g s tr e tc h e d fo rth th e ir jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to i t : A (fo rm al) a c t o f ce n su re , h o n o u re d sirs, w a s c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t us b y th e O rd e r ; b u t w e are c o n d u c tin g o u rse lv e s p r o p e r ly , w e a re su b d u e d , w e are m e n d in g o u r w a y s ; a n d w e a s k fo r th e r e v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f cen su re \ A n d a se co n d tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r . . . A n d a th ird tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r * . . T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y an e x p e rie n c e d c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : || i || " ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h e s e m o n k s, fo llo w ers o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h it a k a , a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re w a s c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd e r, a re c o n d u c tin g th e m se lv e s p ro p e rly , t h e y a re s u b d u e d , t h e y a re m e n d in g th e ir w a y s , [ 6 ] a n d t h e y a s k fo r th e r e v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f cen su re. I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y re v o k e th e (form al) a c t o f ce n su re fo r th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w ers o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a , T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n t o m e. T h e s e m o n k s, fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a , a g a in s t w h o m a (fo rm al) a c t o f cen su re w a s ca rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, are c o n d u c tin g th e m se lv e s p ro p e rly , t h e y a re su b d u e d , th e y a re m e n d in g th e ir w a y s , a n d th e y a s k fo r th e re v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f ce n su re . T h e O rd er is r e v o k in g th e (form al) a c t o f ce n su re fo r th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a . I f th e r e v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f ce n su re fo r th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a is p le a s in g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld be sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a s in g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a se co n d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ird tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a t t e r . . . sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e (form al) a c t o f ce n su re is r e v o k e d b y th e O rd e r fo r th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a . I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is .' ii 2 n8 ii T o ld is th e F ir s t (F o rm a l) A c t : t h a t o f C e n su re. N o w a t t h a t tim e th e v e n e r a b le S e y y a s a k a 1 w a s ig n o ra n t, 1 At V in . iii. n o ff. he is represented as committing the offence for which the first SanghAdisesa was formulated.

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in ex p erie n ced , fu ll o f o ffen ces, n o t rid o f th e m ; h e liv e d in c o m p a n y w ith h o u seh o ld ers in u n b e c o m in g a sso c ia tio n w ith h o u seh o ld ers .1 S o m u ch so t h a t th e m o n k s w ere d o n e u p 2 w ith g ra n tin g h im p ro b a tio n , se n d in g h im b a c k to th e b e g in n in g , im p o sin g m anatta , r e h a b ilita tin g h im .3 T h o s e w h o w e re m o d est m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th e v e n e ra b le S e y y a s a k a , ig n o ra n t, in e x p erie n ced . . . r e h a b ilita tin g h im ? T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h e n th e L o rd , on th is o cca sio n , in th is co n n e c tio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : Is it tru e , as is sa id , m o n k s, t h a t th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a , ig n o ra n t, in e x p e rie n c e d . . . re h a b ilita tin g h im ? " I t is tru e , L o r d / ' T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o r d , re b u k e d th e m , s a y in g : " I t is n o t s u ita b le , m o n k s, it is n o t b e c o m in g in th is fo o lish m a n , it is n o t fittin g , it is n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se, it is n o t a llo w a b le , it is n o t to b e d o n e. F o r h o w , m o n k s, c a n th is fo o lish m a n , ig n o ra n t, in e x p e rie n c e d . . . r e h a b ilita tin g h im ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d , n o r fo r in c re a sin g th e n u m b e r o f th o se w h o are p le a se d . . / ' A n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , h e a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : [ 7 ] " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e 4 fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a , s a y in g : ' Y o u sh o u ld liv e in d e p e n d e n c e 5 \ Hi |l A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld i t be c a rrie d o u t : F ir s t, th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a sh o u ld b e r e p r o v e d ; h a v in g re p ro v e d h im , he sh o u ld be m a d e to re m e m b e r ; h a v in g m a d e h im rem em b er, h e sh o u ld b e a c cu se d o f th e o ffen ce ; h a v in g a c c u s e d h im o f th e offen ce, th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r listen to m e. T h is m o n k S e y y a s a k a , ig n o ra n t, in e x p e rie n c e d . . , above, CV. I. 4 . i. 1 pakata , done away with ; so, exhausted, worn out, *' fed up.* s As V in . Texts ii. 343, n. 1 indicates, it is not clear why a Saogh&disesa should be attributed to Seyyasaka, but it suggests that the answer may appear at V in . Texts ii. 384, n. r. The text may have in mind Vin. iii. 110 (see above, p. io, n)* Certainly there is a tradition conrecting Seyyasaka with the Sanghadisesa type of offence. There was for monks no recognised offence incurring a penalty if they lived in association with householders. * nissayakamma . C / , MV. I. 25 . 22 ; IX. 7 . 6, 14. B nissaya. C f. B .D . iv. 79, 100 f.
1 C f.

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re h a b ilita tin g h im . I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, le t th e O rd er c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a , s a y in g : Y o u sh o u ld liv e in d e p e n d e n c e ." T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n t o m e. T h is m o n k S e y y a s a k a , ig n o ra n t, in e x p e rie n c e d . . . r e h a b ilita tin g h im . T h e O rd e r is c a r ry in g o u t a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a , s a y in g : f Y o u sh o u ld liv e in d e p en d e n ce I f th e c a r ry in g o u t o f th e (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e , s a y in g " Y o u sh o u ld liv e in d e p en d e n ce " , fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a is p le a s in g to th e v e n e ra b le o n es, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a seco n d tim e I sp e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ird tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . , he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e , s a y in g : " Y o u sh o u ld liv e in d e p e n d en ce , is b e in g c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd e r fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd e r, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is / [| 2 jj 9 || " I f a m o n k , m o n k s , is po ssessed o f th re e q u a litie s . . . ( Ch. 3 - 5 . In stea d o f (form al) a c t o f cen su re, b y c a r ry in g o u t a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re read (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e , b y c a r ry in g o u t a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n ce ) . . . h e sh o u ld n o t q u a rrel w ith m o n k s . || 1 || T o ld a re th e E ig h te e n O b se rv a n c e s c o n n e c te d w ith a (F o rm al) A c t o f G u id a n c e . [| 10 || T h e n th e O rd e r c a rrie d o u t a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a , s a y in g : Y o u sh o u ld liv e in d e p e n d e n c e ." A fte r th e (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e h a d b een ca rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, h e , c h o o sin g , a s s o c ia tin g w ith , v is itin g frien d s w h o w ere lo v e ly 1 (in d e ed ), m a k in g th e m re c ite , in te rro g a tin g th e m , c a m e to b e one w h o h a d h e a rd m u c h ,2 o n e to w h o m th e tra d itio n w a s h a n d e d d o w n ; a n e x p e r t in dham m a , an e x p e rt in d isc ip lin e , an e x p e r t in th e h e a d in g s ; e x p e rie n c e d , w ise, m o d e st, sc ru p u lo u s, d e siro u s o f th e tr a in in g ; h e c o n d u c te d h im s e lf p ro p e rly , w a s su b d u e d , a n d m e n d e d h is w a y s ; an d , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d m o n k s, he sp o k e th u s : I, y o u r re ve ren ce s, 1 kalyayamitta ; cf. D kp . 375. Or the word may be in the technical sense of a spiritual adviser, as at 5 . v. 3. * As at Vin. i. 119 , 337, iv. 158, etc.

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fo r w h o m a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e w a s ca rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, a m c o n d u c tin g m y s e lf p ro p e rly , I a m su b d u e d an d a m m e n d in g m y w a y s . W h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w ed b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r re v o k e th e (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a . || i [| " M o n k s, if a m o n k is possessed o f liv e q u a litie s [8] . . . ( = I. 6 .2- 7 . In stead o f (form al) a c t o f ce n su re read (form al) a c t o f g u id a n ce) . . . m a y be re v o k e d . || 2 || T o ld a re th e E ig h te e n C ases (w here a F o r m a l A c t o f G u id ance) m a y b e re v o k e d . || 1 1 |[ A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e r e v o k e d : M o n k s, th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r, h a v in g a rra n g e d his u p p er ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g s a lu te d th e fe e t o f th e sen io r m o n k s, h a v in g s a t d o w n on h is h a u n ch es, h a v in g stre tc h e d fo rth h is jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to it : ' I , h o n o u red sirs, fo r w h o m a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e w a s ca rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, a m c o n d u c tin g m y s e lf p ro p e rly ,. I a m s u b d u e d , I a m m e n d in g m y w a y s I a sk fo r th e re v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e \ A n d a seco n d tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk ed fo r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld be a sk e d fo r. |j i || T h e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , co m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n to m e. T h is m o n k S e y y a s a k a , fo r w h o m a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n ce w a s ca rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, is c o n d u c tin g h im self p ro p e rly , he is su b d u e d , he is m e n d in g his w a y s ; h e a sk s for th e re v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e . I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y re v o k e th e (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n to m e. T h is m o n k S e y y a s a k a , fo r w h o m a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e w a s ca rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, is c o n d u c tin g h im s e lf p ro p e rly , he is su b d u e d , he is m e n d in g his w a y s ; he a sk s fo r th e re v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f g u id an ce. I f th e r e v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le o n es, t h e y sh o u ld be sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . And a seco n d tim e I sp e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ird tim e I sp e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . T h e (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e

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fo r th e m o n k S e y y a s a k a is r e v o k e d b y th e O rd er. I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is s ile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is / || 2 || 1 2 || T o ld is th e S e co n d (F o rm a l) A c t : t h a t o f G u id a n c e . N o w a t th a t tim e 1 u n scru p u lo u s, d e p r a v e d m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u w e re in re sid e n ce a t K it a g ir i. T h e y in d u lg e d in th e fo llo w in g k in d s o f b a d h a b its : t h e y p la n te d a n d ca u se d to b e p la n te d sm a ll flo w e rin g t r e e s ; t h e y w a te re d th e m a n d h a d th e m w a te r e d ; t h e y p lu c k e d th e m a n d h a d th e m p lu c k e d ; t h e y tie d th e m u p in to (garlan d s) a n d h a d th e m tie d u p ; t h e y m a d e g a r la n d s a n d h a d th e m m a d e w ith a s ta lk on one sid e ; t h e y m a d e g a r la n d s a n d h a d th e m m a d e w ith a s ta lk on b o th sid es ; t h e y m a d e a n d h a d a b ra n c h in g flo w e r-s ta lk m a d e ; t h e y m a d e a w r e a th a n d h a d o n e m a d e ; t h e y m a d e a g a rla n d w o rn ro u n d th e fo re h e a d a n d h a d one m a d e ; t h e y m a d e a n d h a d a n e a r -o m a m e n t m a d e ; [9] t h e y m a d e a n d h a d a b r e a s t-p la te m a d e . T h e se (m onks) to o k o r sen t g a rla n d s h a v in g a s t a lk on o n e sid e to w iv e s o f r e p u ta b le fa m ilie s , to d a u g h te rs o f r e p u ta b le fa m ilie s , to g irls o f re p u ta b le fa m ilie s, to d a u g h te rs-in -la w o f r e p u ta b le fa m ilie s, to fe m a le sla v e s o f re p u ta b le fa m ilie s. T h e y to o k o r se n t g a rla n d s h a v in g a s ta lk on b o th sid es ; t h e y to o k o r sen t a b ra n c h in g flo w ers ta lk ; t h e y to o k o r sen t a w r e a th . . . a g a rla n d w o rn ro u n d th e fo reh e a d . . . a n e a r-o rn a m e n t . . a b r e a s tp la te . T h e se a te fro m one d ish to g e th e r w ith w iv e s o f r e p u ta b le fa m ilie s, w ith d a u g h te rs o f re p u ta b le fa m ilie s , w ith g irls o f re p u ta b le fa m ilie s, w ith d a u g h te rs -in -la w o f r e p u ta b le fa m ilie s, w ith w o m en s la v e s o f re p u ta b le fa m ilie s ; a n d t h e y d r a n k fro m th e sa m e b e a k e r ; t h e y s a t d o w n o n th e sa m e se a t ; t h e y sh a re d one c o u c h ; t h e y sh a re d o n e m a t ; t h e y sh a re d o n e c o v e rle t ; t h e y sh a re d o n e m a t a n d c o v e r le t. A n d t h e y a te a t th e w ro n g t i m e ; a n d t h e y d r a n k in to x ic a n ts ; a n d t h e y w o re g a rla n d s a n d u se d p e rfu m e s a n d c o sm e tics ; t h e y d a n c e d a n d sa n g a n d p la y e d m u sic a l in stru m e n ts , a n d t h e y sp o rte d . T h e y d a n c e d w h e n sh e d a n c e d ; t h e y sa n g w h e n sh e d a n c e d ; t h e y p la y e d m u sic a l in s tru m e n ts w h e n sh e d a n c e d ; t h e y s p o rte d w h e n sh e
1 T h e w h o le o f 13 o c c u r s a t S a n g h . X I I I . 1 . 1 - 7 . w h e re n o te s a re g iv e n . S e e B . D . i. 3 1 4 - 3 2 2 *

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d a n c e d ; t h e y d a n c e d w h e n sh e sa n g . . . t h e y d a n c e d w h en sh e p la y e d m u sic a l in stru m e n ts . . . t h e y d a n c e d w h e n she sp o rte d . . . t h e y sp o rte d w h en sh e sp o rte d , || 1 j| T h e y p la y e d on a c h e q u e re d b o a rd fo r g a m b li n g ; th e y p la y e d on a d ra u g h t-b o a rd : th e y p la y e d w ith im a g in in g su ch b o a rd s in th e a ir ; t h e y p la y e d a g a m e o f k e e p in g s te p p in g on to d ia g ra m s ; t h e y p la y e d w ith s p illik a n s . . . a t d ic e . . . t i p c a t . . . b ru sh -h a n d . . . w ith a b a ll . . . a t b lo w in g th ro u g h t o y p ip e s m a d e o f le a v e s . . . w ith a t o y p lo u g h . . . a t tu r n in g so m e rsa u lts . . . w ith a t o y w in d m ill . . . w ith a t o y m ea su re o f le a v e s . . . w ith a t o y c a r t . . . w ith a t o y b o w . . . th e y p la y e d a g a m e o f g u e ssin g a t le tte r s . . . a m in d re a d in g g a m e . . . a g a m e o f m im ic k in g d e fo rm itie s . . . t h e y tra in e d th e m s e lv e s in e le p h a n t lo re . . . h orse lo re . . . c a r ria g e lo re . . . a r c h e r y . . . sw o rd sm a n sh ip , . . th e n t h e y ra n in fro n t o f a n e le p h a n t . . . a h o rse . . . a c h a rio t ; n o w th e y ra n b a c k w a rd s, n o w t h e y ra n fo rw a rd s ; a n d t h e y w h is tle d a n d t h e y sn a p p e d th e ir fin g ers a n d t h e y w re stle d a n d t h e y fo u g h t w ith fists ; a n d , h a v in g sp re a d o u t th e ir u p p e r ro b es a s a sta g e , t h e y sa id t o a d a n c in g - g ir l: D a n c e here, siste r " , a n d t h e y a p p la u d e d , a n d t h e y in d u lg e d in v a rio u s b a d h a b its . |! 2 || N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , h a v in g sp e n t th e ra in s a m o n g th e p eo p le o f KasT, w h ile g o in g to S a v a t t h i so a s to see th e L o rd , a r r iv e d a t K it a g ir i. T h e n th is m o n k , d ressin g e a r ly a n d ta k in g h is b o w l a n d ro b e e n te re d K it a g ir i fo r alm sfo o d . H e w a s p le a sin g w h e th e r h e w a s a p p ro a c h in g or d e p a rtin g , w h e th e r he w a s lo o k in g fo rw a rd o r lo o k in g b e h in d , w h e th e r h e w a s d ra w in g in o r s tr e tc h in g o u t (his a rm ), h is eye s w ere c a s t d o w n , h e w a s possessed o f p le a s a n t d e p o rtm e n t. P e o p le , h a v in g seen th is m o n k , sp o k e th u s : [10] W h o c a n th is b e lik e a n id io t o f id io ts, lik e a fo o l o f fo o ls, lik e a v e r y su p e rc ilio u s perso n ? W h o w ill g o u p to h im an d g iv e h im a lm s ? O u r m a ste rs, th e fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji an d P u n a b b a s u a re p o lite , g e n ia l, p le a sa n t o f sp ee ch , b e a m in g w ith sm iles, s a y in g : C o m e, y o u are w e lco m e \ T h e y a re n o t su p ercilio u s, t h e y are e a s ily a cce ssib le, t h e y are th e first to sp e a k . T h e re fo re a lm s sh o u ld be g iv e n to th e m ." A c e rta in la y fo llo w e r s a w t h a t m o n k w a lk in g fo r a lm sfo o d in K i t a g i r i ; seein g th a t m o n k , h e w e n t u p to h im , a n d h a v in g

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gon e u p to h im a n d g re e te d h im , h e sa id : H o n o u re d sir, are a lm s o b ta in a b le ? " N o , sir, a lm s are n o t o b ta in a b le ." C o m e, h o n o u re d sir, w e w ill g o t o (m y) h o u s e ." || 3 || T h e n th a t la y fo llo w er, h a v in g ta k e n t h a t m o n k to his ho u se a n d m a d e h im e a t, s a id : " W h e re , h o n o u red sir, w ill th e m a s te r g o ? " I w ill g o to S a v a tth I, sir, to see th e L o r d ." T h e n , h o n o u re d sir, in m y n a m e s a lu te th e L o r d s fe e t w ith y o u r h e a d a n d s a y : L o rd , th e re sid e n ce a t K it a g ir i h a s b een c o rru p te d . A t K it a g ir i a re re sid in g u n scru p u lo u s, d e p ra v e d m o n k s w h o are fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u . T h e y in d u lg e in th e fo llo w in g b a d h a b its . . . t h e y in d u lg e in a v a r ie t y o f b a d h a b its . L o rd , th o se m en w h o fo r m e r ly h a d fa ith a n d w ere b e lie v in g n o w h a v e no fa ith a n d are n o t b e lie v in g . T h o se w h o fo rm e rly w ere c h a n n e ls fo r g ift s to th e O rd e r a re n o w c u t o ff ; t h e y n e g le ct th e w e ll b e h a v e d m o n k s, a n d th e d e p ra v e d m o n k s s t a y on. I t w e re g o o d , L o r d , if th e L o r d w o u ld sen d m o n k s to K it a g ir i, so th a t th is re sid e n ce a t K it a g ir i m a y b e s e ttle d / " V e r y w ell, s i r ," a n d t h a t m o n k h a v in g a n sw e re d th e la y fo llo w er in assen t, risin g fro m h is se a t d e p a rte d fo r S a v a tth I . G r a d u a lly he a p p ro a c h e d S a v a tth i, th e J e t a G ro v e , A n a th a pin^iika's m o n a s te ry a n d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d a n d g re e te d th e L o rd , he sa t d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e . N o w it is th e c u sto m fo r A w a k e n e d O n es, fo r L o rd s to e x c h a n g e g re e tin g s w ith in -co m in g m o n k s. S o th e L o rd sa id to th is m onk : " I h o p e, m o n k , th a t it is g o in g w e ll w ith y o u , I h o p e th a t y o u are k e e p in g g o in g , I h o p e y o u h a v e a c co m p lis h e d y o u r jo u r n e y w ith little fa tig u e ? A n d w h e re do y o u co m e fro m , m onk ? " T h in g s go w e ll, L o rd , I a m k e e p in g g o in g , L o rd , a n d I , L o rd , a cco m p lish e d m y jo u r n e y w ith lit t le fa tig u e . N o w , I , L o rd , h a v in g sp en t th e ra in s a m o n g th e p e o p le o f K a sI, a n d w h ile co m in g to S a v a t t h i to see th e L o r d , a r r iv e d a t K it a g ir i. T h e n I, L o rd , d ressin g e a rly , a n d ta k in g m y b o w l a n d robe, en te red K it a g ir i fo r a lm sfo o d . T h e n , L o r d , a c e rta in la y fo llo w er sa w m e a s I w a s w a lk in g in K it a g ir i fo r a lm sfo o d , [ 1 1 ] a n d seein g m e, he a p p ro a c h e d , a n d h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e

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g re e te d m e a n d s a id : ' H o n o u re d sir, a re a lm s o b ta in a b le ? ' ' N o , sir, a lm s are n o t o b ta in a b le ', I said . C o m e, h o n o u red sir, w e w ill go to (m y) h o u se ", h e said . T h e n , L o rd , th a t la y fo llo w er, ta k in g m e to h is h o u se a n d fe e d in g m e, sa id : W h e re , h o n o u re d sir, w ill th e m a s te r g o ? ' I s a id : I w ill go to S a v a tth i, sir, to see th e L o r d / T h e n he s a id : ' T h e n , h o n o u re d sir . . . m a y b e s e ttle d \ T h e re fo re , L o r d , d o I c o m e ." || 5 || T h e n th e L o r d on th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , a s k e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M o n k s, is it tru e , a s is sa id , t h a t m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w ers o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u , re sid in g in K it a g ir i, are u n scru p u lo u s a n d d e p r a v e d a n d in d u lg e in th e fo llo w in g b a d h a b its : th e y p la n t sm a ll flo w e rin g tre es . . . in d u lg e in a v a r ie t y o f b a d h a b its . . . a n d th o se m en . . . a n d th e d e p r a v e d m o n k s s t a y on ? " I t is tru e , L o r d ." T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd , re b u k e d th e m , s a y in g : " H o w , m o n k s, ca n th e se fo o lish m en in d u lg e in b a d h a b its su ch as th ese ? H o w c a n t h e y p la n t a n d c a u se sm a ll flo w erin g tre es to be p la n te d , a n d w a te r th e m a n d h a v e th e m w a te re d , a n d p lu c k th e m a n d h a v e th e m p lu c k e d , a n d h o w c a n th e y tie th e m u p in to (garlan d s) a n d h a v e th e m tie d u p ? H o w can th e y m a k e a n d h a v e g a rla n d s m a d e . . . ? H o w c a n th e y ta k e a n d sen d . . . ? H o w c a n t h e y e a t . . . d rin k . . . sit . . . sta n d . . . e a t . . , d rin k . . . ru n . . . d a n c e a n d sin g a n d p la y m u sic a l in stru m e n ts a n d s p o rt . . . p la y , . . tr a in th e m se lv e s . . . ru n . . . ru n ro u n d fa c in g . . . ? H o w c a n th e y w h is tle a n d sn a p th e ir fin g ers a n d w re s tle a n d fig h t w ith fists, a n d h a v in g sp re a d o u t th e ir u p p e r ro b es as a sta g e , s a y to a d a n c in g - g ir l: D a n c e h e re , siste r \ a n d a p p la u d a n d in d u lg e in a v a r ie t y o f b a d h a b its ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o are n o t (yet) p le a se d . . a n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m a n d g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , he a d d ressed S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a , s a y in g : D o y o u g o , S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a , a n d h a v in g g o n e to K it a g ir i, c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t 1 fro m K it a g ir i a g a in s t th o se m o n k s w h o are fo llo w ers o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u ; th ese a re th o se w h o sh a re y o u r c e lls ." 1
pabbajaniyahatnma. C f.

MV. I.

25 .

22 ; IX.

7.

7.

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" H o w , L o rd , d o w e c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t fro m K it a g ir i a g a in s t th o se m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u ? T h e s e m o n k s a re fierce a n d r o u g h .'J W e ll th e n , S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a , go to g e th e r w ith m a n y m o n k s ." V e r y w ell, L o r d , S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a a n sw e re d th e L o rd in a ssen t. || 6 || " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e c a rrie d o u t. F ir s t, th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u [ 12] sh o u ld be re p ro v e d ; h a v in g re p ro v e d th e m , t h e y sh o u ld b e m a d e to r e m e m b e r ; h a v in g m a d e th e m re m em b er, t h e y sh o u ld be a c cu se d o f a n o ffen ce ; h a v in g a c c u s e d th e m o f th e o ffen ce, th e O rd e r sh o u ld be in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h e se m o n k s w h o are fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u are th o se w h o b rin g fa m ilie s in to d is re p u te a n d are o f e v il c o n d u c t ; th e ir e v il c o n d u c t is seen a n d a lso h e a rd a n d re sp e c ta b le fa m ilie s c o rru p te d b y th e m are seen a n d also h e a rd . I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r sh o u ld c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t fro m K it a g ir i a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o are fo llo w ers o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u b y w h ic h th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u sh o u ld n o t re m a in in K it a g ir i. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h e se m o n k s w h o a re . . . seen a n d a lso h e a rd . T h e O rd e r is c a r ry in g o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t fro m K it a g ir i a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o are fo llo w ers o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u b y w h ic h th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u sh o u ld n o t re m a in in K it a g ir i. I f th e c a r r y in g o u t o f th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t fro m K it a g i r i a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o are fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u b y w h ic h t h e y sh o u ld n o t re m a in in K it a g ir i is p le a sin g to th e v e n e r a b le o n es, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a s in g sh o u ld s p e a k . A n d a se co n d tim e 1 s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . T h e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t fro m K it a g ir i a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u b y w h ic h t h e y sh o u ld n o t re m a in in K it a g ir i is c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er. I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rs ta n d th is .1 i| 7 || 1 3 1 | " M on ks, if it is po ssessed o f th re e q u a litie s a (form al) a c t

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o f b a n ish m e n t co m es t o b e n o t le g a lly v a lid , n o t d is c ip lin a rily v a lid a n d one th a t is h a rd to s e ttle . . .1 a g a in s t th e o n e w h o sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e O rd er. M o n k s, i f a n O rd e r d esires, it m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in s t th e s e th re e (kinds of) m o n k s. " A n d , m o n k s, if a m o n k is po ssessed o f th re e fu rth e r q u a li ties a n O rd er, i f it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t of b a n ish m en t a g a in s t h im : if h e is p o ssessed o f b o d ily fr iv o lit y ,2 if h e is po ssessed o f v e r b a l fr iv o lit y , if h e is po ssessed o f b o d ily a n d v e r b a l fr iv o lit y . M o n k s, if a m o n k is possessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s an O rd er, if it so d e sire s, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in s t h im . A n d , m o n k s, i f a m o n k is po ssessed o f th re e fu r th e r q u a litie s . . . a g a in s t h im : if h e is p o ssessed o f b o d ily b a d h a b its ,3 if h e is possessed o f v e r b a l b a d h a b its , if h e is p o ssessed o f b o d ily a n d v e r b a l b a d h a b its. M o n k s, i f a m o n k . . . a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in s t h im . A n d , m o n k s, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th re e fu rth e r q u a litie s . . . a g a in s t h im : if he is p o ssessed o f h a r m in g 4 b y m e a n s o f b o d y , if h e is p o ssessed o f h a rm in g b y m ea n s of sp eech , if h e is po ssessed o f h a rm in g b y m e a n s o f ,b o d y an d sp eech . M on ks, if a m o n k . . . a g a in s t h im . A n d , m o n k s, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th r e e fu r th e r q u a litie s , an O rd er, i f it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in s t h im : i f he is p o ssessed o f a w ro n g b o d ily m o d e o f liv e lih o o d , if h e is p o ssessed o f a w ro n g v e r b a l m o d e o f liv e lih o o d , i f h e is possessed o f a w ro n g b o d ily a n d v e r b a l m o d e o f liv e lih o o d . M on ks, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e se th fe e q u a litie s an O rd er, i f it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in s t h im . || 1 || [13 ] M o n k s, if a n O rd e r so d esires, it m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in s t th re e (k in d s of) m o n k s : a g a in s t th e one w h o is a m a k e r o f s tr ife . . . {as in 1 . 4 . 2) . - . a g a in s t
1 A s in C V . I . 2- 4 , r e a d in g a c t o f b a n is h m e n t " f o r ** a c t o f c e n s u r e C h . 14 a b o v e d o e s n o t o c c u r in S a n g h . X I I I . a k d y ik e n a d a v e n a ; V A . I T 5 7 s a y s t h i s m e a n s p h y s i c a l e n j o y m e n t . P e r h a p s h e t a k e s f o o d f o r f u n o r a m u s e m e n t o r in s p o r t , cf. A . i. 1 1 4 , ii, 4 0 , 8 V A . 1 1 5 7 s a y s t h i s m e a n s a t r a n s g r e s s io n o f t h e r u le s o f t r a in in g la id d o w n c o n c e r n in g t h e d o o r s o f t h e b o d y . 4 V A . 1 1 5 7 s a y s t h i s is c a lle d i n j u r y t h r o u g h n o t b e in g t r a in e d in t h e r u le s o f t r a in in g la id d o w n c o n c e r n in g t h e d o o r s o f t h e b o d y . I t m e a n s e x p u ls io n , tia sa n a , a n d r u in , v in d s a n a .

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th e one w h o sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e O rd er. M o n k s, i f a n O rd e r so d esires, it m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in st th ese th re e (kin d s of) m o n k s. A n d , m o n k s, i f a n O rd e r so d esires it m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in s t th re e fu r th e r (k in d s of) m o n k s : a g a in s t th e o n e w h o is p o ssessed o f b o d ily fr iv o lity , a g a in s t th e o n e w h o is p o ssessed o f v e r b a l fr iv o lity , a g a in s t th e o n e w h o is p o ssessed of b o d ily a n d v e r b a l fr iv o lit y . . . a g a in s t th e o n e w h o is p o ssessed o f w ro n g b o d ily a n d v e r b a l m o d e o f liv e lih o o d - M o n k s, if a n O rd e r so d esires, it m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t a g a in s t th ese th re e (kin d s of) m o n k s. [| 2 || 14 || " M o n k s, a m o n k a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t h a s been c a rrie d o u t sh o u ld c o n d u c t h im s e lf p r o p e r ly . T h is is th e p ro p e r c o n d u c t in th is c a se . . . (as in C V . I. 5) . . . he sh o u ld n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s ." j| 1 j| T o ld a re th e E ig h te e n O b s e rv a n c e s c o n n e c te d w ith a (F o r m al) A c t o f B a n is h m e n t. || 15 |j T h e n S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a a t th e h e a d o f a n O rd e r o f m o n k s, h a v in g a r r iv e d a t K it a g ir i,1 c a rrie d o u t a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t fro m K it a g ir i a g a in s t th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo l lo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u , b y w h ic h th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u sh o u ld n o t s t a y in K it a g ir i. W h e n th e (form al) a c t o f b a n is h m e n t h a d b een c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd e r, th e s e d id n o t c o n d u c t th e m s e lv e s p ro p e rly , t h e y w e re n o t s u b d u e d , t h e y d id n o t m e n d th e ir w a y s , t h e y d id n o t a s k th e m o n k s fo r fo rg iv e n e s s, t h e y a b u se d th e m , t h e y r e v ile d th e m , t h e y o ffe n d e d b y fo llo w in g a w ro n g course th ro u g h d esire, b y fo llo w in g a w ro n g c o u rse th r o u g h h a tre d , b y fo llo w in g a w ro n g co u rse th ro u g h s tu p id ity , b y fo llo w in g a w ro n g co u rse th r o u g h fe a r ; a n d t h e y w e n t a w a y a n d th e y le ft th e O rd er. T h o se w h o w e re m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n on, c ritic ise d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th e m o n k s w h o are fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u , a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t h a s b e e n c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd e r, n o t c o n d u c t th e m s e lv e s p r o p e r ly , n o t b e su b d u e d ,
...* F r o m h e r e t o t h e w o r d s , ** I t is t r u e , L o r d ** = S a n g h . X I I I . 1. 8 ( V i n . iii- i 83 4 t r a n s l a t e d w i t h n o t e s a t B . D . i. 3 2 2 - 4 ) .

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n o t m e n d th e ir w a y s ? W h y d o t h e y n o t a s k fo r fo rg iv en e ss fro m th e m o n k s ? W h y d o t h e y a b u se a n d re v ile th e m ? W h y do th e y , fo llo w in g a w ro n g co u rse th ro u g h d esire . . . h a tr e d . . . s tu p id ity . . . fe a r, go a w a y a n d le a v e th e O rd e r ? T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h e n th e L o rd on th is o cca sio n , in th is co n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " Is it tru e , a s is said , m o n k s, th a t m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w ers o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u , a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m en t h a s b een c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, d o n o t c o n d u c t th e m selv e s p ro p e rly , a re n o t su b d u e d , . . . a n d le a v e th e O rd er ? " I t is tru e , L o r d . " H o w , m o n k s, c a n th e se fo o lish m e n , a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t h a s been c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, n o t c o n d u c t th e m s e lv e s p ro p e rly . . . a n d le a v e th e O rd e r ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p lea sed . . . A n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , he a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, d o n o t le t th e O rd e r r e v o k e th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t. || i [| " M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e q u a litie s [14] th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m en t a g a in s t h im sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d : if h e o rd a in s . . . (<zs in I . 6 . 2- 7 ) . . . i f h e d o es n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s. M o n k s, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e se e ig h t q u a litie s th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t m a y b e re v o k e d . j| 2 || T o ld a re th e E ig h te e n C a ses w h e re a (F o rm a l) A c t o f B a n is h m en t m a y b e re v o k e d . || 1 6 [| " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it be r e v o k e d : M o n k s, t h a t m o n k a g a in st w h o m th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t h a s been ca rrie d o u t, h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er, h a v in g a rra n g e d his u p p e r ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g sa lu te d th e fe e t o f th e se n io r m o n ks, h a v in g s a t d o w n on h is h a u n c h e s, h a v in g s tre tc h e d fo rth h is jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : 'A (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t, h o n o u re d sirs, w a s c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t m e b y th e O rd er, b u t I a m c o n d u c tin g m y s e lf p ro p e rly , I a m su b d u ed , I a m m e n d in g m y w a y s . I a s k fo r th e re v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t . A n d a se co n d tim e it sh o u ld be a sk e d fo r, a n d a th ird tim e it sh o u ld be a sk e d fo r.

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T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : || I [| " H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -S o , a g a in s t w h o m a (fo rm al) a c t o f b a n is h m e n t w a s c a rrie d o u t b y an O rd er, is c o n d u c tin g h im s e lf p r o p e r ly , he is su b d u e d , h e is m e n d in g his w a y s , a n d he a s k s fo r th e r e v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f b a n is h m e n t. I f i t seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y r e v o k e th e (form al) a c t c f b a n is h m e n t a g a in s t th e m o n k so -an d -so . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k so-and -so . . . a n d he a sk s fo r th e r e v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t. T h e O rd e r is r e v o k in g th e (form al) a c t o f b a n is h m en t fo r th e m o n k so -a n d -so . I f th e re v o c a tio n o f th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t fo r th e m o n k so -an d -so is p le a s in g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e s ile n t ; h e to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld s p e a k . A n d a se c o n d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd e r, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is .' " || 2 j| 17 |j T o ld is th e T h ir d (F o rm a l) A c t : t h a t o f B a n is h m e n t. N o w a t t h a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a 1 w a s a re sid e n t in th e h o u se h o ld e r C i t t a 's 2 M a c c h ik a s a n ^ a ,3 a n o v e rse e r o f n ew b u ild in g s, a c o n s ta n t a d v is e r .4 W h e n e v e r th e h o u se h o ld e r C itta w ish e d to in v ite a n O rd e r o r a g ro u p o r a n in d iv id u a l6 h e d id n o t in v ite th e O rd e r o r th e g r o u p o r th e in d iv id u a l w ith o u t h a v in g a s k e d th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a fo r p erm issio n . N o w a t th a t tim e s e v e ra l m o n k s w h o w e re e ld e rs th e v e n e r a b le S a r ip u tta a n d th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G r e a t a n d th e v e n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G r e a t a n d th e v e n e ra b le [ 15] K o t t h i t a th e G re a t a n d th e v e n e ra b le K a p p in a th e G r e a t a n d th e v e n e r a b le C u n d a th e G re a t, a n d th e v e n e ra b le A n u r u d d h a a n d th e
1. C f , D k A ii. 7 4 f f . # A A . i. 3 8 6 f f . D h p . 7 3 is s a id t o h a v e b e e n s p o k e n o n S u d h a m m a 's a c c o u n t . * A t A . i. 2 6 c a lle d c h i e f o f l a y f o llo w e r s w h o a r e s p e a k e r s o n d h a m m a . H e is f u l l y d e s c r ib e d in t h e C itta -s a m y u tta , S . i v . 2 8 1 ff. A t A . i. 88 = S . ii. 2 3 5 h e is n a m e d a s a s t a n d a r d b y w h ic h t o m e a s u r e d i s c ip le s w h o a r e l a y f o llo w e r s . * A w o o d la n d g r o v e , v a n a s a n g a , a c c o r d in g t o S A . iii. 9 1 ; a t o w n a c c o r d in g t o D h A . ii. 7 4 a n d A A . i. 3 8 6 , t h e l a t t e r a d d i n g * in t h e r e a lm o f M a g a d h a .* * d h u v a b h a ttik a u s u a l l y m e a n s a r e g u la r o r c o n s t a n t d i n e r ." B u t b h a ttik a is g i v e n t h is o t h e r m e a n in g a t T h i g A . 2 6 7 (cf. P E T ) ) , a n d s e e m s ju s t if ie d a b o v e . p w ggala, h e r e m e a n in g " m o n k

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ve n e ra b le R e v a t a a n d th e v e n e r a b le U p a li a n d th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a a n d th e v e n e ra b le R a h u la 1 w a lk in g o n to u r in K a sI a rriv e d in M a c c h ik a sa n d a . T h e h o u seh o ld er C itta h e a rd t h a t th e se m o n k s w h o w e re eld ers h a d re a c h e d M a cch ik a sa n cja . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er C it t a a p p ro a c h e d th e se m o n k s w h o w ere eld ers ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e se m o n k s w h o w ere eld ers, h e sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s th e h o u se h o ld er C it t a w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e ve n e ra b le S a r ip u tta d e lig h te d , re jo ic e d , ro u se d , g la d d e n e d h im w ith t a lk on dham m a . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er C itta , d e lig h te d . . . g la d d e n e d w ith th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta 's t a lk on dham m a 9 sp o k e th u s to th e m o n k s w h o w ere e ld ers : H o n o u red sirs, le t th e e ld ers co n se n t to co m e t o a m e a l w ith m e on th e m o r ro w . T h e m o n k s w h o w e re eld ers c o n se n te d b y b e c o m in g sile n t. || 1 || T h e n th e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d th e c o n se n t o f th e m o n k s w h o w e re eld ers, risin g fro m h is s e a t, h a v in g g ree te d th e m o n k s w h o w e re e ld ers, k e e p in g h is rig h t sid e to w a rd s th e m , a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e v e n e r a b le S u d h a m m a , h e sto o d a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s h e w a s sta n d in g a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le Sudham m a : H o n o u re d sir, m a y m a s te r S u d h a m m a co n se n t to a m e a l w ith m e on th e m o rro w to g e th e r w ith th e e ld e rs . T h e n th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a th o u g h t : " F o r m e r ly , w h en th e h o u seh o ld er C it t a w ish e d to in v ite a n O rd e r o r a g ro u p or an in d iv id u a l, h e d id h o t in v ite th e O rd^r o r th e g ro u p o r th e in d iv id u a l w ith o u t h a v in g a sk e d m e fo r p erm issio n ; b u t n o w he in v ite s m o n k s w h o a re eld ers w ith o u t h a v in g a sk e d m e for perm ission . T h is h o u seh o ld er C it t a is n o w c o rru p te d , he is in d iffere n t to m e, d e ta c h e d fro m m e , a n d h e sp o k e th u s t o th e h o u seh o ld er C itta : " N o , h o u seh o ld er, I d o n o t c o n s e n t. A n d a seco n d tim e . . . A n d a th ird tim e d id th e h o u seh o ld er C itta s p e a k th u s to th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a : H o n o u red sir, m a y m a ste r S u d h a m m a co n se n t to a m e a l w ith m e on th e m o rro w to g e th e r w ith th e e ld e rs . N o , h o u seh o ld er, I d o n o t c o n s e n t.
1 T h i s s a m e l is t o f g r e a t t h e r a s a ls o o c c u r s a t V i n . i v . 6 6 . f u r t h e r r e fe r e n c e s , s e e B . D . ii. 2 9 5 . F o r n o te s a n d

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T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er C it t a th in k in g : W h a t c a n m a ste r S u d h a m m a , e ith e r c o n se n tin g o r n o t c o n se n tin g , d o to m e ? '' h a v in g g re e te d th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a , d e p a rte d k e e p in g his rig h t sid e to w a rd s h im . || 2 || T h e n , to w a rd s th e e n d o f t h a t n ig h t, th e h o u se h o ld e r C itta h a d su m p tu o u s fo o d s, so lid a n d s o ft, p re p a re d fo r th e m o n k s w h o w ere eld ers. T h e n th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a , th in k in g : " S u p p o se I w ere to see w h a t h a s b een p re p a re d o n b e h a lf o f th e h o u seh o ld er C it t a fo r th e e ld ers ? [ 16] h a v in g d ressed in th e m o rn in g , ta k in g h is b o w l a n d ro b e, a p p ro a c h e d th e d w e ll in g o f th e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e s a t d o w n on a n a p p o in te d s e a t. T h e n th e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a , he s a t d o w n a t a r e s p e c tfu l d ista n c e . T h e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a sp o k e th u s to th e h o u se h o ld e r C itta a s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a r e s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e : T r u ly a b u n d a n t, h o u seh o ld er, is th is so lid a n d s o ft fo o d p re p a re d b y y o u , b u t o n e th in g is n o t h e re , t h a t is to s a y sesam u m c a k e / ' A lth o u g h , h o n o u re d sir, m u c h tre a s u re is to b e fo u n d in th e A w a k e n e d O n e 's w o rd s, ju s t th is is m e n tio n e d b y m a s te r S u d h a m m a , t h a t is to s a y se sa m u m c a k e . F o r m e r ly , h o n o u re d sir, som e m e rc h a n ts o f th e D e c c a n 1 w e n t to a n easte rn d is tr ic t2 y fo r tr a d in g a n d fro m th e re t h e y b ro u g h t b a c k a h e n . T h e n , h o n o u red sir, t h a t h en m a te d w ith a c ro w a n d p ro d u c e d a c h ic k . A n d w h e n e v e r, h o n o u re d sir, t h a t c h ic k w a n te d to u t t e r th e c r y o f a c r o w it u tte r e d a ** c o c k a d o o d le -d o o , w h e n e v e r it w a n te d to u tte r th e c r y o f a c o c k it u tte r e d a " c a w . I n th e sam e w a y , h o n o u re d sir, a lth o u g h m u c h tre a s u re is to be fo u n d in th e A w a k e n e d O n e 's w o rd s, ju s t th is is m e n tio n e d b y m a ste r S u d h a m m a , th a t is to s a y se sa m u m c a k e . 3 || 3 [| Y o u , h o u seh o ld er, a re r e v ilin g 4 m e, y o u , h o u se h o ld e r, are a b u sin g 4 m e ; th is is y o u r re sid e n ce , h o u se h o ld e r, I w ill g o a w a y . H o n o u red sir, I am n o t r e v ilin g a n d a b u s in g m a ste r S u d h a m m a ; h o n o u red sir, le t m a s te r S u d h a m m a re m a in in
1 D a k k h tp d p a tk a k a . O n t h e S o u t h e r n r e g io n , D a k k h i n a p a t h a , see B . C . L a w , I n d i a as d escrib ed i n E a r ly T e x ts o f B u d d h is m a n d J a i n i s m , p . 7 7 ff. p u r a tth im a ja n a p a d a . 9 V A . 1 1 5 8 s a y s h e s p e a k s n e it h e r a s a m o n k n o r a s a h o u s e h o ld e r . * a h k o s a ii a n d p a r ib h a s a ti a r e d e fin e d a t V i n . i v . 3 0 9 ( B . D . iii- 344^

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M a c c h ik a sa n d a , d e lig h tfu l is th e W ild M a n g o G r o v e 1 ; I w ill m a k e an effo rt fo r m a ste r S u d h a m m a in re sp e c t o f th e re q u isite s o f ro b es, a lm sfo o d , lo d g in g s a n d m e d icin e s fo r th e s ic k . A n d a seco n d tim e . . . A n d a th ir d tim e d id th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a s p e a k th u s to th e h o u seh o ld er C i t t a : YoU j h o u seh o ld er, are re v ilin g m e . . . I w ill g o a w a y . W h e re , h o n o u re d sir, w ill m a ste r S u d h a m m a go ? I , h o u seh o ld er, w ill g o to S a v a t t h i to see th e L o r d . W e ll th e n , h o n o u re d sir, te ll th e L o rd e v e r y th in g th a t w a s sa id b y y o u a n d th a t w a s sa id b y m e. B u t th is , h o n o u re d sir, w ill n o t be su rp risin g : th a t m a ste r S u d h a m m a sh o u ld co m e b a c k a g a in to M a c c h ik a s a n d a . || 4 || T h e n th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a , h a v in g p a c k e d a w a y h is lo d g in g s, ta k in g h is b o w l a n d ro b e, set o u t fo r S a v a t t h i. In d u e co u rse he a p p ro a c h e d S a v a t t h i, th e J e ta G r o v e , A n a th a p in d ik a 's m o n a ste ry , th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , h e s a t d o w n a t a r e s p e c tfu l d ista n c e . A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e v e n e ra b le S u d h a m m a [17 ] to ld th e L o r d e v e r y th in g th a t h a d b e e n sa id b y h im se lf a n d t h a t h a d b e en s a id b y th e h o u se h o ld e r C itta . T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o r d re b u k e d h im , s a y in g : I t is n o t s u itin g , fo o lish m a n , it is n o t b e c o m in g , it is n o t fittin g , it is n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se, it is n o t a llo w a b le , it is n o t to b e d o n e. H o w c a n y o u , fo o lish m a n , je e r a t 2 th e h o u se h o ld er C itta , w h o h as fa ith a n d is b e lie v in g , w h o is a b e n e fa c to r, a w o rk e r, a su p p o rte r o f th e O rd er, w ith a lo w th in g , a n d sco ff a t 3 h im w ith a lo w th in g ? I t is n o t, fo o lish m a n , fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o are n o t (yet) p le a se d . . a n d h a v in g re b u k e d h im , h a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd er c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n 3 fo r th e m o n k S u d h a m m a , s a y i n g : T h e h o u seh o ld er C i t t a sh o u ld b e a s k e d to fo r g iv e y o u / || 5 || A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e c a rrie d o u t : F ir s t, th e m o n k S u d h a m m a sh o u ld be re p ro v e d , h a v in g re p ro v e d h im , h e sh o u ld
1 A m b d ta k a v a n a . P . E . D . g i v e s " h o g - p l u m , S p o n d ia s M a n g if e r a (a k i n d o f m a n g o ) '* f o r a m b a ta k a , C . P . D . a d d in g ** w ild m a n g o ." C f . S . i v . 2 8 1 ff* 8 k h u m s e tit v a m b k e ti ; o c c u r r in g a ls o a t V i n . i v . 7 ( B . D . ii. 1 7 8 ) . 3 p a tis a r a n iy a k a m m a . C f . M V . X. 25. 2 2 , a n d I X . 7. 8. A t t h i s l a t t e r p a s s a g e t h e m o n k is s a id , n o t t o je e r a n d s c o f f a t t h e h o u s e h o ld e r , b u t t o r e v ile a n d a b u s e h im , w h ile a t C V . I . 18. 5 a b o v e , i t is t h e h o u s e h o ld e r w h o is a c c u s e d , b y t h e m o n k , o f r e v i l i n g a n d a b u s in g h im . C

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b e m a d e to rem em b er, h a v in g m a d e h im re m e m b e r, h e sh o u ld b e a c cu se d o f th e o ffen ce, h a v in g a c c u s e d h im o f th e o ffen ce, th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h is m o n k S u d h a m m a je e re d a t th e h o u s e h o ld e r C it t a w h o h a s fa it h a n d is b e lie v in g , a b e n e fa c to r , a w o rk e r, a s u p p o rte r o f th e O rd e r, w ith a lo w th in g , h e sco ffe d a t h im w ith a lo w th in g . I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n fo r th e m o n k S u d h a m m a , s a y in g : " T h e h o u se h o ld e r C i t t a sh o u ld b e a sk e d to fo r g iv e y o u J\ T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n t o m e. T h is m o n k S u d h a m m a je e re d a t th e h o u s e h o ld e r C i t t a . . . sco ffed a t h im w ith a lo w th in g . T h e O rd e r is c a r r y in g o u t a (form al) a c t o f r e c o n c ilia tio n fo r th e m o n k S u d h a m m a , s a y in g ; " T h e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a sh o u ld b e a s k e d to fo r g iv e y o u I f th e c a r r y in g o u t o f th e (form al) a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n fo r th e m o n k S u d h a m m a , s a y in g : " T h e h o u s e h o ld e r C it t a sh o u ld b e a sk e d to fo r g iv e y o u is p le a s in g to th e v e n e ra b le on es, t h e y sh o u ld be sile n t ; h e to w h o m i t is n o t p le a s in g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a se co n d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a t t e r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . y o u sh o u ld s p e a k . A (form al) a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n fo r th e m o n k S u d h a m m a , s a y in g : T h e h o u s e h o ld e r C itta sh o u ld b e a s k e d to fo r g iv e y o u " is c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd e r. I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd e r, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d t h i s . || 6 || 1 8 || M o n k s, if it is po ssessed o f th re e q u a litie s , a (form al) a c t of re co n c ilia tio n . . . ( = I . 2, 3) . . . a n d is e a s ily s e ttle d . Ii i II1 9 I I M o n k s, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e q u a litie s , th e O rd er, if i t so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n fo r h im 1 : i f h e trie s fo r n o n -re c e iv in g (of gain s) b y h o u se h o ld e rs 2 ; if h e trie s fo r n o n -p ro fitin g b y h o u seh o ld ers ; if he trie s fo r n o n -resid en ce fo r h o u se h o ld e rs ; if h e re v ile s an d a b u se s h o u seh o ld ers ; [18] if h e ca u se s h o u se h o ld e r to b re a k w ith h o u se h o ld e r. M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e se five
1 C f, A . iv . 345. 1 C f . V i n . i. 8 4 ( B . D . i v . 1 0 6 ) , ii. 1 2 5 a n d A . i v . 3 4 5 - 6 : 88 , 8 9 ( h o u s e h o ld e r s ) . C h . 87 ( m o n k s ;,

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q u a litie s . . . a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n fo r h im . A n d , m o n k s, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e fu rth e r q u a litie s , th e O rd e r, if it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n fo r h i m : i f h e sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e to h o u seh o ld ers, if h e sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f dham m a to h o u seh o ld ers, i f h e sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e O rd e r to h o u seh o ld ers, if h e je e rs a t a h o u se h o ld e r w ith a lo w th in g , if h e sco ffs a t h im w ith a lo w th in g , if he d o es n o t fu lfil, a c c o rd in g to ru le , h is a ssen t (given) to h o u seh o ld ers .1 M o n k s, i f a m o n k . . a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n fo r h im . A n d , m o n k s, an O rd er, if it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n fo r fiv e (k in d s of) m o n k s : fo r th e one w h o trie s fo r n o n -re c e iv in g (of g ain s) b y h o u seh o ld ers ; fo r th e o n e w h o trie s fo r n o n -p ro fitin g b y h o u seh o ld ers ; fo r th e o n e w h o tr ie s fo r n o n -resid en ce fo r h o u seh o ld ers ; fo r th e one w h o re v ile s a n d a b u se s h o u seh o ld ers ; fo r th e one w h o cau ses h o u se h o ld e r to b r e a k w ith h o u seh o ld er. M on ks, an O rd er . . . fo r th e se fiv e (kincis of) m o n k s. A n d m o n k s , a n O rd er, i f it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f re co n c ili a tio n fo r fiv e fu r th e r (k in d s of) m o n k s : fo r th e one w h o sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e to h o u seh o ld ers . * . o f dham m a to h o u seh o ld ers . . . o f a n O rd e r to h o u seh o ld ers, fo r th e o n e w h o je e rs a t a h o u seh o ld er w ith a lo w th in g , sco ffs a t h im w ith a lo w th in g , fo r th e o n e w h o d o es n o t fu lfil, a c co rd in g to ru le, h is a sse n t (given ) to h o u seh o ld ers. M o n k s, an O rd er, if it so d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n fo r th e se fiv e (k in d s of) m o n k s. || x || T o ld a re th e F o u r tim e s F iv e C a se s on B e in g D e siro u s.

II 20 ||

" M o n k s, a m o n k fo r w h o m a (form al) a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n h a s b een c a rrie d o u t sh o u ld c o n d u c t h im s e lf p r o p e r ly . . . ( = I. 5, reading a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n f o r a c t o f cen sure) . . . he sh o u ld n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s . || x || T o ld a re th e E ig h te e n O b s e rv a n c e s c o n n e c te d w ith a (F o rm al) A c t o f R e c o n c ilia tio n || 2 1 ||
1 O n t h i s l a s t c la u s e , s e e G .S . i v . 2 2 8 , n . 3 . S e e e s p e c ia ll y V i n . i. 1 5 3 f ., w h e r e t h e m o n k U p a n a n d a b r e a k s h i s w o r d a n d a ls o t e l l s a c o n s c io u s He t o a h o u s e h o ld e r . T h e p a r t ic u l a r t y p e o f o ffe n c e in c u r r e d b y t h i s m o n k f o r b r e a k in g h is w o r d in r e g a r d t o r e s id e n c e is f o r m u l a t e d a s o n e o f w r o n g d o in g . V A . v i . 1 1 5 8 in s t a n c e s h a v i n g a c c e p t e d a r a in s - r e s id e n c e , a n d t h e n n o t g o in g t o i t .

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T h e n th e O rd e r c a rrie d o u t a (fo rm al) a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n fo r th e m o n k S u d h a m m a , s a y in g : T h e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a sh o u ld b e a s k e d to fo r g iv e y o u H e , h a v in g g o n e to M a cch ikasan qla w h e n th e (form al) a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n h a d been c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er, b e c o m in g a sh a m e d , w a s u n a b le to a s k th e h o u s e h o ld e r C i t t a to fo r g iv e h im , a n d h e w e n t b a c k a g a in to S a v a tth i. M o n k s sp o k e th u s : " D id y o u a s k th e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a to fo r g iv e y o u ? N o w , I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, h a v in g g o n e to M a c c h ik a sa n d a , b e c o m in g a sh a m e d , w a s u n a b le t o a s k th e h o u s e h o ld e r C itta to fo r g iv e (m e ). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . || i || H e sa id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r g iv e a c o m p a n io n m essen ger1 to th e m o n k S u d h a m m a to a s k th e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a to fo r g iv e h im . A n d th u s , m o n k s sh o u ld h e b e g iv e n : F ir s t, a m o n k sh o u ld b e a s k e d ; h a v in g a sk e d h im , th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y g iv e th e m o n k so -a n d -so a s a c o m p a n io n m e ssen g e r to th e m o n k S u d h a m m a to a s k th e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a to fo r g iv e h im . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e . T h e O rd e r [19] is g iv in g th e m o n k so -a n d -so a s a c o m p a n io n m e ssen g e r to th e m o n k S u d h a m m a to a s k th e h o u s e h o ld e r C i t t a to fo r g iv e h im . I f th e g iv in g o f th e m o n k so -a n d -so a s a c o m p a n io n m e ssen g e r to th e m o n k S u d h a m m a to a s k th e h o u s e h o ld e r C it t a to fo r g iv e h im is p le a sin g to th e v e n e r a b le o n es, le t th e m b e sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e m o n k so -a n d -so is g iv e n b y th e O rd e r to th e m o n k S u d h a m m a a s a c o m p a n io n m e ssen ger t o a s k th e h o u s e h o ld e r C it t a t o fo r g iv e h im . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e r s ta n d th is / || 2 | 1 M o n k s, w h e n th e m o n k S u d h a m m a , to g e th e r w ith th e c o m p a n io n m essen ger m o n k , h a s re a c h e d M a c c h ik a s a n d a , th e h o u se h o ld e r C it t a sh o u ld b e a s k e d to fo r g iv e h im (S u d h a m m a u sin g th e w o rd s), F o r g iv e m e, h o u se h o ld e r, I a m a t p e a c e to w a rd s y o u \ I f , w h ile h e is b e in g sp o k e n t o th u s , h e fo rg iv e s
1 a n u d u ta t t r a v e l l i n g c o m p a n io n , a n d o n e w i t h a d e f in i t e f u n c t i o n t o f u lf i l in c a s e o f n e e d , a s a p p e a r s b e lo w . C f . V i n . ii. 2 9 5 w h e r e a m o n k Y a s a f o r w h o m a n a c t o f r e c o n c i lia t io n h a d b e e n c a r r i e d o u t , r e f e r s t o t h i s r u lin g a n d a s k s f o r a n a n u d u ia b h ik k h u .

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h im , th a t is g o o d ; if h e d o es n o t fo rg iv e , h e sh o u ld b e sp o k en to b y th e co m p a n io n m essen ger m o n k , s a y in g : ' F o r g iv e th is m o n k , h o u seh o ld er, h e is a t p e a ce to w a r d s y o u / If, w h ile h e is b e in g sp o k en to th u s , h e fo rg iv e s h im , t h a t is g o o d ; if h e does n o t fo rg iv e , he sh o u ld b e sp o k e n t o b y th e co m p a n io n m essen ger m o n k , s a y in g , *F o r g iv e th is m o n k , h o u seh o ld er, fo r I am a t p e a c e to w a rd s y o u .' I f . . . t h a t is g o o d ; if h e does n o t fo rg iv e , h e sh o u ld b e sp o k e n to b y th e c o m p a n io n m essen ger m o n k , s a y in g : * F o r g iv e th is m o n k , h o u seh o ld er, (1 a s k it) in th e n a m e o f th e O rd e r \ I f . . . t h a t is g o o d ; if h e does n o t fo rg iv e , th e co m p a n io n m essen ger m o n k , n o t h a v in g c a u s e d th e m o n k S u d h a m m a to b e d ism issed fro m re a c h o f th e s ig h t 1 o f th e h o u seh o ld er C itta , n o t h a v in g c a u se d h im to b e d ism issed fro m re a c h o f th e h e a rin g , h a v in g m a d e h im a rra n g e h is u p p e r ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g m a d e h im s it d o w n on his h a u n ch es, h a v in g m a d e h im sa lu te w ith jo in e d p a lm s ,2 sh o u ld ca u se t h a t o ffen ce to b e c o n fe sse d . || 3 j| 22 || T h e n th e m o n k S u d h a m m a , to g e th e r w ith th e co m p a n io n m essen ger m o n k , h a v in g re a c h e d M a c c h ik a sa n d a ,, a s k e d th e h o u seh o ld er C itta to fo r g iv e h im . H e c o n d u c te d h im s e lf p ro p e rly , h e w a s s u b d u e d , h e m e n d e d h is w a y s , a n d h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d m o n k s, h e s p o k e th u s : I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fo r w h o m a (form al) a c t o f re c o n c ilia tio n w a s c a rrie d o u t b y a n O rd er, a m c o n d u c tin g m y s e lf p ro p e rly , I a m su b d u e d , I a m m e n d in g m y w a y s . N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo l lo w ed b y m e ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r r e v o k e th e (form al) a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n fo r th e m o n k S u d h a m m a . || 1 || M onks, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e q u a litie s, th e (form al) a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d . . . ( C h s . 6 . 2 - 7 ) - . . d o es n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s. M o n k s, if a m o n k is possessed of th e s e e ig h t q u a litie s th e (form al) a c t o f re co n c ili a tio n m a y b e r e v o k e d . || 2 || T o ld a re t h e E ig h te e n C a se s w h e re a (F o rm al) A c t o f R e c o n c ilia tio n m a y b e re v o k e d . || 23 |] [20]

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A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e r e v o k e d : M o n k s, t h a t m o n k S u d h a m m a , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r . . . (see C h . 12 ) . . . . T h u s do I u n d e r s ta n d t h is / || x || 2 4 || T o ld is th e F o u r t h (F o rm a l) A c t : t h a t o f R e c o n c ilia tio n . A t o n e tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e , th e L o r d w a s s ta y in g a t K o s a m b l in G h o s ita 's m o n a s te r y . N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e r a b le C h a n n a ,1 h a v in g fa lle n in to a n offen ce, d id n o t w a n t to see th e o ffe n c e .2 T h o s e w h o w e re m o d e s t m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic is e d , sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th e v e n e r a b le C h a n n a , h a v in g fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce, n o t w a n t to see th e o ffen ce ? T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . T h e n th e L o rd , on th is o c ca sio n , in th is c o n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : I s it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s , t h a t th e m o n k C h a n n a . . . d id n o t w a n t to see th e o ffe n ce ? I t is tru e , L o r d / ' T h e A w a k e n e d O n e , th e L o r d re b u k e d th e m , s a y in g : H o w , m o n k s , c a n th is fo o lish m a n , h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce, n o t w a n t to see th e o ffe n c e ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d . . / ' A n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n e d t a lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n 3 a g a in s t th e m o n k C h a n n a fo r n o t se e in g h is o ffen ce, (and th e re sh o u ld be) n o e a tin g w ith a n O r d e r .4 || i || " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it be c a rrie d o u t. F ir s t, th e m o n k C h a n n a sh o u ld be re p ro v e d , h a v in g r e p r o v e d h im , h e sh o u ld b e m a d e to re m em b er, h a v in g m a d e h im re m em b er, h e sh o u ld b e a c cu s e d o f th e o ffe n ce ; h a v in g a c c u s e d h im o f th e o ffen ce, th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t t h e O rd e r liste n to m e.
1 F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s , s e e B . D . i. 2 6 6 , n . 3. * C f . M V . I X . 1. 3, 8 . 9 u k k h e p a n iy a k a m m a . C f . M V . 1. 25. 2 2 , a n d M V . I X . 7 - 9 . 4 asam bh oga m sa m g h e n a . C f . M V . I . 79. 2 - 4 . A t V i n . i v . 1 3 8 i t is a n o ffe n c e o f e x p i a t i o n t o e a t w i t h a m o n k w h o is s u s p e n d e d . T w o k in d s o f sa m bhuga , e a t in g f o o d a n d e a t in g d h a m m a , a r e d e fin e d a t V i n . i v . 1 3 7 ( B . D . iii. 2 9 ). T h e m o n k in t h e a b o v e C V . p a s s a g e is n o t d e p r i v e d o f b e in g in c o m m u n io n / * sa tn v a sa , w it h t h e o t h e r m o n k s f o r n o t s e e in g h is o f fe n c e . C f . b e lo w , V . 20. 3*

25 .2 27 .1]

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T h is m o n k C h a n n a , h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce, d o es n o t w a n t to see th e offence* I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n a g a in s t th e m o n k C h a n n a fo r n o t se e in g th e o ffen ce (a n d th e re sh o u ld be) n o e a tin g w ith an O rd er. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n to m e. T h is m o n k C h a n n a , h a v in g fa lle n in to an offen ce, does n o t w a n t to see th e offen ce. T h e O rd e r is c a r ry in g o u t a (form al) a c t o f su sp e n sio n a g a in s t th e m o n k C h a n n a fo r n o t seein g th e o ffen ce (and th e re sh o u ld be) no e a tin g w ith a n O rd er. I f th e c a r ry in g o u t b y th e O rd e r o f a (form al) a c t o f su spen sion a g a in s t th e m o n k C h a n n a fo r n o t seein g h is offence (and w ith ) n o e a tin g w ith a n O rd er, is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a seco n d tim e I s p e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e 1 sp e a k fo rth th is m a t t e r : H o n o u re d sirs, . . * [21] sh o u ld sp ea k . A (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t se e in g h is offen ce (and w ith ) n o e a tin g w ith an O rd er, is c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd e r a g a in s t th e m o n k C h a n n a . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd e r ; th e r e fo re it is sile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rs ta n d th is / A n d , m o n k s, p ro cla im in resid en ce a fte r resid en ce : 'A (form al) a c t o f su s pen sio n fo r n o t seein g a n o ffen ce (and w ith ) no e a tin g w ith an O rd e r h a s b een c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t th e m o n k C h a n n a / |[ 2 j| 2 5 j| " M on ks, if a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t seein g an o ffence is p o ssessed o f th re e q u a litie s it co m es to b e a (form al) a c t n o t b y ru le . . . (see C h . 2 -4 ) . . . M o n k s, if an O rd e r so desires, it m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f su sp e n sio n fo r n o t seein g an o ffen ce a g a in s t th e se th re e (k in d s of) m o n k s / ' |j 1 || T o ld a re th e S ix C a ses on B e in g D e siro u s in c o n n e c tio n w ith a (F o rm al) A c t o f S u sp e n sio n fo r N o t S e e in g a n O ffe n ce. || 26 ]| " M o n k s, a m o n k a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t seein g h is o ffe n ce h a s b e e n c a rrie d o u t sh o u ld c o n d u c t h im self p ro p e rly . T h is is p ro p e r c o n d u c t in th is ca se 1 : he sh o u ld n o t o rd a in , h e sh o u ld n o t g iv e g u id a n c e , a n o v ic e sh o u ld n ot a tte n d h im , th e a g re e m e n t to e x h o r t n u n s sh o u ld n o t b e
10, 15, 21).
1 I h i s d if f e r s f r o m t h e " p r o p e r c o n d u c t o f t h e o t h e r f o r m a l a c t s (C h s . 5 C f . C V . I I , 1. 2.

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c o n se n te d to (b y h im ), e v e n if h e is a g re e d u p o n n u n s sh o u ld n o t be e x h o r te d b y h im , h e sh o u ld n o t fa ll in to t h a t sa m e o ffen ce fo r w h ic h th e (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t seein g h is offen ce w a s c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t h im b y a n O rd er, n o r in to a n o th e r th a t is sim ila r, n or in to o n e t h a t is w o rse, h e sh o u ld n o t fin d fa u lt w ith th e (form al) a c t, he sh o u ld n o t fin d fa u lt w ith th o s e w h o a re c a r r y in g o u t th e (form al) a c t, h e sh o u ld n o t co n se n t to a re g u la r m o n k 's g r e e tin g h im , s ta n d in g u p b e fo re h im , s a lu tin g h im w ith jo in e d p a lm s, p e rfo rm in g th e p ro p e r d u tie s, b rin g in g fo rw a rd a s e a t, b rin g in g fo rw a rd a slee p in g -p la ce, w a te r fo r (w ash in g) th e fe e t, a fo o ts to o l, a fo o ts ta n d , th e re c e iv in g o f b o w l a n d ro b e, tr e a tin g h is b a c k b y m a ssa g in g , h e sh o u ld n o t d e fa m e a re g u la r m o n k w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it, h e s h o u ld n o t d e fa m e h im w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m g o o d h a b its , h e sh o u ld n o t d e fa m e h im w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m (righ t) v ie w s , h e sh o u ld n o t d e fa m e h im w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m a r ig h t m o d e o f liv e lih o o d , h e sh o u ld n o t ca u se m o n k to b r e a k w ith m o n k , h e sh o u ld n o t w e a r a h o u se h o ld e r's e m b le m , h e sh o u ld n o t w e a r an e m b le m o f m e m b ers o f o th e r se c ts,1 h e sh o u ld n o t fo llo w m e m b e rs o f o th e r se c ts, he sh o u ld fo llo w m o n k s, he sh o u ld tr a in in th e tr a in in g fo r m o n k s, he sh o u ld n o t s t a y 2 in a resid en ce u n d e r o n e ro o fin g w ith a re g u la r m o n k , he sh o u ld n o t s t a y in w h a t is n o t a re sid e n c e 3 u n d e r one ro o fin g (w ith him ), h e sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a re sid e n ce o r in w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce u n d e r o n e ro o fin g (w ith h im ), h a v in g seen a re g u la r m o n k h e sh o u ld g e t u p fro m h is s e a t, h e sh o u ld n o t u p b ra id a re g u la r m o n k e ith e r in sid e o r o u ts id e ,4 h e sh o u ld n o t su sp en d a re g u la r m o n k 's O b s e r v a n c e ,6 h e sh o u ld n o t su sp e n d his I n v ita tio n , he sh o u ld n o t issu e c o m m a n d s, [22] he sh o u ld n o t set u p a u th o r ity , h e sh o u ld n o t a s k fo r le a v e , h e sh o u ld n o t re p ro v e , h e sh o u ld n o t m a k e re m e m b e r, h e sh o u ld n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s. |j i j| T o ld are th e F o r ty - T h r e e O b s e rv a n c e s c o n n e cte d w ith a (F o rm al) a c t o f S u sp e n sio n fo r N o t S e e in g an O ffe n ce. || 27 |j
1 3 * 4 6 C f . V i n . i. C f . b e lo w , C f . V i n . i. I n s id e a n d F ro m h e re 306. I I . 1. 4. 13 4 , a n d B . D . i v . 1 7 8 , n . 3. o u t s id e a d w e llin g - p la c e , a c c o r d i n g t o t o t h e e n d o f || 1 || = C V . I . 5. 1 .

V A . 1159 .

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T h e n th e O rd er ca rrie d o u t a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n for n ot seein g his offen ce a g a in s t th e m o n k C h a n n a (and w ith ) no e a tin g w ith an O rd er. H e , w h en th e (form al) a c t o f susp en sio n fo r n o t seein g his o ffen ce h a d been c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t h im b y th e O rd er, w e n t fro m t h a t resid en ce to a n o th e r resid en ce ; th ere th e m o n k s n e ith e r g re e te d h im , n o r sto o d u p b efo re h im , nor sa lu te d w ith jo in e d p a lm s, n o r p e rfo rm e d th e p ro p e r d u ties, n or re v e re d , re sp e cte d , e steem ed or h o n o u re d h im .1 H e, n o t b e in g re v e re d , re sp e c te d , e ste e m ed o r h o n o u re d b y these m o n k s, th e n w e n t u n re v e re d fro m t h a t resid en ce to a n o th e r re sid e n ce ; th e re to o th e m o n k s n e ith e r g re e te d h im . . . he th e n w e n t fro m th a t resid en ce to a n o th e r resid en ce ; th ere to o th e m o n k s n e ith e r g re e te d h im . . . h e, u n re v e re d , w en t b a c k a g a in to K o sa m b L H e c o n d u c te d h im se lf p ro p e rly , he w as su b d u e d , h e m en d ed his w a y s ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d m o n ks, h e sp o k e th u s : " I , y o u r re v e ren ce s, a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t se e in g a n o ffen ce w a s ca rrie d o u t b y an O rd er, a m c o n d u c tin g m y s e lf p ro p e rly , I am su b d u e d , I a m m e n d in g m y w a y s . W h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w ed b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s le t th e O rd e r r e v o k e th e (form al) a c t o f su spen sion fo r n o t se e in g h is o ffen ce a g a in s t th e m o n k C h a n n a . |j i || I f, m o n k s, a m o n k is possessed o f fiv e q u a litie s, a (form al) a ct o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t seein g h is o ffen ce sh o u ld n o t b e re v o k e d ; if he o rd ain s, if h e g iv e s g u id a n c e , if a n o v ic e a tte n d s h im , if he c o n se n ts to th e a g re e m e n t to e x h o r t n u n s, if, a lth o u g h agreed u p o n , he e x h o rts n uns. M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed of th ese fiv e q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d . A n d m o n k s, if a m o n k is po ssessed o f fiv e fu rth e r q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t be r e v o k e d : if h e fa lls in to t h a t sa m e o ffe n ce fo r w h ic h a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t seein g h is o ffen ce w a s ca rrie d o u t a g a in st h im b y th e O rd er, or in to a n o th e r t h a t is sim ilar, o r in to one t h a t is w o rse, if h e finds fa u lt w ith a (form al) a c t, if he finds fa u lt w ith th o se w h o c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t. M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f th e se fiv e q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t b e re v o k e d . A n d , m o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e fu rth e r q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d : if he con sen ts to a re g u la r m o n k 's g re e tin g h im , sta n d in g u p b e fo re ^ A s a t M v7x. 6 T . C*

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him , sa lu tin g w ith jo in e d p a lm s, d o in g th e p ro p e r d u ties, b rin g in g fo rw a rd a se a t. M o n k s, if a m o n k . . . sh o u ld n o t be re v o k e d . A n d , m o n k s, if a m o n k is ,p o s s e s s e d o f five fu rth e r q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d : [23] if he co n se n ts t o a re g u la r m o n k s b rin g in g fo rw a rd a slee p in g -p la ce, w a te r fo r (w ashing) th e fe e t, a fo o tsto o l, a fo o t-sta n d , to re ce iv in g h is b o w l a n d ro b e, to tr e a tin g h is b a c k b y m a ssa g in g . M onks, if a m o n k is po ssessed o f th e se fiv e q u a litie s th e (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t se e in g h is o ffen ce sh o u ld n o t b e re v o k e d . ** A n d , m o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e fu rth e r q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t be r e v o k e d : i f h e d e fa m e s a re g u la r m o n k w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it, if h e d e fa m e s h im w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m g o o d h a b its , if h e d e fa m e s h im w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m (righ t) v ie w s , if h e d e fa m e s h im w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m a (right) w a y o f liv in g , i f h e cau ses m o n k to b r e a k w ith m o n k . M onks, if a m o n k . . . sh o u ld n o t be revoked* A n d , m o n ks, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e fu r th e r q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t b e re v o k e d : if he w e a rs a h o u se h o ld e r's e m b le m , if h e w e a rs an e m b le m o f o th e r se c ts, if h e fo llo w s m em b ers o f o th e r se cts, if h e does n o t fo llo w m o n k s, i f h e does n o t tra in in th e tra in in g fo r m o n k s. M o n k s, if a m o n k * . . sh o u ld n o t b e re v o k e d . A n d , m o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e fu rth e r q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t be re v o k e d : if, in a residen ce, he s ta y s u n d e r one ro o fin g w ith a re g u la r m o n k , if in w h a t is n o t a resid en ce he s ta y s u n d e r one ro o fin g w ith h im , if in e ith e r a resid en ce o r in w h a t is n o t a resid en ce h e s ta y s u n d e r one ro o fin g w ith h im , if, h a v in g seen a re g u la r m o n k , he does n o t g e t u p fro m h is se a t, i f h e u p b ra id s a re g u la r m o n k e ith e r in sid e o r o u tsid e. M o n k s, if a m o n k . . . sh o u ld n o t be re v o k e d . M o n k s, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f e ig h t q u a litie s . . . sh o u ld n o t b e r e v o k e d : i f h e su sp e n d s a re g u la r m o n k s O b se rv a n c e , if he su sp en d s h is I n v ita tio n , if h e issues c o m m a n d s, if h e se ts u p a u th o r ity , if h e a sk s fo r le a v e , if h e rep ro ves, if h e m a k e s rem em b er, i f h e q u a rre ls w ith m o n k s. M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e se e ig h t q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t se e in g his o ffen ce sh o u ld n o t b e re v o k e d . \\2 || T o ld a re th e F o r ty - th r e e C a se s (w h ere a F o r m a l A c t o f S u sp en sio n fo r N o t S e e in g an O ffen ce sh o u ld n o t be re v o k e d ), || 28 ||

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" M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f liv e q u a litie s, a-(form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t seein g h is o ffen ce m a y be r e v o k e d : if h e does n o t o rd a in . . . ( T h is Chapter is the exact opposite o /2 8 . a) . . . i f h e d o es n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s. M o n k s, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th e se e ig h t q u a litie s a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t seein g h is o ffen ce m a y b e r e v o k e d . |( x || T o ld are th e F o r ty - th r e e C ases (w h ere a F o r m a l A c t o f S u sp e n sio n fo r N o t S e in g an O ffe n ce m a y b e re v o k e d ). || 29 || " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e r e v o k e d : T h a t m o n k C h a n n a , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r . . . (see C h . 1 2 . In stea d o f a c t o f cen su re read a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t se e in g his offence) . . . . * . T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is / || x |[ 30 || T o ld is th e F if t h (F o rm a l) A c t : t h a t o f S u sp e n sio n fo r N o t S e e in g a n O ffen ce. [24] A t th a t tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd w a s s ta y in g a t K o sa m b l in G h o s ita 's m o n a s te ry . N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e r a b le C h a n n a , h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce, d id n o t w a n t to m a k e a m e n d s fo r th e o ffe n c e .1 . . . ( = C h . 25-30* Instead o f sec read m a k e a m e n d s fo r ; instead o f a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t seein g h is o ffen ce read a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t m a k in g a m e n d s fo r h is offence) . . . ' . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / '' || 3 1 [| T o ld is th e S ix t h (F o rm al) A c t : t h a t o f S u sp e n sio n fo r N o t m a k in g A m e n d s fo r a n O ffen ce. A t o n e tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e , th e L o r d w a s s ta y in g a t S a v a tth i in th e J e t a G r o v e in A n a th a p in d ik a 's m o n a ste ry . N o w a t th a t tim e a w ro n g v ie w h a d a risen to a m o n k n a m ed A r itth a w h o h a d fo rm e rly been a v u ltu re -tra in e r, lik e th is 2 : I n so fa r a s I u n d e rs ta n d dham m a t a u g h t b y th e L o rd , it is t h a t in fo llo w in g th o se th in g s c a lle d s tu m b lin g -b lo c k s b y th e L o rd , th e re is no s tu m b lin g -b lo c k a t a ll/ '
1 C f . M V . I X . 5. 1-9 * 2 D o w n , t o t h e p h r a s e , " I t is n o t , fo o lis h m a n , f o r p le a s in g t h o s e w h o a r e n o t ( y e t) p le a s e d . . . " ( t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f || 3 J|) = P a c . 6 8 . 1 ( Vi n. i v . 1 3 3 - 1 3 5 ) w h ic h t h e n f o r m u l a t e s a r u le o f t r a i n i n g . T r a n s la t e d a t B . D ' iii. 2 1 - 2 4 , w i t h n o t e s .

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S e v e ra l m o n k s h e a rd : " A w ro n g v ie w h a s a risen to th e m o n k n a m e d A r it t h a w h o w a s fo r m e r ly a v u ltu re -tra in e r, lik e th is : " I n so fa r a s I u n d e rsta n d . . . th e re is n o stu m b lin g -b lo c k a t a ll/ T h e n th e se m o n k s a p p ro a c h e d th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o h a d fo rm e rly b een a v u ltu r e -tr a in e r , a n d h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , th e y sp o k e th u s to th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o h a d fo r m e r ly b een a v u ltu r e -tr a in e r : " I s it tru e , a s is sa id , re v e re n d A r itth a , t h a t a w ro n g v ie w h a s a risen t o y o u , lik e th is ; * In so fa r a s I u n d e rs ta n d . . . th e re is n o s tu m b lin g -b lo c k a t a ll ' ? " " U n d o u b te d ly , y o u r re v e re n c e s, a s I u n d e rs ta n d dham m a ta u g h t b y th e L o rd , i t is th a t in fo llo w in g th o se th in g s ca lle d stu m b lin g -b lo c k s b y th e L o rd , th e re is no s tu m b lin g -b lo c k a t all/* || i || # f D o n o t s p e a k th u s , re v e re n d A r it t h a , do n o t m isre p re se n t th e L o r d ; m isre p re se n ta tio n o f th e L o r d is n o t a t a ll se e m ly , a n d th e L o rd c e r ta in ly w o u ld n o t s p e a k th u s . R everen d A r itth a , in m a n y a figu re a re th in g s t h a t a re s tu m b lin g -b lo c k s c a lle d stu m b lin g -b lo c k s b y th e L o r d , a n d in fo llo w in g th ese th e re is a v e r ita b le s tu m b lin g -b lo c k . S en se -p le a su re s a re d e cla re d b y th e L o r d to b e (things) a ffo rd in g little s a tis fa c tio n , o f m u ch p a in , o f m u c h tr ib u la tio n , w h e re in is m o re d a n g er. S en se-p lea su res a re d e cla re d b y th e L o r v d t o b e lik e a sk e le to n , o f m u ch p a in , o f m u c h tr ib u la tio n , w h e re in is m o re d a n g e r. S en se-p leasu res are d e cla re d b y th e L o r d to b e lik e a lu m p o f m e a t . . . to b e lik e a fire -b ra n d o f d r y g ra s s . . . to b e lik e a p it o f g lo w in g e m b e rs . . . t o b e lik e a d re a m . . . to b e lik e so m e th in g b o rro w e d . . . to b e lik e th e fr u its o f a tre e [25] . . . to be lik e a sla u g h te r-h o u s e . . . t o b e lik e an im p a l in g s ta k e . . . S en se -p le a su re s a re d e c la re d b y th e L o rd t o be lik e a s n a k e s h e a d , o f m u ch p a in , o f m u c h trib u la tio n , w h e re in is m ore d a n g e r / ' Y e t th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o h a d fo r m e r ly b e en a v u ltu r e tra in e r, o n b e in g sp o k en to th u s b y th e se m o n k s, e x p re sse d th a t w ro n g v ie w a s b e fo re , o b s tin a te ly h o ld in g to it, a d h e rin g to it : U n d o u b te d ly , y o u r re v e re n c e s, a s I u n d e rsta n d dhamma ta u g h t b y th e L o r d , it is t h a t in fo llo w in g th o se th in g s c a lle d stu m b lin g -b lo c k s b y th e L o r d , th e re is n o stu m b lin g b lo c k a t a l l / || 2 ||

CULLAVAGGA I 32.3-4] 37 A n d sin ce th o se m o n k s w ere u n a b le to d issu a d e th e m o n k A ritth a. w h o h a d fo rm e rly b een a v u ltu r e - tr a in e r fro m th a t w ro n g v ie w , th e n th o se m o n k s a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; an d h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , t h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h e n the L o rd on th is o cca sio n , in th is co n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd er o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o h a d fo rm e rly been a v u ltu re -tra in e r, s a y in g : " Is it tru e , as is sa id , th a t to y o u , A r it t h a , a w ro n g v ie w lik e th is arose : ' I n so fa r a s I u n d e rsta n d dham m a . . . th e re is no stu m b lin g -b lo c k a t a ll ? e < U n d o u b te d ly , L o rd , as I u n d e rsta n d dham m a . . . no stu m b lin g -b lo c k a t a ll. T o w h o m th en d o y o u , fo o lish m a n , u n d e rsta n d th a t dhamma w as ta u g h t th u s b y m e ? A r e n o t, fo o lish m a n , th in g s th a t are stu m b lin g -b lo c k s c a lle d in m a n y a figu re stu m b lin g -b lo c k s b y m e, a n d in fo llo w in g th ese is th e re n o t a v e r ita b le stu m b lin g b lo c k ? S e n se-p lea su res are d e c la re d b y m e t o b e th in g s a ffo rd in g little s a tis fa c tio n , o f m u ch p a in , o f m u ch trib u la tio n , w h erein is m ore d a n g e r . . . S en se-p lea su res are d ecla re d b y m e to be lik e a s n a k e 's h e a d , o f m u c h p a in , o f m u c h trib u la tio n , w h erein is m o re d a n g er. A n d y e t y o u , fo o lish m a n , n o t o n ly m isrep resen t m e b e cau se o f y o u r o w n w ro n g g ra sp , b u t y o u also in ju re y o u rs e lf, a n d g iv e rise to m u ch d e m erit w h ic h fo r a lo n g tim e w ill be fo r y o u , fo o lish m a n , o f w oe a n d p a in . I t is n o t, fo o lish m a n , fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o are n o t (yet) p le a se d . . . A n d h a v in g re b u k e d h im , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n ed ta lk , he ad d ressed th e m o n k s s a y in g : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f su spen sion fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w 1 a g a in s t th e m o n k A r itth a w h o w a s fo rm e rly a v u ltu re -tra in e r, (and w ith ) no e a t in g w ith an O rd er, jj 3 [| " A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e c a rrie d o u t : F ir s t, th e m o n k A r itth a sh o u ld b e re p ro v e d , h a v in g re p ro v e d h im he sh o u ld be m ad e to re m em b er, h a v in g m a d e h im re m em b er he sh o u ld b e a ccu se d o f th e o ffen ce, h a v in g a ccu se d h im o f th e offen ce, th e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y an e x p e rie n c e d ''c o m p e te n t m o n k , sa y in g : H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. A w ro n g v ie w h a s a risen to th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o w a s fo rm e rly a
1 C /. M V . I X . 5. 1 - 9 .

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v u ltu re -tra in e r, lik e th is : [26] I n so fa r as I u n d e rsta n d dham m a ta u g h t b y th e L o r d . . . th e re is n o s tu m b lin g -b lo c k a t a ll. H e d o es n o t g iv e u p th is v ie w . I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, le t th e O rd e r c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f su sp e n sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w a g a in s t th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o w a s fo rm e rly a v u ltu r e -tr a in e r (and w ith ) no e a tin g w ith a n O rd er. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. A w ro n g v ie w h a s a risen . . . H e d o es n o t g iv e u p th is v ie w . T h e O rd e r is c a r r y in g o u t a (form al) a c t o f su sp e n sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w a g a in s t th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o w a s fo rm e rly a v u ltu r e -tr a in e r (and w ith ) no e a tin g w ith an O rd er. I f th e c a r r y in g o u t o f th e (form al) a c t o f susp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w a g a in s t th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o w a s fo r m e r ly a v u ltu r e - tr a in e r (and w ith ) n o e a tin g w ith a n O rd er is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le on es, le t th e m b e sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a se c o n d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is / A n d , m o n k s, p ro c la im in resid en ce a fte r re sid e n ce : A (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w h a s b e en c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o w a s fo r m e r ly a v u ltu r e - tr a in e r (and w ith ) n o e a tin g w ith a n O rd e r.' || 4 |j 32 || M on ks, i f a m o n k is possessed o f th re e q u a litie s . . . ( = L 2- 5 . In stea d o f a c t o f ce n su re read a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g view ) . . . if he does n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s . T o ld are th e E ig h te e n O b s e rv a n c e s (co n n e cted w ith ) a (F o rm al) A c t o f S u sp e n sio n fo r N o t G iv in g U p a W r o n g V ie w . || 33 || T h e n th e O rd e r c a rrie d o u t a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p h is w ro n g v ie w a g a in s t th e m o n k A r it t h a w h o w a s fo rm e rly a v u ltu re -tra in e r, (and w ith ) no e a tin g w ith an O rder* H e , w h e n th e (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p h is w ro n g v ie w h a d been c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t h im b y th e O rd e r, le ft th e O rd er. T h o s e w h o w e re m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w ca n th is m o n k n a m e d A r itth a w h o w a s fo r m e r ly a v u ltu r e - tr a in e r le a v e th e O rd er w h e n a (form al) a c t of su sp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g

34.x 3 5 .i]

39 u p a w ro n g v ie w is ca rrie d o u t a g a in s t h im b y th e O rd er ? T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , T h e n th e L o rd on th is occasio n , in th is c o n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd er o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : Is it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, t h a t th e m o n k A r itth a w h o w a s fo rm e rly a v u ltu r e -tr a in e r le ft th e O rd er w h e n a (form al) a c t of su sp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w w a s ca rrie d o u t a g a in st h im b y th e O rd er ? " [27] I t is tru e . L o r d . T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o r d re b u k e d th em , s a y in g ; " H o w , m o n k s, ca n th is fo o lish m a n le a v e th e O rd e r w h e n a (form al) a c t o f susp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w w a s c a rrie d o u t a g a in st him b y th e O rd e r ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o are n o t (yet) p le a se d . . A n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n ks, s a y in g : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd er r e v o k e 1 th e (form al) a c t o f susp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w . [| i|j M on ks, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f fiv e q u a litie s . . . ( = I. 6 . 2- 7 ) . . . th e (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n ot g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w m a y b e re v o k e d . || 2 |] T o ld a re th e E ig h te e n C a ses w h e re a (F o rm al) A c t o f S u sp en sio n fo r N o t G iv in g U p a W ro n g V ie w m a y be R evoked. j| 3 4 |j
A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e r e v o k e d . M onks, t h a t m o n k a g a in st w h o m a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w h a s b e en ca rrie d o u t, h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er . . . (see I . 12 . In stea d o f a c t o f ce n su re read a c t o f su sp en sio n for n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w . In stea d o f S e y y a s a k a read th e m o n k so-and-so) . . . . . . T h u s d o 1 u n d e rsta n d th is V

CULLAVAGGA

iii 113 5 11

T o ld is th e S e v e n th (F o rm al) A c t : th a t o f S u sp en sio n fo r N o t G iv in g U p a W ro n g V ie w . T o ld is th e F ir s t S e c tio n ; th a t o n (F o rm al) A c ts .

In th is S e c tio n a re se v e n ite m s : th is is its k e y :


1 A s O ld e n b e r g , V in . ii. 3 1 0 3 1 1 r e m a r k s , " w e s h o u ld e x p e c t " m d n a ) p a tip p a s s a m b h e tu , l e t n o t r e v o k e ; c f. C V . I . 16. 1. (or

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M o n k s w h o are fo llo w ers o f P a n d u k a a n d L o h ita k a , th e m se lv e s m a k e rs o f strife , a p p ro a c h e d sim ila r ones a n d in c ite d th e m to strife , / A n d strife s n o t a risen w ere b o m a n d th o se a risen e x p a n d e d . M od est, w e ll b e h a v e d m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n . The e x p o u n d e r1, / T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, sta n d in g on w h a t is v e r ily dham m a , selfd e v e lo p in g , fo re m o st o f m en, co n q u ero r, e n jo in e d a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re a t S a v a t t h i. / A n d w h a t is c a rrie d o u t n o t in th e p re se n ce o f, w h e n th e re is no in te rro g a tio n , no a c k n o w le d g m e n t, a n d w h a t is c a rrie d o u t fo r n o o ffen ce, fo r o n e n o t (lea d in g on to) co n fessio n , fo r o n e co n fe sse d , / A n d w h a t is c a rrie d o u t n o t h a v in g re p ro v e d , n o t h a v in g m a d e to re m em b er, n o t h a v in g a ccu se d , a n d to o w h a t is c a rrie d o u t n o t in th e p resen ce o f, n o t b y ru le, b y an in c o m p le te a ss e m b ly , / A g a in w h a t is c a rrie d o u t w h e n th e re is n o in te rro g a tio n , n o t b y ru le , b y a n in c o m p le te a ss e m b ly , a n d to o w h a t is c a rrie d o u t n o t o n th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t, n o t b y ru le, b y a n in c o m p le te a ss e m b ly , / A n d to o w h a t is c a rrie d o u t w h e n th e re is no o ffen ce, n o t b y rule, b y an in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly , a n d also fo r (an offence) w h ic h d o es n o t le a d on to co n fessio n w h e n it is n o t b y ru le a n d th e a s s e m b ly is in c o m p le te , / A n d lik e w ise fo r one t h a t is co n fe sse d , if also n o t b y ru le, b y an in c o m p le te a sse m b ly , [28] a n d lik e w ise n o t h a v in g re p ro v e d h im , if also n o t b y ru le, b y a n in c o m p le te a ss e m b ly , / A n d lik e w ise n o t h a v in g m a d e h im re m em b er, n o t b y ru le, b y a n in c o m p le te a s s e m b ly , / a n d lik e w ise n o t h a v in g a c cu s e d h im , n o t b y ru le, b y an in c o m p le te a sse m b ly . / T h e b rig h t o c ca sio n s2 sh o u ld also b e in fe rre d e x a c t l y a c c o rd in g to th e d a rk o c ca sio n s.2 A n d th e O rd er, so d esirin g , m a y c a r r y o u t cen su re a g a in s t th is one : /
1p a d a ss a k a ( S k r t . praday& aka). S i n h . e d n . r e a d s p a r a ss a to ] S ia m . e d n . p a *l$ a to (v. II. p a d a s s a k o , p a d a ss a to ). a su k k a v a ra . . . k a n h a v a r a , fig . p u r e a n d im p u r e , r i g h t a n d w r o n g .

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T h e q u a rre l (-m aker), th e ig n o ra n t, th e liv e r in c o m p a n y w ith . T h e O rd er m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f cen su re in re g a rd to m o ra l h a b it, g o o d h a b its, a g a in st o n e w h o h a s fa lle n a w a y fro m rig h t v ie w s 1, / A n d a g a in st w h o e v e r sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e A w a k e n e d O ne, dham m a , th e O rder, a n d th e O rd e r m a y a lso c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f cen su re a g a in st th re e (k in d s of) m o n k s : / T h e o n e w h o is a m a k e r o f strife , th e ig n o ra n t one, th e one in te n t o n liv in g in c o m p a n y ; lik e w ise in re g a rd to m o ra l h a b it, g o o d h a b its , rig h t v ie w s, / A n d a g a in s t w h o e v e r s p e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e, dham m a , th e O rd er. T h e one a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t o f ce n su re h a s been ca rried o u t c o n d u c tin g h im se lf p ro p e rly , th u s ; / O rd in a tio n , g u id a n c e , a tte n d a n c e b y a n o v ic e , th e one a g a in s t w h o m cen su re h a s b e e n c a rrie d o u t sh o u ld do n o th in g in re g a rd to e x h o rta tio n , e v e n a lth o u g h a g re e d u p o n , / H e sh o u ld n o t fa ll in to t h a t sa m e o ffen ce, in to a sim ila r one, or in to one h ig h e r 2 th a n it, and su ch a one w o u ld n e ith e r find fa u lt w ith a (form al) a c t, n or w ith th o se w h o c a r r y it o u t, / H e sh o u ld n o t su sp en d a re g u la r (m on k's) O b se rv a n c e , I n v ita tio n , su ch a one sh o u ld n o t h a v e to do w ith co m m a n d s, a u th o r ity , / L e a v e , re p ro v in g , m a k in g re m em b er a n d q u a rrels. O rd in a tio n , g u id a n c e , a tte n d a n c e b y a n o v ic e , / E x h o r ta tio n a n d e v e n if a g re e d u p o n : th e fiv e q u a litie s a re n o t th e e n d .3 I f he fa lls in to t h a t sam e o ffen ce a n d in to a sim ila r one a n d one th a t is h ig h e r th a n it, / A n d fin d in g fa u lt b o th w ith a (form al) a c t a n d w ith th o se w h o c a r r y it o u t : th is is n o t th e e n d .3 O b se rv a n c e , I n v ita tio n , co ijim a n d s, a u th o r ity , / L e a v e , re p ro v in g to o , m a k in g rem em b er, q u a rrellin g ,
1 a d h is lla m a jjh d ca r e a tid itth iv ip a n n a s s a . * H e r e tato p a r a m , h ig h e r , f u r t h e r , a s a g a i n s t tato p d p itth a ta r a o f C V . I . 5 . 1 . 9 n a s a m m a ti, m e a n in g d o e s n o t c e a s e , is n o t a p p e a s e d , a n d s i g n i f y i n g h e r e t h a t a f o r m a l a c t c a n n o t b e r e v o k e d b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e m o r e t h a n t h e s e f iv e q u a lit ie s t o c o n s id e r , a n d w h ic h m a y s t a n d in t h e w a y o f t h e r e v o c a t io n . C f. s a m m a n ti a t D h p . 5 .

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w h o e v e r is b o u n d b y th e s e e ig h t q u a litie s , ce n su re is n o t a lla y e d fo r h im .1 / T h e b r ig h t o cca sio n s sh o u ld also be in fe rre d e x a c t ly a c co rd in g to th e d a rk o cca sio n s. A n d S e y y a s a k a to o , ig n o ra n t, fu ll o f offen ces, liv in g in co m pany : / T h e S e lf-A w a k e n e d O n e, g r e a t sa g e , e n jo in e d a (form al) a c t o f g u id a n ce . (F o llo w e rs of) th e tw o m o n k s , A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u , a t K it a g ir i / In d u lg e d in a v a r ie t y o f b a d h a b its a n d w e re n o t ta lk e d ro u n d . T h e se lf-A w a k e n e d O n e, th e C o n q u e ro r (enjoined ) a t S a v a t t h i a (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t. / S u d h a m m a w a s a re sid e n t in C it t a 's M a c c h a sa n d a , S u d h a m m a je e r e d a t th e la y fo llo w e r C itta w ith t a lk on b irth . / T h e T ru th -fin d e r e n jo in e d a (form al) a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n . A t K o s a m b l w h e n th e m o n k C h a n n a , n o t w a n tin g to see an o ffen ce, / [29] T h e in co m p a ra b le C o n q u e ro r e n jo in e d (the O rd er) to su sp en d h im fo r n o t seein g. C h a n n a d id n o t w a n t to m a k e a m e n d s fo r th a t sa m e offen ce. / T h e le a d e r e n jo in ed a (form al) a c t o f su sp en sio n fo r n o t m a k in g a m e n d s for. T h e w ro n g v ie w o f A r it t h a w a s fo u n d e d on ig n o ra n ce . / S u sp en sio n fo r n o t g iv in g u p th e w ro n g v ie w w a s p ro c la im e d b y th e C o n q u e ro r. A (form al) a c t o f g u id a n c e , b a n ish m e n t, lik e w ise re c o n c ilia tio n , I A (form al) a c t fo r n o t seein g, fo r n o t m a k in g a m e n d s fo r, an d fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w . F r iv o lit y , b a d h a b its , h a rm in g , a n d a lso a w ro n g m o d e o f liv e lih o o d : / T h e se are a d d itio n a l ca ses in th e (form al) a c t o f b a n ish m e n t. T w o five s (begin n in g) : n o n -re c e iv in g , d isp ra ise , are tw o p e n ta d s p a r tic u la r ly n a m e d 2, / T h e se are a d d itio n a l cases in th e (form al) a c t o f re co n c ilia tio n . A n d tw o a m o n g th e (form al) a c ts are sim ila r : cen su re a n d g u id a n c e ; /
1 n* u p a s a m m a ti. a a tin a m a k a ; a ti-t m e a n in g v e r y m u c h , s p e c ia l l y .

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A n d th e re are th e re m a in in g ca ses : b a n ish m e n t a n d re co n c ilia tion . T h e th re e (form al) a c ts o f su sp en sio n a re a lik e in th e ir d iv isio n . W h a t rem a in s in a n y (form al) a c t is to u n d e rsto o d a s in th e case of cen su re. / [30]

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D IV IS IO N

(C U L L A V A G G A ) II

A t o n e tim e, th e A w a k e n e d O n e , th e L o rd w a s s ta y in g a t S a v a t t h i in th e J e t a G r o v e in A n a th a p in d ik a s m o n a s te ry . N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s u n d e r p r o b a tio n 1 co n se n te d to re g u la r m o n k s g re e tin g th e m , s ta n d in g u p b e fo re th e m , s a lu tin g w ith jo in e d p a lm s, d o in g th e p ro p e r d u tie s , b rin g in g fo rw a rd a se a t, b rin g in g fo rw a rd a sle e p in g -p la c e , w a te r fo r (w ashing) th e fe e t, a fo o tsto o l, a fo o t-sta n d , re c e iv in g th e b o w l a n d ro b e, tr e a tin g th e ir b a c k s b y m a ssa g in g . T h o s e w h o w e re m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w ca n th ese m o n k s w h o a re u n d e r p ro b a tio n c o n se n t to re g u la r m o n k s g re e tin g . . . tr e a tin g th e ir b a c k s b y m a ss a g in g ? " T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . T h e n th e L o r d on th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e c tio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : I s it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s , th a t m o n k s w h o are u n d e r p ro b a tio n co n se n t to re g u la r m o n k s g r e e tin g . . . tr e a tin g th e ir b a c k s b y m a ssa g in g ? " I t is tru e . L o r d . T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd re b u k e d th e m , s a y in g : H o w , m o n k s, c a n th e se m o n k s w h o are u n d e r p ro b a tio n co n se n t to r e g u la r m o n k s . . . tr e a tin g th e ir b a c k s b y m a ss a g in g ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a s in g th o s e w h o are n ot (yet) p le a se d . . . A n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n ed t a lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : A m o n k w h o is u n d e r p r o b a tio n , m o n k s, sh o u ld n o t co n se n t to re g u la r m o n k s g re e tin g h im . . . tr e a tin g h is b a c k b y m a ssa g in g . W h o e v e r sh o u ld c o n se n t to (a n y o f th e se a ctio n s), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, th e m u tu a l2 g re e tin g , sta n d in g u p b e fo re . . . tr e a tin g o f b a c k s b y m a ss a g in g b e tw e e n m o n k s w h o are u n d e r p ro b a tio n a c c o rd in g to th e ir se n io rity . I a llo w , m o n k s, fiv e th in g s fo r m o n k s u n d e r
1 C f . V i n . i. 14 3 , a ls o V i n . 1 . 1 3 6 , i v . 3 3 5 6 . V A . 1 1 5 9 n o t i c e s f o u r k in d s o f p r o b a t io n , p a r iv d s a , a l l m e n t io n e d b e l o w : t h e u n c o n c e a le d (a s o f fo r m e r m e m b e r s o f o t h e r s e c t s , a n d s e e C V . I I I . 1. 1 ) , t h e c o n c e a le d (se e C V . I I I . 3. 1 ) , t h e p u r i f y i n g ( C V . I I I . 26. 1 f f .) , a n d t h e c o n c u r r e n t ( C V . I I I . 14- 1 f f .) . 1 m i t hit.

1 .1 -2 ]

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p ro b a tio n , a c c o rd in g to th e ir s e n i o r it y : O b se rv a n c e , I n v ita tio n , c lo th s fo r th e ra in s, g ifts (to th e O rd e r1), rice. iii n . ** W e ll n o w , m o n k s, I w ill la y d o w n th e c o n d u c t2 fo r m o n k s u n d er p ro b a tio n , so th a t m o n k s u n d e r p ro b a tio n [31] m a y co n d u c t th e m s e lv e s 3 a c c o rd in g to it. A m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n , m on ks, sh o u ld c o n d u c t h im self p r o p e r ly .4 T h is is th e p ro p e r c o n d u c t5 in th is c a s e 6 : he sh o u ld n o t o rd ain , h e sh o u ld n o t g iv e g u id a n c e , a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d h im , he sh o u ld n o t con sen t to an a g ree m e n t to e x h o r t n u n s, e v e n if a g re e d u p o n he sh o u ld n o t e x h o r t n u n s, he sh o u ld n o t fa ll in to th a t sam e offen ce fo r w h ic h h e w a s g ra n te d p ro b a tio n , n or in to a n o th e r th a t is sim ila r, nor in to one t h a t is w o rse, he sh o u ld n o t find fa u lt w ith th e (form al) a c t, he sh o u ld n o t fin d fa u lt w ith th o se w h o c a r r y o u t th e (form al) a c t, he sh o u ld n o t su sp en d a re g u la r m o n k 's O b se rv a n c e , he sh o u ld n o t su sp e n d his I n v ita tio n , he he sh o u ld n o t issu e co m m a n d s, sh o u ld n o t set u p a u th o r ity , he sh o u ld n o t a sk fo r le a v e , he sh o u ld n o t re p ro v e , he sh o u ld n ot m a k e re m em b er, he sh o u ld n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s. N o r, m onks, sh o u ld a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n w a lk in fro n t o f a re g u la r m o n k , n o r s it d o w n in fro n t o f h im .7 W h a te v e r is th e O rd e r's la s t se a t, la s t sle e p in g -p la c e , la s t d w e llin g -p la c e 8 th a t sh o u ld b e g iv e n to h im a n d h e sh o u ld co n se n t to it. M o n k s, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t a p p ro a c h th e fa m ilie s o f a reg u la r m o n k 9 e ith e r a s th e n o v ic e w h o w a lk s in fro n t o f h im or as th e n o v ic e w h o w a lk s b e h in d h im . H e sh o u ld n o t u n d e r ta k e th e fo re s t-p ra c tic e , he sh o u ld n o t u n d e rta k e th e a lm s m a n s

1 onojana. V A , 1 1 6 1 e x p l a i n s b y vissajjana, b e s t o w in g . C f. onojesi a t V in . i. 3 9 a n d ort-ojetha a t Vin. i v . 1 5 6 , b o t h m e a n in g '* t o g i v e , t o d e d i c a t e . '' 1 vatta, c u s t o m , s e r v ic e , s o m e t h in g t o b e d o n e . C f. C V . I. 27. 1 . vattitabbam . 4 sammdvattitabbam. 6 sammdvattand .

cf. cv. r. 5.
7 T h e s e t w o a c t io n s a r e p a r t o f in t e n t io n a l c a u s i n g o f d is c o m f o r t " a t Vin. i v . 2 9 0 . 8 pariyanta. ** L a s t " is u s e d in t h e s a m e s e n s e a t N i s s a g . X X I I . See B.D. ii. 12 0 , n . 5 . I n r e f e r e n c e a ls o t o t h e s e t h r e e t h in g s " t h e l a s t " w o u ld m e a n t h e l a s t a v a i l a b l e a s t h e y w e r e b e in g a s s ig n e d o r d is t r ib u t e d t o m e m b e rs o f t h e O r d e r . B u t s e e dpattipariyanta , rattipariyanta , a t C V . I I I . 26. i , a n d b e lo w , p . 76 , n . 1 . I.e. t h e f a m ilie s w h o s u p p o r t h im a n d w h o m h e v i s i t s f o r a lm s f o o d .

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p ra c tic e ,1 h e sh o u ld n o t h a v e a lm s fo o d ta k e n b a c k 2 fo r th is reason :3 th a t h e th in k s , ' D o n o t le t th e m fin d o u t a b o u t m e .4 M on ks, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld a n n o u n c e i t 5 w h e n he is in -co m in g , he sh o u ld a n n o u n c e it to (a n o th e r w h o is) in c o m in g , h e sh o u ld a n n o u n c e it a t th e O b se rv a n c e , h e sh o u ld a n n o u n c e i t a t th e I n v ita tio n , if h e is ill h e sh o u ld also a n n o u n ce it b y m e a n s o f a m e ss e n g e r.6 || 2 || M on ks, a m o n k u n d e r p r o b a tio n sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a re sid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re no m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith a r e g u la r (m o n k), u n le ss th e re is a d a n g e r .7 M on ks, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t g o from , a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to w h a t is n o t a re sid e n c e w h e re th e re a re n o m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith a re g u la r (m on k), u n le ss th e re is a d a n g er. M o n k s, a m o n k u n d e r p r o b a tio n s h o u ld n o t g o fro m a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to a re sid e n ce o r t o w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re are n o m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith a re g u la r (m onk), u n le ss th e re is a d a n g e r. M o n k s, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n s h o u ld n o t g o fro m w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s to a re sid e n c e w h e re th e r e a re no m o n k s . . . to w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h e re th e r e a re no m o n k s . . , to a resid en ce o r to w h a t is n o t a re sid e n c e w h e re th e re a re no m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith a r e g u la r (m o n k), u n less th e re is a d a n g e r. M on ks, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a resid en ce, o r fro m w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s t o a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re n o m o n k s . . . to w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re no m o n k s . . . to a re sid e n ce o r to w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e r e a re n o m o n k s , e x c e p t w ith a re g u la r (m o n k), u n less th e r e is a d a n g er.
1 H e s h o u ld n o t s t a y a lo n e in t h e f o r e s t a n d h e s h o u ld n o t g o t o a v i l l a g e f o r a lm s . T h e s e t w o a iig a o r p r a c t ic e s , p a r t o f t h e d h u ta fig a , a s c e t ic p r a c t ic e s , a r e e x p la in e d in d e t a i l a t V is m . 5 9 ff. S e e V i n . i. 2 5 3 , a n d B .I > . i v . 3 5 1 , n . 2 . 1 n ih a r a p e ta b b o , i.e . f r o m a v i l l a g e t o a m o n a s t e r y . C f . tato n lh a r itv d a t V i n . i v . 80 ( B . D . ii. 3 2 4 ). * ta p p a c c a y a . A c c o r d i n g t o V A . 1 1 6 5 m o n k s r e t u r n i n g t o t h e m o n a s t e r y w o u ld s e e h im s i t t i n g d o w n a r a e a t in g , a n d i f h e d id n o t te U t h e m h e w a s u n d e r p r o b a t i o n h is p e r io d o f p r o b a t i o n m i g h t b e c u r t a il e d . * I . e . t h a t h e is u n d e r p r o b a t i o n . V A , 1 1 6 5 s a y s , '* * D o n o t l e t o n e m o n k fin d o u t a b o u t m e a n d w i t h t h i s in m in d h e s h o u ld n o t e a t , h a v i n g h a d i t (i.e . t h e a lm s f o o d b r o u g h t b a c k ) c o o k e d , i n t h e d w e l li n g - p l a c e b y a n o v i c e . H e m u s t e n te r a v illa g e fo r a lm s fo o d / ' * I . e . t h e f a c t t h a t h e is u n d e r p r o b a t io n . 6 1 1 6 6 s a y s t h a t t h e m e s s e n g e r m u s t n o t b e a n y o n e w h o is n o t o r d a in e d , h e m u s t b e a m o n k . 7 C f ; M V . I I . 35.

C U L L A V A G G A II 47 1*3-4] " M onks, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a resid ence w h e re th e re are m o n k s t o a resid en ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s if th e m o n k s th e re sh o u ld b e lo n g to a d iffere n t c o m m u n ion , e x c e p t w ith a re g u la r (m on k), [32] u n less th e re is a d a n g er. M o n k s, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t g o fro m resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h ere th e re are m o n k s . . . sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a resid en ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h ere th ere are m o n k s to a residen ce o r to w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h e re th e re are m o n ks if th e m o n k s th e re sh o u ld b e lo n g to a d ilfere n t co m m u n io n , e x c e p t w ith a re g u la r (m o n k), u n less th ere is a d an ger. " M o n k s , a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n m a y go fro m a resid en ce w h ere th e re a re m o n k s to a resid en ce w h ere th e re a re m o n k s if th e m o n k s th e re sh o u ld b e lo n g to th e sam e co m m u n io n an d if he k n o w s, ' I a m a b le to a rriv e th is v e r y daj^. M o n k s, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n m a y g o fro m a resid en ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s to w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s . . . m a y g o fro m a resid en ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h ere th e re are m o n k s to a resid en ce o r to w h a t is n o t a residen ce w h ere th e re a re m o n k s if th e m o n k s th d re sh o u ld b e lo n g to th e sam e co m m u n io n a n d if he kn o w s, ' I a m a b le to a rriv e th is v e r y d a y / |[ 3 || " M o n k s , a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a re sid ence 1 u n d e r one ro o fin g w ith a re g u la r m o n k , he sh o u ld n o t s t a y in w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce 2 u n d e r one ro o fin g (w ith him ), h e sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a resid en ce o r in w h a t is n o t a resid en ce u n d e r one ro o fin g (w ith h im ).3 H a v in g seen a re g u la r m o n k , he sh o u ld g e t u p fro m h is se a t. H e sh o u ld o ffe r h is se a t to th e re g u la r m o n k . A m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t sit d o w n on th e sa m e se a t w ith a re g u la r m o n k , he sh o u ld n o t s it d o w n on a h ig h se a t if h e 4 is s ittin g d o w n on a lo w s e a t ,5 he sh o u ld n o t sit d o w n on a sea t if h e is s ittin g on th e g ro u n d , he
1 V A . 1 1 6 7 h e r e d e fin e s " le s id e n c e ,J, d v d s a , a s " a lo d g in g m a d e f o r s t a y i n g in.** 1 V A , 1 1 6 7 h e r e d e fin e s " n o t a r e s id e n c e " a s a ** s h r in e h o u s e (ce tiy a g h a rn ), w is d o m - h o u s e ( b o d h ig h a ra ), a p l a c e ( a tta k a ) f o r s w e e p in g s , a p l a c e fo r w o o d , a b u ild in g (m a la , s e e B . D . ii. 1 6 , a . 4) f o r d r i n k in g - w a t e r , a p r i v y , a g r a n a r y / * * C f . C V . I . 27. 1 ; I . 28. 2. 4 I . e . t h e r e g u la r m o n k , 6 C f . S e k h i y a 69.

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sh o u ld n o t p a c e u p a n d d o w n in th e sa m e p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in / he sh o u ld n o t p a c e u p a n d d o w n in a h ig h p la ce fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in if h e is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in a lo w p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in , he sh o u ld n o t p a c e u p a n d d o w n in a p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in if he is p a cin g u p a n d d o w n on th e g r o u n d .2 M on ks, a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a resid en ce u n d e r one ro o fin g w ith a sen io r m o n k w h o is u n d e r p ro b a tio n . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s to b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s m dnatta (disciplin e) . . . w ith a m o n k w h o is u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e) . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s r e h a b ilita tio n , he sh o u ld n o t s t a y in w h a t is n o t a resid en ce u n d e r o n e ro o fin g (w ith him ) . . . h e sh o u ld n o t p a c e u p a n d d o w n in a p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in if h e is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n on th e g ro u n d . I f, m o n k s, o n e u n d e r p ro b a tio n a s th e fo u r th (m e m b rr )3 sh o u ld g r a n t p ro b a tio n , sh o u ld se n d b a c k to th e b e g in n in g , sh o u ld in flict m dnatta (d iscip lin e), if, a s tw e n tie th (m em ber) he sh o u ld re h a b ilita te , it is n o t a (form al) a c t a n d o u g h t n o t to b e c a rrie d o u t / ' [| 4 || T o ld a re th e N in e ty - fo u r O b s e rv a n c e s fo r one u n d e r P r o b a tio n . ][ 1 || T h e n th e v e n e r a b le U p a li a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o r d , he s a t d o w n a t a re s p e c t fu l d ista n ce. A s h e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e v e n e ra b le U p a li s p o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " N o w , L o rd , h o w m a n y (k in d s of) in te r r u p tio n s 4 are th e re fo r a m o n k u n d e r p r o b a tio n ? " T h e re are th re e (k in d s of) in te rru p tio n s , U p a li, fo r a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n : [33] d w e llin g w ith 5 ; d w e llin g a w a y .
1 c a n k a m a , m o n k s ' w a l k , c lo is t e r . A t f ir s t , t h i s s e e m s n o t t o h a v e been p r e p a r e d o r l e v e ll e d ; t h e n i t w a s a llo w e d t o b e m a d e le v e l o r e v e n , t h e n t o b e r o o fe d o v e r . Cf. C V . V . 14. 2. 3. 1 S h o w in g t h a t " p a c in g u p a n d d o w n " , c a n k a m a n ta ,n e e d n o t a l w a y s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e iD a c a n k a m a . * Cf. M V . I X . 4 . 6 . O n e u n d e r p r o b a t i o n d o e s n o t c o m p l e t e a g r o u p o r a n O rd e r, gap a a n d sam gha. ra tticch e d a , l i t . ** b r e a k in g o f n i g h t s " , t i m e h a v i n g b e e n r e c k o n e d b y n ig h t s in s t e a d o f b y d a y s . 6 sa h a v d sa , w h ic h V A . 1 1 6 8 9 e x p l a i n s t o m e a n a n y o f t h e t h in g s g i v e n in C V . I I . 1. 4.

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se p a ra te d fro m 1 ; n ot a n n o u n c in g .2 T h e se , U p a li, are th e th re e (kinds of) in te rru p tio n s fo r a m o n k u n d e r p r o b a tio n ." || i || 2 f| N o w a t th a t tim e a la rg e O rd er o f m o n k s h a d g a th e re d to g e th e r a t S a v a t t h i ; m o n k s u n d e r p ro b a tio n w ere n o t a b le to c a r r y th r o u g h 3 th e ir p ro b a tio n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p o s tp o n e 4 p ro b a tio n . A n d th u s , m o n ks, sh o u ld it be p o stp o n e d : T h a t m o n k w h o is u n d e r p ro b a tio n , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d o n e m o n k , h a v in g a rra n g e d his u p p er ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g s a t d o w n on h is h a u n ch es, h a v in g sa lu te d w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to h im : ' I a m p o stp o n in g p ro b a tio n J p ro b a tio n co m es to b e p o s t p o n e d ; I a m p o stp o n in g th e o b s e r v a n c e ',5 p ro b a tio n co m es to be p o stp o n e d . 6 [| i |j N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w e n t a w a y fro m S a v a t t h i t o th is p la c e a n d t h a t 7 ; m o n k s u n d e r p r o b a tio n w e re n o t a b le to c a r r y th ro u g h th e ir p ro b a tio n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to ta k e u p 8 p ro b a tio n . A n d th u s , m on ks, sh o u ld it b e ta k e n u p : I f t h a t m o n k w h o is u n d er p ro b a tio n , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d one m o n k . . . h a v in g sa lu te d w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to h im : ' I a m ta k in g up p ro b a tio n ' p r o b a tio n co m es to b e ta k e n u p ; ' I a m ta k in g u p th e o b se rv a n c e ' p ro b a tio n co m es to b e ta k e n u p ."
If 2 I f 3 f|

T o ld is th e O b s e rv a n c e fo r one u n d e r P ro b a tio n .
1 v ip p a v d s a , a s in C V . I I . 1 . 3. C f . v ip p a v d s a in e .g . N i s s a g . I I . S e e B ~ D . ii., p . 13 , n . 1 a n d p . 14 , d . i fo r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s , a n d a ls o N is s a g . X X I X . a n d ro ca n d , a s in t h e w a y s s p e c ifie d a t e n d o f C V . I I . 1. 2. * so d h etu m , t o p u r i f y , c le a n s e , c le a r , s o : t o c l e a r o n e s e lf o f, t o fin is h , t o c a i r y t h r o u g h . I t w a s p e r h a p s im p o s s ib le f o r a m o n k t o a n n o u n c e t h a t h e w a s u n d e r p r o b a t i o n i f t h e O r d e r w a s v e r y la r g e o r i f i t w a s d is p e r s e d . 4 n ik k h ip i t u m , t h e u s u a l w o r d f o r t o l a y a s id e , t o l a y d o w n , t o d e p o s it " , b u t h e r e m e a n in g t o la y a s id e t e m p o r a r i l y o n l y , u n t i l a f a v o u r a b l e t im e c o m e s f o r u n d e r t a k in g t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d a g a in . 6 va tta. S e e t h e 94 vattd t o b e o b s e r v e d b y t h o s e u n d e r p r o b a t io n a t C V . I I . 1. 2 4. I h i s a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g p h r a s e a t e n d o f |] 2 H b e lo w , a lt h o u g h a p p a r e n t l y m e a n t t o h a v e b e e n u t t e r e d b y G o t a m a , d o n o t e n d , a s w o u ld b e e x p e c t e d , w i t h ti, 7 ta k a m -ta h a m , h e r e a n d t h e r e . s a m d d itu m , t o t a k e u p o r u n d e r t a k e a g a in t h e p r o b a t io n im p o s e d o n t h e o f fe n d in g m o n k .

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N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w h o d e se rv e d to b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g 1 c o n se n te d to re g u la r m o n k s g re e tin g th e m . . . ( = I I . 1 . x, 2 . In stea d o f m o n k s u n d e r p ro b a tio n read m o n k s w h o d e se rve to b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g ) . . . ' D o n o t le t th e m fin d o u t a b o u t m e .' M o n k s, a m o n k w h o d eserves to b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to a re sid e n ce w h e re th e r e are m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith a r e g u la r (m o n k ), u n le ss th e re is a d a n g e r . . . fro m a re sid e n ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h ere th e re are m o n k s to a re sid e n ce o r to w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith a re g u la r (m o n k), u n less th e re is a d a n g e r. M on ks, a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s to b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g m a y g o fro m a resid en ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s to a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s . . . fro m a re sid e n ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to a residen ce o r to w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s if th e m o n k s th e re sh o u ld b e lo n g to th e sa m e co m m u n io n a n d if h e k n o w s, I a m a b le to a rriv e th is v e r y d a y .' M o n k s, a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s to b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a re sid e n ce u n d e r one ro o fin g w ith a re g u la r m o n k . . . ( = C V . I I . 1 . 4) . . . h e sh o u ld n o t p ace u p a n d d o w n in a p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in if h e is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n on th e g ro u n d . [34] M o n k s, a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s to b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a re sid e n ce u n d e r one ro o fin g w ith a m o n k u n d e r p r o b a tio n . . . w ith a se n io r m o n k 2 . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s m dnatta (d iscip lin e) . . . w ith a m o n k u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e) . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rve s r e h a b ilita tio n . . . he sh o u ld n o t p a c e u p a n d d o w n in a p la c e to p a c e u p a n d d o w n in i f h e is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n on th e g ro u n d . I f , m o n k s, o n e w h o d e se rv e s to b e s e n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g as th e fo u r th (m em ber) sh o u ld g r a n t p r o b a tio n , sh o u ld send b a d e to th e b e g in n in g , sh o u ld in flic t m d natta (d iscip lin e), if, as th e tw e n tie th (m em b er), h e sh o u ld r e h a b ilita te , it is n o t a (form al) a c t a n d o u g h t n o t to b e c a rrie d o u t .3 || 1 || 4 j|
1 Cf. MV. III. 6. 7.
* F o r f o llo w in g it e m s , s e e

1 Cf. MV. IX . 4. 6.

CV. II. 1. 4.

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N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s d e s e rv in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e )1 co n se n te d to re g u la r m o n k s g re e tin g th e m . . . ( = 1 1 . 1 . 1 , 2) . . . D o n o t le t th e m fin d o u t a b o u t m e \ M o n k s, a m o n k d e se rv in g mdnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a resid en ce w h ere th e re are m o n k s to a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re are no m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith a re g u la r (m o n k), u n le ss th e r e is a d a n g e r . . . ( = 1 . 3 , 4) . . . h e sh o u ld n o t p a c e u p a n d d o w n in a p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in if h e is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n on th e g ro u n d . M on ks, a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s mdnatta (discipline) sh ould n o t s t a y in a re sid e n ce u n d e r o n e ro o fin g w ith a m o n k w h o is u n d e r p ro b a tio n . , . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s to b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . w ith a se n io r m o n k w h o d e se rv e s m dnatta (d iscip lin e) . . . w ith a m o n k u n d e rg o in g mdnatta (disciplin e) . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ili ta tio n . . . a n d o u g h t n o t to b e ca rrie d o u t . || 1 || 5 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (discipline) co n se n te d to re g u la r m o n k s g re e tin g th e m . . . ( = 1 1 . 1 . 1 , 2 Instead o f u n d e r p ro b a tio n read u n d e rg o in g mdnatta (d is c ip lin e )) . . . f D o n o t le t th e m fin d o u t a b o u t m e .' M o n k s, a m o n k u n d e rg o in g mdnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld a n n o u n c e it w h e n he is in co m in g , h e sh o u ld a n n o u n ce it to (a n o th e r w h o is) in c o m in g , he sh o u ld a n n o u n c e it a t th e O b se rv a n c e , h e sh o u ld a n n o u n c e it a t th e I n v ita tio n , he sh o u ld a n n o u n c e it d a ily ,2 if he is ill he sh o u ld a n n o u n c e it b y m e a n s o f a m essen ger. M onks, a m o n k u n d e rg o in g 'mdnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld n o t go fro m a resid en ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s to a re sid e n ce w h e re th ere are no m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith an O rd e r ,3 u n less th e re is a d a n g e r . . . sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a re sid e n ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s to a resid en ce o r to w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re no m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith an O rd er, u n less th e re is a d a n g e r . . . sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a residen ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s [35] to a resid en ce o r to w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s i f th e m o n k s th e re sh o u ld b e lo n g to a d iffere n t co m m u n io n , e x c e p t w ith a n O rd er, u n le ss th e re is a d a n g e r. M onks, a m o n k u n d e rg o in g mdnatta (d iscip lin e) m a y g o fro m
1 C f . M V . I I I . 6 . 8. 1 T h i s is a n e x t r a c la u s e p e c u lia r t o t h e m o n k u n d e r g o in g m d n a tta . * I n s t e a d o f " a r e g u l a r m o n k , a s in t h e o t h e r c a s e s .

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a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s . . . fro m a re sid e n ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to a re sid e n ce or to w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s if th e m o n k s th e re sh o u ld b e lo n g to th e sa m e co m m u n io n a n d if he k n o w s, ' I a m a b le to a r r iv e th is v e r y d a y / M o n k s, a m o n k u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld n ot s t a y in a re sid e n ce u n d e r o n e ro o fin g w ith a re g u la r m o n k . . . ( = I I . 1 . 4 ) . . . h e sh o u ld n o t p a c e u p a n d d o w n in a p la c e to p a c e u p a n d d o w n in i f h e is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n on th e g ro u n d . M on ks, a m o n k u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a re sid e n ce u n d e r o n e ro o fin g w ith a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s to be se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . .w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s m dnatta (d iscip line) . . . w ith a sen io r m o n k w h o is u n d e rg o in g mdnatta (d iscip lin e) . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ilita tio n . . . a n d o u g h t n o t t o be c a rrie d o u t / ' |j 1 j| 6 || T h e n th e v e n e ra b le U p a li a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o r d , h e s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c t fu l d is ta n c e . A s h e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e v e n e ra b le U p a li sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " N o w , L o rd , h o w m a n y (k in d s of) in te rru p tio n s a re th e re fo r a m o n k w h o is u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e) ? w T h e r e a re fo u r (kin d s of) in te rru p tio n s , U p a li, fo r a m o n k w h o is u n d e rg o in g mdnatta (d iscip lin e) : d w e llin g w ith ; d w e ll in g a w a y , se p a ra te d fro m ; n o t a n n o u n c in g ; g o in g a b o u t w ith less th a n a g r o u p .1 T h e se , U p a li, a re th e fo u r (k in d s of) in te r ru p tio n s fo r a m o n k w h o is u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d is c ip lin e )/ ' ! | i II 7 || N o w a t t h a t tim e a la rg e to g e th e r a t S a v a t t h i ; m o n k s w ere u n a b le to c a r r y th ro u g h (see I I . 3. 1 , 2 ) . . . m dnatta up/' ||x || 8 || O rd e r o f m o n k s h a d g a th e re d u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (discipline) th e ir m dnatta (d iscip lin e) . . . (d iscip lin e) co m es to b e ta k e n

1 u n e g a p e ca ra p a m , a g a p a , g r o u p u s u a l l y c o n s is t in g o f t w o , t h r e e o r fo u r m o n k s . B u t V A . 1 1 7 0 s a y s ; ' h e r e a g a n a m e a n s f o u r (m o n k s ) o r m o re . T h e r e fo r e , i f h e is s t a y i n g w i t h t h r e e m o n k s , t h a t i t s e lf is a n i n t e r r u p t io n .

9 .i]____________ C U L L A V A G G A

I I _____________ 53

N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w h o d e s e rv e d r e h a b ilita tio n c o n se n te d to re g u la r m o n k s g re e tin g th e m . * . ( = 1 1 . 1 . 1 , 2 ) " . . . D o n o t le t h im fin d o u t a b o u t m e .' M o n k s, a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ilita tio n sh o u ld n o t g o fro m a resid en ce w h ere th e re are m o n k s to a resid en ce w h e re th e re are n o m o n k s . . . fro m a re sid e n ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h e re th ere a re m o n k s to a re sid e n ce o r to w h a t is n o t a resid en ce w h ere th e re a re n o m o n k s, e x c e p t w ith a re g u la r (m on k), unless th ere is a d a n g er. M on ks, a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ilita tio n m a y g o fro m a resid en ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s to [36] a resid en ce w h e re th e re are m o n k s . , . m a y g o fro m a resid en ce o r fro m w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h ere th e re are m o n k s to a resid en ce o r to w h a t is n o t a re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re m o n k s, if th e m o n k s th e re sh o u ld b e lo n g to th e sa m e co m m u n io n , a n d i f he k n o w s, I a m a b le to a r r iv e th is v e r y d a y / M o n k s, a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ilita tio n sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a re sid en ce u n d e r one ro o fin g w ith a re g u la r m o n k . . . h e sh o u ld n o t p a c e u p a n d d o w n in a p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in if h e is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n on th e g ro u n d . M o n k s, a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ilita tio n sh o u ld n o t s t a y in a resid en ce u n d e r o n e ro o fin g w ith a m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n . . . w ith a m o n k w h 6 d e se rv e s to b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . w ith a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s m anatta (d iscip lin e) . . . w ith a m o n k u n d e rg o in g manatta (d iscip lin e) . . , w ith a sen ior m o n k w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ilita tio n . . . a n d o u g h t n o t t o b e ca rrie d o u t . il 1 !l 9 II T o ld is th e S e c o n d S e c tio n : th a t o n B e in g u n d e r P ro b a tio n . In th is S e c tio n are fiv e item s. T h is is its k e y :

T h o se u n d e r p ro b a tio n c o n se n t to a re g u la r m o n k 's g ree tin g , sta n d in g u p b e fo re , jo in e d p a lm s, p ro p e r d u tie s ,1 s e a t, / B r in g in g fo rw a rd a slee p in g -p la ce, w a te r fo r th e fe e t, a fo o t sto o l, a fo o ts ta n d , th e b o w l, tr e a tin g th e b a c k b y m a ssa g in g , a n d w e ll-b e h a v e d ones lo o k e d d o w n u p o n .2 /
1 O l d e o b e r g s e d n . r e a d s : a n ja li-s d m ty a m d s a n a m ; S in h . e d n . r e a d s : a H ja lin ca s d m lc iy a m ; S ia m . e d n . r e a d s : a n ja liH c 'e v a s d m ic im . S in h . a n d S ia m , b e g in n e x t lin e w i t h d s a n a m . a O ld e n b e r g s e d n . h a s a lin e le s s t h a n S in h . a n d S ia m ., w h ic h I f o llo w .

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I f o n e co n se n ts th e re is w ro n g -d o in g ,1 m u tu a l, fiv e th in g s a c c o rd in g t o s e n io r ity 2 : O b se rv a n c e , I n v it a t io n , (clo th s for) th e ra in s , g ifts , fo o d .3 / A n d p ro p e r c o n d u c t, th e c a r ria g e th e re , in re g a rd to a re g u la r m o n k ,4 a n d w h a te v e r is th e la s t, n e ith e r a s th e n o v ic e in fro n t o f n or b e h in d ,5 / F o r e s t, b rin g in g b a c k fo o d , w h e n c o m in g in, a t th e O b se rv a n c e , a n d a t th e I n v ita tio n , a n d b y a m e sse n g e r ,6 a n d h e m a y go to w h e re th e re are m o n k s. / U n d e r one ro o fin g a n d g e ttin g u p a n d lik e w is e in re g a rd to o ffe rin g ,7 / on a s e a t, in a h ig h p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in , on th e g ro u n d a n d n o t in a p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in, / W it h a s e n io r n o t a (form al) a c t , in te r r u p tio n s 8 a n d c a r r y in g s th ro u g h , p o stp o n in g , ta k in g u p sh o u ld b e s ta te d (by) one u n d e r p r o b a tio n .9 / T o th e b e g in n in g , th o se d e s e r v in g m dnatta , lik e w is e th ose u n d e rg o in g m dnatta , a n d a lso h e w h o d e se rv e s r e h a b ilita tio n a g a in th e co m p o sin g b y th e m e th o d . / T h r e e 10 fo r th o se u n d e r p r o b a tio n , fo u r 10 fo r one u n d e rg o in g m dnatta .
1 B o t h S in h - a n d S i a m , r e a d d u k k a ta m , a s a g a i n s t O l d e n b e r g 's d u k k a ia . * S in h . a n d S ia m , r e a d y a th a v u d d h a m (a s C V . I I . 1 . i ) ; O ld e n b e r g 's e d n . h a s p u n d p a r e ; c f . p u n d p a r e a t S n . 10 0 4 . 0 O ld e n b e r g 's a n d S in h . e d n s . r e a d v a s s ik -o n o ja -b k o ja n a m ; S ia m . e d n . v a ss ik a h c a v a n o ja n a r n , a n d i t b e g in s t h e n e x t lin e w i t h b h a tta m ( o m it t e d b y O ld e n b e r g a n d S in h .) , w h ic h is t h e w o r d u s e d a t e n d o f C V . I I . 1. i , b h o ja n a n o t o c c u r r in g t h e r e a t a ll. , 4 p a k a ta tta ss a g a cch a n a m , O ld e n b e r g ; p a k a ta tte n a g a cch a re, S in h . a n d S ia m , e d n s . T h i s r e fe r s t o n o t w a l k i n g o r s i t t i n g d o w r in f r o n t o f a r e g u l a r m o n k ( C V . I I . 1. 2 ). 6 S in h . a n d S ia m , e d n s : n a p u r e p a c c h d s a m a p e n a ; O l d e n b e r g : p u r e p a cch d ta th ev a ca . * S in h . a n d S ia m . e d n s . : d u ten a ; O ld e n b e r g ; d u to . 7 S in h . a n d S ia m . e d n s . r e a d : e k a c c h a n n e n a ( S in h . ca ) v a tth a b b a m n a c h a m a y a m n is a jjit e . 8 S in h . a n d S ia m . e d n s . r e a d r a tticch e d d ; O ld e n b e r g : r a tiicck e d o . 9 S in h . a n d S ia m . e d n s . r e a d : n ik k ip a n a tn s a m a d a n a tn n a ta b b a m p d r iv d s ik a ; O ld e n b e r g : n ik k h ip a n a t n sa m d d a n a tn , r a tti va p a r iv d s ik e . 10 R e f e r r in g t o *' in t e r r u p t io n s , a s a t C V . I I . 2. 1 ; I I . 7 . 1 .

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A s w ith th e th re e in te rru p tio n s , so th e re is ' d a ily ' fo r th o se u n d e rg o in g m anatta * T w o (form al) a c ts a re sim ila r, th e re m a in in g th re e (form al) a c ts are e x a c t l y th e sam e. [37]

1 sa tn a n tir a ttic c h e d e su n ia n a ttesu ca d ev a st ( O ld e n b e r g a n d S in h .) . m e a n in g , I t a k e i t , t h a t a s t h e r e is a n e x t r a ** in t e r r u p t io n ** f o r o n e u n d e r g o in g m a n a tta , so h e h a s t o m a k e a n e x t r a a n n o u n c e m e n t " ( b e g in n in g o f I I . 0. i ) . S ia m , e d n . r e a d s : n a s a m e n ti r a tticck e d d m d n a tte s u ca d e v d sik a n t, " t h e in t e r r u p t io n s d o n o t a g r e e (o r, a r e n o t in a c c o r d a n c e , n o t o n a ll f o u r s ) a n d t h e r e is d a i ly * f o r t h o s e u n d e r g o in g m a n a tta

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(C U L L A V A G G A )

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A t one tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e , t h e L o rd , w a s s ta y in g a t S a v a t t h i in th e J e t a G ro v e in A n a th a p in d ik a 's m o n a ste ry . N ow ' a t t h a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le U d a y in 1 c a m e t o h a v e fa lle n in to o n e o ffe n ce : th e in te n tio n a l em issio n o f se m e n ,2 n o t c o n c e a led . H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : " I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, h a v e fa lle n in to one o ffe n c e . . . n o t c o n c e a le d . N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r in flic t m anatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts 3 o n th e m o n k U d a y in fo r th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t concealed* j| x [| A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e in flic te d : M o n k s, t h a t m o n k U d a y in , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er, h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p e r ro b e o v e r o n e sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u re d th e fe e t o f th e sen io r m o n k s, h a v in g s a t d o w n o n h is h a u n c h e s, h a v in g sa lu te d w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : H o n o u re d sirs, I fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . S o I , h o n o u red sirs, a sk th e O rd e r fo r m a natta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . I , h o n o u red sirs, fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d . A n d a seco n d tim e I a s k th e O rd e r . . . n o t c o n c e a le d . -I, h o n o u re d sirs, fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d . A n d a th ir d tim e I a s k th e O rd e r fo r m anatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffe n ce : th e in te n tio n a l em issio n o f sem en , n o t c o n c e a le d / || 2 || T h e O rd er sh o u ld be in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d . H e is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r m anatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix
1 A s e n s u a l m o n k . S e e I n d e x t o N a m e s in B.D. i, ii, iii. 1 F o r m a l M e e t in g I ( V i n . iii. 1 1 2 , B .D . i. 1 9 6 ) . Cf. a ls o P a c . I X , L X I V , a n d V i n . i v . 19 4 f . N.B . a t B.D. ii. 2 1 9 ( P a c . I X ) t h e s e n t e n c e , H e , b e in g u n d e r p r o b a t io n , s a t d o w n in t l ie r e f e c t o r y a t t h e e n d o f a seat* (d s a n a p a r iy a n te ) s h o u ld b e c o r r e c t e d t o s a t d o w n . . . o n t h e l a s t s e a t " , in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h C V . I I . 1. 2. * V A . 1 1 7 0 m e n t io n s f o u r k i n d s o f m a n a tta : t h e u n c o n c e a le d , t h e c o n c e a le d , t h e f o r t n i g h t 's d u r a t io n , t h e c o n c u r r e n t .

1*32.2]

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n ig h ts on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n cea le d . I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y in flict mdnatta (dis cipline) fo r s ix n ig h ts on th e m o n k U d a y in o n a c co u n t o f th e one offen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . [38] T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t t h e O rd er liste n to m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . H e is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r mdnatta (discipline) . . . n o t co n cea le d . T h e O rd er is in flictin g mdnatta (discipline) fo r s ix n ig h ts o n th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n cea le d . I f th e in flictio n of mdnatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on th e m o n k U d a y in on a c co u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; h e to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a se co n d tim e I sp e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo rth th is m a tte r : H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in . . . sh o u ld sp e a k . M dnatta (discipline) is b e in g in flicte d b y th e O rd e r fo r s ix n ig h ts o n th e m o n k U d a y in fo r th e o n e o ffen ce : in te n tio n a l em issio n of sem en, n o t co n cea led . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is .' " II 3 II 1 II H e , h a v in g p e rfo rm e d mdnatta (d iscip lin e), a n n o u n ce d to m o n k s : I , y o u r re v e ren ce s, fe ll in to one o ffen ce : th e in te n tio n a l em issio n o f sem en , n o t c o n c e a le d ; so I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r mdnatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts o n a c c o u n t o f th e one offen ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d ; th u s th e O rd e r in flicte d mdnatta (discipline) fo r s ix n ig h ts on m e on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n cea le d . I h a v e n o w p e rfo rm e d mdnatta (d iscip lin e). N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : W e ll, th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r r e h a b ilita te th e m o n k U d a y in . || x j| " A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld he b e re h a b ilita te d : T h a t m o n k U d a y in , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er, h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p e r ro b e o v e r o n e sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u re d th e fe e t o f th e sen io r m o n k s, h a v in g s a t d o w n on h is h a u n c h e s, h a v in g sa lu te d w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to i t : ' I , h o n o u re d sirs, fell in to one o ffe n ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d ; so I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r mdnatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts o n a c c o u n t o f th e one offence . . . n o t co n c e a le d ; th u s th e O rd e r in flic te d m dnatta D

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(d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on m e on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . N o w I , h o n o u re d sirs, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d m anatta (d iscip lin e), a sk th e O rd e r fo r r e h a b ilita tio n . I, h o n o u re d sirs, fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . S o I , h o n o u re d sirs, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d m anatta (d iscip lin e), a s k th e O rd e r a seco n d tim e a lso fo r r e h a b ilita tio n . I , h o n o u re d sirs, fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . S o 1, h o n o u re d sirs, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d manatta (d iscip lin e), a s k th e O rd e r a th ir d tim e also fo r r e h a b ilita tio n / || 2 || " T h e O rd e r sh o u ld be in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : [39] ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r listen to m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in , fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce : th e in te n tio n a l em issio n o f sem en , n o t c o n c e a le d ; so h e a sk e d th e O rd er fo r m anatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts o n a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . n o t co n cea led T h e O rd e r in flic te d m anatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t of th e o n e o ffe n ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . H e , h a v in g p e rfo rm e d manatta (d iscip lin e), is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r r e h a b ilita tio n . I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y r e h a b ilita te th e m o n k U d a y in . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n t o m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in fe ll in to one offence . . . . is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r r e h a b ilita tio n . T h e O rd e r is r e h a b ilita tin g th e m o n k U d a y in . I f th e r e h a b ilita tio n o f th e m o n k U d a y in is p le a sin g t o th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh ou ld b e sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a seco n d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n t o m e . . . sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e m o n k U d a y in is re h a b ilita te d b y th e O rd e r. I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is silen t. T h u s d o 1 u n d e rsta n d th is / II 3 II 2 || N o w a t t h a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le U d a y in c a m e to h a v e fallen in to one o ffe n ce : th e in te n tio n a l em issio n o f se m e n , co n cea led fo r o n e d a y . H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s, s a y in g : " I , yo u r re v e re n c e s, h a v e fa lle n in to one o ffe n ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r one d a y . N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r im p o se p r o b a tio n fo r one d a y on th e m o n k U d a y in o n a c c o u n t o f th e offence . . . co n cea le d fo r o n e day* || i ||

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" A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e im p o se d : . . . [40] ( T h e matter w hich here follow s is p recisely as in 1 . 2 , 3 , w ith the neces sary changes in the wording o f (a) the offence , ( b) the penalty) - II 2 , 3 II 3 || H e, h a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n , a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : " I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . co n c e a le d for one d a y ; so I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r p r o b a tio n fo r one d a y on a c co u n t o f th e o n e o ffe n ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r one d a y ; th u s th e O rd e r im p o se d p ro b a tio n fo r one d a y o n m e on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffe n ce , . . c o n c e a le d fo r o n e d a y . I h a ve now s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n . N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w ed b y m e ? J* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r in flic t m anatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r o n e d a y . || 1 |[ (Here follo w s p recisely the sam e m ateria l as in 1. 2 , 3 , reading c o n c e a le d fo r one d a y in stea d o f n o t c o n c e a le d . . . [41] . . .) II 2 , 3 II 4 || H e, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d manatta (d iscip lin e), a n n o u n c e d to th e m o n k s : " I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce . . . ( = I I I . 4. 1 ) . . . I , h a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n , a sk e d th e O rd er fo r manatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on a c c o u n t o f the one o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r one d a y . I h a v e n o w p e rfo rm e d manatta (d iscip lin e). N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r re h a b ilita te th e m o n k U d a y in . |j 1 || (Here follow s precisely the same m aterial as in 2. 2 , 3 , reading c o n cea le d fo r o n e d a y instead o f n o t co n cealed ) . . . [42]

. -

I I 2, 3 I I5 H

N o w a t t h a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le U d a y in fe ll in to one o ffen ce : th e in te n tio n a l em issio n o f sem en , c o n c e a le d fo r tw o d a y s . . . th ree d a y s . . . fo u r d a y s . . . fiv e d a y s . H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : I, y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . co n cea le d fo r tw o . . . fiv e d a y s . . . ( = I I I . 3. In stea d o f

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co n c e a le d fo r o n e d a y , p ro b a tio n fo r o n e d a y , read c o n c e a le d fo r tw o . . . fiv e d a y s , p ro b a tio n fo r tw o . . . fiv e d a y s) . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is / [| x |! 6 | J W h ile h e w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n h e fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce : th e in te n tio n a l em issio n o f se m e n , n o t c o n c e a le d . H e a n n o u n ce d to m o n k s : " I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to o n e o ffe n c e . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s ; so I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r fiv e d a y s o n a c c o u n t o f th is o ffe n ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s ; th u s th e O rd e r g r a n te d m e p ro b a tio n fo r fiv e d a y s on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . N o w w h ile I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n I fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r se n d th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g o n a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d , w h ile (he w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n ). || i || A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld h e b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g : T h a t m o n k U d a y in , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r . . . sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to i t ; * I , h o n o u re d sirs, fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . co n cea le d fo r fiv e d a y s . S o I a s k e d th e O rd e r fo r p r o b a tio n fo r fiv e d a y s o n a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffe n c e . . . co n cea le d fo r fiv e d a y s ; th u s th e O rd e r g ra n te d m e p r o b a tio n fo r five d a y s . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . W h ile I w a s d o in g p r o b a tio n I fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . S o I a m a sk in g th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th is o ffe n ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d / [43] A n d a se co n d tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r . . . || 2 || T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y i n g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in . . . a s k e d th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r fiv e d a y s . . . {cf, I I I . 2 . 3) . . . T h e O rd e r g ra n te d p ro b a tio n fo r fiv e d a y s . . . W h ile h e w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n h e fell in to one o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d . H e is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e one offen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d , w h ile (he w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n ). I f it seem s rig h t to t h e O rd e r, th e O rd e r m a y sen d th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f . . . n o t c o n c e a le d , w h ile (he w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n ). T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t

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th e O rd er liste n to m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in . . . is a sk in g th e O rd er fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n cea le d , w h ile (he w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n ). T h e O rd er is se n d in g th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . w h ile (he w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n ). I f th e se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g o f th e m o n k U d a y in . . . is p le a s in g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e silen t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a second tim e 1 s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ird tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . T h e m o n k U d a y in is se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y th e O rd er. T h e se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g fo r th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d is p le a sin g to th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is s ile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / " 113 ii7 II H e , h a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n , w h ile h e w a s d e se rv in g manatta (d iscip lin e), fe ll in to an o ffen ce . . .n o t c o n cea le d . H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : " I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to one offence . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s ; so I a sk e d th e O rd e r . . . ( = I I I . 7 . i ) . N o w w h ile I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n I fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . .n o t co n c e a le d . So I a sk e d th e O rd er fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e one offence . . . n o t c o n c e a le d . T h e O rd e r se n t m e b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d , w h ile (I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n ). N o w I , h a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n w h ile I w a s d e se rv in g manatta (d iscip lin e), fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . n ot co n c e a le d . N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " W e ll, th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r se n d th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . n o t co n cea led , w h ile (he w a s u n d e r p r o b a tio n )/ ' || i j| " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld h e b e se n t b a c k 1 : T h a t m o n k U d a y in , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r . . . sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : ' I , h o n o u re d sirs, fe ll in to one o ffe n ce . . . co n cea le d for fiv e d a y s . . . H a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n , w h ile I w a s d e se rvin g m anatta (d iscip lin e), I fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . [44] n ot co n cea le d . S o I, h o n o u re d sirs, a s k th e O rd er fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffe n ce . . . n o t
1 m u ld y a , t o t h e b e g in n in g , n o t in O l d e n b e r g 's t e x t h e r e . C f . I I I . 7. 2.

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co n cea le d , h a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n a n d w h ile 1 w a s d e se rv in g m dnatta (d isc ip lin e ). A n d a se co n d tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r . . . A n d a th ird tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r . . . II 2 II _ " T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n t o m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in . . . a sk s fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffe n ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d , w h ile h e w a s d e se rv in g 'mdnatta (d iscip lin e), h a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n . I f it se e m s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y sen d th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . h a v in g s t a y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n . T h is is th e m o tio n : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h is m o n k U d a y in a s k s . . . T h e O rd e r is se n d in g th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g . . . I f th e se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g fo r th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f . . . is p le a sin g to th e v e n e r a b le o n es, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; h e to w h o m it is n o t p le a s in g sh o u ld s p e a k . A n d a se co n d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a t t e r . . . A n d a th ird tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . T h e m o n k U d a y in is se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y th e O rd e r. T h e se n d in g b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g . . . is p le a s in g to th e O rd e r, th e re fo rr it is s ile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d t h is . 1 1 3 II 8 ll H e , h a v in g s t a y e d u n d e r p r o b a tio n , a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : " I , y o u r re v e ren ce s, fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . . . . (as in I I I . 4 . i ) . . . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r in flic t m dnatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffen ces. Hi I I . . . (as in I I I . 4 2, 3) [45] . . . " . . . T h u s d o I u n d e r sta n d t h i s .'. || 2, 3 || 9 || W h ile he w a s u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e) he fe ll in to one o ffen ce . * . n o t c o n c e a le d . H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to o n e o ffe n c e . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . . . (as in I I I . 8. x) . . . " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e sa id : . " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r, h a v in g se n t th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g o n a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffe n c e

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. . . w h ile he w a s u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e), n o t c o n cealed , in flict m dnatta (discipline) fo r s ix n ig h ts. A n d th u s , m onks, sh o u ld h e b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . A n d th u s, m on ks, sh o u ld mdnatta (discipline) fo r s ix n ig h ts b e in flic te d . . . M dnatta (discipline) fo r s ix n ig h ts is in flicte d b y th e O rd er on th e m o n k U d a y in fo r th e one o ffen ce . . . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er ; th e re fo re it is s ile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e r sta n d th is / J | 1 f| 1 0 || H e, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d mdnatta (disciplin e) a n d w h ile he d e se rve d re h a b ilita tio n , fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . n o t c o n cealed . H e a n n o u n ce d to m o n k s . . . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd er, h a v in g se n t th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g o n a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . w h e n h e h a d p e rfo rm e d m dnatta (d iscip lin e) a n d w h ile he d e se rv e d r e h a b ilita tio n , in flict m dnatta (disciplin e) on h im fo r six n ig h ts. A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld h e b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld mdnatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts b e in flic te d . . - ' . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is.' II r |j 1 1 II H e, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d mdnatta (d iscip lin e), a n n o u n ce d to m o n ks : " I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce . . . c o n ce aled fo r fiv e d a y s . [46] . . . (as in I I I . 2 x). I h a v e n o w p e rfo rm ed mdnatta (d iscip lin e). N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r r e h a b ilita te th e m o n k U d a y in . || 1 || " A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld h e b e re h a b ilita te d : T h a t m o n k U d a y in , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er . . . sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to it : ' I , h o n o u re d sirs, fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . * c o n c e a le d fo r five d a y s . So I a s k e d th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r fiv e d a y s on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s. T h e refo re th e O rd e r g r a n te d m e p ro b a tio n fo r fiv e d a y s on a cco u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . W h ile I w a s d o in g p ro b a tio n I fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . n o t co n cealed . S o I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g o n a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffe n ce . . . w h ile I w a s d o in g p ro b a tio n , n o t co n cea le d . T h e O rd e r se n t m e b a c k to th e

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b e g in n in g * . . B u t th e n I , h a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n a n d w h ile I d e se rv e d mdnatta (d iscip lin e), fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e a le d . So I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . T h e O rd e r se n t m e b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . n o t c o n cea le d . So I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r m dnatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts o n a c c o u n t o f th e th re e o ffen ces. B e c a u s e o f th is, th e O rd e r in flic te d mdnatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on m e o n a c co u n t o f th e th re e offen ces. B u t w h ;le I w a s u n d e r g o in g m dnatta (disciplin e) I fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . n o t co n c e aled . So I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . T h u s th e O rd e r s e n t m e b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . So I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r m dnatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on a c co u n t o f th e one o ffe n ce . . . w h ile I w a s u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e), n o t c o n c e a le d . T h e O rd e r in flicte d mdnatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts o n m e. W h e n I h a d p e r fo rm e d m dnatta (disciplin e) a n d w h ile I d e se rv e d r e h a b ilita tio n , I fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce . . . n o t c o n c e a le d . So 1 a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . w h ile I d e se rv e d r e h a b ilita tio n , n o t c o n cea le d . T h u s th e O rd e r se n t m e b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . A n d I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r m dnatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . w h ile 1 d e se rv e d re h a b ilita ion , n o t c o n c e a le d . B e c a u s e o f th is, th e O rd e r in flic te d m dnatta , (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on m e . . . S o I , h o n o u red sirs, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d m dnatta (d iscip lin e) a s k th e O rd e r fo r re h a b ilita tio n .' A n d a se co n d tim e sh o u ld it b e a s k e d fo r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e sh o u ld it b e as^ked fo r . . . [| 2 || " T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : [47] ' H o n o u re d sirs, . . . (as i n 1 2 . 2 ) . . . H e , h a v in g p e rfo rm e d m dnatta (d iscip lin e), a sk s th e O rd e r fo r r e h a b ilita tio n . I f i t seem s r ig h t t o th e O rd er, . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r , . T h e m o n k U d a y in is r e h a b ilita te d b y th e O rd er. I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd e r . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d t h is . |j 3 || 1 2 || N o w a t t h a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le U d a y in fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . co n c e a le d fo r h a lf a m o n th . . . (as i n I I I . 3. Instead o f c o n c e a le d fo r o n e d a y , p ro b a tio n fo r one d a y read co n c e a le d fo r h a lf a m o n th , p ro b a tio n fo r h a lf a m on th ) . . . e . . .T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d t h is . [| x j| 1 3 [j

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W h ile he w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n h e fe ll in to one o ffen ce . , . co n cea le d fo r fiv e d a y s . H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : " 1 , y o u r re ve ren ce s, fe ll in to one o ffe n ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r h a lf a m o n th . So I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r h a lf a m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r h a lf a m o n th . B e c a u se o f th is th e O rd e r g ra n te d m e p ro b a tio n fo r h a lf a m o n th . T h e n w h ile I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n , I fe ll in to one offence . . - c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d ays* N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld be fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id ; W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd er, h a v in g se n t th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . * . co n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s , g r a n t h im p ro b a tio n c o n c u rre n t 1 w ith th e fo rm e r o ffen ce. || i || " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld h e be sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g : . . . (as in I I I . 7 . 2 , 3 . R ead c o n c e a le d fo r h a lf a m o n th , p ro b a tio n fo r h a lf a m o n th , a n d then c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s instead o f c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s , p ro b a tio n fo r fiv e d a y s , and then n o t con cealed ) . . . ' . * . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / || 2 || A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld p ro b a tio n c o n c u r r e n t w ith th e fo rm er o ffen ce b e g r a n t e d ; T h a t m o n k U d a y in , h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d th e O rd e r . . . sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : I , h o n o u red sirs, a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . ( || 2 j|) . . . T h e r e fo r e th e O rd e r se n t m e b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffe n ce . . . w h ile I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n fo r h a lf a m o n th , c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . S o I, h o n o u re d sirs, a s k th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n w ith th e fo rm e r o ffe n ce . . . w h ile I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n fo r h a lf a m o n th , c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s / A n d a se c o n d tim e . . A n d a th ird tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r. T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is
1 s a m o d h d n a p a r iv a s a . D u t t , E a r ly B u d d h is t M o n a c h is m , p . 1 6 9 , s a y s , " W h e n a n o t h e r o ffe n c e is c o m m it t e d d u r in g t h e c o n t in u a n c e o f t h e P a r i v a s a p e r io d , a fr e s h p e i i o d b e g in s t o r u n f r o m t h e d a t e o f t h e c o m m is s io n o f t h e s e c o n d o f ie n c e a n d i t e x t e n d s o v e r a s m a n y d a y s a s w e r e c o v e r e d b y t h e P a r iv a s a p e r io d p r e s c i ib e d f o r t h e f ir s t o ffe n c e o r t h e P a r iv J ts a p e r io d p r e s c i i b e d f o r t h e s e c o n d o ffe n c e , w h ic h e v e r p e r i o d m a y b e lo n g e r / * A s V in . T e x ts ii. 40 5, n . 1 p o in t s o u t , t h e p e n a l t i e s f o r t h i s n e w o ffe n c e a n d f o r t h e o ld o n e w e r e n o t a c c u m u la t i v e b u t c o n c u r r e n t . T h e o f fe n d e r l o s t t h e a d v a n ta g e o f th e p r o b a tio n h e h a d a lr e a d y u n d e rg o n e , h e w a s th r b w n b a c k t o th e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f h is t e r m o f p r o b a t io n , a n d h a d t o b e g in a g a i n . " The m a na tta t o w h ic h h e w a s li a b l e f o r t h e fir s t offeD ce w a s n o t a ff e c t e d .

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m a tte r . - . C o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n w ith th e fo rm e r o ffe n ce is g r a n te d b y th e O rd e r to th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . w h ile he w a s u n d e r p r o b a tio n fo r h a lf a m o n th , c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . I t is p le a s in g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / ' [| 3 || 14 || H e , h a v in g s ta y e d u n d e r p ro b a tio n , w h ile d e s e rv in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e), fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . . . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " W e l l th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r, h a v in g se n t th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g o n a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s , g r a n t h im p r o b a tio n c o n c u rre n t w ith th e fo rm e r o ffen ce. A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld h e b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . (<zs in 14 . 2, 3) . . . A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld p r o b a tio n c o n c u rre n t w ith th e fo rm e r o ffen ce be g r a n te d . . . . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / J' || x || 15 || | H e , h a v in g s t a y e d u n d e r p r o b a tio n , a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : . . (as in I I I . 4 . x reading c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s instea d o f c co n c e a le d fo r one d a y ). . . . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a id : [49] W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r in flic t m dnatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f th e th re e offen ces. A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it be i n f li c t e d : T h a t m o n k U d a y in , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r . . . ' . . . And a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . M d n a tta (d iscip lin e) is in flic te d b y th e O rd e r fo r s ix n ig h ts on th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f th e th re e o ffe n ces. I t is p le a s in g . . . T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d t h is / || 1 || 16 j| W h ile h e w a s u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e) h e fe ll in to one offen ce, c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : I , y o u r re v e ren ce s, fe ll in to o n e o ffe n ce . . . co n cea le d fo r h a lf a m o n th . . . ' (and he told a ll that h ad happened fr o m 13 onwards) . . . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to t h e L o rd . H e s a id : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r, h a v in g se n t th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s , h a v in g g r a n te d h im p ro b a tio n c o n c u rre n t w ith th e fo rm e r o ffe n ce, in flict m dnatta (d iscip lin e) on h im fo r s ix n ig h ts. A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld h e b e se n t

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b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld p r o b a tio n co n c u rre n t w ith th e fo rm e r o ffen ce b e g r a n te d . . .A n d th u s , m o n ks, sh o u ld mdnatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts b e in flic te d . . . ' M dnatta (disciplin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts is in flicte d b y th e O rd er on th e m o n k U d a y in on a c c o u n t o f th e one o ffen ce . . . w h ile he w a s u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e), c o n c e a le d fo r five d a y s. I t is p le a sin g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d t h is .

I I1 I II? I I
H e, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d m dnatta (d iscip lin e), w h ile h e d e se rv e d re h a b ilita tio n fe ll in to one o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . H e a n n o u n ce d to m o n k s : * I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to one offence, co n c e a le d fo r h a lf a m o n th . . . (he repeats a ll that Jtas happened fro m 1 3 onwards) . . . W h e n I h a d p e rfo rm e d mdnatta (disciplin e) a n d w h ile I d e s e rv e d r e h a b ilita tio n , I fe ll in to o n e o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s . N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd er, h a v in g se n t th e m o n k U d a y in b a c k to th e b e g in n in g on a c c o u n t o f th e o n e o ffen ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r fiv e d a y s , h a v in g g r a n te d h im p ro b a tio n co n cu rren t w ith th e fo rm e r offen ce, in flict m dnatta (d iscip lin e) fo r s ix n ig h ts on h im * . . (as in 1 7 . 1 ). ' . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d t h is . " || 1 j| 1 8 || [50] H e , h a v in g p e rfo rm e d mdnatta (d iscip lin e), a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : I , y o u r re v e ren ce s, fe ll in to one o ffe n ce . . . c o n c e a le d fo r h a lf a m o n th . . . (as fro m 1 3 onwards) I h a v e n o w p e rfo rm e d mdnatta (d iscip lin e). N o w w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t is to b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r r e h a b ilita te th e m o n k U d a y in . A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld h e b e r e h a b ilita te d : T h a t m o n k U d a y in , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er, . . . sh o u ld sp e a k th u s t o it : * I , h o n o u re d sirs, fe ll in to one offen ce, . . . co n cea le d fo r h a lf a m o n th . S o I . . . B u t I, h o n o u re d sirs, h a v in g p e rfo rm e d m dnatt'i d isc ip lin e , a s k th e O rd e r fo r re h a b ili ta tio n . . . ' A n d a seco n d tim e . . . A n d a th ird tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r . . . T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d . . . . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I sp e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . T h e

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m o n k U d a y in is r e h a b ilita te d b y th e O rd e r. I t is p le a sin g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is / || I || 19 [| C o n c lu d e d (are th e p ro c e e d in g s c o n n e c te d w ith ) I n te n tio n a l E m issio n . N o w a t th a t tim e a c e r ta in m o n k c a m e to h a v e fa lle n in to s e v e r a l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r : o n e o ffen ce w a s c o n c e a le d fo r one d a y , one o ffen ce w a s co n c e a le d fo r tw o d a y s . . . th re e . . . fo u r . . . fiv e . . * s ix . . . se v e n . . . e ig h t . . . n in e d a y s , o n e o ffe n ce w a s c o n c e a le d fo r te n d a y s. H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to se v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; one o ffen ce w a s c o n c e a le d fo r o n e d a y . . * one o ffe n ce w a s c o n c e a le d fo r te n d a y s . W h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r g r a n t th is m o n k c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n , its d u ra tio n d e p e n d in g 1 o n w h ic h e v e r w a s th e o ffen ce a m o n g th e s e o ffen ces th a t w a s c o n c e a le d fo r te n d a y s . || i || " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e g r a n te d : T h a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r . . . sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to it : ' I , re v e re d sirs, h a v e fa lle n in to s e v e r a l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; ' . . . one o ffe n ce w a s co n cea le d fo r te n d a y s. S o I , h o n o u re d sirs, a s k th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n , its d u r a tio n d e p e n d in g on w h ic h e v e r w a s th e o ffen ce a m o n g th e se o ffe n ces t h a t w a s c o n c e a le d fo r te n d a y s / A n d a se co n d tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r . . . T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y i n g : * H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so fe ll in to se v e ra l offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; [51] o n e w a s c o n c e a le d fo r . . . te n d a y s . H e is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n , its d u ra tio n d e p e n d in g o n w h ic h e v e r w as th e o ffen ce a m o n g th e s e o ffe n ces th a t w a s c o n c e a le d fo r te n d a y s . I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r sh o u ld g ra n t th e m o n k S o -a n d -so c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n . . . fo r te n d a y s .
1 tassd agghenat l i t . a c c o r d in g t o t h e v a l u e o r w o r t h , i.e . o f t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r io d n e c e s s it a t e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f d a y s t h e o ffe n c e w a s c o n c e a le d . H e r e p r o b a t io n h a d t o b e -u n d e rg o n e f o r t e n d a y s , s in c e t h i s w a s t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f d a y s f o r w h i c h o n e o f t h e o ffe n c e s h a d b e e n c o n c e a le d . VA. 1 1 8 2 s a y s t h e r e a r e t h r e e k in d s o f c o n c u r r e n t p r o b a t i o n : odhdna, aggha, a n d missafca, a ll o f w h ic h i t e x p la in s .

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T h is is th e m o tio n . . . . C o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n is b e in g g ra n te d b y th e O rd e r to th e m o n k S o -a n d -so , its d u ra tio n d e p e n d in g on w h ic h e v e r w a s th e o ffen ce a m o n g th e s e o ffe n ces t h a t w a s c o n cea le d fo r te n d a y s . I t is p le a sin g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e r s ta n d th is / || 2 |! 20 ii N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k h a d fa lle n in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; one o ffen ce w a s co n c e a le d fo r o n e d a y , tw o o ffen ces w e re c o n c e a le d fo r tw o d a y s, th re e o ffen ces w ere c o n c e a le d fo r th re e d a y s , fo u r . . . fo r fo u r d a y s , fiv e . . . fo r fiv e d a y s . . . s ix fo r s ix d a y s . . . se v e n fo r se v e n d a y s, e ig h t . . . fo r e ig h t d a y s , n in e . . . fo r n ine d a y s , te n offen ces w ere co n c e a le d fo r te n d a y s . He a n n o u n ce d to m o n k s, s a y in g : I , y o u r re v e ren ce s, h a v e fa lle n in to se v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; one o ffen ce w a s co n c e a le d fo r one d a y . . . te n o ffen ces w ere c o n c e a le d fo r te n d a y s . N o w , \yhat lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld be fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r g r a n t th is m o n k c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n , its d u ra tio n d e p e n d in g on w h ic h e v e r w ere th e o ffen ces a m o n g th e se o ffen ces t h a t w ere e a c h c o n c e a le d th e lo n g e s t .1 A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it be g r a n te d : T h a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er . . . sh o u ld s p e a k th u s t o it : ' I, h o n o u re d sirs, h a v e fa lle n in to s e v e r a l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; one o ffe n ce w a s c o n c e a le d fo r one d a y . . . te n o ffe n ces w e re c o n c e a le d fo r te n d a y s . T h e r e fo re I , h o n o u re d sirs, a s k th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n , its d u ra tio n d e p en d in g on w h ic h e v e r w ere th e o ffen ces a m o n g th ese o ffen ces t h a t w e re e a c h co n c e a le d th e lo n g e s t/ A n d a seco n d tim e it sh o u ld be a s k e d fo r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld be a sk e d fo r . . . T h e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y i n g : * . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . C o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n is g ra n te d b y th e O rd e r to th is m o n k , its d u ra tio n d e p e n d in g on w h ic h e v e r w e re th e o ffe n c e s a m o n g th e s e o ffen ces t h a t w ere e ach co n cea le d th e lo n g e st. I t is p le a s in g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / || 1 |[ 2 1 || [52]
1 s a b b a c ir a p a tic c h a n n d y o . or te n tim e s te n d a y s . T h i s lo o k s a s i f p r o b a t io n w o u ld h a v e t o l a s t

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N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k fe ll in to tw o o ffen ces e n ta il in g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; t h e y w e re c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I t o c cu rre d t o h im : ** I h a v e fa lle n in to tw o o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo r m a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; t h e y w ere c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. S u p p o se I w e re t o a s k th e O rd er fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fo r o n e o ffe n ce c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? H e a s k e d th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fo r o n e o ffen ce c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. T h e O rd er g r a n te d h im p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fo r one o ffe n ce c o n ce a led fo r tw o m o n th s. W h ile h e w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n a fe elin g o f sh a m e o v e rc a m e h im , a n d h e t h o u g h t : " I fe ll in to tw o o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo r m a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; t h e y w ere c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I t o c c u rre d t o m e : I h a v e fa lle n in to tw o o ffe n c e s . . . S u p p o se I w e re to a s k th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fo r o n e o ffe n ce c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? I a sk e d th e O rd e r . . . T h e O rd e r g r a n te d m e p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fo r o n e o ffe n ce c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. W h ile I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n a fe elin g o f sh a m e o v e rc a m e m e. S u p p o se I w ere a lso t o a s k th e O rd e r fo r p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fo r t h a t o th e r o ffe n ce c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to tw o o ffen ces . . . " . . . S u p p o se I w e re a lso to a s k th e O rd er fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fo r t h a t o th e r o ffe n ce c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? * N o w , w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld be fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id . || 2 J | W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r g r a n t th is m o n k p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t a lso o f t h a t o th e r o ffe n ce co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. A n d th u s, m o n k s , sh o u ld it b e g r a n te d : T h a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r * . . sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : * I , h o n o u re d sirs, h a v e fa lle n in to tw o o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r . . . ( = || 2 ||) . . . S u p p o se I w e re also to a s k th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th a t o th e r o ffen ce c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? S o I , h o n o u re d sirs, a m a lso a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f t h a t o th e r o ffe n c e c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s / [53] A n d a se co n d tim e it sh o u ld be a s k e d fo r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r. || 3 || T h e O rd er sh o u ld be in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : * H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to

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m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so has fa lle n in to tw o o ffe n ces e n ta il in g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I t o ccu rred to h im : . . . H e is also a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f t h a t o th e r o ffen ce c o n cealed fo r tw o m o n th s. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y also g r a n t th e m o n k S o -a n d -so p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th a t o th e r o ffen ce c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so . . . A n d a th ird tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r. P r o b a tio n is a lso b e in g g ra n te d th e m o n k S o -a n d -so b y th e O rd e r fo r tw o m o n th s o n a c c o u n t o f th is o th e r o ffen ce c o n cea le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I t is p le a s in g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is .' W e ll th e n , m o n k s, t h a t m o n k sh o u ld d o p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fro m th a t d a te .1 jj 4 || 22 jj " T h is is a ca se, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k h a s fa lle n in to tw o offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g of th e O rd er, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s . . . (as above) . . . T h e O rd e r a lso g ra n te d h im p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th a t o th e r o ffen ce co n cea led fo r tw o m o n th s. W e ll th e n , m o n k s, th a t m o n k sh ou ld d o p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fro m th a t d a te . ]| x || " T h is is a ca se, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k h a s fa lle n in to tw o offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. H e k n o w s t h a t o n e is a n o ffe n ce, h e d o es n o t k n o w t h a t th e o th e r is an o ffen ce. H e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s o n a c c o u n t o f t h a t o ffen ce, c o n c e a le d for tw o m o n th s, w h ic h h e k n o w s to be a n o ffen ce. T h e O rd er g ra n ts h im p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s a n a c c o u n t o f th a t o ffen ce co n cea led fo r tw o m o n th s. W h ile h e is u n d e r p r o b a tio n , he finds th a t th e o th e r is a lso an o ffen ce. I t o c c u rs to h im : * I h a v e fa lle n in to tw o o ffe n ces . . . I k n e w t h a t o n e w a s an offence, I d id n o t k n o w th a t th e o th e r w a s a n o ffen ce. S o I asked th e O rd e r fo r p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s o n a c c o u n t o f th a t o ffe n ce w h ic h I k n e w t o be a n o ffe n ce, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. T h e O rd e r g r a n te d m e p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a cco u n t o f t h a t offen ce, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. B u t w h ile I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n , I fo u n d th a t th e o th e r w a s a lso a n offence. S u p p o se I [54] w e re a lso to a s k th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th is o th e r o ffe n c e , c o n c e a le d
1 ta d u p d d d y a .

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fo r tw o m o n th s ? * H e a sk s th e O r d e r fo r p r o b a tio n . * . T h e O rd er g r a n ts h im p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th is o th e r o ffe n ce also , c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. W e ll th e n , m o n k s, th is m o n k sh o u ld d o p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fro m th a t d a te . |[ 2 || T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k h a s fa lle n in to tw o o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. H e re m em b ers o n e o ffe n ce, h e d o es n o t re m e m b e r th e o th e r offen ce. H e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s o n a c c o u n t o f th a t o ffe n ce, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s, w h ic h h e re m e m b e rs . . . ( = |j 2 ||. R ea d re m e m b e rs, re m e m b e red instead o f fin d s, fo u n d ) . . . fo r tw o m o n th s fro m th is d a te . || 3 || T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k h a s fa lle n in to tw o o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. H e is in n o d o u b t t h a t o n e is a n o ffen ce, h e is d o u b tfu l w h e th e r th e o th e r is a n offen ce. H e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th a t o ffe n ce a b o u t w h ic h h e is in n o d o u b t , . . ( = || 2 ||. Read is d o u b tfu l f o r d o es n o t k n o w ) . . . fo r tw o m o n th s fro m th is d a te . |] 4 || " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k h a s fa lle n in to tw o offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. O n e o ffen ce is k n o w in g ly c o n c e a le d , th e o th e r o ffen ce is u n k n o w in g ly c o n c e a le d . H e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th o se o ffe n ces co n c e a le d fo r t w o m o n th s. T h e O rd e r g r a n ts h im p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s o n a c c o u n t o f th o s e o ffe n ces c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. W h ile h e is u n d e r p r o b a tio n , a c e rta in m o n k a rriv e s o n e w h o h a s h e a rd m u c h , to w h o m th e tr a d itio n h a d b e e n h a n d e d d o w n , e x p e r t in dham m a , e x p e r t in d isc ip lin e , e x p e r t in th e su m m a rie s, c le v e r, e x p e rie n c e d , w ise, co n scien tio u s, sc ru p u lo u s, d e siro u s o f tr a in in g . H e sp e a k s t h u s : W h a t, y o u r ' re ve ren ce s, h a s th is m o n k fa lle n i n t o ? W h y is th is m o n k d o in g p ro b a tio n ? * T h e y s p e a k th u s : * T h is m o n k , y o u r re v e re n c e , h a s fa lle n in to tw o o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. O n e o ffen ce w a s k n o w in g ly c o n c e a le d , th e o th e r o ffe n ce w a s u n k n o w in g ly co n cea le d . H e a s k e d th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th e se offen ces c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. T h e O rd er g ra n te d h im p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f

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th ese o ffen ces, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. T h is m o n k , y o u r re ve ren ce , h a s fa lle n in to th e se, th is m o n k is u n d e r p ro b a tio n on a c co u n t o f th e s e / H e sp e a k s th u s : ' T h e g r a n tin g o f p ro b a tio n , y o u r re ve ren ce s, fo r t h a t o ffen ce w h ic h h e k n o w in g ly c o n c e a le d is le g a lly v a lid 1 ; b e c a u se it is le g a lly v a lid 3 it is e ffe c tiv e 3 ; b u t th e g ra n tin g o f p ro b a tio n , y o u r re ve ren ce s, fo r th a t o ffen ce w h ich h e u n k n o w in g ly c o n c e a le d is n o t le g a lly v a lid ; b e c a u se it is n o t le g a lly v a lid it is n o t e ffe c tiv e . For th is o ffen ce, y o u r re v e re n c e s, th e m o n k d e se rv e s m dnatta (d iscip lin e)/ || 5 || " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to tw o offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. O n e o ffe n ce is c o n c e a le d , h e re m e m b e rin g it, th e o th e r o ffen ce is c o n c e a le d , he n o t re m e m b e rin g it. . . , O n e o ffen ce is c o n c e a le d , h e b e in g n o t in d o u b t (a b o u t it), th e o th e r o ffen ce is co n c e a le d , he b e in g in d o u b t (a b o u t it) . F o r th is o ffen ce, y o u r re ve ren ce s, th is m o n k d e se rv e s m dnatta (d iscip lin e)/ [| 6 || 2 3 || [55] N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k h a d fa lle n in to tw o o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I t o c cu rre d to h im : " I h a v e fa lle n in to tw o offen ces . . . co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. S u p p o se t h a t I w e re to a s k th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r o n e m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffen ces, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? " H e a s k e d th e O rd e r . . . T h e O rd e r g r a n te d h im p ro b a tio n fo r o n e m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffen ces, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. A s h e w a s u n d e r p r o b a tio n sh a m e o v e rc a m e h im , a n d h e th o u g h t ; " I h a v e fa lle n in to tw o o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I t o c cu rre d to m e : . . . I a sk e d th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r o n e m o n th . . . T h e O rd e r g r a n te d m e p ro b a tio n fo r o n e m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o offen ces c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. A s I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n sh a m e o v e rc a m e m e. W h a t n o w , i f I sh o u ld a lso a sk th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r a fu rth e r m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o offen ces co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? || x ||
1 dhammikam. * dhammattd. * rUhati. A s a t C V . I I I . 25, 3 ; 27, e t c . C f . Vin+ ii. 203 a n d M V , V I . 14. 5 . Ruhati m e a n s s o m e t h in g lik e i t c o u n t s **.

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H e a n n o u n ce d to m o n k s : " I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, h a v e fa lle n in to tw o offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s . . . I t o c cu rre d to m e : . . . W h a t n o w if I sh o u ld a lso a s k th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r a fu r th e r m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffe n ces c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? N o w , w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . || 2 || H e sa id : " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r a lso g r a n t th is m o n k p ro b a tio n fo r a fu r th e r m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e s e tw o offen ces c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e a sk e d fo r : T h a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r . . . sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : I, h o n o u re d sirs, h a v e fa lle n in to tw o o ffen ces . , . W h a t n o w if I sh o u ld also a s k th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r a fu r th e r m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffen ces, co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? S o I, h o n o u re d sirs, a m a lso a sk in g th e O rd e r fo r p r o b a tio n fo r a fu r th e r m o n th o n a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffen ces c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s / [ 56] A n d a seco n d tim e . . . A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d for* T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : * H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so fe ll in to tw o o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I t o c cu rre d to h im : ' . . . S u p p o se I w e re a lso to a s k th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r a fu rth e r m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffen ces, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? ' H e is a s k in g . . I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r . . . I f th e g iv in g o f p ro b a tio n to th e m o n k So -a n d -so fo r a fu r th e r m o n th a lso o n a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffe n ces co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s is p le a s in g to th e v e n e ra b le ones . . . A n d a th ird tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . P r o b a tio n is g r a n te d b y th e O rd e r to th e m o n k S o -a n d -so fo r a fu rth e r m o n th also on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffen ces, co n cea le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I t is p le a s in g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / M o n k s, t h a t m o n k sh o id d d o p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fro m th e e a rlie r d a te . || 3 || 24 |j T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to tw o e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, c o n c e a le d m o n th s. I t o ccu rs to h im : * I h a v e fa lle n in to tw o . . . co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. S u p p o se I w ere t o O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r one m o n th on a c c o u n t o f o ffen ces fo r tw o o ffe n ces a s k th e th e tw o

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offen ces co n cea le d fo r tw o m o n th s ? ' . . . ( |j 2 4 || i ||) . . . T h e O rd e r also g ra n ts h im p ro b a tio n fo r a fu rth e r m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o offences, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. M onks, th a t m o n k sh o u ld d o p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fro m th e e a rlie r d a te . I! x M T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k fa lls in to tw o o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. H e k n o w s th e o n e m o n th , h e d o es n o t k n o w th e o th e r m o n th . . . h e re m em b ers th e o n e m o n th , h e d o es n o t re m e m b e r th e o th e r m o n th . . . h e is n o t d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e one m o n th , he is d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e o th e r m o n th . H e a sk s th e O rd e r fo r p r o b a tio n fo r t h a t m o n th on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o offences, co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s, a b o u t w h ic h h e is n o t d o u b tfu l. T h e O rd e r g r a n ts h im p ro b a tio n . . . n o t d o u b tfu l. A s h e is d o in g p r o b a tio n h e co m es to b e d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e fu rth e r m o n th also . I t o ccu rs to h im : ' I h a v e fa lle n in to tw o o ffen ces . . . c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. I w a s n o t d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e o n e m o n th , [57] I w a s d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e o th e r m o n th . . . S u p p o se I w ere t o a s k th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n fo r a fu r th e r m o n th a lso on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o o ffe n ces co n c e a led fo r tw o m o n th s ? ' H e a s k s th e O rd e r . . . < T h e O rd e r g ra n ts h im p ro b a tio n fo r a fu r th e r m o n th also on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o offen ces, co n cea le d fo r tw o m o n th s. M o n k s, th a t m o n k sh o u ld d o p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s fro m th e e a rlie r d a te . || 2 j| T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to tw o offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m onths* O n e m o n th is k n o w in g ly co n c e a le d , th e o th e r m o n th is u n k n o w in g ly co n c e a le d . . . O n e m o n th is c o n cea le d , he re m em b erin g it, th e o th e r m o n th is c o n c e a le d , h e n o t re m em b er in g it * . . O n e m o n th is c o n cea le d , h e b e in g n o t in d o u b t (a b o u t it), th e o th e r m o n th is c o n cea le d , h e b e in g in d o u b t a b o u t it. H e a sk s th e O rd e r fo r p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c co u n t o f th e tw o o ffen ces co n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. T h e O rd e r g ra n ts h im p ro b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s . . . c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. A s he is u n d e r p ro b a tio n , a n o th e r m o n k a r riv e s 1 o n e w h o h a s h e a rd m u c h . . . d esiro u s o f train in g* He sp ea k s th u s : ' In to w h a t, y o u r re v e re n c e s, h a s th is m o n k fa lle n ? W h y is th is m o n k u n d e r p ro b a tio n ? ' T h e y s p e a k
A s in C V . I I I . 23. 5.

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th u s : ' T h is m o n k , y o u r re v e re n c e , h a s fa lle n in to tw o o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. H e c o n c e a le d one m o n th (a lth o u g h ) he w a s n o t d o u b tfu l (a b o u t it), h e c o n c e a le d th e o th e r m o n th (because) he w a s d o u b tfu l (a b o u t it). H e a s k e d th e O rd e r fo r p ro b a tio n . . . T h e O rd e r g r a n te d h im p r o b a tio n fo r tw o m o n th s on a c c o u n t o f th e tw o offen ces, c o n c e a le d fo r tw o m o n th s. T h is m o n k , y o u r re v e re n c e , h a s fa lle n in to th e se, th is m o n k is d o in g p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e s e .' H e s p e a k s th u s : ' T h e g r a n t in g o f p ro b a tio n , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fo r t h a t m o n th w h ic h he c o n c e a le d (alth o u g h ) he w a s n o t d o u b tfu l (a b o u t it) is le g a lly v a lid ; b e c a u s e it is le g a lly v a lid , i t is e ffe c tiv e ; b u t th e g r a n t in g o f p ro b a tio n , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fo r t h a t m o n th w h ic h he co n c e a le d b e ca u se h e w a s d o u b tfu l (a b o u t it) is n o t le g a lly v a lid ; b e c a u se it is n o t le g a lly v a lid , it is n o t e ffe c tiv e . F o r t h a t m o n th , y o u r re ve ren ce s, t h a t m o n k d e se rv e s mdnatta d is c ip lin e / j| 3 || 25 || N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to h a v e fa lle n in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r ; he d id n o t k n o w a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, h e d id n o t k n o w a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts1 . . . H e d id n o t re m em b er . . . H e w a s d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, h e w a s d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts. H e a n n o u n c e d to m o n k s : " I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, fe ll in to se v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. [58] I d o n o t k n o w a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, I d o n o t k n o w a b o u t
1 dpattipariyanta . . . rattipariyanta. Pariyanta m e a n s l i t . lim it , e n d , b o u n d a r y , l i m it a t io n . O n t h e u s e o f t h e s e w o r d s h e r e B u . le a d s u s t o s u p p o s e t h a t a m o n k m ig h t b e in a s t a t e o f p u r if ic a t io n in r e g a r d t o v a r io u s o ffe n c e s t h a t h e h a d c o m m it t e d b e c a u s e h e h a d u n d e r g o n e a d e q u a t e p r o b a t io n . T h i s m i g h t l a s t fo r a d a y , a h a lf - m o n t h , a m o n t h o r a y e a r . H e s h o u ld t h e n c o n s id e r f o r h o w m a n y m o n t h s h e s t i l l h a s t o d o p r o b a t i o n s o a s t o s e c u r e h is p u r if ic a t io n , t h a t is , t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e o f fe n c e . A s o ffe n c e s a r e r e m o v e d , t h e a m o u n t o f t i m e s t ill t o b e s p e n t o n p r o b a t i o n a u t o m a t i c a l l y b e c o m e s le ss. M o r e o v e r , w h o e v e r d o e s n o t k n o w o r r e m e m b e r o r is in d o u b t a s t o t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e n i g h t s s h o u ld , i f h e h a s u n d e r t a k e n t o d o p r o b a t io n , c o u n t t h e n ig h t s f r o m t h a t d a y b a c k t o t h e d a y o f h i s o r d in a t io n , a n d t h e n d o p r o b a t i o n f o r t h i s n u m b e r o f n i g h t s . I n thii> w a y , i t a p p e a r s , h e w o u ld b e q u it e c e r t a i n o f d o in g p r o b a t i o n f o r a ll t h e p o s s ib le n i g h t s w h ic h m i g h t b e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e o f fe n c e . S e e dpattipariyanta a n d kulapariyanta ('* lim it e d t o f a m ilie s ) a t Vin . i v . 31 (B .D . ii. 2 2 0 ), w h e r e d e fin e d ; a n d bhesajjapariyanta ( li m it e d t o m e d ic in e s ) a n d rattipariyanta a t Vin. i v . 103 (jB .D . ii. 3 7 1 ) . S e e a ls o a b o v e , C V . I I . 1. 2 , w h e r e pariyanta s e e m s u s e d in a d i f f e r e n t s e n s e .

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th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts . . . I a m d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts. N o w , w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld be fo llo w e d b y m e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r g r a n t th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n 1 to th is m o n k on a c c o u n t o f th o se o ffen ces. || I |j A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e g ra n te d : T h a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r . . . sh o u ld s p e a k th u s t o it : " I , h o n o u red sirs, h a v e fa lle n in to s e v e ra l offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. I d o n o t k n o w a b o u t th e e x p ir a tion o f th e o ffen ces . . . I a m d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts . S o I , h o n o u red sirs, a m a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffe n ces/ A n d a seco n d tim e . , . A n d a th ird tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r. T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so h a s fa lle n in to s e v e r a l o ffen ces . . . he is d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts. H e is a sk in g th e O rd e r fo r th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th o se o ffen ces. I f i t seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y g ra n t th e m o n k S o -a n d -so th e p u r ify in g p r o b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th o se o ffen ces. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e . T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so . . . T h e O rd e r is g ra n tin g th e m o n k S o -a n d -so th e p u r ify in g p r o b a tio n on a c co u n t o f th o se o ffen ces. I f th e g r a n tin g to th e m o n k S o -a n d so o f th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n o n a c c o u n t o f th o se o ffen ces is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld be sile n t ; h e to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k ; A n d a se co n d tim e . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . T h e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n is g ra n te d b y th e O rd e r to th e m o n k Soa n d -so on a c c o u n t o f th o se o ffen ces. I t is p le a sin g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / || 2 j[ T h u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld th e p u r ify in g p r o b a tio n b e g r a n te d , th u s sh o u ld p ro b a tio n b e g ra n te d . A n d h o w , m o n k s, sh o u ld th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n be g r a n te d ? I f h e d o es n o t k n o w a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e d o es n o t k n o w a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts , i f h e d o es n o t re m e m b e r a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e offen ces, i f h e d o es n o t re m e m b e r a b o u t th e
1 su d d h a n la p a r iv d s a .

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e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, if h e is d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e is d o u b tfu l a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n m a y b e g ra n te d . " I f h e k n o w s a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e d o es n o t k n o w a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, i f h e re m em b ers a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e d o es n o t re m em b er a b o u t th e e x p ira tio n o f n ig h ts, if h e is n o t in d o u b t as to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if he is in d o u b t as to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, th e p u r ify in g p r o b a tio n m a y b e g ra n te d . I f he k n o w s th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffe n ces in som e ca ses, if he d o es n o t k n o w it in o th e rs, if h e d o es n o t k n o w th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e n ig h ts , i f h e re m e m b e rs th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces in so m e c a se s, if h e d o es n o t re m e m b e r it in o th e rs, if h e does n o t re m em b er th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, if he is in d o u b t a s to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffe n ces in som e ca ses, if he is in n o d o u b t a s to it in o th e rs, if h e is in d o u b t as to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts , th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n m a y be g ra n te d . I f h e d o es n o t k n o w th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if he k n o w s th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e n ig h ts in so m e c a se s, if he d o es n o t k n o w it in o th e rs, i f he d o es n o t re m e m b e r th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e re m e m b e rs th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e n ig h ts in som e ca ses, if he d o es n o t re m e m b e r it in o th e rs, if h e is in d o u b t a s t o th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e o ffe n ces, if in so m e ca se s h e is in d o u b t a s to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, if h e is n o t in d o u b t in o th e rs, [59] th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n m a y be g ra n te d . I f h e k n o w s th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e o ffe n ces, if he k n o w s th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e n ig h ts in so m e c a se s, if h e d o es n o t k n o w it in o th e rs, if he re m e m b e rs th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if he re m em b ers th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts in so m e ca ses, if he does n o t re m e m b e r i t in o th e rs, if h e is n o t in d o u b t a s to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e is in d o u b t in so m e ca se s as to th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e n ig h ts , if h e is n o t in d o u b t in o th ers, th e p u r ify in g p r o b a tio n m a y b e g r a n te d . " I f h e k n o w s th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e o ffe n ces in so m e ca ses, if h e d o es n o t k n o w it in o th e rs, i f h e k n o w s th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts in so m e c a se s, i f h e d o e s n o t k n o w it in o th e rs, if b e re m em b ers th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e o ffe n ces in so m e ca ses, if he d o es n o t re m e m b e r it in o th e rs, if h e re m e m b e rs th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts in so m e ca ses, i f h e d o es n o t re m e m b e r it in o th e rs,

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if he is in d o u b t a s to so m e offen ces, if h e is n ot in d o u b t a s to o th ers, i f h e is in d o u b t as to so m e n ig h ts, if he is n o t in d o u b t a s to o th ers, th e p u r ify in g p ro b a tio n m a y b e g ra n te d . || 3 ]| " A n d h o w , m o n k s m a y p ro b a tio n b e g ra n te d ? I f he k n o w s th e e x p ira tio n o f th e offen ces, i f he k n o w s th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, i f h e re m em b ers th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e re m em b ers th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, if h e is n o t in d o u b t a s to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e offen ces, i f h e is n o t in d o u b t a s to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, p ro b a tio n m a y b e g ra n te d . I f h e d o es n o t k n o w th e e x p ira tio n o f th e offen ces, i f he k n o w s th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, i f h e d o es n o t re m em b er th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e re m em b ers th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, i f he is in d o u b t a s to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces, if h e is n o t in d o u b t a s t o th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts , p ro b a tio n m a y b e g ra n te d . 0 I f h e k n o w s th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces in so m e cases, i f h e d o es n o t k n o w it in o th e rs, if h e k n o w s th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts , if he re m e m b e rs th e e x p ira tio n o f th e offen ces in som e ca ses, if h e d o es n o t re m em b er it in o th e rs, if he re m em b ers th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, i f h e is in d o u b t a s to th e e x p ira tio n o f th e o ffen ces in so m e ca ses, i f he is n o t in d o u b t in o th ers, if he is n o t in d o u b t a s t o th e e x p ira tio n o f th e n ig h ts, p ro b a tio n m a y b e g ra n te d . T h u s , m o n k s, m a y p ro b a tio n b e g r a n te d ." || 4 || 2 6 || T o ld is P ro b a tio n . N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , le ft th e O rd er. H a v in g co m e b a c k a g a in , h e a sk e d th e m o n k s for o rd in a tio n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , d o in g p ro b a tio n , le a v e s th e O rd er. M o n k s, th e p r o b a tio n o f o n e w h o le a v e s th e O rd e r is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f he is o rd a in e d a g a in , th e e arlier g r a n t in g o f p ro b a tio n is ju s t a s it w a s fo r h im 1 : w h a te v e r p ro b a tio n is g r a n te d is p r o p e r ly g ra n te d , w h o e v e r d o es p ro b a tio n d o es p ro b a tio n th o ro u g h ly , he m u st d o p ro b a tio n (for a n y p o rtio n o f tim e) re m a in in g .
1 I .e . o n b e in g r e - o r d a in e d , h e is t o t a k e u p h is p e r io d o f p r o b a t i o n a g a i n w h e r e h e l e f t i t o ff, s o a s t o c o m p l e t e t h e n u m b e r o f n ig h t s f o r "w h ich p r o b a t io n w a s o r ig in a l ly g r a n t e d h im . P r o b a t i o n is ** n o t b r o k e n , a n o t h e r m e a n in g o f r u h a ti.

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" T h is is a c a s e , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , b e co m e s a n o v ic e . M o n k s, th e p ro b a tio n o f a n o v ic e is n o t e ffe c tiv e - I f h e is o rd ain e d a g a in . - . (as in preceding p a ra graph ) . . . re m a in in g . " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , b e c o m e s m a d . M o n k s, th e p ro b a tio n o f o n e w h o is m a d is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f h e b e co m e s sa n e a g a in , th e e a rlie r g r a n tin g o f p r o b a tio n is ju s t a s it w a s fo r h im : w h a te v e r p r o b a tio n is g r a n te d is p r o p e r ly g r a n te d , w h o e v e r d o e s p ro b a tio n d o es p ro b a tio n th o r o u g h ly , he m u s t d o p r o b a tio n (for a n y p o rtio n o f tim e) re m a in in g . " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p r o b a tio n , b e co m e s u n h in g e d in m in d . M o n k s, th e p ro b a tio n o f one w h o is u n h in g e d in m in d [ 60] is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f h e b e co m es n o t u n h in g e d in m in d a g a in . - . T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k , d o in g p ro b a tio n , b e co m e s a fflic te d b y p a in . M on ks, th e p r o b a tio n o f o n e a fflic te d b y p a in is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f he b e c o m e s n o t a fflic te d b y p a in a g a in . . . h e m u st d o p ro b a tio n fo r (a n y p o rtio n o f tim e) re m a in in g . " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , is su sp e n d e d fo r n o t se e in g a n o ffen ce . . . fo r n o t m a k in g a m e n d s fo r a n o ffe n ce . . .fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w . M o n k s, th e p r o b a tio n o f o n e w h o is su sp e n d e d is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f h e is re sto re d a g a in , th e e a rlie r g r a n tin g o f p ro b a tio n is ju s t a s it w a s fo r h im : w h a te v e r p ro b a tio n is g r a n te d is p r o p e r ly g r a n te d , w h o e v e r d o es p r o b a tio n d o es p ro b a tio n th o r o u g h ly , h e m u s t d o p ro b a tio n fo r (a n y p o rtio n o f tim e) re m a in in g , jj i |f " T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s to be se n t b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g le a v e s th e O rd er. M o n k s, th e se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g is n o t e ffe c tiv e fo r o n e w h o le a v e s th e O rd e r. I f h e is o rd a in e d a g a in , th e e a rlie r g r a n tin g o f th e p r o b a tio n is ju s t a s it w a s fo r h im : w h a te v e r p ro b a tio n is g r a n te d is p r o p e r ly g r a n te d , t h a t m o n k m u s t be sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s to be se n t b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g b e c o m e s a n o v ic e . . . b eco m es m a d . . . {as in || i ||) . . . i s su sp e n d e d fo r n o t g iv in g up a w ro n g v ie w . M o n k s, th e se n d in g b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g of o n e w h o is su sp e n d e d is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f h e is re sto re d a g a in , th e e a rlie r g r a n tin g o f th e p r o b a tio n is ju s t a s it w a s fo r h im :

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w h a te v e r p ro b a tio n is g ra n te d is p r o p e r ly g ra n te d , t h a t m o n k m u st b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . [| 2 |{ '* T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s manatta (disciplin e) le a v e s th e O rd er. M o n k s, th e im p o sin g o f m anatta (disciplin e) o n o n e w h o le a v e s th e O rd e r is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f h e is o rd a in e d a g a in , th e e a rlie r g r a n tin g o f p ro b a tio n is ju s t as i i w a s fo r h im : w h a te v e r p r o b a tio n is g r a n te d is p ro p e rly "granted, w h o e v e r d o es p ro b a tio n d o es p ro b a tio n th o ro u g h ly , manatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld b e im p o se d on th a t m o n k. T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s m anatta (discipline) b e co m e s a n o v ic e . . . b e co m e s m a d . . . is su s p e n d e d fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w . M o n k s, th e im p o sin g o f m anatta (disciplin e) on o n e w h o is su sp e n d e d is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f he is re sto re d a g a in , th e e a rlie r g r a n tin g o f p ro b a tio n is ju s t a s it w a s fo r h im : w h a te v e r p ro b a tio n is g r a n te d is p ro p e r ly g ra n te d , w h o e v e r does p ro b a tio n d o es p ro b a tio n th o r o u g h ly , m anatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld be im p o se d o n th a t m o n k . |j 3 |j T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k w h o is u n d e rg o in g manatta (disciplin e) le a v e s th e O rd e r . . . is su sp e n d e d fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w . M o n k s, th e u n d e rg o in g o f manatta (discipline) fo r o n e w h o is su sp e n d e d is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f h e is re sto re d a g a in , th e e a rlie r g r a n tin g o f p ro b a tio n is ju s t as it w a s fo r h im : w h a te v e r p ro b a tio n is g r a n te d is p ro p e rly g ra n te d , w h o e v e r d o es p ro b a tio n d o es p ro b a tio n th o ro u g h ly , w h a te v e r manatta (d iscip lin e) is im p o se d is p ro p e rly im p o se d , w h a te v e r manatta (disciplin e) is u n d e rg o n e is u n d e rg o n e th o ro u g h ly , it m u st be u n d e rg o n e fo r (a n y p o rtio n o f tim e) rem a in in g . ||4 | ( T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ili ta tio n le a v e s th e O rd e r . . . is su sp e n d e d fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w . M o n k s, re h a b ilita tio n o f o n e w h o is su sp en d ed [61] is n o t e ffe c tiv e . I f he is re sto re d a g a in , th e e a rlie r g r a n t in g o f p ro b a tio n is ju s t as it w a s fo r h im : w h a te v e r p ro b a tio n is g r a n te d is p ro p e rly g ra n te d , w h o e v e r d o es p ro b a tio n does p ro b a tio n th o ro u g h ly , w h a te v e r m anatta (disciplin e) is im p o se d is p ro p e rly im p o sed , w h a te v e r manatta (d iscip lin e) is u n d e rg o n e is u n d e rg o n e th o ro u g h ly , t h a t m o n k m a y b e r e h a b ilita te d . || 5 || C o n c lu d e d are th e F o r t y C a s e s .1 || 2 7 ||
1 T h e r e a r e e ig h t p o s s ib ilit ie s ( le a v in g t h e O r d e r d o w n t o t h e t h r e e r e a s o n s f o r b e in g s u s p e n d e d ) u n d e r e a c h o f t h e f iv e h e a d in g s (d o in g p r o b a t io n , d e s e r v in g t o b e s e n t b a c k t o t h e b e g i n n in g , d e s e r v in g m a n a tta , u n d e r g o in g m a n a tta , d e s e r v in g r e h a b il it a t io n ) .

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T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , fa lls in to s e v e r a l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, th o se n o t c o n c e a le d n o t b e in g m a n y .1 T h a t m o n k sh o u ld be se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , fa lls in to se v e ra l offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, th o se co n c e a le d n ot b e in g m a n y . T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g a n d c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n sh o u ld be g r a n te d h im on a c co u n t o f th e e a rlie st o ffen ce o f th e o ffe n c e s th u s c o n cea le d . " T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, th o se c o n c e a le d a s w e ll a s th o s e n o t c o n c e a le d n o t b e in g m a n y . T h a t m o n k sh o u ld be se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g a n d c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n sh o u ld b e g ra n te d h im o n a c c o u n t o f th e e a rlie st o ffen ce o f th e o ffe n ces th u s c o n cea le d . " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s , w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, th o se n o t c o n c e a le d b e in g m a n y . . . . th o se c o n c e a le d b e in g m a n y . . . th o se c o n c e a le d a s w e ll as th o se n o t co n c e a le d b e in g m a n y . . . th o se n o t c o n c e a le d n o t b e in g m a n y a s w e ll a s b e in g m a n y . . . th o s e c o n c e a le d n o t b e in g m a n y a s w e ll a s b e in g m a n y . . . th o se c o n c e a le d as w e ll as th o se n o t c o n c e a le d n o t b e in g m a n y a s w e ll a s b e in g m a n y . T h a t m o n k sh o u ld be se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g a n d c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n sh o u ld be g r a n te d h im on a c c o u n t o f th e e a rlie st o ffe n ce o f th e o ffe n ces th u s c o n c e a le d . |[ i j| T h is is a ca se , m o n k s , w h e re a m o n k w h o d e se rv e s mdnatta (disciplin e) . . . w h o is u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (disciplin e) . . . w h o d e se rv e s re h a b ilita tio n m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, th o se n o t co n cea le d n o t b e in g m a n y . . . th o se c o n c e a le d a s w e ll a s th o se n o t c o n c e a led n o t b e in g m a n y a n d b e in g m a n y . T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g a n d c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n sh o u ld b e g r a n te d h im o n a c c o u n t o f th e e a rlie st o ffen ce o f th e o ffen ces th u s c o n c e a le d . |j 2 || C o n c lu d e d a re th e T h ir t y - s ix C ases. || 28 |) " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , h a v in g fa lle n in to
1 parimazidt b u t t h e m e a n in g i s n o t a t a l l c le a r . S e e a ls o b e l o w : C V . I I I . 88.

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se v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, le a v e s th e O rd er n ot h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . H e, b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , d o es n o t c o n c e a l th o se offences. M o n k s, m dnatta (disci pline) sh o u ld b e im p o sed u p o n th a t m o n k . " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , [62] h a v in g fa lle n in to se v e ra l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, le a v e s th e O rd er n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . H e , on b e in g o rd a in e d a g ain , co n cea ls th o se offen ces. M on ks, mdnatta (disciplin e) sh o u ld b e im p o se d on th a t m o n k , h a v in g g ra n te d h im p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e se t o f o ffen ces th u s la te r co n cea led . " T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k , h a v in g fa lle n . . . le a v e s th e O rd er h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . H e , on b e in g o r d a in e d a g a in , d o es n o t c o n c e a l th o se o ffen ces. M o n k s, m dnatta (discipline) sh o u ld b e im p o sed on th a t m o n k , h a v in g g ra n te d h im p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e s e t o f o ffen ces th u s e arlier co n cea led . T h is is a ca se, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k , h a v in g fa lle n . . . le a v e s th e O rd er, h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . H e, on b e in g o r d a in e d a g a in , co n c e a ls th o se o ffen ces. M o n k s, m dnatta (d isci pline) sh o u ld be im p o sed on th a t m o n k , h a v in g g ra n te d him p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e set o f o ffen ces th u s e a rlie r an d la te r co n c e a le d . || x l| T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r. H is offen ces are b o th co n cea le d a n d n o t c o n cea le d . H e, h a v in g le ft th e O rd er, on b e in g o rd ain e d a g a in , d o es n o t a fte rw a r d s c o n c e a l th o se offen ces w h ic h fo rm e rly h e co n c e a le d , a fte rw a r d s h e c o n ceals th o se offen ces w h ich fo r m e r ly he d id n o t c o n c e a l. M o n k s, m dnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld be im p o se d on th a t m o n k , h a v in g g ra n te d h im p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e set o f o ffen ces th u s e a rlie r a n d la te r co n c e a le d . T h i* is a case, m o n k s, * . . on b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , d o es n o t a fte rw a r d s c o n c e a l th o se o ffe n ces w h ic h fo rm e rly h e co n c e a led , d o es n o t 1 a fte rw a r d s c o n c e a l th o s e o ffe n ces w h ich fo rm e rly h e d id n o t c o n cea l. M o n k s, m dnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld b e im p o sed on t h a t m o n k , h a v in g g ra n te d h im p ro b a tio n on a c co u n t o f th e se t o f offen ces th u s e a rlie r a n d la te r c o n cea le d .
1 S e e V i n . T e x t s ii. 4 2 3 , n , 2, o n t h e r i g h t w a y o f m a k i n g u p t h e h u n d r e d c a s e s m e n t i o n e d a t t h e e n d o f 80 .

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" T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, . . . o n b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , a fte r w a rd s c o n c e a ls th o se o ffe n c e s w h ic h fo r m e r ly h e co n c e a le d , a fte r w a r d s c o n c e a ls th o s e o ffe n ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly he d id n o t c o n c e a l. M o n k s, m dnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld b e im p o se d on t h a t m o n k on a c c o u n t o f th e se t o f o ffe n ces th u s e a rlie r a n d la te r c o n c e a le d . || 2 |j T h is is a ca se, m o n k s , w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. H e k n o w s so m e t o be o ffe n ces, h e d o es n o t k n o w o th e rs to b e offen ces. T h e o ffe n ces w h ic h h e k n o w s to b e o ffe n ces h e c o n c e a ls, th o se o ffen ces [63] w h ic h h e d o es n o t k n o w to b e o ffe n ces h e d o es n o t c o n c e a l. H e , h a v in g le ft th e O rd e r, on b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , c o n c e a ls th o s e o ffe n ces w h ic h e a rlie r h e h a d k n o w n , d o es n o t c o n c e a l th o se o ffe n ces w h ic h la te r he h a d k n o w n , d o e s n o t c o n c e a l th o se o ffe n ces w h ic h e a r lie r he h a d n o t k n o w n , d o es n o t c o n c e a l th o se o ffe n ces w h ic h la te r h e h a d k n o w n . M o n k s, m dnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld b e im p o se d on th a t m o n k , h a v in g g r a n te d h im p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e s e t o f o ffe n ces th u s e a rlie r c o n c e a le d . " T h is is a ca se, m o n k s , . . . on b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , d o es n o t c o n c e a l th o se o ffen ces, (a lth o u g h ) k n o w in g th e m , w h ic h fo rm e rly , k n o w in g th e m h e c o n c e a le d , a fte rw a r d s co n c e a ls th o se offen ces, k n o w in g th e m , w h ic h fo r m e r ly , n o t k n o w in g th e m , h e d id n o t c o n c e a l. M o n k s, m dnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld b e im p o se d o n t h a t m o n k , h a v in g g r a n te d h im p r o b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e s e t o f o ffe n ces th u s e a rlie r a n d la te r c o n c e a le d . T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, . . . o n b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , a fte r w a r d s c o n c e a ls th o se o ffen ces, k n o w in g th e m , w h ic h fo r m e r ly , k n o w in g th e m h e c o n c e a le d , a fte r w a r d s d o es n o t c o n c e a l th o se o ffen ces, k n o w in g th e m , w h ic h fo r m e r ly h e d id n o t c o n c e a l, n o t k n o w in g th e m . M o n k s, m dnatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld b e im p o se d o n th is m o n k , h a v in g g r a n te d h im p ro b a tio n o n a c c o u n t o f th e se t o f o ffe n ces th u s e a rlie r a n d la t e r c o n c e a le d . T h is is a ca se , m o n k s . . . on b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , a ft e r w a rd s c o n c e a ls th o se o ffen ces, k n o w in g th e m , w h ic h fo rm e rly , k n o w in g th e m , h e c o n c e a le d ; a fte r w a r d s c o n c e a ls th o se offen ces, k n o w in g th e m , w h ic h fo r m e r ly , n o t k n o w in g th e m , he d id n o t c o n c e a l. M o n k s, m dnatta (d iscip lin e) s h o u ld b e im p o se d on t h a t m o n k , h a v in g g r a n te d h im p r o b a tio n o n a c c o u n t o f th e set o f offen ces th u s e a rlie r a n d la te r c o n c e a le d . || 3 j[

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T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. H e re m em bers so m e to b e o ffen ces . . . ( = || 3 fl- In stea d o f he k n o w s, k n o w in g , n o t k n o w in g , read h e re m em b ers, rem em b erin g , n o t rem em b erin g) . . . th u s e a rlie r a n d la te r co n c e a le d . (| 4 |j T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. H e is in no d o u b t as to so m e o f th e o ffen ces, h e is in d o u b t a s to o th e rs o f th e o ffe n ces . . . th u s e a rlie r a n d la te r c o n c e a le d . |] 5 || 29 || " T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , h a v in g fa lle n in to se v e ra l offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, b e co m es a n o v ic e . . . b e co m e s m a d . . . b e co m e s u n h in g e d in m in d . . . th is sh o u ld b e e x p la in e d in d e ta il as b e lo w .1 H e co m es to be in p a in . H is o ffen ces a re c o n c e a le d as w e ll a s u n co n cea le d . H e k n o w s th a t so m e a re o ffen ces, he d o es n o t k n o w th a t o th e rs are offen ces. H e re m em b ers t h a t som e a re o ffen ces, [64] h e does n o t re m em b er t h a t o th e rs are o ffen ces. H e is in no d o u b t th a t so m e a re o ffen ces, h e is in d o u b t a s to w h e th e r o th ers are o ffen ces. H e co n c e a ls th o se o ffe n ces a b o u t w h ic h h e is in n o d o u b t, h e d o es n o t c o n c e a l th o se offen ces a b o u t w h ic h he is in d o u b t. H e co m es to b e in p a in . H a v in g co m e to b e a g a in n o t in p a in , th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly h e c o n c e a led b e cau se h e w a s in n o d o u b t, h e a fte rw a rd s d o es n o t c o n cea l a lth o u g h h e is in no d o u b t ; th o se o ffe n ces w h ic h fo r m e rly h e d id n o t c o n cea l, b e in g in d o u b t, h e a fte rw a r d s does n o t co n cea l a lth o u g h h e is in d o u b t, th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e rly h e c o n cea le d , b e in g in n o d o u b t, h e a fte rw a r d s d o es n o t co n cea l, b e in g in n o d o u b t, th o se o ffe n c e s w h ic h fo r m e r ly he d id n o t c o n cea l, b e in g in d o u b t, he a fte r w a r d s c o n c e a ls , n o t b e in g in d o u b t, th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly h e co n c e a le d , b ein g in no d o u b t, h e a fte rw a rd s co n ce a ls, b e in g in n o d o u b t, th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo rm e rly h e d id n o t c o n cea l, b e in g in d o u b t, h e a fte rw a r d s d o es n o t c o n c e a l, b e in g in n o d o u b t, th o se offen ces w h ic h fo rm e rly h e co n c e a le d , b e in g in no d o u b t, he a fte rw a rd s co n cea ls, b e in g in n o d o u b t, th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo rm e rly he d id n o t co n cea l, b e in g in d o u b t, h e a fte rw a rd s co n cea ls, b e in g in n o d o u b t. M on ks, manatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld
1 I . e . in I I I . 27 , " b e l o w '* c o r r e s p o n d s t o o u r ** a b o v e ** in s u c h c o n t e x t s , a s i t r e fe r s t o t h e p a l m - l e a f M S S .

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be im p o se d on th is m o n k , h a v in g g r a n te d h im p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e s e t o f o ffe n ces th u s e a rlie r a s w e ll a s la te r c o n c e a le d / ' || i || 30 || T h e H u n d re d on M d n a tta . T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , h a v in g fa lle n in to s e v e ra l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e t in g o f th e O rd er, le a v e s th e O rd e r n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . O n b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , h e d o es n o t c o n c e a l th e se offen ces. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld be sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . T h is is a ca se, m o n k s . . . n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . O n b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , he c o n c e a ls th e se o ffen ces. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g a n d c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n sh o u ld b e g r a n te d h im on a c c o u n t on th e e a rlie r o ffe n ces a m o n g th e o ffen ces th u s c o n c e a le d . T h is is a c a se , m o n k s . . . h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . On b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , h e d o es n o t c o n c e a l th e se o ffe n ces. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . th u s co n c e a le d . T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, . . . h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . O n b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , he c o n c e a ls th e se o ffen ces. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . th u s c o n c e a le d . [| i ]| T h is is a ca se, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p ro b a tio n , fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r. H is [65] o ffen ces a re b o th c o n c e a le d a n d n o t c o n c e a le d . H a v in g le ft th e O rd er, he, o n b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , d o es n o t a fte rw a r d s c o n c e a l th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly he c o n cea le d , d o es n o t a fte rw a r d s c o n c e a l th o s e o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly he d id n o t c o n c e a l. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g a n d c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n sh o u ld be g r a n te d h im on a c c o u n t o f th e e a rlie r o ffen ces o f th e o ffe n ces thu& co n c e a le d . " T h is is a ca se, m o n k s . . . H is o ffen ces a re b o th c o n c e a le d a n d n o t co n c e a le d . H a v in g le f t th e O rd e r, h e, on b e in g o rd ain e d a g a in , d o es n o t a fte rw a r d s c o n c e a l th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly h e c o n c e a le d , a fte rw a r d s c o n c e a ls th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly h e d id n o t c o n c e a l. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . th u s c o n cea le d . ' f T h is is a ca se, m o n k s, . . . o n b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , a fte r w a rd s co n c e a ls th o se o ffe n c e s w h ic h fo r m e r ly h e c o n c e a le d , a fte rw a rd s does n o t c o n c e a l th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly he

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d id n ot c o n cea l. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . th u s co n c e a le d . " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, . . . o n b e in g o rd a in e d a g a in , a fte r w a rd s c o n c e a ls th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo rm e rly he co n c e a le d , a fte rw a r d s c o n c e a ls th o se o ffen ces w h ic h fo r m e r ly h e d id n o t c o n c e a l. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e se n t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . . . th u s c o n cea le d . || 2 | | " T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , w h ile d o in g p r o b a tion , fa lls in to se v e ra l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. H e k n o w s so m e are offen ces, he d o es n o t k n o w th a t o th e rs are o ffen ces . . . ( = 29. 3 , 4 , 30. T he p enalty is always the sam e : th a t m o n k sh o u ld b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g a n d c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n g ra n te d h im o n a c c o u n t o f th e e a rlie r o ffen ces o f th e o ffen ces th u s co n cea led ) . . . || 3 j| 3 1 || T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k d e se rv in g mdnatta (disciplin e) . . . u n d e rg o in g m dnatta (d iscip lin e) . . . d e se rv in g r e h a b ilita tio n , h a v in g m e a n tim e fa lle n in to se v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, le a v e s th e O rd er, n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d th e m . . . T h e o n e d e se rv in g mdnatta (disci pline) a n d th e one u n d e rg o in g mdnatta (discipline) a n d th e one d e se rv in g r e h a b ilita tio n sh o u ld b e e x p la in e d in d e ta il sim ila rly to th e one d o in g p r o b a tio n .1 " T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k d e se rv in g r e h a b ilita tio n , h a v in g m e a n tim e fa lle n in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e p r d e r , a n d n o t h a v in g co n c e a le d th e m , b e co m e s a n o v ic e . . . b e c o m e s m a d . . b e co m e s u n h in g e d in m in d . . .b e co m e s a fflic te d b y p a in . H is o ffen ces are b o th co n c e a le d a n d n o t c o n c e a le d . . . ( = 30) . * . he a fte rw a rd s co n cea ls, b e in g in n o d o u b t. T h a t m o n k sh o u ld b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g [66] a n d co n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n g ra n te d h im on a c c o u n t o f th e e a rlie r o ffen ces o f th e o ffen ces th u s co n c e a led . || 1 || 32 || T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k h a v in g fa lle n in to se v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d n o t m a n y , n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d m a n y , n o t h a v in g co n c e a le d one k in d , n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d d iffere n t

1 c v , III. 31.

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k in d s, n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d th o s e o f a lik e d iv is io n ,1 n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d th o se o f th e o th e r d iv is io n ,1 n o t h a v in g co n c e a le d s e p a ra te o n e s,2 n o t h a v in g c o n c e a le d c o n n e c te d o n e s,3 le a v e s th e O rd e r.4 f| x || 33 || " T w o m o n k s co m e to h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. T h e y co m e t o b e o f th e o p in io n th a t th e o ffen ce is one e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. O n e c o n c e a ls it, th e o th e r d o es n o t c o n c e a l it. W h o e v e r co n c e a ls it sh o u ld b e m a d e to c o n fe ss a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g , a n d h a v in g g r a n te d h im p r o b a tio n fo r a s lo n g a s it w a s c o n c e a led , m dnatia (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld b e im p o se d on b o th . T w o m o n k s co m e t o h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. T h e y are d o u b tfu l w h e th e r th e offen ce is o n e e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. O n e c o n c e a ls it . . . (as above) . . . sh o u ld b e im p o se d on b o th . T w o m o n k s co m e to h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. I n re g a rd to th is o ffen ce th e y are o f th e o p in io n th a t it is a m ix e d o ffe n c e .5 O n e c o n c e a ls it . . . (s above) . . . sh o u ld be im p o se d on b o th . T w o m o n k s co m e to h a v e fa lle n in to a m ix e d o ffen ce. In re g a rd to th is m ix e d o ffen ce t h e y a re o f th e o p in io n th a t i t is a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. O n e c o n c e a ls it . . . sh o u ld b e im p o se d o n b o th . T w o m o n k s co m e to h a v e fa lle n in to a m ix e d o ffen ce. I n
1 sabhdga . . . visabhaga, p o s s i b l y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e t w o d i v is io n s o f o ffe n c e s e n t a il i n g a f o r m a l m e e t i n g o f t h e O r d e r ; t h a t w h e r e o ffe n c e s a r e o ffe n c e s a t o n c e , a n d t h a t w h e r e o ffe n c e s b e c o m e s o a f t e r ( u n s u c c e s s fu l) a d m o n it io n u p t o t h e t h i r d t im e . * vavatthitd. * sambhinnd . F o r e x a m p le , t h e r e a r e n o o t h e r F o r m a l M e e t in g s s im ila r t o X* V , X I I o r X J I I . T h e s e , t h e r e f o r e , a r e " s e p a r a t e / * F o r m a l M e e t in g s I I I V a r e *' c o n n e c t e d ** b e c a u s e t h e y d e a l w i t h t h e s a m e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a n d t o s o m e e x t e n t u s e t h e s a m e w o r d in g ; t h e s a m e is a ls o t r u e o f F o r m a l M e e t in g s V I , V I I a n d V I I I ; I X , X a n d X I . V A . 1 1 9 1 s a y s t h a t vavatthitd a n d sambhinnd a r e pariydyavacana o f sabhdga a n d visabhaga. 4 T h i s is t h e w h o le o f t h i s p a r a g r a p h a s i t s t a n d s . S e e n o t e a t V in . Texts ii. 4 3 1 w h ic h s a y s t h a t t h e c o n c lu s io n s h o u ld b e s u p p lie d a s in J ] 28 If, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e p e n a l t y in e a c h c a s e is " a p r o b a t io n c o r r e s p o n d in g in l e n g t h t o t h e p e r io d w h i c h h a s e la p s e d s in c e t h e f ir s t o f t h o s e o ffe n c e s w h ic h t h e r e - o r d a in e d B h i k k h u h a s c o n c e a le d . T h e d e t a i l s a r e o n ly w o r k e d o u t in |f 28 [|, o f t h e f ir s t o f t h e s e v e r a l p a i r s h e r e e n u m e r a t e d , a n d a r e in t e n d e d t o b e s u p p lie d h e r e f o r e a c h o f t h e o t h e r p a i r s in a s im i la r w a y . A l l t h e p a ir s r e c u r in C h a p s . 35, 30. " * missaka , w h i c h V A . 1 1 9 1 s a y s m e a n s ** m i x e d w i t h a g r a v e o f fe n c e a n d so o n ."

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re g a rd to t h a t m ix e d offence t h e y a re o f th e o p in io n t h a t it is a m ix e d offen ce. O n e co n cea ls it . . . sh o u ld b e im p o se d o n b o th . " T w o m o n k s co m e to h a v e fa lle n in to a slig h te r o ffe n c e .1 I n re g a rd to th is s lig h te r o ffen ce t h e y a re o f th e o p in io n t h a t it is an o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r. O n e co n c e a ls it, th e o th e r d o es n o t c o n c e a l it. W h o e v e r c o n c e a ls it sh o u ld b e m a d e to c o n fe ss a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g a n d b o th sh o u ld b e d e a lt w ith a c co rd in g to th e ru le .3 " T w o m o n k s co m e to h a v e fa lle n in to a slig h te r offen ce. In re g a rd to th is slig h te r o ffen ce t h e y a re o f th e o p in io n t h a t it is a s lig h te r o ffen ce. O n e c o n c e a ls it . . . a c c o rd in g t o th e ru le, i! 1 || " T w o m o n k s co m e to h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffe n c e e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. I n re g a rd to th is o ffen ce e n ta il in g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r t h e y a re o f th e o p in io n t h a t it is a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. I t o c cu rs to one, 1 w ill te ll a b o u t i t / it o ccu rs to th e o th e r, * I w ill n o t te ll a b o u t i t / [67] H e c o n c e a ls it d u rin g th e first w a tc h a n d h e c o n c e a ls it d u rin g th e se co n d w a tc h a n d h e c o n c e a ls it d u rin g th e th ir d w a tc h . I f th e o ffe n ce is (still) c o n c e a le d a fte r th e su n h a s risen , w h o e v e r co n c e a ls it sh o u ld b e m a d e to co n fess a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g , a n d h a v in g g ra n te d him p ro b a tio n fo r a s lo n g a s it w a s c o n c e a le d , m dnatta (disciplin e) sh o u ld b e im p o se d on b o th . " T w o m o n k s c o m e to h a v e fa lle n in to an o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. In re g a rd to th is o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r t h e y are o f th e o p in io n t h a t i t is a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. T h e y g o a w a y , th in k in g , f W e w ill te ll a b o u t i t / O n th e w a y , b a c k slid in g 1 a rises in o n e a n d h e t h i n k s ,' I w ill n o t te ll a b o u t it/ H e c o n c e a ls it d u rin g th e first w a tc h a n d . . . h e c o n c e a ls it d u rin g th e th ir d w a tc h . I f th e o ffen ce is (still) c o n c e a le d a fte r th e su n h a s risen , . . . sh o u ld b e im p o se d on b o th . " T w o m o n k s. . . . T h e y b e co m e m a d , a n d la te r th e y , h a v in g
1 su d d h a k a . V A . 1 1 9 1 s a y s t h e g r o u p o f l i g h t e r o ffe n c e s , n o t t h o s e e n t a i l in g a f o r m a l m e e t i n g o f t h e O r d e r . * I . e . t h e r u le f o r w h a t e v e r o f f e n c e i t w a s , f o r a s i t w a s n o t a n o ffe n c e e n t a i l i n g a f o r m a l m e e t i n g o f t h e O r d e r , p r o b a t i o n a n d m d n a tta w o u l d n o t e n te r in to th e p e n a lty . * m a k k h a d h a tn m a , h y p o c r i s y . P e r h a p s i t h e re m e a n s t h a t h e d e c e iv e d t h e o th e r m o n k .

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b e c o m e sa n e a g a in , o n e c o n c e a ls it, th e o th e r d o es n o t c o n c e a l it. W h o e v e r c o n c e a ls it sh o u ld be m a d e to co n fess a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g a n d , h a v in g g r a n te d h im p ro b a tio n fo r a s lo n g as it w a s c o n c e a le d , m anatta (d iscip lin e) sh o u ld b e im p o sed on b o th . T w o m o n k s c o m e to h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. A ? th e P a tim o k k h a is b e in g re cite d , th e se s p e a k th u s : O n ly n o w d o w e u n d e rsta n d th a t th e ru le, as is said , is h a n d e d d o w n in a cla u se , c o n ta in e d in a c la u se (and) co m es u p fo r re c ita tio n e v e r y h a lf-m o n th / 1 In re g a rd to th a t o ffe n ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er t h e y are o f th e o p in io n th a t it is an o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. O n e c o n c e a ls it, th e o th e r d o es n o t co n c e a l it. W h o e v e r c o n c e a ls it sh o u ld b e m a d e to co n fess an offen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g , a n d h a v in g g r a n te d h im p ro b a tio n for as lo n g as it w a s c o n c e a le d , m anatta (disciplin e) sh o u ld be im p o sed on b o th . || 2 || 3 4 || " T h i s is a ca se, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r : m a n y a n d n o t m a n y a n d o f one k in d a n d o f d iffere n t k in d s a n d of a lik e d iv is io n a n d o f a d iffe re n t d iv is io n a n d s e p a ra te a n d c o n n e c te d .2 H e a sk s th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n o n a c c o u n t o f these o ffcn ces. T h e O rd e r g r a n ts h im c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n on a c co u n t o f th e se o ffen ces. W h ile h e is d o in g p r o b a tio n he fa lls in to s e v e ra l in te r v e n in g o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g of th e O rd er, m a n y , n o t c o n c e a le d . O n a c c o u n t o f th e in te rv e n in g o ffen ces, h e a sk s th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . O n a c c o u n t o f th e in te rv e n in g o ffen ces th e O rd e r se n d s h im b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t th a t is le g a lly v a lid , irre v e rsib le , fit to s ta n d , (but) it im p o se s m anatta (disciplin e) n o t b y ru le, it r e h a b ilita te s h im n o t b y ru le. M o n k s, th a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re g a rd to th o se offen ces. " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to se v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r : n o t m a n y a n d m a n y a r d o f one k in d a n d o f d iffere n t k in d s a n d o f a lik e d iv is io n a n d o f a d iffe re n t d iv is io n [68] a n d se p a ra te ones a n d
1 S e e t h e " r u le " in P a c . 7 3 ( V i n . i v . 1 4 4 ) . * A s in C V . I I I . 33 . U h e d e t a i l s o f t h e fir s t p a i r , n o t m a n y a n d m a n y , a r e w o r k e d o u t i n r e l a t i o n t o " c o n c e a l e d , n o t c o n c e a l e d a t C V . I I I . 28 .

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co n n e cted ones. H e a sk s th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffen ces. T h e O rd e r g r a n ts h im c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffen ces. W h ile he is u n d e r p ro b a tio n , h e m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r, n o t m a n y , c o n c e a le d . . . . O n a c co u n t o f th e o ffen ces (fallen in to) m e a n tim e , th e O rd e r send s him b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t t h a t is le g a lly v a lid , irre v e rsib le , fit t o sta n d . I t g r a n ts c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n b y rule, it im p o ses m dnatta (d iscip lin e) n o t b y ru le, it re h a b ilita te s him n o t b y ru le. M o n k s, t h a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re ga rd to th o se offen ces. || 1 || T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to s e v e ra l offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r : n o t m a n y . . . a n d c o n n e c te d ones. H e a sk s th e O rd e r . . . W h ile h e is u n d e r p ro b a tio n , h e m e a n tim e fa lls in to se v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r : m a n y , n o t c o n c e a le d . . . m a n y , c o n c e a le d . . . m a n y , c o n c e a le d a n d n o t c o n c e a le d . . . n o t m a n y a n d m a n y , n o t co n c e a le d . O n a c c o u n t o f th e offen ces (fallen in to) m e a n tim e , h e a sk s th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . O n a c c o u n t o f th e o ffen ces (fallen in to) m e a n tim e, th e O rd e r se n d s h im b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t th a t is le g a lly v a lid , irre v e rsib le , fit t o sta n d . I t g ra n ts c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n b y ru le, it im p o se s m dnatta (d isci pline) n o t b y ru le, it re h a b ilita te s h im n o t b y ru le . M o n k s, th a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re g a rd to th o se offences. T h is is a ca se, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k . . . a n d c o n n e c te d ones. H e a sk s th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n o n a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffen ces. T h e O rd e r g r a n ts h im c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n on a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffen ces. W h ile h e is u n d e r p ro b a tio n , he m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e r a l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r : n o t m a n y a n d m a n y a n d c o n c e a le d . O n a c c o u n t o f th ese o ffen ces (fallen in to) m e a n tim e he a sk s th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . O n a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffen ces (fallen in to) m e a n tim e th e O rd e r se n d s h im b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t th a t is le g a lly v a lid , irre v e rsib le , fit to sta n d . I t g r a n ts h im c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n b y ru le, [69] it im poses mdnatta (disciplin e) n o t b y ru le , it r e h a b ilita te s h im not b y ru le. M o n k s, t h a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re g a rd to th o se offences. T h is is a case, m o n k s, . . . a n d c o n n e cte d ones. On

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a c c o u n t o f th e se offen ces, h e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n . O n a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffen ces, th e O r d e r g r a n ts h im c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n . W h ile h e is u n d e r p ro b a tio n , h e m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffe n c e s e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O r d e r : n o t m a n y a n d m a n y a n d c o n c e a le d a n d n o t c o n c e a le d . O n a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffe n ces (fa lle n in to ) m e a n tim e , h e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to t h e b e g in n in g . O n a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffen ces (fa lle n in to ) m e a n tim e , th e O rd er sen d s h im b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t t h a t is le g a lly v a lid , irre v e rsib le , fit to s ta n d . I t g r a n ts c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n b y ru le , it im p o se s m anatta (d iscip lin e) n o t b y ru le, it re h a b ilita te s h im n o t b y ru le . M o n k s, t h a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re g a rd to th o se o ffe n ces. || 2 || T o ld a re t h e N in e C a ses w h e re (a M o n k on b e in g sen t b a c k to ) th e B e g in n in g is N o t P u re . |j 35 [| T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k fa lls in to se v e ra l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r : n o t m a n y a n d m a n y . . . a n d s e p a r a te o n es a n d c o n n e c te d o n es. On a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffe n ces h e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n . O n a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffe n ces, th e O rd e r g r a n ts h im c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n . W h ile h e is u n d e r p r o b a tio n , h e m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e r a l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g of th e O rd e r : n o t m a n y , n o t c o n c e a le d . O n a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffen ces (fa lle n in to ) m e a n tim e h e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g . O n a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffe n ces (fallen in to ) m e a n tim e th e O rd e r se n d s h im b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t t h a t is n o t le g a lly v a lid , re v e rsib le , n o t fit to sta n d , it im p o se s m dnatta (disciplin e) b y ru le, it r e h a b ilita te s h im b y rule* M on ks, t h a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re g a rd to th o se offen ces. * T h is is a ca se , m o n k s , . . - W h ile h e is u n d e r p r o b a tio n h e m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e r a l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r : n o t m a n y a n d c o n c e a le d a n d n o t c o n c e a le d . . . n o t m a n y , c o n c e a le d . . O n a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffen ces (fa llen in to ) m e a n tim e th e O rd e r sen d s h im b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (fo rm al) a c t th a t is n o t le g a lly v a lid , re v e rsib le , n o t fit to s ta n d , it g r a n ts c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n n o t b y ru le , im p o se s m dnatta (d iscip lin e) b y ru le , it re h a b ilita te s

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h im b y ru le . M o n k s, t h a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re g a rd t o th o se offences. || r || " T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, . . . W h ile h e is u n d e r p ro b a tio n h e m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e ra l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e t in g o f th e O rd e r : n o t m a n y , c o n c e a le d . O n a c c o u n t o f th e se offen ces (fallen in to ) m e a n tim e he a s k s th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g . O n a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffe n ces (fallen into) m e a n tim e th e O rd e r se n d s h im b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t t h a t is n o t le g a lly v a lid , re v e rsib le , n o t fit to sta n d . I t g r a n ts h im c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n n o t b y ru le . [70] H e, th in k in g : ' I a m u n d e r p r o b a tio n V m e a n tim e fa lls in to se v e ra l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, n o t m a n y , c o n c e a le d . H e , a r r iv e d a t t h a t s ta g e , re m e m b e rs a m o n g th e e a rlie r o ffe n ces o ffe n ces (fa lle n into) m e a n tim e , h e re m em b ers a m o n g th e su b s e q u e n t o ffe n c e s o ffe n ces (fa llen in to ) m e a n tim e . I t o c cu rs to h im , * N o w , I h a v e fa lle n in to s e v e r a l o ffen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, n o t m a n y a n d m a n y . . . a n d s e p a ra te o n es a n d c o n n e cte d o n es. O n a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffe n ces I a s k e d th e O rd e r fo r c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n . O n a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffe n ces th e O rd e r g r a n te d m e c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n . W h ile I w a s u n d e r p ro b a tio n , 1 m e a n tim e fe ll in to se v e ra l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r, n o t m a n y , c o n c e a le d . S o o n a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffe n ces (fa llen in to ) m e a n tim e, I a s k e d th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g . O n a c c o u n t o f th e se o ffe n ces (fa lle n in to ) m e a n tim e , th e O rd e r sen t m e b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t t h a t w a s n o t le g a lly v a lid , re v e rsib le , n o t fit t o s ta n d . I t g r a n te d c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n n o t b y ru le . T h e n I , th in k in g " I a m u n d e r p r o b a tio n ," m e a n tim e fe ll in to s e v e r a l o ffe n ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, n o t m a n y , c o n c e a le d . T h e n I , a r r iv e d a t th is sta g e , re m e m b e re d a m o n g th e e a rlie r o ffe n ces o ffe n ces fa lle n in to m e a n tim e , I re m e m b e re d a m o n g th e su b s e q u e n t o ffe n ces o ffen ces fa lle n in to m e a n tim e . S u p p o se t h a t I , on a c c o u n t o f th o se offen ces a m o n g th e e a rlie r o ffe n ces, a n d on a c c o u n t o f th o se o ffen ces a m o n g th e su b s e q u e n t o ffe n ces, sh o u ld a s k th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t t h a t is le g a lly v a lid , irre v e rsib le , fit to s ta n d , fo r c o n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n b y ru le , fo r m anatta (d iscip lin e) b y ru le, fo r re h a b ilita tio n b y ru le ? ' H e a s k s th e O rd e r . . . T h e O rd e r, o n a c c o u n t o f th ose o ffe n ces a m o n g th e e a rlie r o ffe n ces a n d o n a c c o u n t o f

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th o se o ffe n ces a m o n g th e su b s e q u e n t o ffe n c e s, se n d s h im b a c k to th e b e g in n in g b y a (fo rm al) a c t t h a t is le g a lly v a lid , irre v e r s ib le , fit to s ta n d , i t g r a n ts c o n c u rre n t p ro b a tio n b y rule, it im p o se s m dnatta (d iscip lin e) b y ru le , it r e h a b ilita te s h im b y ru le. M o n k s, t h a t m o n k is p u r e in re g a rd to th o se o ffen ces. " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s , . . . ( T h is case is ide?itical w ith the p recedin g , but in stea d o f c o n c e a le d read c o n c e a le d a n d n o t c o n c e a le d ) . . . || 2 || T h is is a c a se , m o n k s . . . W h ile h e is u n d e r p r o b a tio n , h e m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e r a l o ffe n c e s e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e t in g o f th e O rd e r, m a n y , n o t c o n c e a le d , m a n y , c o n c e a le d . . . n o t m a n y a n d m a n y , n o t c o n c e a le d . O n a c c o u n t o f th e o ffen ces (fa lle n in to ) m e a n tim e [7 1] h e a s k s th e O rd e r fo r se n d in g b a c k to th e b e g in n in g . O n a c c o u n t o f th e o ffe n c e s (fa llen in to) m e a n tim e , th e O rd e r se n d s h im b a c k to t h e b e g in n in g b y a (form al) a c t t h a t is n o t le g a lly v a lid , re v e r s ib le , n o t fit t o sta n d . I t im p o se s m dnatta (d iscip lin e) b y ru le , r e h a b ilita te s b y ru le . M o n k s, t h a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re g a rd t o th o s e offen ces. T h is is a c a se , m o n k s , . . . W h ile h e is u n d e r p ro b a tio n , h e m e a n tim e fa lls in to s e v e r a l o ffe n c e s e n ta ilin g a fo r m a l m e e t in g o f th e O rd e r, n o t m a n y a n d m a n y , a n d c o n c e a le d . . . n o t m a n y a n d m a n y a n d c o n c e a le d a n d n o t c o n c e a le d . . . O n a c c o u n t o f th e s e o ffe n ces (fa llen in to ) m e a n tim e , th e O rd e r se n d s h im b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g b y a (fo rm al) a c t t h a t is n ot le g a lly v a lid , r e v e rs ib le , n o t fit to s ta n d , it g r a n ts h im co n c u rre n t p r o b a tio n n o t b y ru le , it im p o se s m dnatta (disciplin e) b y ru le , it r e h a b ilita te s h im b y ru le . M o n k s, t h a t m o n k is n o t p u re in re g a rd to th o se o ffe n ces. || 3 || T h is is a ca se , m o n k s . . . ( T he two cases given here are id en tica l with those sp ecified in || 2 ||; in stea d o f n o t m a n y read m a n y ) . . . M o n k s, t h a t m o n k is p u re in re g a r d t o th o se o ffe n c e s / ' || 4 || 3 6 || T o ld is th e T h ir d S e c tio n : t h a t on A c c u m u la tio n (of O ffe n ces). T h is is its k e y : N o t c o n c e a le d , a n d one d a y , t w o d a y s , th re e d a y s , fo u r d a y s a n d fiv e d a y s , a n d fo r a fo r tn ig h t, te n d a y s 1 : th e G r e a t S a g e sp e a k s o f a n o ffen ce, /
1 d a s d n a m s h o u ld p e r h a p s r e a d d a s a h a , o r d a s a n n a m . p r o b a b l y t o 2 1 . 1 : t e n o ff e n c e s c o n c e a l e d f o r t e n d a y s . The r e fe r e n c e is

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A n d slig h te r ones, le a v in g th e O rd er, a b o u t f n o t m a n y tw o m o n k s th ere agree, tw o are d o u b tfu l, are o f th e o p in io n t h a t it is a m ix e d o ffen ce, / T h e y are o f th e o p in io n t h a t it is a h e a v ie r o ffen ce w h en it is a slig h te r o n e ,2 lik e w ise o f th e o p in io n th a t it is a slig h te r o n e .3 / O n e co n cea ls, a n d th e n a b o u t b a c k s lid in g ,4 a n d co n fe ssin g fo r one w h o w a s m a d , (sen d in g b a ck ) to th e b e g in n in g , h e is p u r e . 5 / T h e r e c ita tio n 6 is fo r th e m a in te n a n ce o f tr u e dham m a a m o n g th e te a ch er? o f th e V ib h a jja d o c trin e s ,7 a n d w h o , d w e lle rs in th e M a h a v ih a ra , 8 illu m in a te T a m b a p a n n id lp a .9 [72]

1 ReadiDg w ith S ia h . edn, p a r im d n d s a ca in stead of O ld en b ergs p a r im d p a m u k h a tn , for - tn u k h a m is hard t o accou nt for. 1 R eadin g w ith Sinh. edn. s u d d h a k e g a r u k a d itth in o , and referring to th e end of 34 . i where tw o m onks th in k t h a t th e y h a v e fallen in to a S a n g k d d is e s a offence when really it is a slighter one. 8 R eadin g should p ro b ab ly be s u d d h a k a d itth in o instead of s u d d h a d itth in o of O ldenberg's te x t, an d s u d d a d itth i of Sinh. edn. 4 A s O ldenberg suggests ( V i n . ii. 312) th e p a k k h a m ite n a ca should perhaps read m a k k h a d k a m m e n a as in I I I . 34 . 2. T h e Sinh. edn. reads p a k k a m i te n a c a . 6 R ea d in g w ith Sinh. edn. m u ld y a p a tiv is u d d h a k o (for m u ld y a p a t ik a s s a ii -f* v is u d d h a k o ) instead of O ldenberg's rnuld, p a n n a r a s a v is u d d h a to . O n th e other hand, there seem to be fifteen cases of sending b a ck to th e beginning m ade up of nine to w hich reference is m ad e a t th e end of 35 , w ith six in 36 . v a ca n d . 7 v ib h a jja p a d d n a m , w hich O ldenberg suggests ( V i n . ii. 312) should read v ib h a jja v d d a n a m . Sinh. edn. reads v ib h a jja v a d d n a m . T h e grea t m onastery a t A n u rad bapu ra, for m a n y centuries th e chief seat of B uddhism in Ceylon. T am bap an n id lp a w as a d istrict in Ceylon , w ith A nu radhapura as its centre. A ccord ing to S A . ii. 1 1 1 , it w a s a hundred yo jan a s in exten t, b u t V b h A . 444 sa y s it w as three hundred yo ja n a s in e x te n t. See also V A . i. 102 where M ahinda te lls T issa t h a t alth ou gh th e s d s a n a is established in Tam bapannidlpa, it w ill not ta k e root u n til a b o y, born in T am b ap a n n id lp a of parents belonging there, goes forth there, learns th e V in a y a there, and recites it there. T a m b a p a n n ia lp a also cam e to be a nam e for th e whole of the Island of C eylcn . I t seems strange to insert references to A n u rad h sp u ra and C eylo n here, as th o u g h th is were, even if not an ending, y e t referring to the tim e when th e s d s a n a had reached th is Island.

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A t one tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd , w a s s ta y in g a t S a v a t t h i in th e J e t a G r o v e in A n a th a p in d ik a 's m o n a s te ry . N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s c a rrie d o u t (form al) a c ts o f c e n su re a n d g u id a n c e a n d b a n ish m e n t a n d re c o n c ilia tio n a n d su sp e n sio n a g a in s t m o n k s w h o w e re n o t p re se n t. T h o s e w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic ise d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th is g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s c a r r y o u t (form al) a c ts o f c e n su re . . . a n d su sp en sio n a g a in s t m o n k s w h o a re n o t p re se n t ? " T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e sa id : " Is it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, t h a t th e s e m o n k s c a rrie d o u t (form al) a c ts o f c e n su re . * . a n d su sp en sio n a g a in s t m o n k s w h o w e re n o t p re se n t ? " " I t is tru e , L o r d . T h e A w a k e n e d O n e , th e L o rd , re b u k e d th e m , s a y in g : " I t is n o t fittin g , m o n k s , in th e se fo o lish m en , it is n o t b e c o m in g , it is n o t s u ita b le , it is n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se, it is n o t a llo w a b le , it is n o t to b e d o n e . H o w , m o n k s, c a n th ese fo o lish m e n c a r r y o u t (form al) a c ts o f c e n su re . * . a n d sus p e n sio n a g a in s t m o n k s w h o a re n o t p re se n t ? I t is n o t m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a s e d . . . " H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re a s o n e d t a lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M o n k s, a (form al) a c t o f c e n su re or g u id a n c e o r b a n ish m e n t o r re c o n c ilia tio n o r su sp en sio n sh o u ld n o t b e c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t m o n k s w h o a re n o t p re s e n t. W h o e v e r s h o u ld c a r r y one o u t, th e r e is a n o ffe n c e o f w ro n g -d o in g . |j i j] 1 j| " A n in d iv id u a l w h o p ro fe sses n o n-dham m a m a k e s k n o w n t o a n in d iv id u a l w h o p ro fesses dham m a , d isp o se s h im fa v o u r a b ly , m a k e s h im co n sid er, m a k e s h im reco n sid er, te a c h e s h im , te a c h e s h im a g a in , s a y in g : ' T h is is dham m a , th is is d iscip lin e, th is is th e T e a c h e r 's in s tru c tio n , ch o o se th is, [73] a p p r o v e o f th is .' I f th is le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , it is s e ttle d b y w h a t

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is n o t rule, b y w h a t h a s th e a p p e a ra n ce o f a v e r d ic t in th e presen ce o f .1 A n in d iv id u a l w h o p ro fesses non-dham tna m a k e s k n o w n to se v e ra l w h o p ro fess dham m a , . . A n in d iv id u a l w h o p ro fesses n o n -dham m a m a k e s k n o w n to an O rd e r w h ic h p ro fe sses dham m a . . . S e v e ra l w h o p ro fe ss n o n -dham m a m a k e k n o w n to a n in d i v id u a l w h o p ro fesses dham m a . . . S e v e r a l w h o p ro fess nondhamma m a k e k n o w n to se v e ra l w h o p ro fe ss dham m a . . . S e v e ra l w h o p ro fess n o n -dham m a m a k e k n o w n t o a n O rd e r w h ic h p ro fesses dham m a . . . A n O rd e r w h ic h pro fesses nondham m a m a k e s k n o w n t o an in d iv id u a l w h o p ro fesses dhamma . . . A n O rd er w h ic h p ro fesses n o n-dham m a m a k e s k n o w n t o se v e ra l w h o p ro fe ss dham m a . . . A n O rd e r w h ic h p ro fesses nondham m a m a k e s k n o w n to an O rd er w h ic h p ro fesses dham m a9 disposes it fa v o u r a b ly , m a k e s it co n sid e r, m a k e s it reco n sid er, te a ch e s it, te a c h e s it a g a in , s a y in g ; ' T h is is dham m a , th is is d iscip lin e, thip is th e T e a c h e r s in stru c tio n , ch o o se th is, a p p ro v e o f th is .' I f th is le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , it is s e ttle d b y w h a t is n o t ru le, b y w h a t h a s th e a p p e a ra n c e o f a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f."' T o ld a re th e N in e C a ses o f th e D a r k F a c tio n . [| 2 [| A n in d iv id u a l w h o p ro fesses dham m a m a k e s k n o w n t o an in d iv id u a l w h o p ro fesses non-idhamma * . . A n O rd e r w h ic h p ro fesses dham m a m a k e s k n o w n t o an O rd e r w h ic h p ro fesses non-dham m a . . . I f th is le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , it is s e ttle d b y ru le, b y a v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f. T o ld a re th e N in e C a ses o f th e B r ig h t F a c tio n , j| 3 || A t o n e tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o r d , w a s s ta y in g a t R a ja g a h a in th e B a m b o o G ro v e a t th e sq u irre ls' fe ed in g -p la ce.* A t th a t tim e p e rfe ctio n h a d b een re a lised b y th e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M allian se v e n y e a r s a fte r h is b ir th . A ll t h a t sh o u ld b e a tta in e d b y a d iscip le h a d b een fu lly a tta in e d b y h im ; fc r him th ere w a s n o th in g fu rth e r to b e d o n e, n o in c re a se to (be a d d e d
1 s a m tn u k h a v in a y a p a tir u p a k a . O n s a m m u k h a v in a y a , see V i n . ii. 93 0 ., and B . D . iii. 153, n. 2 for further references. * From here to tow ards th e end of || 9 |j is alm ost word for word th e sam e as V i n . iii. 15 8 -16 3 ; translated a t B . D . i. 2 7 1 281. I giv e th e translation again in full here, b u t I h a v e n o t repeated th e notes, for w hich readers should refer to th e earlier volum e. E*

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to) t h a t w h ic h h a d b een d o n e. T h e n th is re a so n in g aro se in th e m in d o f th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n as he w a s m e d ita t in g in so litu d e :z P e r fe c tio n w a s re a lise d b y m e se v e n y e a rs a fte r m y b irth . A ll t h a t sh o u ld b e a tta in e d b y a d iscip le h a s been fu lly a tta in e d b y m e ; fo r m e th e re is n o th in g fu rth e r to be d o n e, no in c re a se t o (be a d d e d to) th a t w h ic h h a s b e en d one. N o w , w h a t s e rv ic e c o u ld I re n d e r th e O rd e r ? " T h e n it o c cu rre d to th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n : " S u p p o se th a t I w ere to [74] a ssig n lo d g in g s t o th e O rd e r a n d issu e m e a ls ? '* Hi I I T h e n th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , e m e rg in g fro m his m e d ita tio n in th e e v e n in g , a p p r o a c h e d th e L o r d , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , he sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c t fu l d ista n c e . A s h e w a s s ittin g a t a re sp e c tfu l distance:, th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n s p o k e th u s to th e L o r d : N o w , L o rd , a s I w a s m e d ita tin g in so litu d e , th is re a so n in g a ro se in m y m in d : c . . . W h a t s e rv ic e c o u ld I re n d er th e O rd e r ? * T h e n , L o rd , it o c cu rre d to m e : ' S u p p o se I w e re to a ssig n lo d g in g s to th e O rd e r a n d issu e th e m ea ls ? ' I w a n t, L o r d , to a ssig n lo d g in g s to th e O rd e r a n d issue m e a ls / ' " I t is g o o d , it is g o o d , D a b b a . W e ll th e n , d o y o u , D a b b a , a ssig n lo d g in g s to th e O rd e r a n d issue m e a ls ." V e r y w e ll, L o r d ," th e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M allian a n sw e re d th e L o r d in a ssen t. || 2 || T h e n th e L o r d on th is o c ca sio n , in th is c o n n e c tio n , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n ed t a lk , a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r a g re e u p o n D a b b a th e M a llia n as assig n e r o f lo d g in g s a n d issu e r o f m ea ls. A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld he b e a g re e d u p o n : F ir s t, D a b b a sh o u ld b e a s k e d ; h a v in g a s k e d h im , th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e r i en ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y a g re e u p o n th e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M a llia n a s a ssig n e r o f lo d g in g s a n d issu e r o f m eals. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h e O rd e r is a g re e in g u p o n th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n a s a ssig n e r o f lo d g in g s a n d issu er o f m eals. I f th e a g re e m e n t u p o n th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M allian a s a ssig n e r o f lo d g in g s a n d issu e r o f m e a ls
1 T h e story is g iv e n in brief outlin e a t T h a g A . i. 44.

C U L L A V A G G A IV 4-3-4] 99 is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e silen t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M allian is a g re e d u p o n b y th e O rd e r as a ssig n e r o f lo d g in g s a n d issu er o f m eals. I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / || 3 || A n d th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , (thus) a g re e d u p o n , a ssign ed lo d g in g s in th e sa m e p la c e fo r th o se m o n k s w h o b e lo n g ed to th e sam e c o m p a n y . F o r th o se m o n k s w h o k n e w th e S u tta n ta s he a ssig n e d lo d g in g s in t h e sa m e p la c e , th in k in g : T h e se w ill be a b le t o c h a n t o v e r th e S u tta n ta s to o n e a n o th e r. F o r th o se m o n k s w h o w ere e x p e r t in d isc ip lin e h e a ssign ed lo d g in g s in th e sa m e p la ce , th in k in g : T h e y w ill d ecid e u p o n d isc ip lin e to g e th e r / ' F o r th o se m o n k s w h o w ere ta lk e rs on dham m a h e a ssig n ed lo d g in g s in th e sa m e p la c e , th in k in g : T h e y w ill d iscu ss dham m a w ith one a n o th e r / F o r th o se m o n k s w h o w e re m u sers he a ssig n e d lo d g in g s in th e sam e p la ce , t h in k in g : " T h e y w ill n o t d is tu r b one a n o th e r . [75] F o r th o se m o n k s w h o w ere ta lk e rs on in fe rio r m a tte r s a n d w h o w ere a th le tic he a ssig n e d lo d g in g s a t th e sa m e p la ce , th in k in g : T h e se re v e re n d o n es w ill liv e a c c o rd in g t o th e ir p le a s u re . F o r th o se m o n k s w h o c a m e in la te a t n ig h t, h e , h a v in g a tta in e d th e c o n d itio n o f h e a t, a ssig n e d lo d g in g s b y th is lig h t. S o m u ch so, th a t th e m o n k s c a m e in la te a t n ig h t on p u rp o se, th in k in g : " W e w ill see a w o n d e r o f th e p s y c h ic p o te n c y o f th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n . A n d th ese, h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M allian , sp o k e t h u s : R e v e r e n d D a b b a , assig n us lo d g in g s . T h e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n sp o k e th u s to th e m ; W h ere d o y o u r re v e ren ce s d esire th e m ? W h e re sh a ll I assign th e m ? T h e se ^monks) w o u ld q u o te a d is ta n t p la c e on p u rp o se, s a y in g : R e v e re n d D a b b a , assig n us lo d g in g s on th e V u ltu r e s ' P e a k ; y o u r re v e ren ce , assig n u s lo d g in g s on th e R o b b e r 's C liff; y o u r re v e ren ce , assign us lo d g in g s on th e slo p es o f Is ig ili H ill on th e B la c k R o c k ; y o u r re v e ren ce , a s s ig n u s lo d g in g s o n th e slopes o f V e b h a r a a t S a tta p a n n i C a v e ; y o u r re v e re n c e , a ssig n u s lo d g in g s in S lt a s W o o d on th e slo p es o f th e S n a k e P o o l ; y o u r re ve ren ce , assign u s lo d g in g s a t th e G o m a ta G le n ; y o u r reveren ce, a ssig n u s lo d g in g s a t th e T in d u k a G le n ; y o u r reveren ce, assign us lo d g in g s a t th e T a p o d a G le n ; y o u r r e v e r ence, assig n us lo d g in g s a t th e T a p o d a P a r k ; y o u r re ve ren ce ,

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a ssig n u s lo d g in g s a t J T v a k a s M a n g o G r o v e ; y o u r re v e ren ce , assign u s lo d g in g s a t M a d d a k u c c h i in th e d e e r - p a r k ." T h e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M u llia n , h a v in g a tta in e d th e c o n d itio n o f h e a t, w e n t in fro n t o f th e s e (m onks) w ith h is fin g er g lo w in g , a n d t h e y b y th is lig h t w e n t b e h in d th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n . T h e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M a llia n a ssig n e d th e m lo d g in g s th u s : " T h is is th e c o u ch , th is th e c h a ir, th is th e m a ttre s s , th is th e s q u a ttin g m a t, th is a p r iv y , t h a t a p r iv y , th is th e d rin k in g w a te r , th is th e w a te r fo r w a s h in g , th is th e s ta ff, th is is (th e fo rm of) th e O r d e r 's a g re e m e n t, th is is th e tim e it sh o u ld b e e n te r e d u p o n , th is th e tim e it sh o u ld b e d e p a r te d fr o m ." T h e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , h a v in g a ssig n e d lo d g in g s t o th e s e , w e n t b a c k a g a in to th e B a m b o o G r o v e . || 4 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w h o w e re th e fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a w e re n e w ly o rd a in e d a n d o f lit t le m e rit ; t h e y o b ta in e d w h a te v e r in fe rio r lo d g in g s b e lo n g e d to th e O rd e r a n d in fe rio r m e a ls. A t t h a t tim e p e o p le in R a ja g a h a [76] w a n te d t o g iv e th e m o n k s w h o w e re eld ers a lm s fo o d 1 h a v in g a s p e c ia lly g o o d se a so n in g , a n d g h e e a n d o il a n d d a in tie s. B u t t o th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a t h e y g a v e su fficien t o r d in a r y fo o d , b ro k e n rice a c co m p a n ie d b y so u r gruel. T h e se , on r e tu rn in g fro m a lm s -g a th e rin g a fte r th e ir m e a l, a sk e d th e m o n k s w h o w e re e l d e r s : W h a t d id y o u , y o u r re v e re n c e s, g e t a t th e r e fe c to r y ? W h a t d id y o u ? " S o m e e ld e rs sp o k e t h u s : " T h e r e w a s g h e e fo r u s, y o u r re v e ren ce s, th e re w a s o il fo r us, th e r e w e re d a in tie s fo r u s ." B u t th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e r s o f M e t t iy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a sp o k e th u s : T h e r e w a s n o th in g fo r us, y o u r re v e re n c e s, e x c e p t su ffic ie n t o r d in a r y fo o d , b r o k e n rice a c c o m p a n ie d b y so u r g r u e l." || 5 (| N o w a t th a t tim e a h o u se h o ld e r w h o h a d n ice fo o d g a v e th e O rd e r in c o n tin u o u s fo o d s u p p ly m e a ls c o n sistin g o f fo u r in g re d ie n ts.3 H e , w ith h is w ife a n d c h ild re n , a tte n d e d a n d se rv e d in th e re fe c to r y . T h e y o ffe red b o ile d rice to so m e (m o n ks),
1 A lm s f o o d , p ip $ a p a ta t is o m i t t e d a t V i n . ii. 7 7 a b o v e , b u t o c c u r s a t V i n . iii. 16 0 . * A t A . i. 1 4 5 c a l l e d f o o d g i v e n t o s e r v a n t s . * A m e a l f o r f o u r m o n k s " a t B . D . i. 2 7 6 s h o u ld b e c o r r e c t e d t o t h e a b o v e r e n d e r in g .

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th e y o ffered c u r r y to o th ers, t h e y o ffe red o il to o th ers, t h e y offered d a in tie s to o th e rs. N o w a t t h a t tim e a m e a l g iv e n b y th e h o u seh o ld er w h o h a d n ice fo o d w a s a p p o rtio n e d fo r th e fo llo w in g d a y to th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er w h o h a d n ic e fo o d w e n t to th e m o n a s te ry on so m e b u sin ess o r o th e r a n d a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , h e sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e . A s th e h o u seh o ld er w h o h a d n ice fo o d w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e , th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n d e lig h te d , re jo ic e d , ro u sed , g la d d e n e d h im w ith t a lk on dham m a . T h e n w h e n th e h o u seh o ld er w h o h a d n ice fo o d h a d b een d e lig h te d - - . g la d d e n e d b y th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n w ith t a lk on dham m a , h e sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M a llia n : F o r w h o m , h o n o u re d sir, is th e m ea l a p p o rtio n e d fo r to m o rro w in m y h o u se ? " H o u se h o ld e r, th e m e a l a p p o rtio n e d in y o u r h o u se fo r to m o rro w is fo r m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a j a k a .' T h e n th e h o u se h o ld e r w h o h a d n ice fo o d w a s s o rry a n d s a id : " W h y sh o u ld th e se d e p r a v e d m o n k s e n jo y th e m s e lv e s in m y h o u se ? A n d h a v in g g o n e to h is h o u se he e n jo in e d a s la v e w o m a n , s a y in g : H a v in g p re p a re d a se a t in th e p o rch fo r th o s e w h o c o m e to e a t to -m o rro w ,9 s e rv e th e m w ith b ro k e n rice a c co m p a n ie d b y so u r g r u e l. " V e r y w ell, m a s te r , th e w o m a n -s la v e a n sw e re d to th e h o u se h o ld e r w h o h a d n ice fo o d , in a sse n t. [| 6 || T h e n t h e m o n k s w h o w e r e f o llo w e r s o f M e t t i y a a n d B h u m m a ja k a sa id to one a n o th e r : " Y e s te r d a y , y o u r r e v e r ences, a m e a l w a s a p p o rtio n e d to u s b y th e h o u seh o ld er w h o h a s n ice fo o d . T o -m o rro w th e h o u seh o ld er w h o h a s n ic e fo o d a tte n d in g w ith h is w ife a n d c h ild re n , w ill s e rv e u*. T h e y w ill o ffer b o ile d rice to so m e , t h e y w ill o ffer c u r r y to o th e rs, [77] th e y w ill o ffe r o il t o o th e rs, t h e y w ill o ffe r d a in tie s to o th e r s . * T h ese, b e ca u se o f th e ir h a p p in e ss, d id n o t sleep t h a t n ig h t a s m u ch a s e x p e c te d . T h e n t h e m o n k s w h o w e r e f o llo w e r s o f M e t t i y a a n d B h u m m a ja k a , d ressin g in th e m o rn in g a n d ta k in g th e ir b o w ls a n d ro b es, a p p ro a c h e d th e d w e llin g o f th e h o u seh o ld er w h o h a d n ice fo o d . T h a t w o m a n -s la v e s a w th e m o n k s w h o w ere

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fo llo w ers o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a c o m in g fro m a f a r ; se e in g th e m , h a v in g p re p a re d a s e a t in th e p o rc h , sh e sa id to th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a : S it d o w n , h o n o u re d s ir s / ' T h e n it o c c u rre d to th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a : " B u t u n d o u b te d ly th e fo o d w ill n o t be r e a d y as w e a re m a d e to sit in th e p o r c h . T h e n th e w o m a n -s la v e c a m e u p w ith th e b ro k e n rice a c c o m p a n ie d b y so u r g ru e l. " E a t , h o n o u re d sirs, sh e sa id . " B u t , siste r, w e a re th o se w h o e n jo y a c o n tin u o u s s u p p ly o f fo o d . " I k n o w th a t th e m a ste rs e n jo y a c o n tin u o u s s u p p ly o f fo o d . B u t o n ly y e s te r d a y I w a s e n jo in e d b y th e h o u se h o ld e r : * H a v in g p re p a re d a se a t in th e p o rc h fo r th o se w h o co m e fo r a m eal to -m o rro w , se rv e th e m w ith b ro k e n rice a c c o m p a n ie d b y so u r g r u e l/ E a t , h o n o u re d s irs, she sa id . T h e n t h e m o n k s w h o w e r e f o llo w e r s o f M e t t i y a a n d B h u m m a ja k a th o u g h t : " Y e s t e r d a y , y o u r re v e re n c e s, th e h o u seh o ld er w h o h a s n ic e fo o d w e n t to D a b b a th e M a llia n in th e m o n a ste ry . D o u b tle s s , D a b b a th e M a llia n h a s s e t th e h o u se h o ld e r a t v a r ia n c e w ith u s . T h e se (m o n ks), on a c c o u n t o f th e ir d istre ss, d id n o t e a t a s m u c h a s e x p e c te d . T h e n t h e m o n k s w h o w e r e f o llo w e r s o f M e t t i y a a n d B h u m m a ja k a , re tu rn in g fro m a lm s -g a th e rin g a fte r th e m eal, h a v in g a r r iv e d a t th e m o n a s te ry , h a v in g p u t a w a y th e ir b o w ls a n d ro b es, s a t d o w n o u tsid e th e g a t e w a y o f th e m o n a s te ry , s q u a ttin g a g a in s t th e ir o u te r c lo a k s , sile n t, a b a sh e d , th e ir sh o u ld ers b e n t, th e ir h e a d s lo w ere d , b ro o d in g , sp eech less. || 7 || T h e n th e n u n M e ttiy a a p p ro a c h e d th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , sh e sp o k e th u s to th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a ; " I s a lu te y o u , m a s te r s . W h e n sh e h a d sp o k e n th u s , th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a d id n o t re sp o n d . A se co n d tim e . . . A th ird tim e th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a d id n o t re sp o n d . D o I o ffen d a g a in s t th e m a ste rs ? W h y d o th e m a ste rs n o t re sp o n d to m e ? sh e sa id . I t is b e cau se y o u , siste r, n e g le c te d u s w h e n w e w e re b e in g g o t in to d iffic u ltie s b y D a b b a th e M a llia n . W h a t c a n I d o, m a ste rs ? sh e said .

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" I f y o u w o u ld lik e , siste r, th is v e r y d a y y o u co u ld m a k e th e L o rd e x p e l D a b b a th e M a llia n . W h a t ca n I d o , m a ste rs ? H o w a m I a b le to d o t h a t ? Y o u co m e, sister, a p p ro a c h th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , s a y to th e L o rd : [78] ' N o w , L o rd , it is n o t p ro p er, it is n o t b e c o m in g th a t th is q u a r te r w h ic h sh o u ld be w ith o u t fea r, secu re, w ith o u t d a n g e r, is th e v e r y q u a r te r w h ic h is fu ll o f fe a r, in secu re, fu ll o f d a n g er. W h e re th e re w a s a ca lm , n o w th ere is a g a le . I t seem s th e v e r y w a te r is b la z in g . I h a v e been a ss a u lte d b y m a ste r D a b b a th e M a llia n .' V e r y w e ll, m a ste rs, a n d th e n u n M e ttiy a h a v in g an sw ered th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a in assen t, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , she sto o d a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s she w a s sta n d in g a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e , th e n u n M e ttiy a sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : N o w , L o rd , it is n o t p ro p e r . . . I h a v e b een a ss a u lte d b y m a ste r D a b b a th e M a llia n . || 8 | | T h e n th e L o rd , on th is o cca sio n , in th is co n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd er o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , s a y in g : D o y o u , D a b b a , re m em b er d o in g a s th is n u n s a y s ? L o rd , th e L o rd k n o w s in re g a rd to m e . A n d a seco n d tim e . . , A n d a th ird tim e . . . L o rd , th e L o rd k n o w s in re ga rd to m e . D a b b a , th e D a b b a s do n o t g iv e e v a s iv e a n sw ers lik e t h a t .1 I f w h a t w a s d o n e w a s d on e b y y o u , s a y so ; if it w a s n o t done (b y y o u ), s a y it w a s n o t . " S in ce I , L o rd , w a s b o rn , I c a n n o t c a ll to m in d e v e r in d u lg in g in s e x u a l in te rc o u rse e v e n in a d rea m , m u c h less so w h en I w a s a w a k e . T h e n th e L o r d a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, e x p e l th e n u n M e ttiy a , a n d ta k e th ese m onk^ to t a s k . H a v in g sp o k e n th u s , th e L o rd , risin g fro m his se a t, e n te re d a d w e llin g -p la ce . T h e n th e se m o n k s e x p e lle d th e n u n M e ttiy a . T h e n th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a sp o k e th u s to th ese m o n k s : Y o u r re ve ren ce s, d o n o t e x p e l th e n u n M e ttiy a ; in n o w a y h a s sh e o ffen d ed ; sh e w as
1 Q uoted T h a g A . 1. 45, w hich explains dabbo as drabyot bhabbo (w ith a number of v. IL).

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u rg e d on b y u s b e c a u s e w e w e re a n g r y , d isp le a se d a n d w a n te d h im o u t o f th e w a y . B u t a re n o t y o u , y o u r re v e re n c e s, d e fa m in g th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it ? Y e s , y o u r r e v e r e n c e s ." T h o s e w h o w e re m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c r itic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th e se m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a d e fa m e th e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M a llia n w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it ? T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " Is it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s , t h a t th e m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a d e fa m e d D a b b a th e M a llia n w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a r g e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it ? I t is tru e , L o r d ." H a v in g r e b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n e d ta lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : |[ 9 || W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r g iv e a v e r d ic t o f in n o c e n c e 2 to D a b b a th e M a llia n w h o h a s re m e m b e re d f u ll y .3 A n d th u s, [79] m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e g iv e n : M o n k s, D a b b a th e M a llia n , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r, h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p e r ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u re d th e fe e t o f th e sen io r m o n k s, h a v in g sa t d o w n on h is h a u n c h e s , h a v in g s a lu te d w ith jo in e d p a lm s , sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : H o n o u red sirs, th ese m o n k s, fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a , d e fa m e d m e w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it. B u t I , h o n o u re d sirs, h a v in g re m e m b e re d fu lly , a s k th e O rd er fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o c e n c e .' A n d a se co n d tim e it sh o u ld be a s k e d fo r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d f o r : H o n o u re d sirs, th e s e m o n k s w h o are fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a d e fa m e d m e w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it. S o I , h o n o u re d sirs, h a v in g re m e m b e re d fu lly , fo r a th ir d tim e a s k th e O rd e r fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o c e n c e / T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n
* A t S a n g h . V I I I . 1 . 9 h e is d e f a m e d w it h a n u n f o u n d e d c h a r g e in v o lv in g d e f e a t . T h e t w o v e r s io n s p r o c e e d d if f e r e n t ly a f t e r t h e e n d o f t h i s p a r a g r a p h . 1 s a tiv in a y a . S e e B . D . i i i . 1 5 3 , n . 3 . * S e e V i n . T e x t s i i i . 1 6 , n . 1 o n sa tiv e p u lla p a tta . T h i s m e a n s a r r i v e d a t (o r a t t a i n e d t o ) f u ln e s s o f m e m o r y t h u s o n e w h o s e c o n s c ie n c e is q u it e c le a n , a s a t V i n . T e x t s i i i . 1 6 . C f . b e l o w , I V . 27 .

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to m e. T h e se m o n k s w h o are fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a d e fa m e d th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M allian w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it. T h e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , h a v in g re m em b ere d fu lly , is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y g iv e th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , w h o h a s rem em b ere d fu lly , a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h e se m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a . . . is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce . T h e O rd e r is g iv in g th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M allian , w h o h a s rem em b ere d fu lly , a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce . I f th e g iv in g o f a v e r d ic t of in n o cen ce to th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , w h o h a s re m e m b e red fu lly , is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; h e to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A n d a se co n d tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . A n d a th ird tim e I s p e a k fo r th th is m a tte r . . . A v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce is g iv e n b y th e O rd e r to th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , w h o h a s rem em b ere d fu lly . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rs ta n d th is / || 10 || M o n k s, th e re are th e se fiv e le g a lly v a lid p ro p e rtie s in g iv in g a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce : if th e m o n k is p u re a n d w ith o u t o ffe n c e s ; a n d if t h e y re p ro a c h h im ; a n d i f h e a sk s ; if th e O rd e r g iv e s h im a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce ; if it is b y ru le , th e a s s e m b ly b e in g c o m p le te . T h e se , m o n k s, a re th e fiv e le g a lly v a lid p ro p e rtie s in g iv in g a v e r d ic t o f in n p c e n c e ." || x i |[ 4 |j N o w a t th a t tim e th e m o n k G a g g a 1 w a s m a d , o u t o f his m in d ,3 a n d w h ile h e w a s m a d , o u t o f h is m in d h e p e rp e tra te d m u ch a n d sp o k e in a w a y 3 t h a t w a s n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se. M onks re p ro v e d th e m o n k G a g g a b e cau se o f o ffe n ces d o n e (b y him ) w h ile he w a s m a d , o u t of h is m in d , s a y in g : " D o es th e v e n e r a b le one re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce lik e th is ? H e sp o k e th u s : I, [8Q] y o u r re v e ren ce s, w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d ; w h ile I w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d , m u c h w a s
1 T y p i f y i n g a m a d m o n k , a l s o a t V in . i. 1 2 3 . 9 c itta v ip a r iy d s a k a ta ; c f. ceta so v ip a r iy d s a a t A / , i i . 2 4 8 ; ' v ip a r iy a d ik a ta c itta a t T h a g . 1 8 4 , a n d v ip a r iy a tth a citta a t J d . v . 3 7 2 . F o r t h i s w h o l e p a s s a g e c f. A f , ii* 2 4 8 . * b h d sita p a rih a n ta . e v id e n t ly f a u lt y . S e e P E D . , u n d e r p a r ik a n ta . I t s a y s t h is p a s s a g e is

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p e r p e tr a te d a n d sp o k e n b y m e t h a t w a s n o t w o r t h y o f a reclu se. I d o n o t rem em b er th a t. T h a t w a s d on e b y m e w h ile I w as in sa n e .1 A lth o u g h b e in g sp o k e n to th u s b y h im , t h e y s till re p ro v e d h im , s a y in g : D o e s th e v e n e ra b le one re m em b er h a v in g fa llen in to an o ffe n ce lik e th is ? T h o se w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c r itic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th ese m o n k s re p ro v e th e m o n k G a g g a b e c a u se o f o ffen ces d o n e (b y him ) w h e n h e w a s m a d , o u t o f his m in d , s a y in g : ' D o e s th e v e n e ra b le one re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce lik e th is ? a n d he sp o k e th u s : I , y o u r re ve ren ce s, w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d ; w h ile I w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d , m u c h w a s p e r p e tr a te d a n d sp o k e n b y m e t h a t w a s n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se. I d o n o t re m e m b e r th a t. T h a t w a s d on e b y m e w h ile I w a s in s a n e / A n d a lth o u g h b e in g sp o k e n to b y him th u s , t h e y s till r e p ro v e d h im , s a y in g : D o e s th e v e n e ra b le o n e re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce lik e th is ? ' T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I s it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s . . . ? " I t is tru e , L o r d . H a v in g r e b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s , s a y in g : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r g iv e a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity 2 to th e m o n k G a g g a w h o is no lo n g e r in san e. || i |j A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e g iv e n : M o n k s, t h a t m o n k G a g g a , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er, h a v in g a rra n g e d his u p p er ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld e r, h a v in g h o n o u re d th e fe e t of th e sen io r m o n k s, h a v in g sa t d o w n o n h is h a u n c h e s, h a v in g ra ised his jo in e d p a lm s in s a lu ta tio n , sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : ' I , h o n o u re d sirs, w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d ; w h ile I w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d , I p e r p e tr a te d m u c h a n d s p o k e in a w a y th a t w a s n o t w o r th y o f a re clu se . M o n k s re p ro v e d m e b e c a u s e of o ffen ces d o n e ( b y m e) w h ile I w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d , s a y in g : D o e s th e v e n e ra b le o n e re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce lik e th is ? S o I s p o k e th u s : I , y o u r r e v e r en ces, w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d . W h ile I w as m a d , o u t of m y m in d , m u c h w a s p e r p e tr a te d a n d sp o k e n (b y me) th a t w a s n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se. I d o n o t re m e m b e r th a t. T h a t w a s d o n e b y m e w h ile I w a s in sa n e . A n d e v e n a lth o u g h t h e y w ere sp o k e n to th u s b y m e, t h e y s till re p ro v e d m e, s a y in g : D o e s
1 tn u lh a , a s t r a y , e r r in g . 3 a tn u lh a v in a y a . C f . V i n . i v . 2 0 7 (B . D . iii. 1 5 3 , n . 4 ).

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th e v e n e ra b le o n e re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce lik e th is ? S o I , h o n o u re d sirs, no lo n g e r in sa n e , a m a s k in g th e O rd er fo r a v e r d ic t of p a s t in s a n ity / A n d a se co n d tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r . . . A n d a th ir d tim e i t sh o u ld be a sk e d fo r, s a y in g : f I , h o n o u re d sirs, w a s m a d . . . e v e n a th ird tim e a m I a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity / T h e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k G a g g a w a s m a d , o u t o f h is m in d . W h ile he w a s m a d , o u t of h is m in d , m u ch w a s p e rp e tra te d a n d sp o k e n (b y him ) th a t w a s n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se. M o n k s re p ro v e d th e m o n k G a g g a fo r o ffen ces d o n e (b y him ) w h ile h e w a s m ad , o u t o f his m in d , s a y in g : " D o es th e v e n e ra b le one re m e m b e r . . . ? He sp o k e th u s : I, h o n o u re d sirs, [81] d o n o t re m em b er . . . T h is w a s d on e b y m e w h ile I w a s in sa n e . E v e n on b e in g sp o k en to b y h im th u s , t h e y s till re p ro v e d h im , s a y in g : D o es th e v e n e ra b le one re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce lik e th u s ? H e , no lo n g e r in sa n e , is a s k in g th e O rd er fo r a v e rd ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity . I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y g iv e th e m o n k G a g g a , w h o is no lo n g e r in sa n e, a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k G a g g a . . . is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity . I f th e g iv in g o f a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity to th e m o n k G a g g a w h o is no lo n g e r in sa n e is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld s p e a k . . . A n d a th ird tim e I s p e a k fo rth th is m a tte r. A v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity is g iv e n b y th e O rd er t o th e m o n k G a g g a w h o is n o lo n g e r in sa n e . I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is / || 2 |[ 5 || M on ks, th e re a re th e se th re e n o t le g a lly v a lid p ro p e rties in g iv in g a v e rd ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity , th re e t h a t a re le g a lly v a lid . W h a t are th e th re e p ro p e rtie s t h a t a re n o t le g a lly v a lid in g iv in g a v e r d ic t o f p a st in s a n ity ? T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k h a s fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce. T h e O rd e r o r se v e ra l (m onks) o r one in d iv id u a l re p ro v e s h im fo r it, s a y in g : ' D o es th e v e n e ra b le o n e re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce lik e th is ? I f he, a lth o u g h rem em b erin g , sp e a k s th u s : 1 do n o t, y o u r reveren ces, re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce lik e

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t h a t / a n d if th e O rd e r g iv e s h im a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity , th e g iv in g o f th e v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity is n o t le g a lly v a lid . " T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k h a s fa lle n in to an o ffen ce . . . D o e s th e v e n e ra b le o n e re m e m b e r h a v in g fa llen in to an o ffen ce lik e th is ? 1 I f h e , a lth o u g h re m em b erin g , sp ea k s th u s : * I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, re m e m b e r it a s th o u g h fro m a d re a m / a n d i f th e O rd e r g iv e s h im a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity , th e g iv in g o f th e v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity is n o t le g a lly v a lid . " T h i s is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k h a s fa lle n in to an o ffen ce . . . * D o e s th e v e n e ra b le one re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce lik e th is ? ' I f h e , a lth o u g h n o t m a d , p re te n d s t o b e m a d , s a y in g : I a c t th u s, d o y o u a lso a c t th u s, th is is a llo w a b le fo r m e , a n d it is also a llo w a b le fo r y o u / a n d if th e O rd e r g iv e s h im a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity , th e g iv in g o f th e v e rd ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity is n o t le g a lly v a lid . T h e se th re e p ro p e rtie s in g iv in g a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity a re n o t le g a lly v a lid . || i || W h a t a re th e th re e p ro p e rtie s in g iv in g a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity t h a t are le g a lly v a lid ? T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k is m a d , o u t o f h is m in d . W h ile h e is m a d , o u t o f h is m in d , h e p e rp e tra te s m u c h a n d s p e a k s in a w a y t h a t is n o t w o r th y o f a re clu se . A n O rd e r o r se v e ra l (m onks) o r o n e in d i v id u a l re p ro v e s h im fo r it, s a y in g : * D o e s th e v e n e ra b le one re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce lik e th is ? ' I f he, n o t rem em b erin g , sp e a k s th u s : I d o n o t, y o u r re v e re n c e s, re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce lik e t h a t / a n d if th e O rd er g iv e s h im a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity , th e g iv in g o f th e v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity is le g a lly v a lid . " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k is m a d , [82] . . . D o e s th e v e n e ra b le o n e re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to an offen ce lik e th is ? ' I f he, n o t re m e m b e rin g , sp e a k s th u s : I, y o u r re v e re n c e s, re m e m b e r a s th o u g h fro m a d r e a m / a n d if th e O rd e r g iv e s h im a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity , th e g iv in g o f th e v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity is le g a lly v a lid . " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k is m a d . . . ' D o es th e v e n e ra b le one re m e m b e rs h a v in g fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce lik e th is ? * I f h e is m a d a n d p re te n d s to be m a d a n d sa y s, ' I a c t th u s , d o y o u also a c t th u s , th is is a llo w a b le fo r m e, it is also a llo w a b le fo r y o u / a n d i f th e O rd e r g iv e s h im a v e r d ic t o f p a st in s a n ity , th e g iv in g o f th e v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity is le g a lly

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v a lid . T h e se th re e p ro p e rtie s in g iv in g a in s a n ity are le g a lly v a lid ." || 2 I| 6 jj

v e rd ic t o f p a st

N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s ca rrie d o u t (form al) a c ts of cen su re a n d g u id a n c e a n d b a n ish m e n t a n d re co n c ilia tio n a n d su sp en sio n a g a in s t m o n k s w ith o u t th e ir a c k n o w le d g m e n t.1 T h o se w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w ca n th is g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s c a r r y o u t (form al) a c ts o f cen su re a n d . . . su sp en sio n a g a in s t m o n k s w ith o u t th e ir a c k n o w le d g m e n t ? T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " I s it tr u e a s is said , m o n k s ? " I t is tru e , L o r d / ' H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed t a lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M o n k s, a (form al) a c t o f cen su re o r o f g u id a n c e o r o f b a n ish m e n t o r o f re co n c ilia tio n o r o f su sp en sio n sh o u ld n o t b e ca rrie d o u t a g a in s t a m o n k w ith o u t h is a c k n o w le d g m e n t. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) c a r r y (one) o u t, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g . || 7 || M o n k s, th e c a r r y in g o u t (of a fo rm a l a ct) on th e a c k n o w le d g m en t o f (a m o n k) is n o t le g a lly v a lid th u s , it is le g a lly v a lid th u s . A n d h o w , m o n k s, is th e c a r r y in g o u t on th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t n o t le g a lly v a lid ? A m o n k co m es to h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t. T h e O rd e r o r se v e ra l (m onks) o r o n e in d iv id u a l re p ro v e s h im fo r it , s a y in g ; * T h e v e n e ra b le one h a s fa lle n in to an o ffen ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t/ I f he sp e a k s th u s : * I h a v e n o t, y o u r re v e re n c e s, fa lle n in to an o ffen ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t, I h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r/ a n d if th e O rd e r h a s h im d e a lt w ith fo r an o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er, th e c a r ry in g o u t on th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t is n o t le g a lly v a lid . A m o n k co m es to h a v e fa lle n in to an o ffen ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t . . . I f h e sp ea k s th u s : * I h a v e n o t, y o u r re ve ren ce s, fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t, I h a v e fa lle n in to a g r a v e o ffen ce, in to a n o ffen ce in v o lv in g e x p ia tio n , in to an
1 I .e . o f t h e ir o ffe n c e : 2 0 7 ( B . D . i i i . 1 5 3 , n . 5)a p a tin n d y a . C f . p a t in n d y a karetabbatjt a t V i n . i v .

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o ffen ce w h ic h o u g h t to b e co n fe sse d , in to a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g , in to an o ffe n ce o f w ro n g s p e e c h / a n d if th e O rd e r h as h im d e a lt w ith fo r a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g sp ee ch , th e c a r r y in g o u t on th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t is n o t le g a lly v a lid . " A m o n k co m es to h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r . . . in to a g r a v e o ffen ce, in to a n o ffe n ce in v o lv in g e x p ia tio n , in to a n o ffe n ce w h ic h o u g h t t o be co n fe sse d , in to a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g , in to a n p ffe n ce o f w ro n g sp e e c h . T h e O rd e r or s e v e ra l (m onks) o r o n e in d i v id u a l re p ro v e s h im fo r it, s a y in g : T h e v e n e ra b le o n e [ 83] h a s fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g s p e e c h / I f h e sp e a k s th u s : I h a v e n o t, y o u r re v e re n c e s, fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g sp e e c h , I h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t/ a n d if th e O rd e r h a s h im d e a lt w ith fo r a n o ffen ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t, th e c a r r y in g o u t o n th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t is n o t le g a lly v a lid . A m o n k co m es t o h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g sp e e c h . . . I f h e s p e a k s th u s : 1 I h a v e n o t, y o u r re v e re n c e s, fa lle n in to a n o ffe n c e o f w ro n g sp ee ch , I h a v e fa lle n in to a g r a v e o ffe n c e , in to a n o ffe n ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r . . . in to a n o ffen ce in v o lv in g e x p ia tio n , in to a n o ffe n ce w h ic h o u g h t t o be co n fe sse d , in to a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g / a n d if th e O rd e r h a s h im d e a lt w ith fo r a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g , th e c a r r y in g o u t on th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t is n o t le g a lly v a lid . j| x || A n d h o w , m o n k s , is th e c a r r y in g o u t o n th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t le g a lly v a lid ? A m o n k co m e s to h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t. T h e O rd e r o r se v e ra l (m onks) o r one in d iv id u a l re p ro v e s h im fo r it, s a y in g : T h e v e n e ra b le o n e h a s fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t/ I f h e sp e a k s th u s : ' Y e s , y o u r re v e re n c e s, I h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffe n ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t/ a n d if th e O rd e r h a s h im d e a lt w ith fo r a n o ffen ce in v o lv in g d e fe a t, th e c a r r y in g o u t on th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t is le g a lly v a lid . A m o n k co m es to h a v e fa lle n in to a n o ffen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd e r . . . in to a g r a v e o ffen ce * . . in to a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g sp e e c h . . . I f h e s p e a k s th u s : Y e s , y o u r re ve ren ce s, I h a v e fa lle n in to an o ffen ce o f w ro n g sp e e c h / a n d if th e O rd e r h a s h im d e a lt w ith fo r a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g sp ee ch , th e c a r r y in g o u t o n th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t is le g a lly v a lid / * || 2 (I 8 ||

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N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w ere s tr iv in g , q u a rrellin g , d is p u t in g in th e m id st o f a n O rd er, t h e y w ere w o u n d in g one a n o th e r w ith th e w e a p o n s o f th e to n g u e ; t h e y w ere u n a b le to s e ttle th a t le g a l q u e stio n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u m o n k s, to s e ttle th is k in d o f le g a l q u e stio n b y th e d ecisio n o f th e m a jo r it y / 1 A m o n k po ssessed o f fiv e q u a litie s sh o u ld b e a g re e d u p o n a s d is tr ib u to r o f (votin g) tic k e ts 2 : one w h o w o u ld n o t fo llo w a w ro n g co u rse th ro u g h fa v o u ritis m , w h o w o u ld n o t fo llo w a w ro n g co u rse th ro u g h h a tre d . . . th ro u g h s tu p id ity . . th ro u g h fe a r, w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t is ta k e n a n d w h a t is n o t .3 A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld h e be a g re e d u p o n : F ir s t a m o n k sh o u ld be a sk e d . H a v in g a sk e d h im , th e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. I f it seem s rig h t t o th e O rd e r, th e O rd e r sh o u ld a g ree u p o n th e m o n k S o -a n d -so a s d is tr ib u to r o f (vo tin g) tic k e ts . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h e O rd e r is a g re e in g u p o n th e m o n k S o -a n d -so as d is tr ib u to r o f (votin g) tic k e ts . I f th e a g re e m e n t u p o n th e m o n k S o -a n d -so a s d is tr ib u to r o f (vo tin g) tic k e ts is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; h e to w h o m it is h o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e m o n k S o -a n d -so is a g re e d u p o n b y th e O rd er as d is trib u to r o f (vo tin g) tic k e ts . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is silen t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / |j 9 || [84] " M o n k s, th e re a re te n d is trib u tio n s o f (vo tin g ) tic k e ts th a t a re n o t le g a lly v a lid , te n th a t a re le g a lly v a lid . W h a t are th e te n d is trib u tio n s o f (vo tin g ) tic k e ts t h a t a re n o t le g a lly v a lid ? W h e n th e le g a l q u e stio n is o n ly triflin g , a n d w h e n it h a s n o t g o n e it s co u rse ,4 a n d w h e n it is n o t re m e m b e re d o r c a u se d to be re m e m b e re d ,5 a n d w h e n h e k n o w s th a t th o se w h o p ro fess n o n -dham m a a re m o re (in n u m b er), w h e n h e e v e n th in k s th a t th o se w h o p ro fe ss n o n -dham m a m a y b e m o re (in n u m b e r), if
1 y e b h u y y a s ik d . S e e V in . i v . 2 0 7 ( B .D . i i i . 1 5 3 , n . 6 ) . A s lo n g a s t h e m a j o r i t y a r e s p e a k e r s o f d h a m m a ,u V A . Z 1 9 2 . * s a ld k a g d h a p a k a C f . b e l o w , I V . 14 . 24. * R e f e r r in g to t h e v o t in g t ic k e t s . 4 g a tig a ta . S e e V i n . T e x t s i i i . 2 6 . V A . 119 2 s a y s , if i t h a s n o t g o n e t o tw o o r t h r e e r e s i d e n c e s , o r h a s n o t b e e n d e t a i l e d , a v in ic c h ita , h e r e a n d t h e r e t w o o r t h r e e t im e s . 6 V A . 119 2 s a y s : " t w o o r t h r e e t im e s i t is n o t r e m e m b e r e d b y th e s e m o n k s t h e m s e lv e s , o r c a u s e d t o b e r e m e m b e r e d b y o th e r s / '

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h e k n o w s th a t th e O rd er w ill b e d iv id e d , if he e v e n th in k s th a t th e O rd e r m a y b e d iv id e d , if t h e y ta k e (the tick e ts ) n o t b y r u le ,1 if t h e y ta k e th e m in an in c o m p le te a ss e m b ly , a n d if t h e y ta k e th e m n o t a c c o rd in g to th e ir v ie w s .2 T h e se te n d is tr ib u tio n s o f (vo tin g ) tic k e ts are n o t le g a lly v a lid . |f I ]| ,f W h a t are th e te n d is tr ib u tio n s o f (vo tin g ) tic k e ts th a t a re le g a lly v a lid ? W h e n th e le g a l q u e stio n is n o t m e re ly triflin g , a n d w h e n it h a s g o n e its co u rse , a n d w h e n it is re m e m b e re d arid c a u se d to be re m e m b e re d , a n d w h e n h e k n o w s th a t th o se w h o p ro fess dham m a a re m o re (in n u m b e r), w h e n he e v e n th in k s th a t th o se w h o p ro fe ss dham m a m a y be m o re (in n u m b e r), w h e n he k n o w s th a t th e O rd e r w ill n o t b e d iv id e d , w h e n he e v e n th in k s th a t th e O rd e r w ill n o t be d iv id e d , w h e n t h e y ta k e (th e tick e ts) b y ru le, w h e n t h e y ta k e th e m in a c o m p le te a ssem b ly , a n d w h e n t h e y ta k e th e m a c c o rd in g to th e ir v ie w s. T h e se te n d is trib u tio n s o f (vo tin g ) t ic k e ts a re le g a lly v a lid . || 2 j| 10 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e m o n k U v a la , on b e in g e x a m in e d fo r o ffe n ces in th e m id s t o f th e O rd e r, h a v in g d e n ie d ,3 a c k n o w le d g e d , h a v in g a c k n o w le d g e d , d e n ie d , h e s h e lv e d th e q u e stio n b y (asking) a n o th e r, he to ld a c o n scio u s lie . T h o s e w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th is m o n k U v a la , on b e in g e x a m in e d . . . te ll 9 co n sc io u s lie ? T h e n th e s e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I s it tru e , as is sa id , m o n k s . . . ? I t is tru e , L o r d . H a v in g r e b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : W e ll th e n , m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t fo r th e d ecisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y 4 a g a in s t th e m o n k U v a la . |j 1 || A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e c a rrie d o u t : F ir s t, th e m o n k U v a la sh o u ld b e re p ro v e d , h a v in g re p ro v e d h im , h e sh o u ld b e m a d e t o re m em b er, h a v in g m a d e h im re m em b er, he sh o u ld be m a d e to c o n fe ss 5 th e offen ce, h a v in g m a d e h im co n fe ss th e o ffen ce, th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d ,
1 not * 4 6 T h e y e a c h t a k e t w o t i c k e t s , s a y i n g : *' T h u s w e , s p e a k e r s o f w h a t i s dham m a, w ill b e c o m e t h e m a jo r it y / * V A . 1 1 9 3 . C h a n g in g t h e ir v ie w s s im p ly so a s t o b e o n t h e s id e o f t h e m a jo r it y . A s a t V in . iv . 1 ; s e e B .D . ii . 164I ta s s a p d p iy y a s ik d . S e e B . D . i i i . 1 5 4 , n . 1 ; M . i i . 2 4 9 . ro p e ti.

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c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : * H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h is m o n k U v a la , on b e in g e x a m in e d fo r o ffen ces in th e m id st o f th e O rd er, h a v in g d e n ie d , a c k n o w le d g e d . . . he to ld a co n scio u s lie. I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t fo r th e d e cisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v i t y a g a in s t th e m o n k U v a la . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n to m e. T h is m o n k U v a la . . . to ld a co n scio u s lie . T h e O rd er is c a r r y in g o u t a (form al) a c t fo r th e d ecisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y a g a in s t th e m o n k U v a la . I f th e c a r r y in g o u t o f a (form al) a c t fo r th e d ecisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v ity a g a in s t th e m o n k U v a la is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; h e to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld s p e a k . . . A n d a th ir d tim e I s p e a k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . A (form al) a c t fo r th e d ecisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it} ' is c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd e r a g a in s t th e m o n k U v a la . I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is .' || 2 || 1 1 || [ 8 5 ] " M o n k s, th e s e fiv e g ro u n d s fo r a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y are le g a lly v a lid ; if he b e co m e s im p u re , a n d if he is u n co n scie n tio u s, a n d if he is fa u lt-fin d in g ,1 if a n O rd e r ca rrie s o u t a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y a g a in s t h im , if it is b y ru le a n d in a c o m p le te a sse m b ly . T h e se fiv e g ro u n d s, m o n k s, fo r a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y a re le g a lly v a lid . || 1 || M on ks, if a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v ity is p o ssessed o f th re e q u a litie s it co m es to b e a (form al) a c t n o t b y ru le , a (form al) a c t n o t b y d iscip lin e, a n d o n e th a t is h a rd to s e ttle : if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t in th e p re se n ce of, if i t is c a rrie d o u t w ith o u t in te rro g a tio n , if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t w ith th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t . . .2 if it is c a rrie d o u t n o t b y ru le, if i t is c a rrie d o u t in a n in c o m p le te a ss e m b ly . M o n k s, if a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y is p o ssessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s , i t co m es to b e a (form al) a c t n o t b y ru le, a (form al) a c t n o t b y d iscip lin e, a n d one th a t is h a rd t o s e ttle . M o n k s, if a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v ity is possessed o f th re e q u a litie s it co m e t o b e a (form al) a c t b y ru le a n d a
1 s d n u v a d a , c f. a n u v d d a a t V i n . i i . 5 . B u . g l o s s e s b y s a -u p a v d d a . * A s a t C V . I. 2. 1.

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(form al) a c t b y d iscip lin e, a n d o n e th a t is e a s ily s e ttle d : if it is c a rrie d o u t in th e p resen ce o f, if it is c a rrie d o u t on th e in te rro g a tio n , if it is c a rrie d o u t w ith th e a c k n o w le d g m e n t . . if it is c a rrie d o u t b y ru le , if it is ca rrie d o u t in a c o m p le te a ss e m b ly . M o n k s, if a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y is p o ssessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s , it co m es to b e a (form al) a c t b y ru le, a (form al) a c t b y d is c ip lin e , a n d one t h a t is e a s ily s e ttle d . || 2 |! " M on ks, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th re e q u a litie s ,2 th e O rd er, if it desires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v ity a g a in s t h im : if he is a m a k e r o f s trife , if h e is a m a k e r o f q u a rre ls, if h e is a m a k e r o f d is p u te s, i f h e is a m a k e r o f c o n te n tio n , if he is a m a k e r o f le g a l q u e stio n s in th e O rd e r ; if he is ig n o ra n t, in e x p e rie n c e d , fu ll o f o ffen ces, n o t rid o f th e m ; if he liv e s in a sso c ia tio n w ith h o u seh o ld ers in u n b e c o m in g a sso cia tio n w ith h o u seh o ld ers. M o n k s, if a m o n k is possessed o f th e se th re e q u a litie s, th e O rd e r, if it d esires, m a y c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y a g a in s t h im . || 3 j| " A m o n k a g a in s t w h o m a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y 3 h a s b e en c a rrie d o u t sh o u ld c o n d u c t h im s e lf p ro p e rly . T h is is p ro p e r c o n d u c t in th is ca se : h e sh o u ld n o t o rd a in , h e sh o u ld n o t g iv e g u id a n c e , a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d h im , h e sh o u ld n o t co n se n t to th e a g re e m e n t to e x h o r t n u n s, e v e n if he is a g re e d u p o n h e sh o u ld n o t e x h o r t n u n s . . . he sh o u ld n o t q u a rre l w ith m o n k s ." || 4 || T h e n th e O rd e r c a rrie d o u t a (form al) a c t fo r sp ecific d e p r a v i t y a g a in s t th e m o n k U v a la . |j 5 J | 12 || Now a t th a t tim e , w h ile m o n k s w e re s tr iv in g , q u a rre llin g , d is p u tin g , m u c h w a s p e r p e tr a te d a n d sp o k e n t h a t w a s n o t w o r t h y o f a re clu se .4 T h e n it o c cu rre d to th e s e m o n k s : " W h ile w e w e re s tr iv in g . . . n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se. I f w e sh o u ld d e a l w ith o n e a n o th e r fo r th e se o ffen ces, it m ig h t e v e n b e th a t th a t le g a l q u e stio n w o u ld c o n d u c e to h a rsh n ess, to tr o u b le , to sch ism . N o w , [86] w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld be fo llo w e d b y us ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id :
1 * 8 4 As As As As at CV. at CV. fo r a n at CV. I . 3. 1 . I . 4. a c t o f b a n is h m e n t c a r r ie d o u t a g a i n s t a m o n k , a t C V . I . 5. I V . 5. 1.

ii5 T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re w h ile m o n k s w ere s tr iv in g . . . m u ch w a s p e rp e tra te d a n d sp o k e n th a t w a s n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se. T h e n it o ccu rre d to th e se m o n k s : W h ile w e w ere s tr iv in g . . . it m ig h t e v e n b e t h a t th a t le g a l q u e stio n w o u ld co n d u ce to h arsh n ess, to tro u b le , to sc h is m .' I a llo w , m o n k s, a le g a l q u e stio n su c h a s th is to be s e ttle d b y th e c o v e r in g u p (as) w ith g r a s s .1 || x || A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e s e ttle d : O n e a n d a ll sh o u ld g a th e r to g e th e r in th e sam e p la c e ; h a v in g g a th e r e d to g e th e r, th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : * H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. W h ile w e w e re s tr iv in g it m ig h t e ve n b e th a t th is le g a l q u e stio n w o u ld co n d u c e to h arsh n ess, to tro u b le , to s c h is m / ' I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n b y th e c o v e rin g u p (as) w ith g ra ss, un less it is a h e a v y s in ,2 u n less it is c o n n e cte d w ith th e l a i t y .'3 T h e o n e sid e 4 sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k fro m a m o n g th e m o n k s sid in g in w ith th e o n e (side) : * L e t th e v e n e ra b le o n es lis te n to m e. W h ile w e w ere s tr iv in g . . . n o t w o r th y of a re clu se . . . to sch ism . I f it is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, I w o u ld co n fess w h a te v e r is th e offence o f th e v e n e ra b le o n es a s w e ll a s w h a te v e r is m y o w n o ffen ce b o th fo r th e s a k e o f th e v e n e ra b le ones a n d fo r m y o w n sa k e , u n less it is a h e a v y sin , u n less it is c o n n e cte d w ith th e la ity , (so a s to o b ta in ) a c o v e r in g u p (as) w ith g ra ss in th e m id st o f th e O rd e r/ A fte r w a r d s , th e o th e r sid e sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k fro m a m o n g th e m o n k s s id in g in w ith th e o th e r (side) : L e t th e v e n e ra b le o nes liste n to m e. W h ile w e w ere s tr iv in g . . . a c o v e rin g u p (as w ith ) g ra ss in th e m id st o f th e O rd e r.' jf 2 || " T h e O rd e r sh o u ld be in fo rm ed b y an e x p e rie n c e d co m p e tte n t m o n k sid in g in w ith th e one (side) : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. W h ile w e w e re s tr iv in g . . . n o t w o r th y o f a re clu se . . . t o sch ism . I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, I w o u ld co n fess w h a te v e r is th e o ffen ce o f th e v e n e ra b le
1 tin a v a tth d r a k a . A s a t V i n . i v . 2 0 7 , M . i i . 2 5 0 . S e e B . D . i i i . 1 5 4 . * t h u la v a jja , V A . 1 1 9 4 , e x p l a i n i n g a s P a r a j i k a a n d S a n g h & d i s e s a . V A . s a y s : u n le s s i t i s a n o f le n c e w h e r e h e r e v il e s a n d d e s p is e s h o u s e h o ld e r s b y m e a n s o f a lo w t h i n g ; s e e u n d e r in s u lt in g s p e e c h " a t V in . iv . 6 ( B .D . i i . 1 7 3 f f .) ; a l s o a b o v e , p . 2 5 . 4 s a k a p a k k h a , o n e 's o w n s i d e .

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ones a s w e ll a s w h a te v e r is m y o w n o ffen ce, b o th fo r th e sa k e o f th e v e n e ra b le ones a n d fo r m y o w n sa k e , u n le ss it is a h e a v y sin, u n less i t is c o n n e c te d w ith th e la it y , (so a s to o b ta in ) a c o v e rin g u p (as) w ith g ra ss in th e m id s t o f th e O rd er. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n t o m e. W h ile w e w e re s tr iv in g . . . n o t w o r t h y o f re clu se . . . t o sch ism . I a m co n fe ssin g w h a te v e r is th e o ffe n ce o f th e se v e n e r a b le ones a n d w h a te v e r is m y o w n o ffe n ce . . . u n less it is a h e a v y sin, u n less it is c o n n e c te d w ith th e la i t y , (so a s t o o b ta in ) a c o v e r in g u p (as w ith ) g ra ss in th e m id s t o f th e O rd er. I f th e c o n fessio n o f th e se o ffe n ces o f o u rs, u n less t h e y a re h e a v y sins, un less t h e y a re c o n n e c te d w ith th e la it y , (so as to o b ta in ) a c o v e r in g u p (as) w ith g ra ss in th e m id st o f th e O rd e r is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld b e s ile n t ; h e t o w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld s p e a k . T h e s e o ffen ces o f o u rs a re c o n fessed (b y m e), e x c e p t h e a v y sin s, e x c e p t th o s e c o n n e c te d w ith th e la it y , (so a s t o o b ta in ) a c o v e r in g u p (as) w ith g ra ss in th e m id st o f th e O ld e r . [87] I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d this.* A fte r w a r d s th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k fro m a m o n g th e m o n k s sid in g in w ith th e o th e r (side) : * H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n t o m e. W h ile w e w e re s tr iv in g . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is .' || 3 || A n d th u s , m o n k s, d o th e s e o ffe n c e s co m e t o b e re m o v e d fro m th e s e m o n k s ,1 e x c e p t fo r a h e a v y sin , e x c e p t fo r w h a t is c o n n e c te d w ith th e la it y , e x c e p t fo r (th o se w h o m a k e ) a n o p en s ta te m e n t o f th e ir v ie w s ,2 e x c e p t fo r th o s e w h o are n o t th e r e / ' 3
II 4 II1 3 I[

N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s d is p u te d w ith m o n k s a n d n u n s d is p u te d w ith m o n k s a n d th e m o n k C h a n n a , in tr u d in g in to th e n u n s (q u a rters), d is p u te d to g e th e r w ith th e m o n k s a n d w a s


1 te b h ik k h u td h i d p a t t lh i v u tth itd k o n t i , l i t . " t h e s e m o n k s a r e r i s e n u p ( o r , re m o v e d ) fro m th e s e o ffe n c es/ ' a d itth d v ik a m m a . V A . 1 1 9 4 s a y s t h o s e w h o s a y , * I t i s n o t p l e a s i n g t o m e 1 a n d e x p l a i n t h e i r v i e w s t o o n e a n o t h e r , o r , h a v i n g f a l l e n i n t o a*_ o f f e n c e t o g e th e r w it h t h e s e w h o h a v e n o t c o m e t h e r e , o r w h o h a v e c o m e a n d g iv e n ( s o m e o n e 's ) l e a v e f o r b e i n g a b s e n t w h i l e s i t t i n g d o w n in c e l l s a n d s o o n t h e s e h a v e n o t r is e n fr o m t h o s e o ffe n c e s . T h e r e f o r e it is s a id : e x c e p t fo r (th o se w h o m a k e ) a n o p e n s ta t e m e n t o f t h e ir v ie w s , e x c e p t fo r th o s e w h o a r e n o t t h e r e ." * tka p etvd y e n a ta tth a h o n ii. S e e p r e v i o u s n o t e .

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p re ju d ic e d on th e sid e o f th e nuns. T h o se w h o w ere m o d est m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic ise d , s p re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th is m o n k C h a n n a , in tr u d in g in to th e n u n s' (q u arters), d is p u te to g e th e r w ith m o n k s a n d b e p r e ju d ic e d on th e sid e o f th e n u n s ? T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I s it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, . . . ? I t is tru e , L o r d . H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : |j x )| " M on ks, th e re a re th e se fo u r k in d s o f le g a l q u e stio n s : le g a l q u e stio n s a ris in g o u t o f d isp u te s, le g a l q u e stio n s a risin g o u t of cen su re, le g a l q u e stio n s a risin g o u t o f o ffen ces, le g a l q u e stio n s a risin g o u t o f o b lig a tio n s .1 " W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g o u t o f d isp u te s ? T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere m o n k s d is p u te , s a y in g 2: I t is dham m a * o r I t is n o t dham m a o r I t is d iscip lin e ' o r * I t is n o t d isc i p lin e * o r ' I t is sp o k e n , u tte r e d b y th e T ru th -fin d e r ', o r I t is n o t sp o k e n , n o t u tte r e d b y th e T ru th -fin d e r o r * I t is p ra c tis e d b y th e T ru th -fin d e r * o r I t is n o t p ra c tis e d b y th e T ru th -fin d e r 3 o r I t is la id d o w n b y th e T ru th -fin d e r ' or 1 I t is n o t la id d o w n b y th e T ru th -fin d e r o r e I t is a n o ffen ce ' o r I t is n o t a n o ffen ce ' o r * I t is a s lig h t o ffen ce b r * I t is a seriou s o ffen ce ' or I t is a n o ffen ce t h a t c a n b e d o n e a w a y w ith J or * I t is a n o ffen ce th a t c a n n o t b e d o n e a w a y w ith o r I t is a b a d o ffen ce o r I t is n o t a b a d o ffe n c e . W h a te v e r h ere is strife , q u a rre l, c o n te n tio n , d is p u te , d ifferen ce o f o p in io n , o th e r op in io n , b e c a u se th e co m m o n a p p e lla tio n o f h e a te d n e ss 3 is q u a r r e l 4 th is is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d isp u te s. W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re ? In th is c a se , m o n k s, m o n k s cen su re a m o n k fo r fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it o r fo r fa llin g a w a y fro m g o o d h a b its o r fo r fa llin g a w a y fro m r ig h t v ie w or fo r fa llin g a w l y fro m a r ig h t m o d e o f liv e lih o o d . W h a te v e r h ere is cen su re, fa u lt-fin d in g , ta lk in g to , sc o ld in g , b ic k e rin g , in c itin g , in s tig a tin g , th is is ca lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m cen su re. " W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m offen ces ? B o t h
1 A s a t V in . iii. 1 6 4 . * C f. t h e f o llo w in g w it h V in . i. 3 5 4 . * v ip a cca ta y a voha.ro. V A . 1 1 9 4 s a y s " t h e c o m m o n a p p e lla t io n is d u e to m e n t a l u n e a s i n e s s , c itta d u k k h a . T h e m e a n i n g i s h a r s h s p e e c h / ' 4 m edhaka.

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th e fiv e cla sse s o f o ffe n ces1 (yield ) le g a l q u e stio n s a ris in g fro m o ffen ces, a n d th e se v e n cla sses o f o ffe n ces2 (yield ) le g a l q u e s tio n s a risin g fro m o ffen ces. T h is is c a lle d [88] a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m offen ces. " W h a t is h e re a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s ? W h a te v e r is an O r d e r s b u sin e ss a n d o u g h t to b e d o n e (b y it) : a (form al) a c t fo r w h ic h le a v e o u g h t to be a s k e d ,3 a (form al) a c t a t w h ic h a m o tio n is p u t, a (form al) a c t a t w h ic h a m o tio n is p u t a n d fo llo w e d b y one re so lu tio n , a (form al) a c t a t w h ic h a m o tio n is p u t a n d fo llo w e d b y a re so lu tio n m a d e th re e tim e s .4 T h is is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s. [| 2 || " W h a t is th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d is p u te s ? S ix so u rce s o f d is p u te are th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d is p u te s : th e re a re th re e u n s k ille d so u rce s w h ic h are th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d is p u te s a s w e ll a s th re e s k ille d so u rce s w h ic h a re th e so u rce o f le g a l q u e stio n s a risin g fro m d isp u te s. " W h ic h a r e th e s ix so u rce s o f d is p u te w h ic h a re th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d is p u te s ? In th is ca se , a m o n k b e co m e s a n g r y a n d b e a rs ill- w ill.5 M o n k s, w h a te v e r m o n k b e co m e s a n g r y a n d b e a rs ill-w ill, h e liv e s w ith o u t d eferen ce, d is re s p e c tfu l to w a r d s th e T e a c h e r, a n d h e liv e s w ith o u t d e fer en ce, d is re s p e c tfu l to w a rd s dham m a , a n d h e liv e s w ith o u t d e fer en ce, d is re s p e c tfu l to w a r d s th e O rd e r, a n d h e d o es n o t c o m p le te th e tra in in g . M o n k s, w h a te v e r m o n k liv e s w ith o u t d e fe r en ce, d is re s p e c tfu l to w a r d s th e T e a c h e r , dham m a , a n d th e O rd e r a n d d o es n o t c o m p le te th e tra in in g , h e c a u se s d is p u te in an O rd er, a n d t h a t d is p u te c o m e s to b e fo r th e h a rm o f th e m a n y -fo lk , fo r th e la c k o f ease o f th e m a n y -fo lk , fo r th e la c k o f th e g o a l fo r th e m a n y -fo lk , fo r th e h a rm a n d d is sa tisfa c tio n
1 T h a t is t o s a y , t h o s e o f D e f e a t , t h o s e e n t a il in g a F o r m a l M e e t in g o f t h e O r d e r , t h o s e o f E x p i a t i o n , t h o s e w h ic h o u g h t t o c o n fe s s e d a n d t h o s e o f w r o n g d o in g . * T h e a b o v e f iv e , w it h g r a v e o ffe n c e s a n d t h o s e o f w r o n g s p e e c h a d d e d . 3 a p a lo k a n a k a tn tn a . V A . 1 1 9 5 s a y s " h a v i n g p u r if ie d t h e O r d e r l i v i n g in t h e b o u n d a r y , h a v in g b r o u g h t t h e le a v e o f a b se n c e o f th o s e w h o d e se rv e to s e n d l e a v e o f a b s e n c e , t h e ( fo r m a l) a c t s h o u ld b e c a r r ie d o u t , h a v i n g a n n o u n c e d i t t h r e e t i m e s f o r t h e a p p r o v a l o f a c o m p l e t e O rd er.** V A . 1 1 9 5 re fe rs fo r a l l t h e s e t y p e s o f f o r m a l a c t s t o t h e P a r i v a r a , i.e . t o V i n . v . 2 2 9 ff. 4 T h e s e t y p e s o f f o r m a l a c t s a r e a ls o m e n t io n e d a t V i n . i v . 1 5 2 in d e fin it io n o f '* l e g i t im a t e (fo r m a l) a c t s .* ' S e e B . D . iii. 5 9 , 60 f o r f u r t h e r r e fe r e n c e s . 6 T h i s r e c u r s a t A . iii. 3 3 4 ; D . iii. 2 4 6 ; M . i. 9 6 , ii. 2 4 5 . S e e P u g . I I . 1 w h e r e k o d h a a n d u p a n d h i f o r m t h e s u b j e c t s o f q u e s t io n s .

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o f devas a n d m a n k in d . I f y o u , m o n k s, sh o u ld p e rc e iv e a so u rce o f d is p u te lik e th is a m o n g y o u rs e lv e s or a m o n g o th ers, y o u , m o n k s, sh o u ld s tr iv e th e re in fo r th e d e stru c tio n o f p re c is e ly th a t e v il so u rce o f d isp u te s. I f y o u , m o n k s, sh o u ld p e rc e iv e no so u rce o f d isp u te lik e th is a m o n g y o u rs e lv e s o r a m o n g o th ers, y o u , m o n k s, sh o u ld th e re in fo llo w a co u rse (to stop) th e re b e in g fu tu r e e ffects o f p re c is e ly th a t e v il so u rce o f d is p u te s. T h u s th e re co m es to be d e s tru c tio n o f th a t e v il sou rce o f d isp u te s, th u s th e re co m e to be no fu tu r e e ffects o f th a t e v il so u rce o f d isp u te s. " A n d a g a in , m o n k s, a m o n k b e co m e s h a rs h 1 a n d u n m e rc ifu l, h e b eco m es e n v io u s a n d g ru d g in g , h e b eco m es c r a ft y a n d d e c e itfu l, he co m es to h a v e e v il d esires a n d w ro n g v ie w s, he co m es to be in fe c te d w ith w o rld lin e ss, o b stin a te , s tu b b o r n .2 M onks, th a t m o n k w h o liv e s w ith o u t d eferen ce, d is re s p e c tfu l to w a rd s th e T e a c h e r . . . th u s th e re co m e to b e n o fu tu r e e ffe c ts o f th a t e v il so u rce o f d is p u te s. T h e se s ix so u rces o f d isp u te are th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d isp u te s. II 3 Ii " W h ic h th re e u n s k ille d sou rces a re th e so u rc e o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d isp u te s ? In th is case, m o n k s d is p u te c o v e to u s in m in d , th e y d is p u te c o r r u p t in m in d , t h e y d is p u te e rrin g in m in d , s a y in g : I t is dham m a 1 or I t is n o t dham m a or . . . 4I t is n o t a b a d o ffe n ce .'3 T h e s e th re e u n s k ille d so u rces are th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d isp u te s. " W h i c h th ree sk ille d so u rce s are th e so u rc e of a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d is p u te s ? In th is ca se , m o n k s d is p u te n o t c o v e to u s in m in d , t h e y d is p u te n o t c o rru p t in m in d , t h e y d is p u te n o t e rrin g in m in d , [89] s a y in g : I t is dhamma 9 or ' I t is n o t dhamma ' . . . or ' I t is n o t a b a d o ffe n c e / T h e se th re e sk illed so u rces a re th e so u rc e o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d isp u te s, [j 4 jj W h a t is th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re ? S ix so u rce s o f ce n su re are th e so u rc e o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re : th e re are th re e u n sk ille d so u rce s w h ic h a re th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re a s w e ll a s th ree
1 T h e f ir s t s i x w o r d s o c c u r a t M . i. 9 6 (cf. M . 1. 4 3 ) a n d t h e y f o r m s u b j e c t s o f q u e s t io n s a t P u g . IT . 2 - 4 . T h e f ir s t f iv e o c c u r a t J d . iti. 2 5 9 . 2 C f . M . i. 4 3 , 9 6 , 402 ; L>. iii. 2 4 7 ; A . iii. 3 3 5 , v . 15 0 . 3 A s a t C V . I V . 14, 2.

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sk ille d so u rces w h ic h a re th e so u rc e o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m c e n su re ; b o d y , to o , is a so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re ; sp ee ch , to o , is a so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re. W h ic h are th e s ix so u rce s o f ce n su re t h a t are th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re ? I n th is c a se , m o n k s, a m o n k b e co m e s a n g r y a n d b e a rs ill-w ill . . . (as in || 3 ||). In stea d o f d is p u te read ce n su re , so u rc e o f ce n su re , etc.) . . . T h e se s ix so u rces o f ce n su re are th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re . W h ic h th re e u n s k ille d so u rce s a re th e so u rce of a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re ? I n th is c a se , m o n k s, c o v e to u s in m in d , ce n su re a fn o n k , c o rru p t in m in d t h e y ce n su re (him ), e rrin g in m in d t h e y cen su re h im w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it o r. w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m g o o d h a b its o r w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m rig h t v ie w o r w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m a rig h t m o d e o f liv e lih o o d . T h e s e th re e u n sk ille d so u rc e are th e so u rces o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re. " W h ic h th re e s k ille d so u rc e s a re th e so u rc e of a le g a l q u e s tion a ris in g fro m cen su re ? I n th is c a se m o n k s, n o t c o v e to u s in m in d , ce n su re a m o n k ; n o t c o r r u p t in m in d * . . n o t errin g in m in d , t h e y cen su re h im w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it . . . w ith f a lli r g a w a y fro m a r ig h t m o d e o f liv in g . T h e se th re e s k ille d so u rce s a re th e so u rc e o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re. W h ic h (k in d of) a b o d y is a so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m cen su re ? In th is c a se so m eo n e co m es to b e o f a b&d c o lo u r ,1 u g ly , d e fo rm e d , v e r y ill o r b lin d o f one e y e o r p a ra ly s e d d o w n o n e sid e o r la m e o r a c rip p le , on a c c o u n t o f w h ic h t h e y ce n su re h im . T h is (k in d of)* b o d y is a so u rce o f a le g a l q u e s tio n a risin g fro m cen su re. " W h ic h (kin d of) sp e e c h is a so u rc e o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m cen su re ? In th is ca se so m eo n e co m es to b e s u rly , s tu tte r in g , o f h o a rse e n u n c ia tio n , on a c c o u n t o f w h ich t h e y ce n su re h im . T h is (k in d of) sp e e c h is a so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m cen su re. || 5 || ** W h a t is th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffen ces? S ix o rigin s o f o ffen ces a re th e s o u rc e o f a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g
1 As at A i. 1 0 7 = ii. 8 5 = 5 . i. 94 = M . iii- 1 6 9 = P u g . 5 1 .

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fro m offen ces : th ere is th e o ffen ce w h ic h o rig in a tes fro m th e b o d y , n o t fro m sp ee ch , n o t fro m m in d ; th e re is th e o ffen ce w h ic h o rig in a tes fro m sp eech , n o t fro m b o d y , n o t fro m m in d ; th e re is th e o ffen ce w h ic h o rig in a te s fro m b o d y an d fro m sp eech , n o t fro m m in d ; th e re is th e o ffen ce w h ic h o rig in a te s fro m b o d y a n d fro m m in d , n o t fro m sp ee ch ; th e re is th e o ffen ce w h ic h o rig in a te s fro m sp eech a n d m in d , n o t fro m b o d y ; th ere is th e o ffen ce w h ich o rig in a te s fro m b o d y a n d fro m sp ee ch a n d fro m 'm in d . T h e s e s ix o rig in s o f offen ces are th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffen ces. || 6 j| W h a t is th e so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro ih o b lig a tio n s ? T h e O rd er is th e sole so u rce o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s. || 7 \ \ [90] A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d is p u te s : is it sk ille d , u n sk ille d , in d e te rm in a te ? A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d is p u te s m a y b e sk ille d , it m a y b e u n sk ille d , it m a y be in d e te rm in a te . W h a t here is a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d is p u te s th a t is s k ille d ? I n th is ca se m o n k s w h o se th o u g h ts are sk ille d d isp u te , s a y in g , ' T h is is dham m a ' or T h is is n o t dham m a * or . . . ' T h is is n o t a b a d o ffe n c e . W h a te v e r th e re in is strife , q u a rre l, c o n te n tio n , d is p u te , d ifferen ce o f o p in io n , o th e r o p in io n , b e ca u se th e co m m o n a p p e lla tio n o f h e a te d n e ss is * q u a rrel , th is is ca lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d isp u te? th a t is s k ille d . W h a t here is a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d isp u te s th a t is u n sk ille d ? I n th is case, m o n k s w h o se th o u g h ts are u n sk illed d isp u te , s a y in g : * T h is is dham m a ' o r T h is is n o t dham m a ' or ' T h is is n o t a b a d o ffen ce . . . b e c a u se th e co m m o n a p p e lla tio n o f h e a te d n e ss is ' q u a r r e l,' th is is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d is p u te s t h a t is u n sk illed . W h a t h ere is a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d is p u te s th a t is in d e te rm in a te ? I n th is case, m o n k s w h o se th o u g h ts are in d e te rm in a te d is p u te , s a y in g : * I t is dham m a o r . . . " I t is n o t a b a d o ffen ce ' - . . c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d is p u te s th a t a re in d e te rm in a te . || 8 |j A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re : is it sk ille d , u n sk illed , in d e te rm in a te ? A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re m a y be sk ille d , it m a y be u n sk ille d , it m a y b e in d e te rm in a te . W h a t h ere is a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re t h a t is sk ille d ? In th is ca se m o n k s w h o se th o u g h ts are sk ille d cen su re a m o n k w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it o r w ith fa llin g
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a w a y fro m g o o d h a b its c r w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m r ig h t v ie w s or w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m a r ig h t m o d e o f liv e lih o o d . W h a te v e r h erein is ce n su re , b la m in g , ta lk in g to , sc o ld in g , b ic k e rin g , in c it in g , in s tig a tin g , th is is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re th a t is sk ille d . ,f W h a t h ere is a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m cen su re th a t is u n s k ille d ? In th is ca se , m o n k s w h o se th o u g h ts are u n s k ille d ce n su re a m o n k . . . W h a t is h e re a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m cen su re t h a t is in d e te rm in a te ? In th is ca se, m o n k s w h o se th o u g h ts are in d e te rm in a te ce n su re a m o n k w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m . . . a rig h t m o d e o f liv e lih o o d . W h a te v e r h e re in is ce n su re , b la m in g . . . in s tig a tin g , th is is c a lle d a le g a l q u e s tio n a ris in g fro m ce n su re th a t is in d e te rm in a te . || 9 || A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o ffe n ces : is it sk ille d , u n sk ille d , in d e te rm in a te ? A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o ffen ces m a y be u n s k ille d it m a y b e in d e te rm in a te . T h e re is n o le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffe n ces th a t is sk ille d . W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffen ces t h a t is u n s k ille d ? A tra n s g ressio n c o m m itte d k n o w in g ly , c o n sc io u s ly , d e lib e r a te ly 1 is one t h a t is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o ffen ces th a t is u n sk ille d . " W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffen ces t h a t is in d e te rm in a te ? A tra n sg re ssio n c o m m itte d n o t k n o w in g ly , n o t c o n sc io u s ly , n o t d e lib e r a te ly is o n e t h a t is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o ffen ces th a t is in d e te rm in a te . || xo |[ " A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s : is it sk ille d , u n s k ille d , in d e te rm in a te ? A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s m a y b e sk ille d , it m a y be u n s k ille d , it m a y b e in d e te rm in a te . W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s th a t is sk ille d ? W h a t e v e r (form al) a c t t h a t an O rd er, g o o d in m in d , ca rrie s o u t : a (form al) a c t fo r w h ic h le a v e o u g h t to b e a sk e d , a (form al) a c t a t w h ic h a m o tio n is p u t, a (form al) a c t a t w h ic h a m o tio n is p u t a n d fo llo w e d b y o n e re so lu tio n , a (form al) a c t a t w h ic h a m o tio n is p u t a n d fo llo w e d b y a re so lu tio n m a d e th re e tim e s 2 th is is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s th a t is sk ille d . " W h a t is h ere [91] a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s
1 A s a t V i n . iii. 7 3 , 1 1 2 , i v . 290 . * A s a b o v e , I V . 14. 2 .

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th a t is u n s k ille d ? W h a te v e r (form al) a c t t h a t a n O rd er, b a d in m in d , ca rrie s o u t . . . W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s t h a t is' in d e te rm in a te ? W h a te v e r (form al) a c t th a t a n O rd er, in d e te rm in a te in m in d , c a rrie s o u t . . . th is is ca lle d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s t h a t is in d e te rm in a te . || x i || (C an th e re be) a d isp u te a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g from d isp u te s, a d is p u te (but) n o le g a l q u e stio n , a le g a l q u e stio n (but) n o d isp u te , a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s a d is p u te ? T h e re m a y b e a d isp u te a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d is p u te s, th e re m a y be a d is p u te (bu t) no le g a l q u e stio n , th e re m a y be a le g a l q u e stio n (but) no d is p u te , th e re m a y be a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s a d isp u te . " W h a t is here a d is p u te a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d isp u te s ? I n th is case, m o n k s d is p u te , s a y in g : T h is is dham m a ' o r . . . T h is is n o t a b a d o ffen ce W h a te v e r h e re in 2 is strife , q u a rre l, c o n te n tio n , d is p u te , d ifferen ce o f op in io n , o th e r o p in io n , b e ca u se th e co m m o n a p p e lla tio n o f h e a ted n ess is ' q u a rre l th is is c a lle d a d is p u te a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d isp u te s. " W h a t is h ere a d is p u te (but) n o t a le g a l q u e stio n ? M o th er d isp u te s w ith so n a n d so n d is p u te s w ith , m o th e r, a n d fa th e r d isp u te s w ith son a n d son d is p u te s w ith fa th e r, a n d b ro th e r d isp u te s w ith b ro th e r a n d b ro th e r d is p u te s w ith siste r a n d siste r d isp u te s w ith b ro th e r, a n d frie n d d is p u te s w ith frien d . T h is is a d is p u te (but) n o t a le g a l q u e stio n . W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n (but) n o t a d is p u te ? A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re, a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o ffen ces, a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s. T h is is a le g a l q u e stio n (but) n o t a d isp u te . W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s a d is p u te ? A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d is p u te s is a le g a l q u e stio n as w e ll as a d is p u te . || 1 2 1 | (C an th e re be) cen su re a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re, cen su re (but) n o le g a l q u e stio n , a le g a l q u e stio n (but) no cen su re, a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s ce n su re ? T h e r e m a y be cen su re a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m cen su re, th e re m a y b e cen su re (but) no le g a l q u e stio n , th e re m a y be a le g a l
1 A s in I V . 14. 2* 1 A s in I V . 14. 8.

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q u e stio n (but) no cen su re, th e re m a y b e a le g a l q u e s tio n a s w e ll a s censure. " W h a t is here ce n su re a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re ? In th is ca se m o n k s c e n su re a m o n k w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it o r . . . w ith fa llin g a w a y fro m a rig h t m o d e o f liv in g . W h a te v e r h erein is ce n su re , b la m in g . . . in s tig a tin g , th is is ce n su re a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m cen su re. " W h a t is h ere ce n su re (but) n o t a le g a l q u e stio n ? M o th er c e n su re s son a n d son c e n su re s m o th e r . . . a n d frie n d c e n su res frie n d . T h is is c e n su re (but) n o t a le g a l q u e stio n . W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n (b u t) n o t ce n su re ? A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o ffen ces, a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s, a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d is p u te s. T h is is a le g a l q u e stio n b u t n o t cen su re. " W h a t is here a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s ce n su re ? A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m ce n su re is a le g a l q u e stio n as w e ll as cen su re. || 13 j| (C an th e re be) a n o ffen ce a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m offences-, a n o ffe n ce (but) n o le g a l q u e stio n , a le g a l q u e stio n (bu t) n o o ffe n ce, a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s an o ffen ce ? T h e re m a y b e a n o ffen ce a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m offen ces, th e re m a y b e an o ffen ce (but) n o le g a l q u e stio n , th e re m a y b e a le g a l q u e stio n (but) n o o ffen ce, th e re m a y b e a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s a n o ffen ce. [92] W h a t is h ere a n o ffe n ce a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffen ces ? T h e fiv e cla sses o f o ffe n ces (yield ) a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffe n ces a n d th e se v e n cla sses o f o ffen ces (yield ) a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffen ces. T h is is a n o ffen ce a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m offen ces. " W h a t is h ere a n o ffe n ce (but) n o t a le g a l q u e stio n ? S tre a m a t t a ir m e n t a n d A tta in m e n t.1 T h is is fa llin g b u t n o t a le g a l q u e stio n . W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n (but) n o t a n o ffen ce ? A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o b lig a tio n s , a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d is p u te s, a le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m ce n su re . T h is is a le g a l q u e stio n (but) n o t a n offen ce. W h a t is h ere a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s a n o ffen ce ? A
1 F o r t h i s p l a y o f w o r d s o n a p a t t i , s o t-d p a tti a n d s a tn -d p a iti s e e B . D . i i . 1 7 7 , n . 5,

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le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffen ces is a le g a l q u e stio n a s w ell a s a n o ffen ce. U14 j| (C an th e re be) a n o b lig a tio n a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s, a n o b lig a tio n (but) no le g a l q u e stio n , a le g a l q u e stio n (but) no o b lig a tio n , a le g a l q u e stio n a s w e ll a s an o b lig a tio n ? T h e re m a y b e a n o b lig a tio n a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s, th e re m a y b e a n o b lig a tio n (but) no le g a l q u e stio n , th e re m a y b e a le g a l q u e stio n (but) no o b lig a tio n , th e re m a y be a le g a l q u e stio n as w e ll a s a n o b lig a tio n . W h a t is h ere an o b lig a tio n a n d a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s ? W h a te v e r is an O rd e r's b u sin ess a n d o u g h t to b e d on e b y it : a (form al) a c t fo r w h ic h le a v e o u g h t t o be a sk e d , a (form al) a c t a t w h ic h a m o tio n is p u t, a (form al) a c t a t w h ic h a m o tio n is p u t a n d fo llo w e d b y o n e re so lu tio n , a (form al) a c t a t w h ich a m o tio n is p u t a n d fo llo w e d b y a reso lu tio n m a d e th re e tim es th is is an o b lig a tio n a n d a le g a l q u es tio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s, W h a t is h ere a n o b lig a tio n (but) no le g a l q u e stio n ? A n o b lig a tio n t o a te a ch e r, an o b lig a tio n to a p re c e p to r, a n o b lig a tion to o n e w h o h a s th e sam e p re c e p to r, a n o b lig a tio n to one w h o h a s th e sam e te a ch e r. T h is is a n o b lig a tio n ' (but) n o t a le g a l q u e stio n . " W h a t is here a le g a l q u estio n (but) n o t an o b lig a tio n ? A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d is p u te s . . . a risin g fro m cen su re . . . a ris in g fro m offen ces. T h is is a le g a l q u e stio n (but) n o t an o b lig a tio n . W h a t is here a le g a l q u e stio n a s w ell as an o b lig a tio n ? A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s is a le g a l q u e stio n as w e ll as a n o b lig a tio n . |j 15 || B y h o w m a n y k in d s o f d ecisio n is a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d isp u te s a g re e d u p o n ? A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m d isp u te s is (agreed upon) b y tw o (k in d s of) d ecisio n s : b y a v e r d ic t in th e presen ce o f a n d b y th e d e cisio n o f th e m a jo r ity . I f one s a y s : C a n it b e th a t , in re sp e c t o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m d isp u te s, w ith o u t h a v in g recou rse to o n e (kin d of) d ecisio n th e d ecisio n o f th e m a jo r ity one m a y a g re e u p o n it b y th e o th e r (kin d of) d e cisio n th e v e r d ic t in th e presen ce o f ? J he sh o u ld b e to ld : * I t ca n b e / I t is lik e th is : In th is ca se m o n k s d is p u te , s a y in g : I t is dham m a * . . . or I t is a b a d o ffe n c e / I f, m o n k s, th e se m o n k s a re a b le to s e ttle th a t

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le g a l q u e stio n , th is, m o n k s, is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce of. A n d w h a t h ere (is needed) fo r a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f ? T h e p re se n ce o f a n O rd er, th e p re se n ce o f ru le, th e p resen ce o f d iscip lin e, th e p re se n ce o f in d iv id u a ls . A n d w h a t h ere is th e p re se n ce of a n O rd e r ? W h e n as m a n y m o n k s a s are c o m p e te n t fo r (form al) a c ts h a v e a rriv e d , w h e n th e co n se n t of th o s e d e s e rv in g (to sen d th eir) co n se n t h a s b een b ro u g h t, w h e n b e in g fa c e to fa c e t h e y d o n o t p ro te st. T h is is here th e p re se n ce o f a n O rd er. " A n d w h a t is here th e p re se n ce o f ru le , [93] th e p resen ce o f d isc ip lin e ? I f th a t le g a l q u e s tio n is s e ttle d b y w h a te v e r is ru le ,1 b y w h a te v e r is d isc ip lin e , b y w h a te v e r is th e T e a c h e r s in stru c tio n , t h a t is h e re th e p re se n ce o f ru le, th e p re se n ce o f discipline* " A n d w h a t is h ere th e p re se n ce o f in d iv id u a ls ? W h o e v e r q u a rre ls a n d w h o e v e r h e q u a rre ls w ith , b o th , h o stile a b o u t th e m a tte r ,2 co m e fa c e to fa c e . T h is is h ere th e p re se n ce o f in d iv id u a ls. M o n k s, if a le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , a n d if one w h o ca rrie s it o u t o p e n s it u p a g a in , in o p e n in g u p th e re is a n o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n .3 I f one w h o h a s g iv e n h is c o n s e n t4 c ritic is e s it, in c ritic is in g th e r e is a n o ffe n ce o f e x p ia tio n .5 jj 16 ]| I f, m o n k , th e s e m o n k s a re n o t a b le to s e ttle th a t le g a l q u e stio n in t h a t resid en ce, th e n , m o n k s, the^e m o n k s sh o u ld g o to so m e re sid e n ce w h e re th e re a re m ore m o n k s. I f, m o n k s, th e s e m o n k s a s t h e y a re g o in g to t h a t re sid e n c e a re a b le to s e ttle t h a t le g a l q u e stio n on th e w a y , th is, m o n k s, is c a lle d a le g a l q u e s tio n t h a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f . . . (as in || i6||) . . . in c r itic is in g th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f e x p ia tio n . || 1 7 || " I f, m o n k s, th e se m o n k s a s t h e y a re g o in g to th a t re sid e n ce a re n o t a b le t o s e ttle t h a t le g a l q u e stio n o n th e w a y , th e n ,
1 d h a m m en a . * O ld e n b e r g 's t e x t r e a d s a tta p a c c a tth ik d . I t s h o u ld p r o b a b l y b e a tth a P e r h a p s t h e r e f e r e n c e is t o " t h e t w o w h o a r e l i t i g a t i n g a b o u t t h e m a t t e r .* * T h e p h r a s e is n o t u s u a l l y r e p e a t e d in t h e s u b s e q u e n t p a r a ll e l p a s s a g e s ; b u t se e p . 1 2 9 b e lo w . 3 P a c . 63. 4 c h a n d a d d y a k a , p r o b a b l y m e a n in g h a s g iv e n h is c o n s e n t f o r t h e f o r m a l a c t t o b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h o u t h im a s , t h r o u g h illn e s s , h e c a n n o t b e p r e s e n t f o r it . P U c. 7 9 .

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m o n ks, th ese m o n ks, h a v in g a rriv e d a t th a t resid en ce, sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to th e resid en t m o n k s : T h is le g a l q u e stio n , y o u r reveren ces, h a s a risen th u s, h a s sp ru n g u p th u s. I t w ere g o o d if th e v e n e ra b le ones co u ld s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n b y rule, b y d iscip lin e, b y th e T e a c h e r s in stru c tio n , so t h a t th is le g a l q u e stio n m a y b e p r o p e rly s e ttle d / I f, m o n k s, th e re sid e n t m o n k s are th e sen io r a n d th e in -co m in g m o n k s th e m ore n e w ly o rd ain ed , th e n , m o n ks, th e in -co m in g m o n k s sh o u ld be sp o k en to th u s b y th e re sid e n t m o n k s : P le a s e do y o u , v e n e ra b le ones, rem a in a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e fo r a m o m e n t u n til w e h a v e co n sid e re d / B u t if, m o n k s, th e re sid e n t m o n k s a re th e m ore n e w ly o rd a in e d a n d th e in -co m in g m o n k s are th e senior, th e n , m o n k s, th e in -co m in g m o n k s sh o u ld b e sp o k e n to th u s b y th ese resid en t m o n k s : W e ll th e n , d o y o u , v e n e ra b le ones, re m a in ju s t h ere fo r a m o m en t u n til w e h a v e co n sid e re d / If, m o n k s, it o ccu rs t o th ese re sid e n t m o n k s w h ile t h e y are th u s co n sid erin g : W e a re n o t a b le to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c co rd in g to ru le, a c co rd in g to d iscip lin e, a c co rd in g to th e T e a c h e r s in s tr u c tio n , t h a t le g a l q u e stio n sh o u ld n o t b e ta k e n u p . B u t if, m o n k s, it o c cu rs to th e re sid e n t m o n k s w h ile t h e y a re th u s co n sid erin g : ' W e are a b le to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c co rd in g to ru le , a c c o rd in g to d iscip lin e, a c co rd in g t o th e T e a c h e r s in s tr u c tio n , m o n k s, th e in c o m in g m o n k s sh o u ld be sp o k en to th u s b y th ese re sid e n t m o n k s : ' I f y o u , v e n e ra b le ones, [94] w ill te ll u s h o w th is le g a l q u e stio n h as arisen , h o w it h as sp ru n g u p , th e n in so fa r a s w e s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c co rd in g to ru le, a c co rd in g to d iscip lin e, a c co rd in g to th e T e a c h e r 's in s tru c tio n , so w ill it b e s e ttle d .1 In th is w a y w e w ill ta k e u p th is le g a l q u e stio n . B u t if y o u , v e n e ra b le ones, w ill n o t te ll u s h o w th is le g a l q u e stio n h a s a risen , h o w it h a s sp ru n g u p , th e n in so fa r as w e s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c c o rd in g to . . . th e T e a c h e r s in stru c tio n , so w ill it be se ttle d . B u t w e w ill n o t ta k e u p th is le g a l q u e s tio n / H a v in g th u s a rra n g e d it p ro p e rly , m o n k s, th a t le g a l q u e stio n sh o u ld be ta k e n u p b y th e re sid e n t m o n k s. M on ks, th e re sid e n t m o n k s sh o u ld b e sp o k e n to th u s b y th e in c o m in g m o n k s : W e w ill te ll th e v e n e ra b le o n es h o w th is le g a l q u e stio n h a s arisen , h o w it h a s sp ru n g u p . I f th e v e n e ra b le ones are a b le w ith o r
1 M e a n in g t h a t t h e in c o m in g m o n k s m u s t a b i d e b y t h e d e c is io n .

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w ith o u t th is m u c h 1 to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c c o rd in g to ru le , a c c o rd in g to d isc ip lin e , a c c o r d in g to th e T e a c h e r s in s tr u c tio n , th e n w ill it b e p r o p e r ly s e ttle d , a n d w e w ill th e re fo re g iv e th is le g a l q u e stio n in to th e c h a rg e o f th e v e n e ra b le ones* B u t if th e v e n e ra b le o n e s a re n o t a b le w ith o r w ith o u t th is m u c h to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c c o rd in g to . * . th e T e a c h e r s in stru c tio n , th e n w ill it b e n o t p r o p e r ly s e ttle d a n d w e w ill n o t g iv e th is le g a l q u e stio n in to th e c h a rg e o f th e v e n e ra b le ones w e o u rse lv e s w ill b e co m e th e m a s te rs 2 in re g a rd t o th is le g a l q u e s tio n .1 H a v in g th u s a rra n g e d it p ro p e rly , m o n k s, th e in c o m in g m o n k s sh o u ld g iv e th a t le g a l q u e stio n in to th e c h a rg e o f th e re sid e n t m o n k s. M o n k s, if .th ese m o n k s a re a b le to s e ttle t h a t le g a l q u e stio n , th is, m o n k s , is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? . * . (as in || 16 || . . . in c r itic is in g , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n . || 18 || If, m o n k s, w h ile th o se m o n k s arfc in v e s tig a tin g t h a t le g a l q u e stio n b o th e n d le ss d is p u ta tio n s a ris e ,3 a n d o f n o t o n e sp ee ch is th e m e a n in g c le a r, I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to s e ttle a le g a l q u e stio n lik e th is b y m e a n s o f a re fe re n d u m .4 A m o n k p o ssessed o f te n q u a litie s sh o u ld b e a g re e d u p o n fo r th e re fe re n d u m : one w h o 'is m o ra l in h a b it ,6 w h o liv e s re s tra in e d b y th e re stra in t o f th e P a tim o k k h a , w h o , possessed o f g o o d c o n d u c t, sees d a n g e r in th e s lig h te s t fa u lts , w h o ta k e s u p a n d tr a in s h im s e lf in th e ru les o f tra in in g , w h o h a s -heard m u c h , a n e x p e r t in th e h e a rd , a sto re h o u se o f th e h e a rd ; th o se th in g s w h ic h , lo v e ly a t th e b e g in n in g , lo v e ly in th e m id d le a n d lo v e ly a t th e en d in g , d e c la re w ith th e sp irit, w ith th e le tte r th e B r a h m a - fa r in g u t t e r ly fu lfille d , w h o lly p u rifie d th in g s lik e th is are m u c h h e a rd b y h im , le a r n t b y h e a rt, r e p e a te d o u t lo u d , p o n d e red u p o n , co n sid ere d c a r e fu lly , w e ll p e n e tr a te d b y v isio n ; b o th th e P a tim o k k h a s a re p r o p e r ly h a n d e d d o w n to h im in d e ta il, p ro p e r ly se c tio n e d , p r o p e r ly r e g u la te d , p r o p e r ly in v e s tig a te d c la u s e b y c la u se [95] a s to th e lin g u is tic fo rm ; h e co m es to b e
1 etta k e n a v d a n ta ren a . * sdm ino> r e n d e r e d a s ** w e s h a ll r e t a i n t h e c u s t o d y a t V i n . T e x t s iii. 49. * a n a g g d n i c eva b k a s s d n i , V A . 1 1 9 7 r e a d s a n a n td n i f o r a n a g g d n i, a n d g lo s s e s b y a p a r im a n d n i, li m it le s s . S e e V i n . ii. 305. * u b b d h ik d y a t a c o m m i t t e e . S e e C V . X I I . 2. 7 . T h e f o llo w in g p a s s a g e = A . v . 71. 6 A s a t V i n . i v . 5 1 t o ** l in g u i s t i c f o r m ** b e lo w ; a n d a s a t A . ii. 2 2 23 t o ** v i s io n b e lo w . F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s s e e B . D . ii. 2 6 5 2 6 6 . S e e a ls o C V . I X . 5. 1 .

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c le v e r in d isc ip lin e , im p e r tu r b a b le ; he co m e s to be c o m p e te n t in c o n v in c in g b o th o f th o se w h o are h o s tile a b o u t th e m a tte r, in w in n in g th e m o v e r, in m a k in g th e m co n sid er, in u n d e rsta n d in g , in re co n c ilin g th e m ; h e co m es to b e sk ille d in s e ttlin g a le g a l q u e stio n t h a t h a s a risen ; h e k n q w s w h a t is a le g a l q u e stio n ; h e k n o w s th e u p risin g o f a le g a l q u e stio n ; he k n o w s th e sto p p in g o a le g a l q u e stio n ; h e k n o w s th e co u rse le a d in g to th e s to p p in g o f a le g a l q u e stio n . I a llo w , m o n k s, a m o n k p o ssessed o f th e se te n q u a litie s to b e a g re e d u p o n fo r a re fere n d u m . |[ 19 || " A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld h e b e a g re e d u p o n : F ir s t, a m o n k sh o u ld be a s k e d ; h a v in g a sk e d h im , th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e rie n c e d c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g ; ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. W h ile w e w ere in v e s tig a tin g th is le g a l q u e stio n b o th en d less d is p u ta tio n s arose a n d o f n o t o n e sp ee ch w a s th e m e a n in g c le a r. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y a g ree u p o n th e m o n k S o -an d -so a n d S o -an d -so to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n b y m ea n s o f a re fere n d u m . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. W h ile w e w e re in v e s tig a tin g th is le g a l q u e stio n . . , w a s th e m e a n in g c le a r. T h e O rd e r is a g re e in g u p o n th e m o n k S o -an d -so a n d S o -a n d -so to s e ttle th is le g a l q u estio n b y m e a n s o f a re fere n d u m . I f th e a g re e m e n t u p o n th e m o n k So -an d -so a n d S o -an d -so to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n b y m ea n s of a re fere n d u m is p le a sin g t o th e v e n e ra b le o n es, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; h e to w h o m it is n o t p le a s in g sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e m o n k S o -a n d -so a n d So-an d -so is a g re e d u p o n b y th e O rd er to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n b y m ea n s o f a re fe re n d u m . I t is p le a sin g . . . . T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is / || 20 |j " I f, m o n k s, th ese m o n k s are a b le to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n b y m e a n s o f a re fe re n d u m , th is, m o n k s, is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e presen ce o f. A n d w h a t is h ere n e e d e d fo r a v e r d ic t in th e presen ce o f ? T h e p resen ce o f ru le , th e p re se n ce o f d isc ip lin e , th e presen ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls . . . (as i n | | i 6 ||). . . . I f, m o n ks, th e le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , a n d if o n e w h o ca rrie s it o u t op en s it u p a g a in , in o p e n in g u p th e re is an o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n .1 || 21 ||
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I f, m o n k s, w h ile th e s e m o n k s a re in v e s tig a tin g th a t le g a l q u e stio n th e re sh o u ld b e th e re a m o n k w h o is a s p e a k e r o f dham m a b u t to w h o m n e ith e r th e ru le 1 co m es to h a v e b een h a n d e d d o w n n o r th e a n a ly s is o f th e r u le ,2 if h e , n o t co n sid erin g th e m e a n in g , h o ld s b a c k th e m e a n in g u n d e r th e sh a d o w o f th e le tte r , th e s e m o n k s sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : L e t th e v e n e ra b le o n es lis te n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so is a s p e a k e r o f dham m a , b u t h e is one to w h o m n e ith e r th e ru le n o r th e a n a ly s is o f th e ru le h a s b een h a n d e d d o w n ; n o t c o n sid e rin g th e m e a n in g , h e h o ld s b a c k th e m e a n in g u n d e r th e s h a d o w o f th e le tte r . I f it se e m s r ig h t to th e v e n e ra b le o n es, [96] le t th e re m a in d e r, h a v in g h a d th is m o n k r e m o v e d ,3 s e ttle t h a t le g a l q u e s tio n / I f, m o n k s, th e se m o n k s, h a v in g h a d t h a t m o n k re m o v e d , a re a b le to s e ttle t h a t le g a l q u e stio n , th is, m o n k s , is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce of. A n d w h a t is h ere n eed ed fo r a v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f ? T h e p re se n c e o f ru le, th e p resen ce o f d is c ip lin e , th e p re se n ce o f in d iv id u a ls . . . (as in || 16 ||). . . . M o n k s, if a le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , a n d if o n e w h o c a rrie s it o u t o p en s it u p a g a in , in o p e n in g u p th e re is an o ffe n ce o f e x p ia tio n . | J 22 | | I f, m o n k s, w h ils t th o s e m o n k s a re in v e s tig a tin g th e le g a l q u e stio n th e r e sh o u ld b e th e re a m o n k w h o is a sp e a k e r o f dham m a a n d o n e to w h o m th e ru le h a s b e en h a n d e d d o w n b u t n o t th e a n a ly s is o f th e ru le, if h e, n o t c o n sid e rin g th e m e a n in g , h o ld s b a c k th e m e a n in g u n d e r th e sh a d o w o f th e le tte r , th e s e m o n k s sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : L e t th e v e n e ra b le o n es liste n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so is a sp e a k e r o f dham m a a n d h e is one t o w h o m th e ru le h a s b e e n h a n d e d d o w n b u t n o t th e a n a ly s is o f th e ru le ; n o t c o n s id e rin g th e m e a n i n g .................... in o p e n in g u p th e re is a n o ffe r e e o f e x p ia tio n . | | 23 || I f, m o n k s , th e s e m o n k s a re n o t a b le t o s e ttle th a t le g a l
1 s u tta , in t h e s in g u la r . I t c a n n o t w e l l m e a n , h e r e t h e " t r a d i t i o n **, a g a m a , o r t h e s a y in g s in w h ic h d h a m m a w a s s e t f o r t h . F 0 1 t h is m o n k e v i d e n t l y k n e w d h a m m a , w h ic h , a b o v e , m u s t b e d if f e r e n t f r o m s u tta . T h e r e is a ls o a d if f e r e n c e b e t w e e n k n o w i n g a r u le o r c l a u s e , su tta (in t h e s e n s e in w h ic h it is s o m e t im e s u s e d in V i n .) a n d i t s a n a l y s i s , w h ic h im p lie s a w id e r k n o w le d g e a s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s u r r o u n d in g a r u le o f t r a i n i n g . O n s u tta . a s u s e d in V i n . s e e B . D . i. I n t r . p . x . V A . 1 1 9 7 s a y s su tta is m a tik d , h e a d in g o r s u m m a r y . * su tta v ib h a n g a ; V A . 1 1 9 7 s a y s " n o t v e r s e d in d is c ip lin e " (v in a y a ). v n tth a p e tv d .

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q u e stio n b y a re fere n d u m , m o n k s, t h a t le g a l q u e stio n sh o u ld b e g iv e n in to th e c h a rg e o f a n O rd e r b y th ese m o n k s, s a y in g : 4W e , h o n o u re d sirs, are n o t a b le to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n b y a re fere n d u m . L e t th e O rd e r its e lf s e ttle th is le g a l q u e s tio n .' I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to s e ttle a le g a l q u e stio n lik e th is b y th e d ecisio n o f th e m a jo r it y .1 A m o n k p o ssessed o f fiv e q u a litie s sh o u ld b e a g re e d u p o n as d is tr ib u to r o f (vo tin g ) tic k e ts . . . (as in I V . 9). . . . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is .' T h e m o n k w h o is th e d is tr ib u to r o f (v o tin g ) tic k e ts sh o u ld m a k e th e (vo tin g ) t ic k e ts p a ss ro u n d . A c c o r d in g to th e w a y in w h ich th e g r e a te r n u m b e r o f m o n k s w h o p ro fess dham m a sp e a k , so sh o u ld th is le g a l q u e stio n b e s e ttle d . T h is , m o n k s, is ca lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is se ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e t t le d ? By a v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f a n d b y th e d ecisio n o f th e m a jo r ity . A n d w h a t is h ere (n eeded for) a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f ? T h e presen ce o f a n O rd er, th e p resen ce o f ru le, th e p resen ce o f d iscip lin e, th e p re se n ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls . A n d w h a t is h ere th e p re se n ce o f a n O rd e r ? . . . (as in 1 4 . 16 ). . . * T h is is here th e p resen ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls . " A n d w h a t is h e re th e d e cisio n o f th e m a jo r ity ? W h a te v e r is th e c a r ry in g o u t o f, th e p e rfo rm a n c e o f, th e u n d e r ta k in g of, th e a ss e n tin g to , th e a c c e p ta n c e o f, th e n o n -p ro te stin g a g a in st a (form al) a c t (settled ) b y th e d ecisio n o f th e m a jo r ity , th is is here th e d ecisio n o f th e m a jo r ity . I f, m o n k s, a le g a l q u e stio n is se ttle d th u s, a n d if o n e w h o ca rrie s it o u t o p en s it u p a g ain , in o p e n in g u p th e re is a n o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n ; if o n e w h o h a s g iv e n h is c o n se n t c ritic ise s it, in c r itic is in g th e re is an offen ce o f e x p ia tio n / ' 2 j| 24 || [97] N o w a t t h a t tim e a t S a v a tth I a le g a l q u e stio n h a d arisen th u s , h a d sp ru n g u p th u s . T h e n th e s e m o n k s w ere d isp le a se d w ith th e se ttle m e n t o f th e le g a l q u e stio n b y th e O rd e r a t S a v a tth I . T h e y h e a rd it sa id : " In a c e rta in resid en ce se v e ra l e ld ers a re s ta y in g w h o h a v e h e a rd m u c h , to w h o m th e tra d itio n h a s b een h a n d e d d o w n , e x p e rts in dham m a , e x p e r ts in d iscip lin e, e x p e r ts in th e h e a d in g s, le a rn e d , e x p e rie n c e d , c le v e r , c o n scien tio u s, sc ru p u lo u s, d e siro u s o f tr a in in g ; if th e se eld ers w o u ld s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c c o rd in g to ru le , a c c o rd in g to d is c ip line, a c co rd in g to th e T e a c h e r 's in stru c tio n , th u s w o u ld th is
1 y c b h u y y a s ik a y a . S e e C V . I V . 9.

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le g a l q u e stio n b e p r o p e r ly s e t t le d / ' T h e n th e s e m o n k s, h a v in g go n e to t h a t re sid e n ce , s p o k e th u s t o th o s e eld ers : T h is le g a l q u e stio n , h o n o u re d sirs, aro se th u s , sp ra n g u p th u s. I t w e re g o o d , h o n o u re d sirs, i f th e e ld e rs w ere to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c c o r d in g to ru le, a c c o rd in g t o d isc ip lin e , a c co rd in g to th e T e a c h e r s in stru c tio n , so th a t th is le g a l q u e stio n m ig h t b e p r o p e r ly s e t t le d / ' T h e n th e s e eld ers th o u g h t : B e c a u s e th is le g a l q u e stio n w a s s e ttle d b y th e O rd e r a t S a v a tth I , it w a s th e re fo re p r o p e r ly s e t t le d / ' a n d t h e y s e ttle d th a t le g a l q u e stio n in th e sa m e w a y . T h e n th e se m o n k s w e re d isp le a se d w ith th e se ttle m e n t o f th e le g a l q u e stio n b y th e O rd e r a t S a v a tth I , th e y w e re d isp le a se d w ith th e s e ttle m e n t o f th e le g a l q u estio n b y th e s e v e ra l eld ers. T h e y h e a rd it s a id : In a c e r ta in re sid e n ce th re e e ld ers a re s t a y in g . * . tw o e ld e rs a re s t a y in g . . . o n e e ld e r is s t a y in g w h o h a s h e a rd m u ch , to w h o m th e tr a d itio n h a s been h a n d e d d o w n . . . d esiro u s o f tr a in in g ; i f th is e ld e r w o u ld s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c c o rd in g to . , . th e T e a c h e r 's in stru c tio n , th u s w o u ld th is le g a l q u e stio n b e p r o p e r ly s e ttle d / ' T h e n th e se m o n k s , h a v in g g o n e t o th a t re sid e n ce , sp o k e th u s to th a t e ld e r : T h is le g a l q u e stio n , h o n o u re d sir, aro se th u s, sp ra n g u p th u s . I t w e re g o o d , h o n o u re d sir, i f th e e ld e r w ere to s e ttle th is le g a l q u e stio n a c c o r d in g to . * . th e T e a c h e r 's in s tru c tio n , so th a t th is le g a l q u e stio n m ig h t b e p ro p e r ly s e t t le d / ' T h e n t h a t e ld e r th o u g h t : B e c a u s e th is le g a l q u e stio n w a s s e ttle d b y th e O rd e r a t S a v a tth I , b e ca u se th is le g a l q u e stio n w a s s e ttle d b y s e v e r a l e ld ers, b e c a u se th is le g a l q u e stio n w a s s e ttle d b y th re e eld ers, b e c a u s e th is le g a l q u e stio n w a s s e ttle d b y tw o eld ers it w a s th e re fo re p r o p e r ly s e t t le d / ' a n d h e s e ttle d t h a t le g a l q u e stio n in th e sa m e w a y . T h e n th e se m o n k s, d is p le a se d w ith th e s e ttle m e n t o f th e le g a l q u e stio n b y th e O rd e r a t S a v a tth I , d is p le a se d w ith th e s e ttle m e n t o f th e le g a l q u e stio n b y th e s e v e r a l eld ers . . . b y th e th re e eld ers . . . b y th e tw o e ld ers, d is p le a se d w ith th e se ttle m e n t o f th e le g a l q u e stio n b y th e o n e e ld e r, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , t h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, th is le g a l q u e stio n is d o n e w ith , it is e x h a u s te d ,1 it is s e ttle d , it is p r o p e r ly s e ttle d . j| 25 ||
1 s a v ta is b o t h t r a n q u i llis e d . w orn o u t, e x h a u ste d and (m o re c o m m o n ly ) app eased ,

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< r I a llo w , m o n ks, in o rd er to c o n v in c e th e se m o n k s, th r e e m e th o d s o f ta k in g v o te s i 1 th e se cre t, th e w h is p e rin g in th e ear, th e o p en . A n d w h a t, m o n k s, is th e secret m e th o d o f t a k in g v o te s ? T h e m o n k w h o is th e d is tr ib u to r o f v o tin g tic k e ts , [98] h a v in g m a d e th e tic k e ts d iffe re n t 2 (from one a n o th e r), h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d e a c h m o n k , sh o u ld s p e a k to h im th u s : ' T h is tic k e t is fo r o n e o f su c h a v ie w , th is tic k e t is for one o f su ch a v ie w . T a k e w h ic h e v e r y o u lik e .' W h e n h e h a s ta k e n it, h e sh o u ld be to ld : A n d do n o t sh o w it to a n y b o d y .' I f h e fin d s t h a t th e m a jo r ity p ro fe ss w h a t is n o t -dham m a a n d th in k s (the v o tin g is) w r o n g ly ta k e n (the result) sh o u ld be r e je c te d .3 I f he fin d s th a t th e m a jo r it y p ro fess dham m a an d th in k s (th e v o tin g is) r ig h t ly ta k e n (the result) sh o u ld be a n n o u n ce d . T h is , m o n k s, is th e se c re t (m e th o d of) ta k in g v o te s. " A n d w h a t, m o n k s, is th e m e th o d o f ta k in g v o te s b y w h isp e rin g in th e e a r ? T h e m o n k w h o is th e d is tr ib u to r o f v o tin g t ic k e ts sh o u ld s p e a k in to th e e a r o f e a ch m o n k , s a y in g : ' T h is tic k e t is fo r one o f su c h a v ie w , th is tic k e t is fo r one o f su c h a v ie w . T a k e w h ic h e v e r y o u lik e .' W h e n h e h as ta k e n it, h e sh o u ld be to ld : 'A n d d o n o t te ll a n y o n e a b o u t i t .' I f h e fin d s th a t th e m a jo r it y p ro fess w h a t is n o t -dham m a a n d th in k s (the v o tin g is) w r o n g ly ta k e n (the result) sh o u ld be rejected - I f h e finds th a t th e m a jo r it y p ro fess dham m a a n d th in k s (th e v o tin g is) r ig h t ly ta k e n (the resu lt) sh o u ld be a n n o u n ce d . T h is , m o n k s, is th e m e th o d o f ta k in g v o te s b y w h isp e rin g in th e ear. A n d w h a t, m o n k s, is th e o p e n m e th o d o f ta k in g v o te s ? I f he fin d s th a t th o se w h o p ro fess dham m a a re in th e m a jo r it y , b e ca u se o f h is v e r y co n fid en ce h e sh o u ld m a k e th e m t a k e o p e n ly . T h is , m o n k s, is th e op en m e th o d o f t a k in g v o te s . T h e se , m o n k s, are th e th re e m e th o d s of t a k in g v o te s . || 26 || " B y h o w m a n y (k in d s of) d e cisio n s is a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re a g re e d u p o n ? A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g
1 s a la k a g a h a , m o r e l i t e r a l l y " d i s t r i b u t i n g (o r, m a k in g p a s s ) t h e ( v o t in g ) t ic k e t s .* a vanndvanna. V A . 1 1 9 8 s a y s t h a t t h e t i c k e t s f o r t h o s e w h o p r o fe s s d h a m m a a n d fo r t h o s e w h o p r o f e s s n o n -d h a m m a s h o u ld b e m a r k e d b y d if f e r e n t s ig n s , n im itta ( n o t d if f e r e n t c o lo u r s , a s a t V i n . T e x t s iii. 5 6 ). a p a ccju kk a 4 $ h ita b b a m . V A . 1 1 9 8 s a y s ( t h e d is t r ib u t o r ) " h a v i n g s a id t h e t i c k e t s w e r e w r o n g l y t a k e n , h a v i n g d i s t r ib u t e d t h e m a g a in , m a y d i s t r i b u t e t h e m u p t o a t h ir d tim e .* '

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fro m cen su re is a g re e d u p o n b y fo u r (k in d s of) d e cisio n s : b y a v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f, b y a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce , b y a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity , b y a d e cisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v ity . I f one s a y s : C a n it b e t h a t , in re sp e c t o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re , w ith o u t h a v in g re co u rse to tw o (kin d s of) d e cisio n s th e v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity a n d th e d ecision fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y one m a y a g re e u p o n it b y tw o (k in d s of) d e cisio n s th e v e r d ic t in th e p re se n c e o f a n d th e v e r d ic t o f in n o c e n c e ? ' h e sh o u ld b e to ld : 4 I t c a n b e / I t is lik e th is : T h is is a c a se w h e re m o n k s d e fa m e a m o n k w ith an u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it. M on ks, a v e r d ic t o f in n o c e n c e sh o u ld b e g iv e n to t h a t m o n k w h o h a s re m e m b e re d f u lly .1 A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it be g iv e n : T h a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p r o a c h e d th e O rd er, h a v in g a rra n g e d his u p p e r ro b e o v e r o n e sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u re d th e fe e t o f th e sen io r m o n k s, h a v in g s a t d o w n on h is h a u n c h e s, h a v in g s a lu te d w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : ' H o n o u re d sirs, m o n k s d e fa m e d m e w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it. B u t I , h o n o u re d sirs, h a v in g re m e m b e red fu lly , a s k th e O rd e r fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o c e n c e / A n d a se c o n d tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r. A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r. T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n c e d c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. M o n k s d e fa m e d th e m o n k S o -a n d -so w ith an u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it ; he, h a v in g re m e m b e re d fu lly , is a s k in g th e O rd e r fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce. [99] I f it se e m s r ig h t to th e O rd e r . . . (as in I V . 4 . i o ) . . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is / T h is , m o n k s, is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it se ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f a n d b y a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce. A n d w h a t is h ere n e e d e d fo r a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f ? T h e p re se n ce o f th e O rd er, th e p re se n ce o f ru le , th e p re se n ce o f d is c ip lin e a n d th e p resen ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls . . . (#s at I V . 14. 16 ). . . . A n d w h a t is h e re th e p resen ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls ? W h o e v e r q u a rre ls a n d w h o e v e r h e q u a rre ls w ith , if b o th c o m e fa c e to fa c e ,2 th is is h ere th e p re se n ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls .
1 C f . a b o v e , I V . 4. i o , 2 A s a t C V . I V . 14. 16 , b u t o m i t t i n g " h o s t il e a b o u t t h e m a t t e r .

135 A n d w h a t is h ere n eed ed fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce ? W h a te v e r is th e c a r r y in g o u t o f, th e p e rfo rm a n ce o f, th e u n d e r ta k in g of, th e a ss e n tin g to , th e a c c e p ta n c e of, th e n o n p r o te s tin g a g a in s t a fo rm a l a c t fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce , th a t is w h a t is n eed ed here fo r a v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce . I f, m o n k s, a le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , a n d o n e w h o c a rrie s it o u t o p en s it u p a g a in , in o p e n in g u p th e re is a n o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n . I f one w h o h a s g iv e n h is co n se n t c ritic is e s it, in c ritic is in g th ere is an o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n . || 27 || " I f o n e s a y s : * C a n it be th a t, in re sp e c t o f a le g a l q u estio n a risin g fro m ce n su re , w ith o u t h a v in g reco u rse to tw o (kin d s of) d ecisio n s th e v e r d ic t o f in n o cen ce a n d th e d ecisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y one m a y a g ree u p o n it b y tw o (k in d s of) d ecisio n s th e v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f a n d th e v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity ? ' h e sh o u ld b e to ld : I t c a n b e . I t is lik e th is : T h is is a ca se w h e re a m o n k b e c o m e s m a d , o u t o f h is m in d ,2 a n d w h ile h e w a s m ad , o u t o f h is m in d , he p e rp e tra te d m u ch a n d sp o k e in a w a y t h a t w a s n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se. M o n ks re p ro v e h im b e ca u se o f o ffen ces d o n e b y him w h ile h e w a s m a d , o u t o f h is m in d , s a y in g : D o es th e v e n e ra b le one re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce lik e th is ? H e sp e a k s th u s : * I , y o u r re v e re n c e s, w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d ; w h ile I w a s m a d , o u t o f m y m in d , m u c h w a s p e rp e tra te d a n d sp o k e n b y m e t h a t w a s n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se. I d o n o t re m em b er th a t. T h a t w a s d o n e b y m e w h ile I w a s in s a n e / A lth o u g h b e in g sp o k e n to th u s , t h e y s till re p ro v e h im , s a y in g : ' D o es th e v e n e ra b le one re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to an o ffen ce lik e th a t ? * M on ks, a v e r d ic t o f p a st in s a n ity sh o u ld be g iv e n to th a t m o n k w h o is n o lo n g e r in san e. A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e g iv e n : M onks, th a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er, h a v in g a rra n g e d his u p p e r robe o v e r one sh o u ld e r . . . sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to it : I, h o n o u red sirs, w a s m a d . . . (as in I V . 5. 2 , In stea d o f G a g g a read th e m o n k S o -an d -so ). . . . T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is / T h is, m o n k s, is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n t h a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f a n d b y a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity . A n d w h a t h ere (is needed) fo r a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f ? T h e p re se n ce o f th e O rd e r . . . (as in
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* A s a t I V . 5- 1 - 2 , f o r t h e m o n k G a g g a .

B O O K OF D I S C I P L I N E I36 I V . 1 4 . 16). . , . A n d w h a t is h ere (need ed for) a v e r d ic t o f p a s t in s a n ity ? [100] W h a t e v e r is th e c a r r y in g o u t of, th e p e rfo rm a n c e o f . . . th e n o n -p ro te s tin g a g a in s t a v e r d ic t o f p a st in s a n ity , t h a t h ere is w h a t (is n e e d e d for) a v e r d ic t o f p a st in s a n ity . I f, m o n k s, a le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s a n d o n e w h o c a rrie s it o u t o p e n s i t u p a g a in , in o p e n in g u p th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f e x p ia tio n . I f o n e w h o h a s g iv e n h is co n se n t c ritic is e s it, in c r itic is in g th e re is an o ffe n ce o f e x p ia tio n .

II 28 ||
I f o n e s a y s : 1 C a n it b e t h a t , in re s p e c t o f ,a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m ce n su re , w ith o u t h a v in g re co u rse to tw o (k in d s of) d e cisio n s th e v e r d ic t o f in n o c e n c e a n d th e v e r d ic t o f p a st in s a n ity one m a y a g re e u p o n it b y tw o (k in d s of) d e cisio n s th e v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f a n d th e d ecisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y ? * h e sh o u ld b e to ld : ' I t c a n b e / I t is lik e th is : T h is is a c a s e w h e re a m o n k re p ro v e s a m o n k in th e m id st o f th e O rd e r fo r a se rio u s o ffen ce, s a y in g : * D o e s th e v e n e ra b le one re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to a se rio u s o ffe n ce lik e th is o n e in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e rin g on one in v o lv in g d e fe a t ? H e s p e a k s th u s : ' I d o n o t re m e m b e r, y o u r re v e re n c e , h a v in g fa lle n in to a se rio u s o ffen ce lik e th is one in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e rin g on o n e in v o lv in g d e fe a t/ A lth o u g h d e n y in g th is, h e presses h im , s a y i n g : P le a s e , v e n e ra b le on e, fin d o u t p r o p e r ly w h e th e r y o u re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to a serio u s o ffen ce lik e th is o n e in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e rin g on one in v o lv in g d e fe a t/ H e s p e a k s th u s ; I , y o u r re v e re n c e , do n o t re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to a se rio u s o ffen ce lik e th is one in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e rin g o n o n e in v o lv in g d e fe a t. B u t I , y o u r re v e re n c e , re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in tb a triflin g o ffen ce lik e th is / A lth o u g h d e n y in g th is, he p resses h im , s a y in g : P le a se , v e n e ra b le one, fin d o u t p r o p e r ly w h e th e r y o u re m e m b e r . . . b o rd e rin g on o n e in v o lv in g d e fe a t/ H e sp e a k s th u s : * Y o u r re v e re n c e , u n a s k e d I a c k n o w le d g e h a v in g fa lle n in to a tr iflin g o ffe n ce lik e th is ; h o w c o u ld I , w h e n a sk e d , n o t a c k n o w le d g e h a v in g fa lle n in to a se rio u s o ffe n ce lik e th is one in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e rin g o n o n e in v o lv in g d e fe a t ? H e s p e a k s th u s : * B u t , y o u r re v e re n c e , u n a s k e d y o u d id n o t a c k n o w le d g e h a v in g fa lle n in to a tr iflin g offen ce, so h o w w ill y o u , u n a s k e d , a c k n o w le d g e h a v in g fa lle n in to a serious^offence lik e th is one in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e rin g o n one in v o lv in g

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d e fe a t ? P le a se , v e n e ra b le one, fin d o u t p r o p e r ly w h e th e r y o u re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to a serio u s o ffen ce lik e th is one in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e rin g on one in v o lv in g d e fe a t.1 ^Je s p e a k s th u s : Y o u r re v e re n c e , 1 d o re m em b er h a v in g fa lle n in to a serio u s o ffen ce lik e th is one in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e r in g on one in v o lv in g d e fe a t. W h e n I sa id : I do n o t re m e m b e r h a v in g fa lle n in to a seriou s offence lik e th is one in v o lv in g d e fe a t o r b o rd e rin g on one in v o lv in g d e fe a t th is w a s sa id b y m e in je s t,1 th is w a s sa id b y m e in h a s te .1 " M o n k s, a (form al) a c t fo r th e d ecisio n o f sp ecific d e p r a v it y sh o u ld b e c a rrie d o u t a g a in s t th is m o n k . A n d th u s , m o n ks, sh o u ld it b e c a rrie d o u t. T h e O rd e r sh o u ld be in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g . . . (as in I V . 11. 2. In stea d o f th e m o n k U v a la read th e m o n k S o -an d -so ; instead o f o ffe n ces read se rio u s offen ces). . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is .' T h is , m o n k s, is c a lle d a [ 101] le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e presen ce o f a n d b y a d e cisio n fo r sp ecific g r a v it y . A n d w h a t is h ere (needed for) a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f ? T h e p resen ce o f th e O rd e r . * . (as in I V . 14 . 16 ). . . . A n d w h a t h ere is (needed for) a d e cisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v it y ? W h a te v e r is th e c a r ry in g o u t o f, th e p e rfo rm a n c e o f, th e u n d e r ta k in g o f, th e a ss e n tin g to , th e a c c e p ta n c e o f, th e n o n -p ro te stin g a g a in s t a d ecisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v ity , th a t is h ere w h a t i.c n eed ed fo r a d ecisio n fo r sp ecific d e p r a v ity . I f , m o n k s, a le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s a n d one w h o ca rrie s i t o u t op en s it u p a g a in , in o p e n in g u p th e re is a n o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n . I f o n e w h o h a s g iv e n h is co n se n t c ritic is e s it, in c ritic is in g th e re is a n offence o f e x p ia tio n . || 29 || B y h o w m a n y (k in d s of) d ecisio n s is-a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o ffen ces a g re e d u p o n ? A le g a l q u e stio n a ris in g fro m o ffen ces is a g re e d u p o n b y th re e (k in d s of) d ecisio n s : b y a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f a n d b y th e c a r r y in g o u t o f it on h is a c k n o w le d g m e n t1 a n d b y th e c o v e rin g u p (as) w ith g ra s s .2 I f o n e s a y s : ' C a n it b e th a t, in re sp e ct o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m offen ces, w ith o u t h a v in g reco u rse to one (k in d of) d ecisio n th e c o v e rin g u p (as) w ith g ra ss one m ay. a g ree
1 C f . V i n . i v . 4 f o r d a v a , ra v a . * S e e B .D * iii. 1 5 3 , 1 5 4 .

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u p o n it b y tw o (k in d s of) d ecisio n s th e v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f a n d th e c a r ry in g o u t o f it on h is a c k n o w le d g m e n t ? ' he sh o u ld be to ld : I t c a n b e / I t is lik e th is : T h is is a case w h e re a m o n k co m es to h a v e fa lle n in to a slig h t offen ce. M o n k s, th a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d one m o n k , h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p e r ro b e o v e r o n e sh o u ld er, h a v in g sa t d o w n on h is h a u n ch es, h a v in g s tre tc h e d fo rth his jo in e d p alm s, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to h im : * I, y o u r re v e re n ce , fa lle n in to su ch a n d su c h a n o ffen ce, co n fe ss i t / I t sh o u ld b e sa id b y h im : ' D o y o u see it ? ' Y e s , I see i t / 4 Y o u sh o u ld be re stra in ed in th e fu tu r e / T h is, m o n k s, is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f a n d b y th e c a r r y in g o u t o f it o^i h is a ck n o w le d g m e n t* A n d w h a t h ere is (n eeded for) a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f ? T h e p resen ce o f ru le 1 a n d th e p resen ce o f d isc ip lin e a n d th e p resen ce o f in d iv id u a ls . A n d w h a t here is th e p resen ce o f in d iv id u a ls ? I f b o th w h o e v e r co n fesses a n d he to w h o m he co n fesses are fa ce to fa c e , th is h ere is th e p resen ce o f in d iv id u a ls . A n d w h a t h ere is (needed for) th e c a r r y in g o u t on his a c k n o w le d g m en t ? W h a t e v e r is th e c a r ry in g o u t . . . th e n o n -p ro te stin g a g a in s t h is m a k in g a n a c k n o w le d g m e n t, th a t is h ere w h a t is n eed ed fo r h is m a k in g a n a c k n o w le d g m e n t. If, m o n k s, a le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , a n d th e o n e w h o a c c e p ts (the c o n fe s sion) op en s it u p a g a in , in o p e n in g u p th ere is a n o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n , jj 30 || I f h e m a n a g e s th is th u s, it is g o o d . B u t if he d o es n o t m a n a g e it, m o n k s, th a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d se v e ra l m o n k s, h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p e r ro b e o v e r o n e sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u re d th e fe e t o f th e se n io r m o n k s, h a v in g s a t d o w n o n h is h a u n c h e s, h a v in g s tr e tc h e d fo rth h is jo in e d p alm s, sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to th e m : ' I , h o n o u re d sirs, fa lle n in to su ch a n d su c h an o ffen ce, co n fess i t / T h e se m o n k s [102] sh o u ld be in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : L e t th e v e n e ra b le ones liste n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -an d -so rem em b ers an o ffen ce, he d isclo ses it, he d e cla re s it, he co n fesses it. I f it seem s rig h t to th e v e n e ra b le ones, I w ill a c c e p t (the confession) o f th e m o n k S o -a n d -so s o ffe n c e / H e sh o u ld s a y :
1 P r e s e n c e o f t h e O r d e r n o t r e q u ir e d t o o n e m o n k o n ly . h e r e , a s t h e m o n k h a s c o n fe s s e d

139 D o y o u see it ? * * Y e s , I see i t / * Y o u sh o u ld b e re stra in ed in th e fu tu r e / T h is, m o n k s, is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e presen ce o f . . . (as in |j 30 ||) . . . in o p e n in g u p th ere is a n offence o f e x p ia tio n . H31 || I f h e m a n a g es th is th u s, it is g o o d . B u t if he d o es n o t m a n a g e it, m o n k s, th a t m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d a n O rd e r . . . sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to it : I, h o n o u re d sirs, fa lle n in to su ch a n d su c h an offen ce, co n fess i t / T h e O rd e r sh o u ld be in fo rm ed b y an e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -an d -so re m em b ers a n o ffen ce, he d isclo ses it, he d e cla re s it, he con fesses it. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er I c o u ld a c c e p t (th e confession) o f th e m o n k S o -a n d -so 's o ffe n ce/ H e sh o u ld s a y : D o y o u see i t ? * f Y e s , I see i t / * Y o u sh o u ld be re stra in e d in th e fu tu r e / T h is, m o n k s, is c a lle d a le g a l q u e stio n th a t is s e ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e presen ce o f a n d b y th e c a r ry in g o u t on h is a c k n o w le d g m e n t. A n d w h a t here is (needed for) a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f ? T h e p resen ce o f th e O rd er, th e p resen ce o f ru le, th e presen ce o f d iscip lin e a n d th e presen ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls, . . . I f, m o n k s, a le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s, a n d th e one w h o a c c e p ts (the c o n fe s sion) o p en s it u p a g a in , in o p e n in g u p th e re is an o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n . I f one w h o h a s g iv e n h is co n sen t critic ise s it, in c ritic is in g th e re is an o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n . || 32 || I f one s a y s : C a n it b e th a t , in re sp e c t o f a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m offen ces, w ith o u t h a v in g reco u rse to one d ecisio n th e c a r r y in g o u t on h is a c k n o w le d g m e n t one m a y a g ree u p o n it b y tw o (k in d s of) d ecisio n s th e v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f a n d th e c o v e rin g u p (as) w ith g ra ss ? 1 he sh o u ld be to ld , * I t c a n b e / I t is lik e th is : * T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h e re w h ile m o n k s w ere s tr iv in g . . . (as in I V . 13 . 13 ). - . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / T h is is ca lle d , m o n k s, a le g a l q u estio n th a t is se ttle d . B y w h a t is it s e ttle d ? B y a v e r d ic t in th e p resen ce o f a n d b y a c o v e rin g u p (as) w ith g rass. A n d w h a t here is (needed for) a v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f ? T h e p resen ce o f th e O rd er, th e p resen ce o f ru le, th e p resen ce o f d iscip lin e, th e presen ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls. A n d w h a t here is th e presen ce o f th e O rd e r ? W h e n a s m a n y m o n k s as are c o m p e te n t for (form al) a c ts h a v e a rriv e d , w h en th e co n sen t of those d e se rvin g

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(to sen d their) co n se n t h a s b e en b r o u g h t, w h en b e in g fa c e to fa c e t h e y d o n o t p ro te s t. T h is is h ere th e p re se n ce o f th e O rd er. A n d w h a t is h ere th e p re se n ce o f ru le , th e p re se n ce of d isc ip lin e ? I f th a t le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d b y w h a te v e r is ru le , b y w h a te v e r is d isc ip lin e , b y w h a te v e r is th e T e a c h e r 's in s tru c tio n ,th a t is h ere th e p re se n ce o f ru le , [ 103] th e p resen ce o f d iscip lin e. A n d w h a t is h ere th e p resen ce o f in d iv id u a ls ? I f b o th w h o e v e r co n fesses a n d he to w h o m h e co n fe sse s are fa c e to fa c e , th is is h ere th e p re se n ce o f th e in d iv id u a ls . A n d w h a t here is (n eed ed for) th e c o v e r in g u p (as) w ith g ra ss ? W h a te v e r is th e c a r r y in g o u t o f, th e p e rfo rm a n c e o f, th e u n d e r ta k in g of, th e a ss e n tin g to , th e a c c e p ta n c e o f, th e n o n -p ro te stin g a g a in s t th e c o v e r in g u p (as) w ith g ra ss, t h a t is h ere w h a t is (n eed ed for) th e c o v e r in g u p (as) w ith grass. I f, m o n k s, a le g a l q u e stio n is s e ttle d th u s , a n d i f th e one w h o a c c e p ts (the con fessio n ) o p e n s it u p , in o p e n in g u p th e re is a n o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n . I f o n e w h o h a s g iv e n h is co n se n t c ritic is e s it, in c r itic is in g th e re is an o ffen ce o f e x p ia tio n . || 33 || B y h o w m a n y (k in d s of) d e cisio n s is a le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s a g re e d u p o n ? A le g a l q u e stio n a risin g fro m o b lig a tio n s is a g re e d u p o n b y o n e (k in d of) d e cisio n : th e v e r d ic t in th e p re se n ce o f ." || 34 || 14 || T o ld is th e F o u r th S e c tio n : t h a t on S e ttle m e n ts .1 [ 104]

1 T h e r e is n o u d d d n a , s u m m a r y o r k e y t o t h i s S e c t io n .

141

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A t one tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd w a s s ta y in g a t R a ja g a h a in th e B a m b o o G ro v e a t th e sq u irre ls' fe e d in g p lace. N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, w h ile t h e y w ere b a th in g , ru b b e d th e ir b o d ies a g a in s t a tre e a n d th e ir th ig h s a n d th e ir arm s a n d th e ir ch e sts a n d th e ir b a c k s. P e o p le lo o k ed d o w n u p o n , c ritic ise d , sp re a d it a b o u t s a y in g : H o w can th ese reclu ses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s , w h ile t h e y are b a th in g , ru b th e ir b o d ies a g a in s t a tre e . . . a n d th e ir b a c k s , lik e b o x e rs a n d w re stlers a n d y o u n g v illa g e rs ? M o n k s h e a rd th ese p eo p le w h o w ere . . . sp re a d in g it a b o u t. T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h e n th e L o rd o n th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd er o f m o n k s co n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : Is it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, th a t th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s . . . a n d th e ir backs ? I t is tru e , L o r d . T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd re b u k ed th em , s a y in g : M on ks, it is n o t su ita b le in th e se fo o lish m en, it is n ot b e co m in g , it is n o t fittin g , it is n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se, it is n o t a llo w a b le , it is n o t to b e d o n e. H o w , m o n k s, ca n th e se foolish m en, w h ile t h e y a re b a th in g , ru b th e ir b o d ies a g a in st a tree . . . a n d th e ir b a c k s ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d . . a n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , h e a d d ressed th e m on ks, s a y in g : M on ks, w h ile a m o n k is b a th in g he sh o u ld n o t ru b h is b o d y a g a in s t a tre e. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) ru b it, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g ." 2 || i ||
1 g a m a p o d d a v d . W o r d v e r y u n c e r t a in , a n d s e e m s t o s h o w c o n fu s io n b e t w e e n ga m a a n d k a m a J v .l. b e in g k a m a p u d a v d . A c c o r d in g t o V i n . ii. 3 1 5 , B u . e x p la in s : k a m a p u d a v d it ch a v ir a g a m a n g a n d n u y u ttd nd g a rilia m a n u & sa / gdm a rn podavd i i p i p a d h o es*ev 'a tlh o ; t h e m e a n in g o f k a m a p u d a v d is u r b a n p e o p le a d d i c t e d t o o r n a m e n t in g a n d d y e in g t h e s k in : g d m a tn ( v illa g e ) -p od av d is a ls o a r e a d in g . T a k a k u s u a n d > J a g a i s e d n ., V A . v i . 1 1 9 9 , r e a d s : g a m a p u ta v d (v.l. g a m a m u d d a v d ) H ch a v ira g a m a ijtg a n d n u y u ltd n a g a rik a m a n u ss a . g a m a p o ta h d ( y o u n g v i l l a g e m e n ) t i p i p a lh o . 8 N o t e t h a t i t is n o t a c t u a l l y m a d e a n o ffe n c e t o r u b t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p e r s o n m e n t io n e d ; b u t d o u b t le s s t h e s e a r e m e a n t t o b e in c lu d e d .

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N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, w h ile t h e y w ere b a th in g , ru b b e d th e ir b o d ie s a g a in s t a p o st . . . (s in || i ||, F o r tre e read po st) o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, w h ile t h e y w ere b a th in g , ru b b e d th e ir b o d ie s a g a in s t a w a ll1 o ffen ce o f w r o n g - d o in g / j| 2 || N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u sed to b a th e o n a ru b b in g -b o a r d .2 P e o p le sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers [ 105] w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n s e s / ' M o n k s h e a rd th e s e p e o p le w h o . * . sp re a d it a b o u t. . . . H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n ed t a lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t b a th e o n a ru b b in g b o a rd . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) b a th e , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s used to b a th e u sin g a gandhabba-ha.nd (in stru m e n t)3 . . . " . . . M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t b a th e u sin g a gandhabba -h a n d (in stru m e n t). W h o e v e r s h o u ld (so) b a th e , th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g d o in g / ' N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s used to b a th e u sin g a s tr in g o f v e rm ilio n c o v e r e d b e a d s .4 M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t b a th e u sin g a s tr in g o f v e rm ilio n c o v e re d b ead s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) b a th e , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' II 3 I I N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s i x m o n k s , h a v in g p lu n g e d in to 5 (w ater) , c a u sin g a r u b b in g t o b e m a d e .6 . . . " M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t, h a v in g p lu n g e d in to (w a te r), c a u se a ru b b in g
1 T h r e e k i n d s o f w a l l s a r e m e n t io n e d a t V i n . i v . 2 6 6 . V A . 119 9 sa y s t h a t it is o n e o f t h e s e . * a ttd n a . V A . 1 1 9 9 r e a d s a tth a n a , a n d e x p l a i n s t h i s a s a t r e e m a d e lik e a p l a n k o f w o o d , c u t in t o r o w s o f s q u a r e s a n d s u n k i n t o t h e g r o u n d a t a b a t h i n g fo r d . P e o p le r u b t h e i r b o d ie s t h e r e , h a v i n g s p r in k le d o n c h u n a m . * g a n d h a b b a h a tth a k a . V A . 119 9 say s 4 4 b y m eans of a w ooden hand s e t u p a t a b a t h i n g f o r d ; h a v i n g t a k e n c h u n a m w i t h t h e m , p e o p le r u b t h e i r b o d ie s . 4- k u r u v in d a k a s u tia . Q u o t e d a t M A . iii. 2 8 0 . V A . 12 0 0 s a y s , i t is c a lle d a s t r in g o f b e a d s m a d e b y g r i n d in g v e r m i lio n c h u o a m s a n d s t o n e s w ith la c d y e s . H o ld in g t h is a t b o th e n d s, t h e y lu b t h e b o d y / C f . k u r u v in d a k a c u n n a a t J d . i i i . 2 82 ( v e r m ilio n c o lo u r e d c h u n a m ) . 6 v ig a y h a . P . E . D . u n d e r v ig d h a ti s a y s , A t V i n . ii. 10 6 w e s h o u ld p r e f e r t o r e a a v ig g a y h a f o r v i g a y h a V A . 12 0 0 h a s t h e r e a d in g v ig g a y h a . O ne o f m e a n in g s o f v ig ra h in t h e S a n s k r i t D i c t i o n a r i e s is t o l a y h o ld o f . 6 b h ik k h ii v ig a y h a p a r ik a m m a n i k d r a p e n ti, e x p la in e d b y V A . 12 0 0 a s " e a c h o n e r u b b e d u p h i s b o d y a g a i n s t t h e b o d ie s o f t h e o t h e r s n o d o u b t s o m e k i n d o f e n j o y a b l e m a s s a g e o r f r ic t io n .

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to be m a d e. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) c a u se it, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s used to b a th e u sin g a s c ru b b e r .1 . . . " M onks, y o u sh o u ld n o t b a th e u sin g a sc ru b b e r. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) b a th e , th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to b e a fflic te d b y a sc a b d isease, a n d th e re ca m e to b e n o co m fo rt fo r h im w ith o u t a sc ru b b e r. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I allo w , m o n k s, one w h o is ill (to use) a n u n sh a p e d s c ru b b e r / 2 j|4 |j N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , w e a k th ro u g h a g e, w a s n o t a b le w h ile b a th in g to ru b his o w n b o d y . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a s trip o f c lo th / ' 3 N o w a t t h a t tim e th e m o n k s w e re d o u b tfu l h o w to g iv e a ru b b in g to th e ir b a c k s .4 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, th e o r d in a r y m o d e w ith th e h a n d / '* ||5 111 II N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p of s ix m o n k s w o re e a r o rn a m e n ts, t h e y w o re c h a in s ,6 t h e y w o re o rn a m e n ta l s trin g s -o f b e a d s for th e th r o a t ,7 t h e y w o re o rn a m e n ts a t th e w a is t , 8 t h e y w ore b a n g le s ,9 t h e y w o re a rm le ts ,10 th e y w o re b ra c e le ts ,11 th e y w ore
I mallaka . V A . 12 0 0 s a y s h a v i n g c u t s w o r d fis h t e e t h , i t is c a lle d a s h a p e d s c r u b b e r , katamallaka h o w in g t o i t s mallaka f o r m (o r c o n fig u r a t io n , mallaka m ula)." 8 akatamallaka. S e e p r e v i o u s n o t e ; a n d V A . 1 2 0 0 w h ic h s a y s " i t is m a d e n o t h a v in g c u t th e te e th . I t m u s t b e a b r o k e n p ie c e o f w o o d o r o f to r to is e s h e ll.* ' 3 ukkasika , e x p la in e d a t V A . 12 0 0 a s vatthavatti. Vattha is c lo t h , c lo t h in g ; vatti, a s t r ip , b a l l, p a d . O ld e n b e r g 's v e r s io n o f t h e C o r n y , r e a d s vatta (fo r vattha) w h ic h r e n d e r e d t h e w o r d u n i n t e l l i g i b l e " (s e e V in. Texts iii. 68, n . 3 ) a n d h e s e e m s n o t t o h a v e h a d a c c e s s t o t h e f u l l e x e g e s i s : tasma nahdyantassa yassa kassaci nahdnasdtakavattiya pitthim ghamsitum vattati : t h e r e fo r e w h e n a n y o n e is b a t h i n g h e m a y r u b h is b a c k w it h a s t r ip (o r p a d ) o f a c lo t h f o r b a t h in g . 4 pitthiparikamma , a s a t S A . i. 2 9 6 . 6 puthupaniya, e x p la in e d a t V A . 12 0 0 b y hatthaparikamma, h a n d t r e a t m e n t . e pamanga. S e e B .D . i. 7 7 , n . 9 . V A . 1 2 0 0 o n w o r d in a b o v e p a s s a g e s a y s w h a t e v e r is a pamangasutta. 7 kanthasuttaka. A s a t B .D . i. 78. 8 kafisuttaka. S e e B . D . i. 78 , n . 2. 9 ovattika, p e r h a p s r o u n d t h e a n k le s . Ovattika h a s a d if f e r e n t s e n s e a t m v . v i i . 1. 5. 10 kdyura, o r b r a c e le t s f o r a b o v e t h e e lb o w . C f. keyura a t D h A . ii. 2 2 0 . B u t a s n o t e d a t Vin. Texts iii. 6 9 , n . 5 . t h e J a . Corny, s a y s t h a t kayura is a n o r n a m e n t a l d e c o r a t io n f o r t h e t h r o a t . II N o d o u b t r o u n d t h e w r is t s in c e t h e y a r e c a l l e d hatthdbharana.

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fin g er rin gs. P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g . . . he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M o n k s, e a r o rn a m e n ts sh o u ld n o t be w o rn , c h a in s . . . o rn a m e n ta l s trin g s o f b e a d s fo r th e th r o a t . . . o rn a m e n ts a t th e w a is t . . . b a n g le s . . . a rm le ts . . . b r a c e le ts . . . fin g er rin g s sh o u ld n o t b e w o rn . W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (a n y o f th ese th in g s ), th e r e is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' || I | ] N o w a t th a t tim e [106] th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s w o re th e ir h a ir lo n g . P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t . . . he a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " M o n k s, lo n g h a ir sh o u ld n o t b e w o rn . W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r it (lon g), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g . I a llo w it to b e o f a tw o m o n th s' g r o w th o r tw o fin g e r-b re a d th s (in le n g th ) / ' || 2 |[ N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s sm o o th e d th e ir h a ir w ith a c o m b , t h e y sm o o th e d th e ir h a ir w ith a n in stru m e n t sh a p e d lik e a s n a k e 's h o o d ,1 t h e y sm o o th e d th e ir h a ir w ith th e ir h a n d s u sed a s an in stru m e n t sh a p e d lik e a s n a k e 's h o o d ,2 t h e y sm o o th e d th e ir h a ir w ith o il o f b e e s w a x ,3 t h e y sm o o th e d th e ir h a ir w ith o ily w a te r. P e o p le lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n s e s ." T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, th e h a ir sh o u ld n o t b e sm o o th e d w ith a co m b . . . th e h a ir sh o u ld n o t b e sm o o th e d w ith o ily w a te r. W h o e v e r sh o u ld sm o o th it (in a n y o f th e s e w a y s ), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' |j 3 || N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s e x a m in e d a m a rk o n th e fa c e in a m irro r a n d in a w a te r - b o w l.4 P e o p le sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u se h o ld e rs w h o e n jo y p le a su re s of th e se n s e s ." T h e y to ld th is .m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " M o n k s, a m a rk on th e fa c e sh o u ld n o t b e e x a m in e d in a m irro r o r in a w a te r-b o w L W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) e x a m in e it, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g ." N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k h a d a sore on his fa c e . H e a sk e d m o n k s, s a y in g : W h a t k in d o f so re h a v e I , y o u r re v e re n c e s ? " T h e m onks
1 phanaka. V A . 12 0 0 o n l y s a y s s o m e t h in g m a d e o f i v o r y a n d s o o n . V i n . T e x ts iii. 70 , n . 2 s a y s " i t w a s a k i n d o f v e r y p r i m i t i v e b r u s h , b u t w i t h o u t b r is tle s / 8 h a tih a p h a n a k a . T h e h a n d s w o u ld b e h e ld a s a s n a k e 's h o o d w it h t h e f in g e r s c u r v i n g f o r w a r d s a n d t h e h a ir w o u l d b e s m o o t h e d w i t h t h e fin g e r s . C f . p h a n a k a tth a k a a t V i n . i. 9 1 , a n d s e e B . D . i v . 1 1 6 , n . 2. * A llo w e d a t V i n . ii. 1 5 2 f o r u s e in a v ih a r a . 4 C f . D . L 80, S . iii. 1 0 5 .

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sp o k e th u s : T h e sore is o f su ch a n d su c h a k in d , y o u r re v e re n c e . H e d id n o t b e lie v e th e m . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, o n a c c o u n t o f a d isease, to e x a m in e a m a rk on th e fa c e in a m irro r o r in a w a te r - b o w l. || 4 [| N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s a n o in te d th e ir fa c e s ,1 t h e y ru b b e d (paste) in to th e ir fa ces, t h e y p o w d e re d th e ir fa c e s w ith c h u n a m , t h e y sm e a re d th e ir fa ces w ith red a rsen ic, t h e y p a in te d th e ir lim b s, t h e y p a in te d th e ir faces, t h e y p a in te d th e ir lim b s a n d fa ces. P e o p le sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e sen ses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, th e fa c e sh o u ld n o t be a n o in te d , th e fa c e sh o u ld n o t be ru b b e d (w ith p a ste ), th e fa ce sh o u ld n o t b e p o w d e re d w ith c h u n a m , th e fa ce sh o u ld n o t be sm ea re d w ith red a rsen ic, th e lim b s sh o u ld n o t be p a in te d , th e fa c e sh o u ld n o t be p a in te d , lim b s a n d fa c e s sh o u ld n o t b e p a in te d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld do (a n y o f th ese th in g s), th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k w a s a fflic te d b y a disease o f th e e ye s. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, on a c c o u n t o f d isease, to a n o in t th e fa c e . || 5 I I N o w a t t h a t tim e th e re w a s a fe s tiv a l on a m o u n ta in -to p in R a ja g a h a .2 T h e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s w e n t to see th e fe s tiv a l on th e m o u n ta in -to p . P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w ca n th e se re clu se s, so n s o f th e S a k y a n s co m e to see d a n c in g a n d sin g in g a n d m u sic [10 7] lik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e senses ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t g o to see d a n c in g 3 o r sin g in g o r m u sic. W h o e v e r sh o u ld g o , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . || 6 |[ 2 || N ow w ith a a b o u t, o f th e a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s s a n g dham m a lo n g -d ra w n plain-SQ ng s o u n d .4 P e o p le . . . sp rea d it s a y in g : E v e n a s w e sin g, so d o th ese reclu ses, sons S a k y a n s sin g dham m a w ith a lo n g -d raw n p la in -so n g

1 C f . V i n , ii. 2 6 6 , i v , 3 4 2 . a C f . V i n . i v . 85 (B , D . ii. 3 3 5 , a n d n .) a n d i v . <267 (w h e r e t h e g r o u p o f s ix n u n s a ls o g o t o t h e f e s t i v a l , m a d e in t o a n o ffe n c e o f e x p ia t i o n f o r t h e m ) . * E v e n t o See a p e a c o c k d a n c in g is a n o f fe n c e , V A . 1 2 0 1 . 4 C f . A . iii. 2 5 1 .

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s o u n d / ' T h o se w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n upon, c ritic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th is g ro u p of s ix m o n k s sin g dham m a w ith a lo n g -d ra w n p la in -so n g so u n d ? T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I s it tru e , a s is s a id . . . ? I t is tru e , L o r d / ' . * . H a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " M o n k s, th e re a re th e se five d is a d v a n ta g e s to one s in g in g dham m a w ith a lo n g -d ra w n p la in -so n g so u n d : h e is p le a se d w ith h im s e lf in re g a rd to th a t so u n d , a n d o th e rs a re p le a se d in re g a rd to t h a t so u n d , an d h o u sep eo p le lo o k d o w n u p o n , a n d w h ile h e is h im s e lf s tr iv in g a fte r a c c u r a c y in th e so u n d 1 th e re is an in te rru p tio n in h is c o n c e n tra tio n , a n d p e o p le c o m in g a fte r fa ll in to th e w a y o f (w rong) v ie w s .2 T h e se , m o n k s, a re th e fiv e d is a d v a n ta g e s to o n e sin g in g dham m a w ith a lo n g -d ra w n p la in -so n g so u n d . M o n k s, dham m a sh o u ld n o t b e su n g w ith a lo n g -d ra w n p la in so n g so u n d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) sin g it, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w r o n g - d o in g / || 1 |] N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w ere d o u b tfu l a b o u t in to n in g .3 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : M o n k s, I a llo w in to n in g / J [ 2 || 3 [| N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s w o re w o o llen c lo th e s w ith th e fleece o u tsid e . P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u se h o ld e rs w h o e n jo y p le a s u re of th e s e n s e s / They to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e sa id : M o n k s, w o o llen c lo th e s w ith th e fleece o u tsid e sh o u ld n o t b e w o rn . W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r th e m , th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . 4 || 4 | | N o w a t t h a t tim e th e m a n g o tre e s in th e p a r k o f K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a w ere b e a rin g fr u it a n d it w a s m a d e k n o w n b y K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a : " L e t th e m a ste rs m a k e a s m u c h u se o f th e m a n g o e s a s t h e y p le a s e /
1 s a r a k u tti. * V A . 1 2 0 2 s a y s t h e p e o p le w h o c o m e a f t e r w i ll s a y " o u r t e a c h e r s a n d p r e c e p t o r s s a n g i t t h u s / * a n d t h e y w i ll s in g i t in t h e s a m e w a y . C f . A . iii10 8 , 2 5 6 , S . ii. 203. a sarabhan na. C f . V i n . i. 1 9 6 , J a . ii. 10 9 , D h A . i. 1 5 4 . E x p la in e d b y B u . a s sa r e n a bha ^ a n a rn , s p e a k in g (o r r e p e a t in g ) b y m e a n s o f in t o n a t io n . 4 V A . 12 0 2 h e r e r e f e r s t o t h e C o m m e n t a r y o n t h e b h u ta g a m a s ik k h a p a d a . T h i s is P a c . 1 1 . ( V i n . i v . 3 4 ; s e e B . D . ii. 2 2 7 , n . 1 .) a n d t h e C orn y is a t V A .

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T h e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, h a v in g m a d e e v e n y o u n g m an go es fa ll, m a d e use o f th e m . A n d [ 108] K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a w a n te d a m a n g o . T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a e n jo in e d p eo p le, s a y in g : G o , g o o d sirs, h a v in g g o n e to th e p a r k , b rin g b a c k a m an go.*' V e r y w e ll, y o u r m a je s t y , a n d th e se p eo p le h a v in g a n sw e re d K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a in a ssen t, h a v in g gon e to th e p a rk , sp o k e th u s to th e p a r k k e e p e r : " G o o d sir, his m a je s t y w a n ts a m a n g o , g iv e (us) a m a n g o / ' T h e re is n o t a m a n g o , m a ste rs ; th e m o n k s h a v in g m ad e e ve n y o u n g m a n g o es fa ll, h a v e m a d e use o f t h e m / T h e n th e se p eo p le to ld th is m a tte r to K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a . H e s a id : G o o d sirs, m a n g o e s are m u ch e n jo y e d b y th e m a ste rs, y e t it is m o d e ra tio n th a t th e L o rd e x t o ls / P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : H o w c a n th ese reclu ses, so n s o f th e S a k y a n s , n o t k n o w in g m o d e ra tio n , m a k e use o f th e k in g s m a n g o e s ? M o n k s h e a rd th e s e p eo p le w h o . . . sp re a d it a b o u t. T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : M on ks, m a n g o es sh o u ld n o t b e m a d e use of. W h o e v e r sh o u ld m a k e use o f th e m , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / '1 || 1 || N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in g u ild c a m e to h a v e fo o d fo r an O rd e r.2 M an go p eels w ere p u t in to th e c u r r y . M on ks, b e in g scru p u lo u s, d id n o t a c c e p t. (T h e L o rd s a i d :) A c c e p t it, m o n ks, m a k e u se o f it . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, m a n g o p e e ls / 1 N o w a t t h a t tim e a Certain g u ild c a m e .to h a v e fo o d fo r an O rd er. T h e y d id n o t k n o w h o w to p re p a re th e peels ; t h e y w a lk e d in to th e r e fe c to r y w ith th e m a n g o es w h o le. M on ks, b e in g sc ru p u lo u s, d id n o t a c c e p t. (T h e L o r d sa id :) " A c c e p t th e m , m o n k s, m a k e u se o f th e m . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, t o m a k e use o f fru it th a t in fiv e w a y s is a llo w a b le fo r reclu ses :3 if it is d a m a g e d 4 b y fire, d a m a g e d b y a k n ife , d a m a g e d b y (ones) n ail, if it is seed less, a n d th e fifth is if th e seed s are d is c h a rg e d .6 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e use of fr u it t h a t in th e se fiv e w a y s is a llo w a b le to re c lu se s. * |j 2 || 5 |[
1 C f . B . D . i. 1 0 1 f . , 10 8. * A s a t C V . V I I I . 4. 1 . a Q u o te d V A . 767. 4 T h e s e f iv e c la u s e s a r e e x p l a in e d in d e t a i l a t V A . 7 6 7 , w h ic h r i g h t l y r e a d s p a r ijt la ( d a m a g e d ) in s t e a d o f t h e a b o v e p a r ic it a . 6 C f . M V . V I . 21. 1 f o r t h e la s t t w o ite m s .

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N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , b itte n b y a sn a k e , passed a w a y .1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e lo rd . H e s a id : M o n k s, th is m o n k c e r ta in ly d id n o t su ffu se w ith lo v in g -k in d n e s s o f m in d th e fo u r r o y a l s n a k e fa m ilie s . F o r if, m o n k s, th is m o n k h a d su ffu se d w ith lo v in g -k in d n e s s o f m in d th e fo u r r o y a l sn a k e fa m ilie s , th e n th is m o n k , a lth o u g h b itte n b y a sn a k e , w o u ld n o t h a v e p a sse d a w a y . W h a t a re th e fo u r r o y a l sn a k e fa m ilie s ? T h e r o y a l s n a k e fa m ily o f V ir u p a k k h a ,2 th e r o y a l sn a k e fa m ily o f E r a p a th a , th e r o y a l sn a k e fa m ily o f C h a b y a p u tta , th e r o y a l s n a k e fa m ily o f K a n h a g o ta m a k a . [109] M o n k s, th is m o n k c e r ta in ly d id n o t su ffu se w ith lo v in g -k in d n e s s o f m in d th e se fo u r r o y a l s n a k e fa m ilie s. F o r if, m o n k s, th is m o n k h a d su ffu se d w ith lo v in g -k in d n e s s o f m in d th e s e fo u r r o y a l sn a k e fa m ilies, th e n th is m o n k , a lth o u g h b itte n b y a sn a k e , w o u ld n o t h a v e p a sse d a w a y . M o n k s, I a llo w y o u to su ffu se w ith lo v in g k in d n e ss o f m in d th e s e fo u r r o y a l s n a k e fa m ilie s , (and) to m a k e a c h a r m 3 fo r th e s e lf fo r s e lf-p ro te c tio n , fo r se lf-g u a rd in g . A n d th u s , m o n k s , sh o u ld it b e m a d e : Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Do Do Do Do fro m fro m fro m fro m me me me me fo r fo r fo r fo r th e th e th e th e V ir u p a k k h a s ,4 E ra p a th a s, C h a b y a p u tta s , K a n h a g o ta m a k a s .

fro m m e fo r th e fo o tle ss, fo r th e tw o - fo o te d fro m m e, fro m m e fo r th e fo u r-fo o te d . fo r th e m a n y -fo o te d fro m m e. le t le t le t le t th e th e th e th e fo o tle ss h a rm m e. tw o -fo o te d h a rm m e, fo u r-fo o te d h a r m m e, m a n y -fo o te d h a rm m e.

not not not not

1 C f . A . i i . 7 2 ( w h ic h l a y s t h e s c e n e in S a v a t t h I ) a n d J a . ii. 1 4 4 7 . 1 C f . G .S . ii. 8 2 , n . 1 . V i r t i p a k k h a is a ls o t h e n a m e o f o n e o f t h e F o u r G r e a t K i n g s , t h e r e g e n t o f t h e w e s t e r n q u a r t e r a n d lo r d o f t h e N a g a s . 5 O n p a r tita , c h a r m , s p e ll, r u n e , a n d m etta -bk& va n a , c f . M r s . R h y s D a v i d s , D i a l iii. 1 8 5 f ., S a k y a , 2 2 1 ff. A b o v e r e a d i n g is a tta p a r itta m k a tu m ; a t A . ii . 72 i t is a tta p a r ittd y a , f o r s e l f - w a r d i n g / 1 4 L o v in g - k in d n e s s o r l o v e , m e ttd , a n d t h e t h r e e o t h e r m o d e s o f t h e b ra h m a v ih d r a s a r e t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e m in d o f t h e s u f f u s e r t o t h a t o f t h e b e in g w h o is s u ffu s e d o r in fu s e d .

6 8.1]

CU L L A V A G G A

149

M a y a ll b e in g s, a ll b re a th e rs, a ll c re a tu re s e v e r y one, S ee a ll lu c k y th in g s j1 m a y n o e v il w h a te v e r com e. Im m e a su ra b le is th e A w a k e n e d O n e, im m e a su ra b le dham m a , im m e a su ra b le th e O rd er. L im ite d a re c re e p in g th in g s : sn a k e s, sco rp io n s, c e n tip e d e s, sp in n in g sp id ers, liz a rd s , m ice. A p ro te c tio n h a s b een m a d e b y m e, a c h a rm m a d e b y me ; L e t th e c re a tu re s w ith d ra w . I , e v e n I, h o n o u r th e L o rd , I h o n o u r th e se v e n fu lly se lf-a w a k e n e d O n e s.' I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to le t b lo o d . 2 || 6 [| N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , to rm e n te d b y d is sa tisfa c tion , c u t o ff h is o w n m a le o rgan . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " T h is fo o lish m a n , m o n k s, c u t o ff one th in g w h e n a n o th e r sh o u ld h a v e b een c u t off. M o n k s, one sh o u ld n o t c u t o ff o n e s o w n m a le o rg a n . W h o e v e r sh o u ld c u t it off, th e re is a g r a v e o ffe n c e . j| 7 [j N o w a t t h a t tim e a b lo c k o f sa n d a l-w o o d o f c o s tly ch o ice sa n d a l-w o o d h a d a c c ru e d to a (great) m e rc h a n t o f Rajagaha. T h e n it o c cu rre d to th is (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a j a g a h a : " S u p p o se th a t I w ere to h a v e a b o w l c a r v e d o u t o f th is b lo c k o f sa n d a l-w o o d ? T h e ch ip s w ill be fo r m y e n jo y m e n t, a n d I ca n a lso g iv e a w a y th e b o w l as a g if t . T h e n th a t (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a , h a v in g h a d a b o w l c a r v e d o u t o f th a t b lo c k o f sa n d a l-w o o d , h a v in g p u t a s trin g ro u n d i t ,4 h a v in g h u n g it u p on th e to p o f a b a m b o o (-pole), h a v in g tie d it to a se ries o f b a m b o o (-poles),* sp o k e th u s : " L e t w h a te v e r reclu se or b ra h m in w h o is a p e rfe c te d one a s w e ll a s o f p s y c h ic p o w er g e t d o w n th is b o w l a n d (to him ) it is g iv e n . 5 [110 ] T h e n P u ra n a
1 sabbe bhadrdni passantu. C f. D . ii. 89, sadd bhadrdni passaii . a A llo w e d a ls o a t V in . i. 2 0 5. * T h i s s t o r y is l e f e r r e d t o a t D A . ii. 388 a s t h e Rajagaha-setthi-vaithu. 4 A t C V . V . 24. 1 s o m e w h a t s i m il a r a c t i o n s a r e a s c r ib e d t o a m o n k . * C f. t h e w o r d s o f t h e r o b b e r c h ie f a t Vin. iii. 208.

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K a s s a p a 1 a p p ro a c h e d th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e sp o k e th u s t o th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a : N o w I, h o u seh o ld er, a m a p e r fe c te d o n e a s w e ll a s o f p s y c h ic p o w e r ; g iv e m e th e b o w l. " I f, re v e re d sir, th e v e n e ra b le o n e is a p e rfe c te d o n e a s w e ll as o f p s y c h ic p o w e r, le t h im fe tc h d o w n th e b o w l a n d it is g iv e n (to h im .) T h e n M a k k h a li G o sa la , A j i t a K e s a k a m b a lin , P a k u d h a K a c c a y a n a , S a n ja y a B e la t t h ip u t t a , N a t a p u t t a th e J a in a p p ro a c h e d th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a ; h a v in g ap p roach ed it is g iv e n (to h im ). N o w a t t h a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G r e a t a n d th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja ,2 h a v in g d resse d in th e m o rn in g , ta k in g (each) his b o w l a n d ro b e, e n te re d R a ja g a h a fo r a lm s fo o d . T h e n th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja sp o k e th u s t o th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G r e a t : T h e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G r e a t is a p e r fe c te d one a s w e ll s s o f p s y c h ic p o w e r. G o a lo n g , re v e re n d M o g g a lla n a , fe tc h d o w r th is b o w l ; th is b o w l is fo r y o u . T h e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja is a p e rfe c te d o n e a s w e ll a s o f p s y c h ic p o w e r. G o a lo n g , re v e re n d B h a r a d v a ja , fe tc h d o w n th is b o w l ; th is b o w l is fo r y o u . T h e n th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja , h a v in g risen a b o v e th e g r o u n d ,3 h a v in g ta k e n h o ld o f th a t b o w l, c irc le d th re e tim e s ro u n d R a ja g a h a . N o w a t th a t tim e , th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a w a s s ta n d in g w ith h is w ife a n d ch ild re n in h is o w n d w e llin g h o ld in g u p h is jo in e d p a lm s in s a lu ta tio n , p a y in g h o m a g e , a n d s a y in g : H o n o u re d sir, le t m a ste r B h a r a d v a ja co m e to re st ju s t h e re a t o u r d w e llin g . Then th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja c a m e t o re st a t th e d w e llin g o f th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a . T h e n th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a , h a v in g ta k e n th e b o w l fro m
1 H e a n d t h e fiv e o th e rs w e re th e s ix g r e a t 4 4 h e r e t i c a l *' t e a c h e r s in G o t a m a 's t im e s . T h e i r v ie w s a r e g i v e n a t D . i. 5 2 fF. a V e rse s a t T h a g . 12 3 , 12 4 . A t A . i. 2 3 h e is c a l l e d c h i e f o f t h e d is c ip le s w h o a r e lio n - r o a r e r s . A A . i. i q 6 , w h i c h g i v e s h is s t o r y i n c lu d in g t h e a b o v e e p is o d e , h o ld s t h a t h e w a s c a l le d S c r a p - h u n t e r , P i n d o l a , f r o m h i s g r e e d in s e a r c h in g f o r c o n j e y a n d r ic e . O t h e r C o m y s ( 5^ 4 . i i. 3 9 3 , U d A . 2 5 2 ) a s c r ib e h is n a m e t o t h e la r g e s iz e o f h is b o w l. F o r n o t e s o n t h e n a m e P i n d o la see P s s . B r e t h p . n o , n . 4 , a n d p . 4 1 5 ; K . S . i v . 6 8 , n . 1. 3 veh d sa . S e a B . D . i. 7 9 , n . 6.

8.1-2 ]

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th e h a n d o f th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la t h e B h a r a d v a ja , h a v in g filled it w ith c o s tly so lid fo o d s, b e sto w e d it on th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja . T h e n th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja , h a v in g ta k e n h o ld o f th a t b o w l, w e n t o ff to th e m o n a ste ry . || I j| P e o p le h e a rd : " I t is sa id th a t th e b o w l o f th e (great) m e rch a n t o f R a ja g a h a w a s fe tc h e d d o w n b y m a ste r P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja / ' a n d th e se p e o p le (m akin g) a lo u d n oise, a g re a t noise, fo llo w e d clo se a fte r th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja . T h e n th e L o rd h e a rd th e lo u d noise, th e g re a t noise, a n d h a v in g h eard it, he a d d re sse d th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a , s a y in g : W h a t on e a rth , A n a n d a , is th is lo u d noise, th is g re a t n oise ? " L o rd , th e b o w l o f th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a h as been fe tc h e d d o w n b y th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja . L o rd , p eo p le h e a rd : * I t is sa id th a t th e b o w l o f th e (great) m e rch a n t o f R a ja g a h a w a s fe tc h e d d o w n b y th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja , a n d , L o rd , th e se p e o p le (m aking) a lo u d noise, a g re a t noise, h a v e fo llo w e d clo se a fte r th e v e n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja ' ; th is, L o rd , is th e lo u d noise, th e g re a t noise w h ic h th e L o r d (h e a rs)." . T h e n th e L o rd on th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , [ 1 1 1 ] q u e stio n e d th e ve n e ra b le P in d o la th e B h a r a d v a ja , s a y in g : " I s it tru e , as is sa id , B h a r a d v a ja , t h a t th e b o w l o f th e (great) m e rch a n t o f R a j& g a h a w a s fe tc h e d d o w n b y y o u ? I t is tru e , L o r d . T h e A w a k e n e d one, th e L o rd re b u k e d h im , s a y in g : I t is n o t su itin g , B h a r a d v a ja , i t is n o t b e co m in g , it is not fittin g , it is n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se, it is n o t a llo w a b le , it is n ot to be done. H o w ca n y o u , B h a r a d v a ja , on a c c o u n t of a w re tc h e d w o o d en b o w l e x h ib it a c o n d itio n o f fu rth e r-m e n ,1 a w o n d er o f p s y c h ic p o w e r to h o u seh o ld ers ? A s, B h a r a d v a ja , a w o m a n e x h ib its h er lo in -clo th on a c c o u n t o f a w re tc h e d sta m p ed m dsaka ,2 e v e n so b y y o u , B h a r a d v a ja , w a s a c o n d itio n of fu rth e r-m e n , a w o n d e r o f p s y c h ic p o w e r e x h ib ite d to h o u seh o ld ers on a c c o u n t o f a w re tc h e d w o o d e n b o w l. I t is n o t,
1 u tta r im a n u ss a d h a m m a . S e e D e f e a t I V , P a c . V I I I , a n d B . D . i. I n t r . x x i v . m a sa k a r u p a . S e e B . D . i. 7 2 , n 1 , a n d 7 1 , n . 2 . T h e w o r d a ls o o c c u r s a t V i n . ii. 2 9 4.

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B h a r a d v a ja , fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d . . . / ' H a v in g re b u k e d h im , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s , s a y in g : M o n k s, a c o n d itio n o f fu rth e r-m e n , a w o n d e r o f p s y c h ic p o w e r is n o t t o b e e x h ib ite d to h o u s e h o ld e rs .1 W h o e v e r sh o u ld e x h ib it th e m , th e re is an o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . B r e a k , m o n k s, th is w o o d e n b o w l ; h a v in g re d u c e d it to fra g m e n ts, g iv e th e m to m o n k s as p e rfu m e to m ix w ith o in tm e n t .2 A n d , m o n k s, a w o o d e n b o w l sh o u ld n o t be u s e d .3 W h o e v e r sh o u ld use one, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g . || 2 || 8 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u sed v a r io u s k in d s o f b o w ls, m a d e o f g o ld , m a d e o f silv e r. P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n s e s / ' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " M o n k s, a b o w l m a d e o f g o ld sh o u ld n o t b e u se d ,4 a b o w l m a d e o f s ilv e r sh o u ld n o t b e u sed , a b o w l m a d e o f p ea rls . . . m a d e o f b e r y l . . . m a d e o f c r y s ta l . . . m a d e o f b ro n ze . . . m a d e o f g la s s . . . m a d e o f tin . . . m a d e o f le a d . . . a b o w l m a d e o f c o p p e r sh o u ld n o t be u se d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld use (a n y o f th e se), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, tw o (k in d s of) b o w ls : a n iro n b o w l, a c la y b o w l / ' 6 II ill N o w a t th a t tim e th e b a se s o f th e b o w ls w e re ru b b e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a c ir c u la r b o w l-r e s t. N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u se d v a r io u s k in d s o f c ir c u la r b o w l-re sts, m a d e o f g o ld , m a d e o f silv e r. P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n s e s / T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, v a r io u s k in d s o f c ir c u la r b o w l-re sts sh o u ld n o t be u se d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld use on e, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, tw o (k in d s of) c irc u la r b o w l-re sts ;
1 V A . 12 0 3 s a y s a m ir a c l e is o b j e c t e d t o , n o t p s y c h i c p o w e r t h a t is v o l i t i o n a l in n a t u r e . * Cf. V i n . i. 2 0 3 , w h e r e s a n d a l- w o o d w a s a l lo w e d a m o n g f i v e p e r fu m e s (any a n u p a p is a n a ) . * Cf. B . D . i i. 1 1 5 , 4 1 5 (a n d n . 1 ) , a n d C V . V . 37. 4 Cf. M V . V . 8, 3. * A s a t V i n . iii. 2 4 3 , iv . 1 2 3 , 2 4 3 .

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m a d e o f tin , m a d e o f le a d / 1 T h e t h ic k c irc u la r re sts c o u ld n o t b e in s e rte d .1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p la n e th e m . T h e re w ere ja g s (on th e m ).2 [112 ] T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to c u t sw o rd fish t e e t h . 3 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u se d c a r v e d 4 c irc u la r b o w l-re sts, lo a d e d w ith little figu res, m a d e w ith o rn a m e n ta tio n s, a n d t h e y to u re d a b o u t sh o w in g th e se on ca rria g e -ro a d s. P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e sen se?. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, c a r v e d c irc u la r b o w l-re sts sh o u ld n o t b e used . W h o e v e r sh o u ld u se one, th e re is an offen ce o f w ro n g d o in g. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, o rd in a ry c irc u la r re s ts . 5 || 2 |j N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s (each) p u t a w a y h is b o w l w ith w a te r in it a n d a b o w l w a s sp o ile d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, a b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e p u t a w a y w ith w a te r in it. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (s:o) p u t it a w a y , th e re is an o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p u t a w 9y a b o w l h a v in g d rie d it in th e s u n . 6 N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s (e 3ch) d ried h is b o w l in th e su n w ith w a te r in it a n d a b o w l ca m e to sm ell n a s ty . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, a b o w l w ith w a te r in it sh o u ld n o t b e d rie d in th e su n . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) d r y it, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p u t a w a y a b o w l h a v in g e m p tie d it o f water, h a v in g d rie d it in th e s u n . N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s (each) la id a sid e h is b o w l in th e h e a t a n d th e c o lo u r o f a b o w l w a s sp o ile d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a id : M o n k s, a b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e la id a sid e in th e h e a t. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) la y it a sid e, th ere is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to
1 a c c h u p iy a n ti. C f . M V . V I I I . 14. 1 , w h e r e t h e w o r d is u s e d o f " in s e r t in g a o a t c h in t o a r o b e .* T h e m e a n in g a b o v e m a y b e " t h e c ir c u la r r e s t s w e r e t h i c k a n d t h e y (i.e . t h e b o w ls ) c o u ld n o t b e in se rte d .* * ^ * v a lim h o n ti. P . E . D . s u g g e s t s r e a d i n g v a liy o . P e r h a p s v a li is h e r e j a g o r s c r a t c h , t h e p la n in g o r a d z in g n o t h a v i n g b e e n w e ll d o n e . T h e j a g s c o u ld t h e n b e m a d e t h e b e s t o f b y c o n v e r t i n g t h e m i n t o c r o c o d ile t e e t h t o h o ld t h e b o w ls . B u t t h i s r e n d e r in g is a s c o n j e c t u r a l a s t h a t g i v e n a t V i n . T e x t s iii. 8 3 . 3 S e e a ls o C V . V . 11. 6 . , 4 C it r a , v a r ie g a t e d o r p a in t e d , b u t n o t a l w a y s , a n d a b o v e i t a p p e a r s t o b e m o re lik e ly c a rv e d / * a 8 B u . s a y s ** i u s t (o r, o n l y , eva ) th e c ir c u l a r r e s t s c u t w i t h s w o r d fis h C f . V i n . 1 . 46. G

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p u t .a w a y a b o w l, h a v in g d rie d it fo r a sh o rt tim e in th e su n 's h e a t . 1 || 3 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m a n y b o w ls c a m e to b e la id a sid e in th e o p en a ir w ith o u t a p ro p . H a v in g b e en b lo w n a g a in s t one a n o th e r b y g u s ts o f w in d , th e b o w ls w e re b ro k e n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id ; " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a little p ro p fo r b o w ls . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s (each) la id a sid e h is b o w l a t th e e d g e o f a so lid b e n c h .2 H a v in g fa lle n d o w n , a b o w l w a s b ro k en . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : " M o n k s, a b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e la id a sid e a t th e ed ge o f a so lid b e n ch . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) l a y it a sid e, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g / N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s (each) la id a sid e his b o w l a t th e e d g e o f a p la s te r flo o rin g .3 H a v in g fa lle n d o w n , a b o w l w a s b ro k e n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, a b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e la id a sid e a t th e e d g e o f a p la s te r flo o rin g. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) l a y it a sid e, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s (each) tu r n e d h is b o w l u p sid e d o w n 4 on th e g ro u n d . A rim w a s ru b b e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a g ra ss m a t . 5 T h e g ra ss m a t w a s e a te n b y w h ite a n ts. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a p ie ce o f c lo th . T h e p ie ce o f c lo th w a s e a te n b y w h ite a n ts. [113 ] T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a b o w l-s ta n d .6 H a v in g fa lle n d o w n fro m a b o w l-s ta n d , a
1 C f: V i n . i. 4 6 . * tn id k a n te . A t V i n . ii. 1 4 3 v n ig d h i. V i n . T e x t s iii. 16 3 s a y t h a t i t is b u i l t a g a in s t t h e w a ll o f a r o o m o r o n t h e v e r a n d a a g a i n s t t h e o u t e r w a l l o f a h o u s e or h u t. O f t e n m a d e o f h a r d e n e d m u d w i t h t w o w o o d e n le g s in f r o n t , i t is a b e n c h u s e d t o s i t o r s le e p o n . V A . 12 0 3 s a y s d lin d a k a - ( v e r a n d a ) tn ig h a k a d in a m a n te , a n d im p lie s t h a t s o m e tn id h is a r e n a r r o w . A llo w e d a t V i n . ii. 1 4 9 w h e n g r a s s m a t s h a d b e e n e a t e n b y r a t s a n d s o o n , a n d w h e r e m id h i a p p e a r s a s s o m e t h in g h a r d a n d a ls o a s s o m e t h in g t o s le e p o n . The m e a n in g is n o t c e r t a in . * p a r ib h a r id a . M e a n in g u n c e r t a in . V A . 1 2 0 3 4 s a y s " o n t h e o u t e r s id e , o n t h e e d g e o f a t r e a t e d (o r, m a d e , e r e c t e d , k a ta ) n a r r o w m i d h i . O n th e w o r d a t V i n . ii. 1 7 2 t h e C o r n y , s a y s i t is m a d e o f c o w d u n g a n d o f p a s t e , k d s a v a , f o r c o lo u r in g flo o r s , w a l l s , e t c . ; a n d o n t h e w o r d a t V i n . ii. 2 2 0 i t s a y s b a h i ja g g a ti, h e lie s a w a k e (o r , w a t c h e s ) o u t s id e . I n e x p l a i n in g " p i e c e o f c l o t h , " co la k a , b e lo w , V A . 12 0 4 s p e a k s o f m a ttik a -p a r ib h a n d a k a td b h u m it w h ic h s e e m s t o m e a n " e a r t h t r e a t e d w i t h c l a y a n d p la s t e r .* ' * S e e C V . V . 20. 3. 5 A llo w e d a t C V . V . 11. 3 b e lo w ; a ls o a t V i n . ii. 14 8 , t o s a v e lim b s a n d r o b e s f r o m b e in g c o v e r e d w i t h d u s t . 6 p a ita m & la k a . V A . 12 0 4 s a y s *' m a d e o f b r i c k o r m a d e o f w o o d . "

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b o w l w a s b ro k e n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : 1 1 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a w ic k e r s ta n d fo r b o w ls / 1 A b o w l w a s ru b b e d on th e w ic k e r sta n d fo r th e b o w ls. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a b a g fo r bow ls.*' T h e re w a s no s tr a p a t th e e d ge. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a s tr a p a t th e e d g e , a th r e a d fo r t y i n g / 2 |{ 4 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s (each) h u n g h is b o w l on a p e g in th e w a ll 3 a n d on a n < r e le p h a n t-tu s k (peg ).3 H a v in g fa lle n d ow n , a b o w l w a s b ro k e n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, a b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e h u n g u p . W h o e v e r sh o u ld h a n g o n e u p , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g / ' N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s (each) la id a sid e h is b o w l o n a co u ch . S ittin g d o w n h e e d le ssly , t h e y b ro k e a b o w l h a v in g s a t d o w n (hard) o n i t .4 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e s a id : " M onks, a b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e la id a sid e o n a c o u ch . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) l a y it a sid e, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' . . . (T h e sam e repeated fo r la y in g a sid e a b o w l on a c h a ir). . . . N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s (each) la id a sid e h is b o w l o n h is lap. T h e y g o t u p h e e d le ssly a n d a b o w l, h a v in g fa lle n d o w n , w as b ro k e n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M onks, a b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e la id a sid e o n a la p . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) l a y it a sid e, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g ." N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s (each) la id a sid e h is b o w l in a su n sh a d e . 5 A su n sh a d e w a s lifte d u p b y g u s ts o f w in d 6 a n d h a v in g fa lle n d o w n a b o w l w a s b ro k e n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M on ks, a b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e la id asid e in a su n sh a d e . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) l a y it a sid e, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g - d o in g / ' N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s (each) o p e n e d a d o o r 7 w h e n h e h a d a b o w l in h is h a n d . A s a d o o r w a s b lo w in g to a n d fro , a b o w l w as b ro k e n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : " M on ks, a d o o r sh o u ld n o t b e o p e n e d w h e n one h a s a b o w l
1 p n ita k a n d o lik a . * C f . M V l V I . 12. 4 , C V . V . 11. 5 . S e e B . D . i v . 2 7 6 , n . 8 . 3 A s a t V i n . i i i . 48. A l lo w e d a t V i n . i i . 1 5 2 . 4 C f . V i n . iii. 7 9 ( B . D . i . 1 3 7 a n d n . 4 ). * ch a tta . N . B . a t V i n r i . 1 5 2 t h i s w o r d a p p e a r s t o m e a n a l a r g e v e s s e l o r r e c e p t a c le . * C f . a b o v e V . 9. 4 a n d V i n . i v . 3 4 5. * S e e l ? . / } , i. 19 9 , n . 3.

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in o n e 's h a n d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) o p en it, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . || 5 || 9 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w e n t a b o u t fo r a lm s fo o d (to b e p u t) in to a g o u r d .1 P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y i n g ; " L ik e m e m b e rs o f o th e r s e c ts ." 2 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : " M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t g o a b o u t fo r a lm s fo o d (to b e p u t) in to a g o u r d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) g o a b o u t, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g / ' N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s [1 1 4 ] w e n t a b o u t fo r a lm s fo o d (to b e p u t) in to a w a te r-p o t* P e o p le . . . (as above) . . o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g ." [[ x [| N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e r ta in m o n k c a m e to b e a w e a re r o f n o th in g b u t ra g -ro b e s ;3 h e c a rrie d a b o w l m a d e fro m a sk u lL A c e rta in w o m a n , te rrifie d a t h a v in g se e n h im , u tte r e d a sc re a m o f h o rro r ;4 f< H o w te rrib le fo r m e, in d e e d it is a d e m o n 5 a fte r m e ." P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th e se reclu ses, so n s o f th e S a k y a n s c a r r y a b o w l m a d e fro m a sk u ll, lik e d e m o n -w o rsh ip p e rs ? " 6 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : M o n k s, a b o w l m a d e fro m a sk u ll sh o u ld n o t b e c a rrie d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld c a r r y one, th e re is an o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o r, m o n k s , sh o u ld y o u b e a w e a re r o f n o th in g b u t ra g -ro b e s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld b e , th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f w r o n g - d o in g ." |j 2 J | N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s to o k b a c k in th e ir b o w ls o d d b its a n d b o n e s a n d im p u re w a te r .7 P e o p le . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " T h a t v e r y th in g fro m w h ic h th e s e reclu ses, so n s o f th e S a k y a n s e a t, th a t is s im p ly th e ir w a s te - tu b ."8 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : " M o n k s, o d d b its a n d b o n e s a n d im p u re w a te r sh o u ld n o t b e ta k e n b a c k in a b o w l. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) t a k e (th ese th in g s) b a c k , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , a w a s t e - t u b ." |[ 3 j| 10 || 1 Cf. V i n . i. go ( B . D . i v . 1 1 4 ) = iii. 2 4 5 ( B . D , ii. 119) w h e r e t b e y w e n t a b o u t fo r a lm s fo o d t o b e p u t in to th e ir h a n d s . S e e B . D . ii. 119, n . 4 . * 15u . s a y s t h a t in t h i s c a s e h i s r o b e s , c o u c h a n d c h a i r w e r e f r o m a r a g - h e a p . 4 Cf. M . i. 4 48 . * p is d c a . a s a t M . i. 4 4 8 . M A . iii. 1 6 5 e x p l a i n s , " a d e m o n (p is d c a ) h a s co m e to e a t m e /' * p is a c i il i k a . W o r d o c c u r s a t V i n . i. 1 5 2 , ii. 1 3 4 , S n A . 3 5 7 . 7 S a m e l i s t f o u n d a t V i n . i v . 2 6 6 in d e f in i t io n o f v ig h d s a , *' s c r a p s o f fo o d / * 8 p a iig g a h a , a r e c e p t a c le , a r e c e i v i n g t h i n g . W o r d o c c u r s b e lo w V . 1 1 . 5. ( m e a n in g t h i m b l e ) , b u t cf. u d a k a p - a t V i n . ii. 2 1 3 .

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N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w e re s e w in g ro b e -m a te ria l, h a v in g rip p e d it u p w ith th e ir h a n d s. T h e ro b e -m a te ria l b e ca m e u n s ig h tly .1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a sm a ll k n ife , a p ie ce o f fe lt 2 (to w ra p ro u n d i t ) / ' N o w a t th a t tim e a sm a ll k n ife w ith a h a n d le 3 a c cru e d to th e O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a sm a ll k n ife w ith a h a n d le . N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u se d v a r io u s k in d s o f sm a ll k n iv e s w ith h a n d le s, m a d e o f g o ld , m a d e o f silv e r. P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n s e s / ' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, v a r io u s k in d s o f sm a ll k n iv e s w ith h a n d le s sh o u ld n o t b e u se d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld use (one), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w th e m , m o n k s, to b e m a d e o f b o n e, m a d e o f iv o r y , m a d e o f h o rn , m a d e o f reed s, m ad e o f b a m b o o , m a d e o f p ie ce s o f s tic k , m a d e o f la c , m ad e o f c r y s ta l, m a d e o f c o p p e r, m a d e o f th e in sid e o f a c o n c h -sh e ll / ' 4 II x || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s se w e d r o b e -m a te ria l w ith a c o c k 's fe a th e r a n d w ith b a m b o o -rin d 5 a n d th e ro b e -m a te ria l c a m e to b e b a d ly se w n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : M on ks, I a llo w y o u a n e e d le .'' T h e n e e d les b e ca m e rusty. 0 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, [1 1 5 ] a tu b e fo r (holding) th e n e e d les / ' 7 E v e n in th e tu b e s t h e y b e c a m e r u s ty . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to fill th e m w ith y e a s t / '8 E v e n in th e y e a s t t h e y b e c a m e r u s ty . " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to fill th e m w ith b a r le y - m e a l . 9 E v e n in th e b a r le y -m e a l t h e y b e c a m e ru sty* " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, p o w d e re d s to n e . E v e n in th e p o w d e re d sto n e th e y b e ca m e r u s ty . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to h a v e it m ix e d w ith 1 v ilo m a . * n a m a ta k a , a llo w e d a g a in a t V i n . ii. 1 2 3 , 13 4 W o r d a ls o f o u n d a t V i n . ii. 267. * d a n g a sa tth a k a . 4 C f . M V . V I . 12. 1 , a n d s e e B . D . i v . 2 7 6 f o r n o t e s . v e lu p e s ik a . W o r d f o u n d a t D . ii. 3 2 4 . * k a n n a k ita , s p o ile d in s o m e w a y , p r o b a b l y r u s ty * b l u n t o r s t a in e d . The w o r d a p p e a r s t o b e u s e d in t h e s e n s e o f s t a i n e d ( o f t h e g r o u n d a n d o f a w a ll) a t M V . I . 25. 1 5 = C V . V I I I . 1 . 3 ; a n d in t h e s e n s e o f s t a in e d , s o ile d o r s p o ile d (o f r o b e s ) a t N u n s ' P a c . 2 4 . V A . 12 0 5 e x p l a i n s a s m a lla g a h ita h o n ti (v. I m a la g g a h itd ) . M a la m a y m e a n r u s t . V i n . T e x t s iii. 9 1 t r a n s l a t e s a s " b l u n t . " 7 s u c in d lik a . P a c . 86 m a k e s i t a n o ffe n c e t o h a v e a s u c ig h a r a m a d e o f b o n e , iv o r y or h o rn . k in n a , e x p la in e d a t V A . 12 0 5 a s k in n a c u n y ia . O ld e n b e r g 's t e x t r e a d s s a tth u , C f . B . D . ii. 3 2 2 , n . 4.

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b e e s w a x ." T h e p o w d e re d s to n e b ro k e u p . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, p o w d e re d s to n e (m ixed ) w ith g u m ." 1 J | 2 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s, h a v in g d r iv e n in p o s ts h e re a n d th e re , h a v in g tie d th e m to g e th e r, se w e d ro b e -m a te ria l. T h e r o b e -m a te ria l b e c a m e m issh a p e n a t th e c o rn e rs .2 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a ka th in a -fra ia e 3 (and) strin g s fo r th e k a th in a -ira m e4 (and) to se w r o b e -m a te ria l h a v in g tie d it d o w n h ere a n d t h e r e / ' Tl}.ey sp re a d o u t a kaihina-fraLme in a n u n e v e n p la c e ; th e kathinafra m e w a s sp lit. " M o n k s, a kathina - fra m e sh o u ld n o t b e s p re a d o u t in a n u n e v e n p la c e . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) sp re a d o n e o u t, th e re is a n o ffe n c e o f w r o n g -d o in g / ' T h e y sp re a d o u t a kathina-lT&m e on th e g ro u n d . T h e kathina-irssrve w a s so ile d b y d u s t. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a g ra ss m a t . " 5 A n e d g e o f th e ka ih in a -iv ssa e w a s in ju r e d . 6 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p u t on a b ra id in g , a b in d in g . 7 T h e kathina-ivaxne w a s n o t la rg e e n o u g h .8 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a s t ic k in th e kathina-iv^ m e^ 1 saritasipdtika ; cf, hingusipdtika a t V in . i. 2 0 1 ( M V . V I . 7 ). B u t V A . 1 2 0 6 e x p l a i n s a s madhusitthakapilotikam satthakosakam , a l i t t l e c l o t h f o r t h e b e e s w a x , a lit tle s h e a th fo r a k n ife . C f. a ls o b e lo w , p . 18 5 , n . 4 . * vikatina, a s a t V in . i. 2 9 7 . 3 kathina h e r e , a s p o in t e d o u t a t V in , Texts iii. 9 2 , n . 8 is e v i d e n t l y a s o r t o f f r a m e w o r k . V A . 12 0 6 s a y s i t is a n*sseni ( la d d e r , f r a m e ?) a n d a n o t h e r s h o u ld b e s p r e a d (attharati) t h e r e f o r t h e m a ts / * O r t h e t r a n s la t io n o f t h i s m a y b e : ** t h e nisseni s h o u ld b e s p r e a d o u t t h e r e a n d a n o t h e r f o r t h e m a t s . " T h e v e r b u s e d h e r e in c o n n e c t io n w i t h kathina is pattharati , t o s p r e a d o u t , t o e x t e n d ; w h e r e a s attharati is t h e v e r b u s e d in c o n n e c t io n w i t h t h e f o r m a l m a k in g u p o f t h e kathina- c l o t h ; s e e B .D . ii. 2 6 , n . 3 a n d M V . V I I . 4 kathinarajja (v.t.-rajju). V A . 1 2 0 6 s a y s " t h o s e w h o a r e s e w in g r o b e m a t e r i a l d o u b l e , t i e t h e r o b e - m a t e r ia l t o t h e kathina ( - f r a m e ) / ' * A s a t C V . V . 9. 4 a b o v e . * jlr a t i , o r " w o r e o u t ( w it h a g e ) / * T h i s w o u l d b e g in a n e w id e a , a n d p e r h a p s t h i s is in t e n d e d . O n th e o th e r h a n d , t o s a y th a t it w as h u rt or d a m a g e d w o u ld i m p l y t h a t t h e g r a s s m a t w a s r o t b i g e n o u g h t o p r o t e c t t h e e d g e s o f t h e f r a m e , a n d t h u s t h e s a m e id e a w o u l d b e c o n t in u e d . * anuvata paribhapda. S e e B .D . ii. 4 0 9 , n . 7, 8 (w h e r e a ls o f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s a re g iv e n ). T h e s e t w o w o r d s o c c u r a t Vin . i. 2 5 4 a s r e p r e s e n t in g t h in g s w h i c h m u s t h a v e a p l a c e i n t h e m a k i n g o f t h e kathina-cloth in t o r o b e s ; a n d a g a i n a t V in . i. 2 9 7 a s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i n g s t o b e u s e d in s t r e n g t h e n in g ro b es. * V A . 12 0 6 s a y s t h e fr a m e w a s m a d e a c c o r d in g t o t h e h e ig h t o f a t a ll m o n k , b u t w h e n t h e r o b e - m a t e r i a l w a s b e in g ( f o r m a ll y ) m a d e t h e r e , i t d i d n o t s u ffic e fo r (e v e n ) a s h o rt m o n k . * daxulakaihina. P .E . D . s a y s t h a t t h i s is kathina-oloih. s t r e t c h e d o n a s t i c k ( f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m e a s u r in g ) . V A . 12 0 6 s a y s , ** i t m e a n s : # I a l lo w y o u t o b in d a n o t h e r f r a m e ( nisseni ) o f t h e h e i g h t o f s u c h a n d s a c h a m o n k in t h e m i d a l e o f t h a t o n e ' " (i.e . o f t h e o r ig in a l nissent, b y w h ic h V A . h a s a l r e a d y e x p l a in e d kathina).

CULLAVAGGA V 159 H*35] a sk e w e r ,1 a slip o f w o o d ,2 a c o rd fo r t y i n g ,3 a th r e a d fo r t y i n g ,4 a n d h a v in g tie d th e ro b e -m a te ria l, t o se w i t / ' T h e sp aces b e tw e e n th e th re a d s b e c a m e u n e q u a l .5 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a m a r k 6 (to k e ep th e sp a c e s b e tw e e n th e th re a d s e q u a l) / T h e th re a d s b e c a m e c ro o k e d . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a false th r e a d / 7 || 3 |j N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s tro d on a kathina -fra m r w ith un w a sh e d fe e t ; th e kathina -fra m e w a s d a m a g e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, a kathina-irzLme sh o u ld n o t b e tro d d e n u p o n if y o u r fe e t a re u n w a sh e d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) tr e a d u p o n (one), th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g / ' N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s tr o d on a kathina -fra m e w ith d a m p fe et. . . . H e sa id : M o n k s, a kathina-iraim e sh o u ld n o t be tro d d en u p o n if y o u r fe e t are d a m p . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) tre a d u p o n (one), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s tr o d on a kathina-tr&m e w ith th e ir sa n d a ls o n .8 . . . H e sa id : M o n k s, a kathina-ir3.m e sh o u ld n o t b e tro d d e n u p o n if y o u h a v e y o u r sa n d a ls on. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) tr e a d u p o n (one), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g ." j| 4 || ' , N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s, se w in g ro b es, p r ic k e d 9 th e ir fin gers ; th e ir fin gers b e c a m e p a in fu l. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id . M o n k s, I a llo w a th im b le ."10 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u sed v a r io u s k in d s o f th im b le s, m ad e o f g o ld , m a d e o f silv e r. [1 1 6 ] P e o p le . . . sp re a d it
1 p id a la k a ( V A . 12 0 6 v id a la k a ). V A . 1 2 0 6 s a y s , " i t is f o r m a k in g d o u b le , h a v in g d r a w n b a c k t h e e n d s (p a riy a n te ) o f t h e m a t in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e m e a s u r e o f t h e s t i c k in t h e & a jm n a - f r a m e . * s a la k a . V A . 1 2 0 6 e x p l a i n s a s a s lip o f w o o d g o in g in b e t w e e n a d o u b le p ie c e o f r o b e - m a t e r ia l. 3 v in a n d k a n a r a jju . V A . 1 2 0 6 s n y s a c o r d t y i n g t h e s m a lle r f r a m e (n is s e n i) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e la r g e f r a m e t h e r e .* ' 4 v in a n d h a n a s u tta k a . V A . 1206, t h r e a d f o r t y i n g t h e r o b e - m a t e r ia l t o t h e s m a lle r f r a m e . " * v isa m a . V A . 1 2 0 6 s a y s t h a t s o m e w e r e l a r g e , s o m e s m a ll. * k a lim b h a k a . V A . 1 2 0 6 s a y s t a l i p o t p a lm le a v e s a n d so o n w h a t e v e r d o e s fo r k n o w in g t h e ( r ig h t ) m e a s u r e ." 7 m og h a su tta ka . V A . 12 0 6 s a y s fo r r e c o g n it io n b y a y e l l o w t h r e a d , a s c a r p e n t e r s g o b y a b la c k t h r e a d o n a p ie c e o f w o o d .* ' S e e B . D . i v . 3 54 a n d c f. V A . 1 1 1 0 in e x p l a n a t io n o f b a n d h a n a m a tte n a . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e f a ls e t h e a d is a g u id e . 8 S e e B . D . iii. 1 4 4 , n . 1 . 9 p o tig a n h a n ti. 10 patiggaka. Cf. a b o v e , p

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a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u se h o ld e rs w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e senses.*' T h e y to ld th is m a t t e r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, v a r io u s k in d s o f th im b le s sh o u ld n o t b e u se d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld u se th e m , th e r e is an o ffe n c e o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w th e m , m o n k s, t o b e m a d e o f b o n e . . . m a d e o f th e in sid e o f a c o n c h -s h e ll." N o w a t th a t tim e n e e d les a n d sm a ll k n iv e s a n d th im b le s w e re lo s t. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a sm a ll b o w l t o h o ld (th ese th in g s in )."1 (T h e c o n te n ts of) th e sm a ll b o w ls g o t in a m u d d le . T h e y to ld t h is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a b a g fo r th im b le s ." T h e r e w a s no s tr a p a t th e ed ge. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a s tr a p a t th e e d g e , a th r e a d fo r t y i n g ."2 || 5 )| N o w a t t h a t tim e as m o n k s w e re s e w in g ro b es in th e o p e n a ir t h e y w e re b o th e r e d b y c o ld a n d h e a t .3 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e s a id ; I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a h a ll fo r th e kathina-ira.tne, a h u t fo r th e kathina-iva.me.+ A h a ll fo r th e kathina-ivaxne w a s lo w to th e g r o u n d ,4 it w a s flo o d ed b y w a te r. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , to m a k e it h ig h t o th e g r o u n d ." T h e p ilin g c o lla p s e d . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , to p ile u p th re e (k in d s of) p ilin g s : a p ilin g o f b ric k s , a p ilin g o f sto n e s, a p ilin g o f w o o d . " 6 T h e y w e re in c o n v e n ie n c e d as t h e y w e re a sce n d in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) sta irc a s e s : a sta irc a e e of b ric k s , a s ta ir c a s e o f sto n e s, a s ta irc a s e o f w o o d ." A s t h e y w e re a sc e n d in g t h e y fe ll off. " I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a lu s tr a d e . " 6 P o w d e r e d g r a s s 7 fe ll in to th e h a ll fo r th e kathina - fra m e . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , h a v in g la s h e d 8 o n (a r o o f9), to g iv e a
1 a v e s a n a v itth a h a . A v e s a n a is d w e llin g , v itth a a b o w l, a s in s u r d v itth a a t J a . v . 4 2 7 , D h A . iii. 6 6 . V A . 1 2 0 6 e x p l a i n s b y p a d - ( b o w l) c a n g o ta h d d i ( b o x a n d so o n ). * A s a t M V . V I . 12. 4. * C f . t h i s p a s s a g e w i t h C V . V . 14. 2 , 3 : V I . 3. 6 . 4 C f . t h i s p a s s a g e w i t h C V . V . 14- 2. * A s a t C V . V . 16. 2 ; 17. 2 ; V I . 3 . 3. s d la m b a n a b d h a . A la m b a n a b y i t s e l f is *'t h e p l i n t h o f a r a i l i n g o r b a lu s t r a d e / * A . K . C o o m a r a s w a m y , I n d i a n A r c h ite c tu r a l T e r m s , f . A . O . S . , V o l . 48, N o . 3, p . 2 5 1 . 7 ti% ia c u w a f a s a t V i n , i. 2 0 3 . 8 o g u m p h e tv d . C f . o g u m p h iy a n ti a t V i n . i. IQ 4. * S o V A . 1 2 0 7 , ch a d a n a n t o d h u n itv d .

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sm ea rin g in sid e a n d o u tsid e ,1 w h ite w a s h ,2 b la c k c o lo u rin g , red c h a lk , w re a th -w o rk , c ree p e r-w o rk , sw o rd fish te e th , th e fiv e (pieces of) c lo th d esign , a b a m b o o fo r h a n g in g u p r o b e -m a te ria l ,3 a c o rd fo r h a n g in g u p ro b e -m a te ria l / 13 || 6 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s, h a v in g se w n ro b e -m a te ria l, w e n t a w a y h a v in g le ft th e kathina-fra.m e a t th a t v e r y p la c e , a n d it w a s e a te n b y ra ts a n d w h ite a n ts. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to fo ld u p th e kathina-ivaxne. A kathina-ivaxne w a s sp lit. " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to fo ld u p th e kathina-ira.m e b y u sin g a w o o d e n r o d .*'4 A kathina -fra m e w a s tw is te d o u t o f p o sitio n .5 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a co rd fo r ty in g i t . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s, h a v in g lifte d u p th e kathina -fra m e on to w a lls a n d p o sts, w e n t a w a y a n d th e kathina-iva.m e, h a v in g fa lle n d o w n , w a s sp lit. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m on ks, to h a n g it on a p e g in a w a ll o r on an e le p h a n t-tu s k (p eg ). || 7 il 1 1 II T h e n th e L o rd h a v in g s ta y e d in R a ja g a h a fo r a s lo n g a s he fo u n d su itin g se t o u t on to u r fo r V e sa ll. N o w a t th a t tim e [1 1 7 ] th e m o n k s w e n t a lo n g (each) ta k in g h is n eed le a n d sm a ll k n ife a n d m e d icin e in h is b o w l. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a b a g fo r m e d ic in e . T h e re w as no s tr a p a t th e ed ge. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e l o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , a stra p a t th e ed ge, a th re a d fo r t y in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , h a v in g tie d h is sa n d a ls to h is g ird le e n te re d a v illa g e fo r a lm sfo o d . A c e rta in la y fo llo w er, g re e tin g t h a t m o n k , k n o c k e d u p a g a in st th e sa n d a ls w ith his h e a d . T h a t m o n k b e c a m e a sh am ed . T h e n t h a t m o n k , h a v in g a r r iv e d a t a m o n a ste ry , to ld th is m a tte r t o th e m on ks. T h e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id :
1 ullitdvalitta , a s in d e fin it io n o f h u t ** a n d " d w e l l in g - p l a c e " a t V in. iii. 1 4 9 , 1 5 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y (se e B .D . i. 2 6 7 , n . 3 ) . # * T h i s a n d t h e f o llo w i n g t e r m s , a s f a r a s " f iv e (p ie c e s o f ) c l o t h d e s i g n , " m e n t io n e d a g a i n a t Vin. ii. 1 2 1 , iv . 4 7 . C f. Vin . ii. 1 7 2 . F o r n o t e s s e e B .D . ii. 259. . s A llo w e d a t V in . i. 286. * goghamsika. I d o n o t f o llo w t h e m e a n in g a s g iv e n a t Vin. Texts iii. 98, fo r m o n k s w e r e n o t a llo w e d t o u s e c o w h id e s (V in . i. 1 9 3 ) . V A . 120 7 sa y s, h a v i n g a r r a n g e d (katva) a b a m b o o o r a s t i c k (dap^aha) f r o m a t r e e in s id e , t o f o ld it u p (i.e . t h e f r a m e ) t o g e t h e r w it h t h a t . 5 vivethiyati. G*

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I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , a b a g fo r s a n d a ls ." T h e r e w a s n o s tr a p a t th e ed ge. ** I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a s tr a p a t th e ed ge, a th re a d fo r t y i n g ." || 12 j[ N o w a t t h a t tim e on a c e rta in ro a d th e re w a s w a te r t h a t w a s n o t a llo w a b le 1 (for) th e re w a s n o stra in e r. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a s tr a in e r ." A little p ie ce o f c lo th w a s n o t e n o u g h . I a llo w , m o n k s, a stra in e r on a la d le ." T h e little p ie ce o f c lo th w a s n o t e n o u g h . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : I a llo w a re g u la tio n w a te r p o t . 2 |j x || N o w a t th a t tim e tw o m o n k s w e re g o in g a lo n g a h ig h ro a d in th e K o s a la n c o u n tr y . O r e m o n k in d u lg e d in b a d h a b its .3 T h e o th e r m o n k sp o k e th u s to th a t m o n k : " D o n o t do th a t, y o u r re v e re n c e , it is n o t a llo w a b le ." H e g ru m b le d a t h im . T h e n t h a t m o n k , to rm e n te d b y th ir s t, sp o k e th u s to th e m o n k w h o h a d g ru m b le d : G iv e m e th e s tr a in e r ,4 y o u r re v e re n c e , I w ill d rin k (some) w a t e r ." T h e m o n k w h o h a d g ru m b le d did n o t g iv e it. T h a t m o n k p a ss e d a w a y , to rm e n te d b y th irst. T h e n th a t m o n k , h a v in g a r r iv e d a t a m o n a s te ry , to ld th is m a tte r to th e m o n k s. T h e y s a id : " B u t d id y o u , y o u r re v e re n ce , (a lth o u g h ) b e in g a sk e d , n o t g iv e a stra in e r ? " N o , y o u r r e v e re n c e s . T h o s e w h o w ere m o d est m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th is m o n k , w h e n b e in g a sk e d fo r a stra in e r, n o t g iv e it ? " T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . T h e n th e L o rd on th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e c tio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th is m o n k , s a y in g : I s it tru e , a s is sa id , t h a t y o u , m o n k , w h e n b e in g a sk e d fo r a stra in e r, d id n o t g iv e it ? " I t is tru e , L o r d . T h e e n lig h te n e d one, th e L o r d re b u k e d h im , s a y in g : I t is n o t s u ita b le in y o u , fo o lis h m a n , it is n o t b e co m in g , it is n o t fittin g , it is n o t w o r th y o f a reclu se, it is n o t a llo w a b le ,
1 D o u b t l e s s m e a n in g t h a t i t h a d '* l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s ** in i t a n o ffe n c e t o m a k e u s e o f w a t e r li k e t h is , P a c . L X I I , a n d c f. P a c . X X . % d h a m m a k a r a k a , a s a t V i n . ii. 1 7 7 , 3 0 2 . C f . D h A . iii. 29 0 . * C f . V i n . i v . 83 ( B . D . ii. 3 3 2 ). 4 I t l o o k s a s i f t h e s t r a in e r , a t t h e d a t e o f t h i s e p is o d e , w a s c o m m u n a l, o n e s e r v in g a n u m b e r o f m o n k s . A t V i n . ii. 302 i t is p iv e n a m o n g a r e c lu s e 's r e q u i s i t e s .

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it is n o t to b e d o n e. H o w c a n y o u , fo o lish m a n , w h e n b e in g a sk e d fo r a stra in e r, n o t g iv e it ? I t is n o t, [118 ] foolish m a n , fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d . . . . H a v in g re b u k e d h im , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n e d ta lk , h e a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M o n k s, if a m o n k is g o in g a lo n g a h ig h ro a d a n d is b e in g a sk e d fo r a stra in e r, he sh o u ld n o t n ot g iv e it. W h o e v e r sh o u ld n o t g iv e it, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o r, m o n k s, sh o u ld y o u g o a lo n g a h ig h ro a d w ith o u t a stra in e r. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) g o , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ron g-d oin g* I f th e re is n o t a stra in e r n o r a re g u la tio n w a te r-p o t, th e n a c o m e r o f th e o u te r c lo a k sh o u ld be d e te rm in e d u p o n w ith th e w o rd s, * I w ill d rin k (w ater) h a v in g stra in e d it w ith th is V || 2 || T h e n th e L o rd , w a lk in g on to u r g r a d u a lly a r r iv e d a t V e sa ll. T h e L o r d s ta y e d th e re in V e s a li in th e G r e a t G ro v e a t th e H a ll o f th e G a b le d P illa rs. N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w ere m a k in g rep a irs. T h e w a te r-s tra in e r d id n o t ce a se (to be in use2). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n ks, a d o u b le w a te r-s tra in e r . 2 T h e d o u b le w a te r-stra in e r d id n o t ce a se (to be in u se). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a filte r . 3 N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w e re p e ste re d b y m o sq u ito es. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a m o sq u ito n e t . 1 || 3 I! 1 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e a t V e s a ll a su c c e ssio n o f m e a ls o f su m p tu o u s fo o d s c a m e t o be a rra n g e d .5 M o n k s, h a v in g e a te n th e
1 na sammati, d id n o t r e s t , c e a s e . T h e m e a n in g m u s t b e t h a t t h e t h i r s t y m o n k s m a d e s u c h c o n s t a n t d e m a n d s u p o n i t t h a t i t d id n o t m e e t t h e ir n e e d s a n d t h a t t h e r e f o r e s o m e t h in g la r g e r w a s w a n t e d t o g i v e m o r e w a t e r a n d m o re q u ic k ly . 1 dandaparissdvana. C f . dandasatthaka a n d daxtdakathina a t C V . V , 11. i , 3. Vin. Texts iii. 10 2 g i v e s d o u b l e s t r a in e r w i t h n o t e t h a t i t is " a p p a r e n t l y a lo n g b o x , b o t h e n d s o f w h ic h s t r a i n t h e w a t e r w h ic h is p o u r e d in t o t h e m id d le b y m e a n s o f a p i p e (dangaka). Dangakathina c e r t a i n l y h a s n e a r l y t h e m e a n in g o f a d o u b le kathina-irs.me.'* V A . 12 0 7 s a y s lik e d y e r s ' s t r a in e r s f o r a l k a l in e d y e s , h a v i n g t i e d a p ie c e o f c l o t h t o t h e f o u r e n d s o f a f r a m e , w a t e r s h o u ld b e p o u r e d in t o a p i p e (dandaka) in t h e m id d le . T h e n y o u s t r a in , h a v i n g fille d b o t h t h e d iv is io n s / * 8 ottharaka, a k in d o f s t r a in e r . I t s e e m s , f r o m B u ' s r e m a r k s , t h a t t h is is a s t r a in e r w h ic h b y m e a n s o f f o u r p i p e s f ilte r s w a t e r t h a t m o n k s c a n t h e n t a k e in a p it c h e r . 4 makasakutika , o r m o s q u it o - c u r t a in . V A . 1 2 0 7 e x p l a in s b y clvarakutika. D o e s t h i s m e a n a l i t t l e h u t ( m a d e o f r o b e - m a t e r ia l) ? " 6 A s a t Vin. i v . 7 5 ; i. 5 7 ( R a j a g a h a ) , i. 2 4 8 ( K u s i n a r a ) . '

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s u m p tu o u s fo o d s, b e ca m e v e r y ill w ith th e ir b o d ies fu ll o f (bad) h u m o u r s .1 T h e n J iv a k a K o m a r a b h a c c a w e n t to V e s a li on so m e b u sin ess o r o th e r. J iv a k a K o m a r a b h a c c a s a w th e m o n k s w h o w e re v e r y ill w ith th e ir b o d ie s fu ll o f (bad) h u m o u rs ; se e in g th e m , he a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , h e s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s h e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e , J iv a k a K o m a r a b h a c c a sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : A t p re se n t, L o rd , m o n k s a re v e r y ill w ith th e ir b o d ies fu ll o f (bad) h u m o u rs. I t w ere w ell, L o r d , if th e L o rd a llo w e d th e m o n k s a p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in a n d a b a th r o o m .2 T h u s w ill th e m o n k s c o m e to h a v e fe w a fflic tio n s ."3 T h e n th e L o rd g la d d e n e d , re jo ic e d , ro u se d , d e lig h te d J iv a k a K o m a r a b h a c c a w ith t a lk on dham m a . T h e n J iv a k a K o m a r a b h a c c a , g la d d e n e d . . . d e lig h te d b y th e L o r d w ith t a lk on dham m a , risin g fro m his se a t, h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , d e p a rte d k e e p in g h is r ig h t sid e to w a rd s h im . T h e n th e L o r d o n th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e c tio n , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n e d ta lk , a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : I a llo w , m o n k s, a p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in , an d a b a th ro o m * " || 1 || N o w a t t h a t tim e [1 1 9 ] m o n k s p a c e d u p a n d d o w n in a n u n e v e n p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in ; th e ir fe e t b e c a m e p a in fu l. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e it l e v e l / A p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in w a s lo w to th e g r o u n d ; it w a s flo o d ed b y w a te r. " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e it h ig h to th e g ro u n d . . . (as in V . 1 1 . 6). . . . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , a b a lu s t r a d e ." N o w a t t h a t tim e , m o n k s, a s t h e y w e re p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in th e p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in , fe ll off. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a ra ilin g ro u n d th e p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in ." 4 N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s, p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in th e o p e n a ir, w e re b o th e re d
1 A s a t V i n . i. 206. * ja n ta g h a r a , a s a t M V . I . 25. 1 2 ; s e e B . D . i v . 6 2 , a n d V i n . T e x t s iii. 10 3 , n . 2. a a p p & b a d h a. J i v a k a w a s p r o b a b l y t a k i n g a w id e r v i e w o f m a in t a in in g th e m o n k s ' h e a lth t h a n th e c o n v a l e s c e n t *' o f V i n . T e x t s iii. 10 3 a l l o t s f o r . 4 ca n k a m a n a v e d ik a . A s n o t e d b y A . IC. C o o m a r a s w a m y i n I n d i a n A r c h ite c tu r a l T e r m s , J . A . O . S ., V o l . 48, N o . 3, p . 2 7 3 {q.v. f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s ) , D . ii. 1 7 9 g i v e s t h e c o m p o n e n t p a r t s o f a v e d ik a ; t h e u p r ig h t s , t h e c r o s s - b a r s a n d t h e c o p in g . C f . v e d ik a v a ta p a n a a t C V . V I . 2 . 2.

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b y c o ld a n d h e a t. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a h a ll in th e p la c e fo r p a c in g u p an d d o w n i n ." P o w d e re d g ra ss fe ll in to th e h a ll in th e p la ce fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g la sh ed on (a roof) . . . (as in V . 1 1 . 6 ) . . . a c o rd fo r h a n g in g u p ro b e -m a te ria l. |[ 2 || A b a th ro o m w a s lo w to th e g ro u n d ; it w a s flo o d ed b y w a te r. " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e it h ig h to th e g ro u n d . . . (as in V . 1 1 . 6) . . . a b a lu s tr a d e ." T h e re w a s n o d o o r 1 to a b a th ro o m . I a llo w , m o n k s, a d o o r, a d o o rp o st a n d lin te l ,3 a h o llo w lik e a m o rta r (for th e d o o r to re v o lv e in 3), a sm all u p p e r p ro je c tio n ,4 a p o st fo r th e b o lt , 5 a * m o n k e y 's h e a d ,'6 a p in (to se cu re th e b o lt ),7 a (stick u sed a s a) b o lt ,8 a k e y h o le ,9 a hole fo r p u llin g th ro u g h (th e c o rd ),10c o rd fo r p u llin g th r o u g h . 11 T h e lo w e r p a rt o f th e la th a n d p la s te r w a ll 12 o f a b a th ro o m d e c a y e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a fa c in g (round i t ). 13 T h e
1 ka v a ta , t h e d o o r i t s e lf , t h a t w h i c h c lo s e s t h e a p e r t u r e . 2 p itth a sa m g h a ta . A l lo w e d a g a i n w i t h t h e t w o f o llo w in g i t e m s a t C V . V I . 2. i . * u d u k k h a lik a . I f o l lo w t r a n s la t io n a t V i n . T e x t s iii. 1 0 5 . 4 u tta r a p d s a k a . V i n . T e x t s iii. 1 0 5 - 6 " p r o j e c t io n s t o r e v o l v e in t h e s e h ollow s.** 6 a g g a la v a tti . V A . 12 0 7 sa y s, th e sa m e m e a su re a s t h e d o o rp o s t, dvdrabah d , i t is s im p ly c a lle d a g g a la th a m b h a ( p o s t f o r a b o lt o r b a r ) . H a v in g m a d e t h r e e o r f o u r h o le s t h e r e , t h e y p u t in p in s *' (s u c i, o r c r o s s - b a r s ) . 6 k a p is ls a k a . V A . 12 0 7 s a y s , " t h i s m e a n s , h a v i n g p e r f o r a t e d t h e d o o r p o s t , i t is c a lle d a b o l t - p r o je c t io n , a g g a la p d s d k a , p u t in t h e r e . C .P .D . {un d er a g g a la p d sd k a ) n o t e s t h a t ** a c c o r d i n g t o V A . ( V i n . ii. 12 0 ) = k a p is ls a k a , q u a d r a n g u la r e n d o f t h e b o lt o f a d o o r , S . B . E . X X . p . 10 6 ).* 1 C f . D . ii. 1 4 3 , k a p is ls a m a la m b itv d th ito , w h ic h D A . 5 8 4 e x p la i n s a s k a p is ls a k a n i i d v d ra b a h a ko tiy a m thitarn a g g a la r u k k h a m , ** a p i e c e o f w o o d f o r t h e b o lt f ix e d a t t h e t o p o f t h e d o o r p o s t/ * I t m u s t b e a h o le o r c a v i t y t o r e c e i v e t h e b o l t . T h e w o r d a ls o o c c u r s a t J a . iii. 2 3 . 7 s u c ik a . V A . 12 0 7 s a y s , " i t is p u t in , h a v i n g m a d e a h o le in t h e m id d le t h e i e " (i.e . in t h e " m o n k e y 's h e a d *'). C f . a g g a la su ci a t M . i. 1 2 6 , " t h e p in fo r t h e b o lt/ * 8 g h a tik d . V A . 1 2 0 7 m e r e ly s a y s ** jo in e d a b o v e , * u p a r i y o jit d . C f. g h a tik a m ugghdletvd, h a v i n g u n d o n e t h e b o l t , a t V i n . ii. 2 0 7 , a n d sH cigh atika a t V i n . ii. 2 3 7 , 5 . i v . 2 9 0 U d . 5 2 . I t is e x p la in e d a t U d A , 298 : s u c ig h a tik d m e a n s h a v i n g f ix e d (d d a h itv a , v .l. a d itn ka tv d ) t h e p in f o r t h e b o l t , a g g a ja s u c i , a n d t h e u p p e r b o lt , u p a r ig h a tik a r h a v i n g c lo s e d i t f i r m l y . T h e g h a tik d w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e a s u b s i d i a r y b o lt , t h e m a in o n e b e in g t h e a gga la . * C f . b e lo w , p . 2 0 7. 10 d v in c h a n a c h id d a . T h i s a n d t h e n e x t a llo w e d a g a i n a t C V . V I . 2. 1 b e c a u s e t h e r e d o o r s c o u ld n o t b e m a d e t o m e e t ( t h e d o o r p o s t s ) , n a p h a s s ly a n t i. 11 d v iiic h a n a r a jju . 12 k u 4$ a p d d a ; a ls o b e lo w V I . 3. 4 o f a d w e llin g - p la c e a n d w h e r e a d if f e r e n t r e m e d y w a s " a llo w e d / * 1* maxi 4 ,alikaTn ka tu tn . V A . 1 2 0 7 s a y s n lc a v a tth u k a m c in it u m , " t o p il e lo w t o t h e g r o u n d ," f o r w h ic h e x p r e s s io n c f , V . 1 1 . 6.

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b a th ro o m h a d n o p ip e fo r th e s te a m .1 I a llo w , m o n k s, a p ip e fo r th e s te a m . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s m a d e a fire p la ce in th e m id d le o f a sm a ll b a th ro o m , a n d th e re w a s n o a c c e s s .2 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a firep la ce a t o n e sid e o f a sm a ll b a th ro o m , in th e m id d le o f a la r g e o n e . T h e fire in th e b a th ro o m s c o rc h e d th e ir fa ces. " I a llo w , m o n k s , c la y fo r th e fa c e . 3 T h e y m o is te n e d th e c la y w ith th e ir h a n d s. " I a llo w , m o n k s, a tu b fo r th e c l a y . T h e c la y c a m e to sm ell n a s ty . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to c u r e 4 i t . T h e fire in th e b a th ro o m sco rch e d th e ir b o d ies. " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , to ta k e in w a te r . T h e y to o k in w a te r in d ish es a n d b o w ls. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a re c e p ta c le fo r w a te r , 5 a s a u c e r 6 fo r th e w a te r . A b a th ro o m w ith a g ra s s ro o fin g d id n o t m a k e th e m s w e a t. " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g la s h e d o n (a ro o f ),7 to g iv e it a sm e a rin g in sid e a n d o u ts id e . T h e b a th ro o m b e c a m e s w a m p y . " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to sp re a d th re e (k in d s of) sp re a d in g s : a sp re a d in g o f b r ic k s , a sp re a d in g o f sto n es, a sp re a d in g o f w o o d . 8 E v e n so it b e c a m e s w a m p y . " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to w a sh i t . W a te r re m a in e d . I a llo w , m o n k s, a d ra in fo r th e w a t e r . 9 N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s s a t d o w n [120 ] on th e g ro u n d in a b a th r o o m a n d t h e y g o t p in s a n d n e e d les in th e ir lim b s. I a llo w , m o n k s , a c h a ir fo r th e b a th r o o m . N o w a t t h a t tim e a b a th ro o m w a s n o t fe n c e d in. I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (kin d s of) fe n ces to fe n c e it in w ith : a fen ce o f b ric k s , a fe n ce o f sto n e s, a fe n c e o f w o o d . 10 j| 3 [| T h e r e w a s no p o r c h .11 I a llo w , m o n k s, a p o r c h . The p o rc h w a s lo w to th e g ro u n d ; it w a s flo o d ed b y w a te r . c' I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e it h ig h to th e g ro u n d * . . (as in
1 d h u m a n e tta . C f . M V . V I . 13. 2 . V A . 1 2 0 7 s a y s a h o le f o r l e t t i n g o u t th e s te a m . * u p a c a r a a s in C V . V l . 3. 3. 3 m u k h a m a ttik a . C f . M V . I . 25. 1 2 . * v a se tu m , in t h e s e n s e o f t o p r e p a r e , t o t r e a t , a s a t M V . V I . 17. B u . s a y s *' t o c u r e w i t h p e r f u m e s .*' 6 u d a k a tth a n a . B u . r e a d s u d a k a r tid h a n a , a r e c e p t a c l e f o r w a t e r , a n d e x p l a i n s , " a p l a c e f o r p u t t i n g w a t e r ; h a v i n g p u t t h e w a t e r in a p i t c h e r (g h ata) t h e r e , o n e c a n u s e i t b y m e a n s o f a s a u c e r " {or c u p ) . * s a rd v a k a , a s a t V i n . i. 2 0 3 . C f . a c a m a n a s a r d v a k a a t C V . V . 35. 4 . 7 S e e a b o v e , C V . V , 11. 6 . * A s in C V . V . 17. 1 . * A s a t e n d o f C V . V . 14. 5 ; 17. 2. 10 A s a t V . 17. 1 ; c f. V i n . i v . 2 6 6 . 11 k o tfh a k a . V A . 12 0 8 s a y s t h i s m e a n s d v a ra k o tth a k a , g a t e w a y in t h e p o r c h . S e e C V . V . 35. 4 . '*

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V . 1 1 . 6) . . . a b a lu s tr a d e / ' T h e re w a s no d o o r to th e p o rch . I a llo w , m o n k s, a d oor, d o o rp o sts a n d lin te l . . . (as in V . 14 . 3) . . . a hole fo r p u llin g th ro u g h (the co rd ), c o rd for p u llin g th r o u g h / P o w d e re d g ra ss fe ll on t o th e p o rch . " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, h a v in g la sh e d on (a ro o f), to g iv e it a sm ea rin g in sid e a n d o u tsid e , w h ite w a s h , b la c k co lo u rin g , red c h a lk , g a rla n d d esign , c ree p e r d esign , sw o rd fish te e th , th e five (pieces of) c lo th d e sig n / ' 1 || 4 [ | A c e ll b e ca m e s w a m p y .2 " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to sp rin k le g r a v e l / '3 T h e y d id n o t su cce ed in d o in g so. " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to la y d o w n fla g s to n e s / ' W a te r re m a in e d , < c I a llo w , m o n ks, a d ra in fo r th e w a te r / '4 [| 5 || 1 4 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s, w h ile n a k e d ,5 g re e te d o th e rs w h o w ere n a k e d a n d c a u se d o th e rs w h o w ere n a k e d to g re e t th e m ; d id a se rv ic e to o th e rs w h o w ere n a k e d a n d m a d e o th e rs do a se rv ic e to th o se w h o w ere n a k e d ; w h ile n a k e d t h e y g a v e to o th e rs w h o w e re n a k e d , a c c e p te d n a k e d , a te n a k e d , p a rto o k o f n a k e d , ta s te d n a k e d , d ra n k n a k e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M onks, one w h o is n a k e d sh o u ld n e ith e r g re e t npr b e g re e te d b y one w h o is n a k e d ; one w h o is n a k e d sh o u ld n o t ca u se a n o th e r to g re e t n o r to be g re e te d b y one w h o is n a k e d ; a se rv ice fo r one w h o is n a k e d sh o u ld n o t b e d o n e b y one w h o is n a k e d , a se rvice for one w h o is n a k e d sh o u ld n o t b e c a u se d to b e d on e b y one w h o is n a k e d ; one w h o is n a k e d sh o u ld n o t g iv e to a n a k e d o n e, o n e w h o is n a k e d sh o u ld n o t a c c e p t, one w h o is n a k e d sh o u ld n o t e a t, one w h o is n a k e d sh o u ld n o t p a rta k e of, . . . sh o u ld n o t ta s te . . . sh o u ld n o t d rin k . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) d rin k , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . 1115 I! N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s la id asid e th e ir ro b es on th e g ro u n d in a b a th r o o m ; th e ro b es b e c a m e so ile d w ith d u s t . 6 T h e y
1 A s a t C V . V . 1 1 . 6. * A s a t C V . V . 35. 4 :V I . 3.8. 3 tn arum ba, a s in P a c . X in d e fin it io n o f " n a t u r a l g r o u n d " ii. 2 2 4 a n d n . 1 ) . * A s in C V . V . 14- 3. * T h a t is, in t h e b a t h r o o m . * A s a t C V . V . 11. 3.

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to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a m b o o fo r ro b es, a c o rd fo r r o b e s / ' W h e n it ra in e d th e ro bes g o t w e t. " I a llo w , [12 1] m o n k s , a h a ll in th e b a th r o o m / ' T h e h a ll in th e b a th ro o m w a s lo w to th e g ro u n d . " I a llo w , m o n ks, . . . (as in V . 1 1 . 6) . . . a b a lu s tr a d e . P o w d e re d g ra ss fell on to th e h a ll in th e b a th ro o m . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g la sh e d on (a roof) . . . ( a s i n V . 1 1 . 6 ) . . . a b a m b o o fo r ro b es, a c o rd fo r ro b e s . J | I || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w ere d o u b tfu l a b o u t d o in g a se rv ic e b o th w h en in a b a th ro o m a n d in th e w a te r. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : ' I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (kin d s of) c o v e r in g s : a c o v e r in g to th e b a th ro o m , a c o v e r in g to th e w a te r , a c o v e r in g b y c lo th e s .1 N o w a t th a t tim e th e re w a s n o w a te r in a b a th ro o m . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a w e ll. T h e fa c in g o f th e w e ll fe ll in .2 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p ile u p th re e (k in d s of) p ilin g s : a p ilin g o f b ric k s , a p ilin g o f sto n e s, a p ilin g o f w o o d . T h e w e ll w a s lo w to th e g ro u n d . . . (as i n V . 1 1 . 6) . . . I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a lu s tr a d e . N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s d re w w a te r b y m ea n s o f ju n g le ro p e, a n d b y m ea n s o f a w a is tb a n d . " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a c o rd fo r d ra w in g w a t e r . T h e ir h a n d s b e c a m e p a in fu l. I a llo w , m o n k s ,-a w e ll-s w e e p ,3 a h a n d -w h e e l ,4 a w h e el a n d b u c k e ts . 5 M a n y v e sse ls w ere b ro k e n . I a llo w m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) ja r s : a c o p p e r ja r , a w o o d e n ja r, s trip s o f a n im a ls' h id e . * N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s, d ra w in g w a te r in th e op en a ir, w ere b o th e re d b y c o ld a n d h e a t. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a h a ll fo r a w e ll/ P o w d e re d g ra ss fe ll on to th e h a ll fo r a w ell. " I a llo w , m o n k s,
1 V A . 12 0 8 s a y s t h a t t h e t w o f o r m e r a r e f o r d o in g a s e r v ic e , b u t n o t fo r g r e e t in g , e t c . , t h e l a s t is f o r d o in g a l l k in d s o f s e r v ic e s . 3 A s a t C V . V . 17. 2. 8 tu la . V A . 12 0 8 s a y s '* a p o le f o r l i f t i n g u p (o r p u ll in g u p , u b b d h a n a ) th e w a te r lik e t h a t u se d fo r v e g e ta b le s , p a n n i k a n a v n A . K . C o o m a ra s w a m y s a y s i t m e a n s h e r e " w e ll - s w e e p / ' I n d i a n A r c h i t . T e r m s , p . 2 7 1 , w h ic h a ls o s e e , loo. t i t . f o r t h e t w o f o llo w in g t e r m s . T h e t h r e e t e r m s in d i c a t e d if f e r e n t m e t h o d s o f p u l l i n g u p w a t e r . E d d . V in , T e x t s , iii. 1 1 2 h a d a c o r r u p t c o p y o f V A . b e fo r e t h e m . * k a r a k a ta k a . K a t a k a is a n y t h i n g c ir c u l a r , s o a w h e e l. V A . 12 0 8 s a y s ** e it h e r h a v i n g h a r n e s s e d it t o b u ll o c k s o r h a v i n g t a k e n i t w i t h t h e h a n d s , it is a n in s t r u m e n t w i t h a lo n g s t r a p f o r p u l l i n g u p * (a b u c k e t o f w a t e r ) . 6 ca k k a v a tta k a . V A . 12 0 8 s a y s " i t is a c o n t r i v a n c e fo r j a r s t o b e t a k e n o ff t h e s p o k e s o f a w h e e l / ' a r a h a ta g h a tiy a n ta m (v .l. a ra h a tta g h a ti - ) . * V A . 12 0 8 , " a h id e v e s s e l t h a t c a n b e jo in e d t o t h e w e ll- s w e e p o r t h e h a n d - w h e e l.* '

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. . . ( a s i n V . 1 1 . 6) . . . a b a m b o o fo r ro b es, a co rd fo r ro b e s . T h e w ell w a s n o t c o v e re d . I t w a s litte r e d w ith p o w d e re d g ra ss a n d w ith d u st. I a llo w , m o n k s, a lid / '1 T h e re w a s no vessel fo r th e w a te r. I a llo w , m o n k s, a tro u g h fo r w a te r, a p o t 2 fo r w a t e r / ' |[ 2 |[ 1 6 |j N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s b a th e d h ere, th e re a n d e v e ry w h e re in a m o n a s te r y ; th e m o n a s te r y b e c a m e s w a m p y . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord * H e s a id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a p o o l/ T h e p o o l w a s p u b lic . I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) fe n ces to fe n ce it in : a fe n ce o f b ric k s , a fe n c e o f sto n es, a fe n ce o f w o o d / '3 T h e p o o l b e ca m e sw am p y* " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to sp re a d th re e (kin d s of) sp re a d in g s : a sp re a d in g o f b rick s , a sp re a d in g o f sto n es, a sp re a d in g o f w o o d . 3 T h e w a te r rem a in ed . I a llo w , m o n k s, a d r a in / ' 4 N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s' lim b s c o o le d d o w n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a w ip e r (w ith w h ic h to w ip e off) th e w a t e r 5 a n d to sp on ge y o u rs e lv e s d o w n w ith a c lo th *6 [|i || N o w a t t h a t [122] tim e a c e rta in la y fo llo w e r w a s a n x io u s to b u ild a ta n k fo r a n Order* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a t a n k . T h e fa c in g o f th e ta n k fe ll in .7 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p ile u p th re e (kin d s of) p ilin g s : a p ilin g o f b ric k s , a p ilin g o f sto n e s, a p ilin g o f w o o d . 8 T h e y w ere in c o n v e n ie n c e d a s t h e y w ere a scen d in g . " I a llo w , m o n ks, th ree (kin d s of) sta irc a s e s : a sta irc a s e o f b ric k s , a sta irc a se o f sto n es, a sta irc a s e o f w o o d . A s t h e y w ere a sc e n d in g t h e y fe ll off. " I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a lu s tr a d e . T h e w a te r in th e t a n k b e ca m e s ta le . I a llo w , m o n k s, a p ip e fo r th e w a te r ,0 a d ra in fo r th e w a te r .
1 a p id h a n a a s a t M V . V I . 12. 2. 3 k a ta k a , o r r e c e p t a c le . 3 A s a t C V . V . 14. 3. 4 A s a t C V . V . 14. 3, 5 . B u d a k a p u n c h a n l. I n v ie w o f th e fa c t t h a t B u . s a y s " m a d e o f iv o r y , m a d e o f h o r n , m a d e o f w o o d , i t c a n n o t u n h e s it a t i n g l y b e r e n d e r e d to w e l " {as a t V i n . T e x t s iii. 1 1 4 ) . Y e t t h e t h r e e s o r t s a llo w e d a t V i n . ii. 1 7 4 a r e t h o s e o f b e a r s k in , d r a p e r y a n d c l o t h a n d B u . m e n t io n s c o la k a p d d a p u n c h a n a in Corny . o n C V . V I , 2. 2 . C f . p a d a p u n c h a n l a t V i n . i v . 4 0 . T h e w o r d a ls o o c c u r s a t V i n . i v . 16 8 ( B . D . iii .8 9 ). * c o la k e n a p a c c u d d h a r itu m a s a t C V . V I . 3. 1. A s a t C V . V . 16. 2. 8 A s a t C V . V . 11. 6. 9 u d a k d y a tik a . V A . 12 0 8 ( r e a d in g u d a k a m a tik a , a c h a n n e l, c o u r s e , a s d o e s C in g . e d n . o f V in .) s a y s t h i s is a m a tik a f o r b r in g in g w a t e r in . T h e d r a in w ill h a v e b e e n t o le a d i t a w a y .

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N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k w a s a n x io u s to b u ild a b a th ro o m w ith a c u r v in g ro o f 1 fo r an O rd e r. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a th ro o m w ith a c u r v in g r o o f." || 2 |[ 1 7 || N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s w ere a w a y , se p a r a te d fro m 2 th e ir p ie ce s o f c lo th to sit u p o n 3 fo r fo u r m o n th s. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e sa id : M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t be a w a y , s e p a ra te d fro m y o u r p ie ce s o f c lo th to sit u p o n fo r fo u r m o n th s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld be (so) a w a y , se p a ra te d fro m , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g ." N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s la y d o w n to sleep on b e d s w h ic h w e re s c a tte r e d o v e r w ith flo w ers. P e o p le , to u r in g th e d w e llin g -p la c e , h a v in g seen th e m . , . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g ; L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s of th e s e n s e s ." T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t lie d o w n to slee p on b e d s s c a tte re d o v e r w ith flo w ers. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) lie d o w n to sleep, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g ." N o w a t t h a t tim e p e o p le , ta k in g sc e n ts a n d g a rla n d s , ca m e to a m o n a ste ry . M o n k s b e in g sc ru p u lo u s, d id n o t a c c e p t th e m . T h e y t o ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g ta k e n th e sce n ts, to g iv e th e fivefin g er m a r k 4 on th e d o o r ; h a v in g ta k e n th e flo w ers, to la y th e m d o w n in a d w e llin g -p la c e a t o n e s id e ." || 1 8 || N o w a t t h a t tim e a p iece o f fe lt 5 a c c ru e d to a n O rd er. T h e y
1 T h i s r e n d e r in g is t a k e n f r o m V A . 12 0 8 w h ic h s a y s t h a t nillekha is c a lle d " a p r o j e c t i o n c u r v i n g a t t h e s id e , aviddhapakkhapasaka ; h a v i n g f ix e d t h e s id e p r o j e c t i o n s in t h e u p p e r r o u n d p a r t , uparim andale , o f t h e b e a m s , t h i s (i.e . nillekha ) is t h e n a m e o f t h e fin is h e d c o v e r i n g r o o f.* ' O n e m ig h t c o m p a re t h e ** c u r v e d h o u s e ,,J addhayoga, o f V in . i. 58 a n d o t h e r p a s s a g e s . See B .D . i v . 7 5 . 2 vippavasati ; s e e N is s a g . I I . 3 S e e N is s a g . X V , V in . iii. 2 3 2 w h e r e nisldana is d e fin e d , a n d B .D . ii. 8 7 , n . 2, 3* _ . 4 kavdte pancangulikam datum S e e a r t : pancangulika in P .K .D . I t is e it h e r a m a g i c a l a n d p r o t e c t i v e o r a d e c o r a t i v e m a r k . A t th e p resen t d a y im p r e s s io n s o f t h e h u m a n h a n d a r e s t i ll m a d e o n w a lls in I n d i a , t h e h a n d h a v i n g b e e n f ir s t d ip p e d in s o m e c o l o u r i n g m a t t e r . S e e a ls o J . P . T . S . 18 8 4 , p . 84 f. Pancangulikam datva o c c u r s a t J d . i. 1 6 6 in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s la y i n g a g o a t ; a t J d . i. 1 9 2 (gandhena p a n e - datva) o f a n o x ; a t J d . ii. 10 4 , iii. 2 3 o f a t r e e , a n d a ls o a s lohitapanc - o f a t r e e a t J d . i ii . 16 0 . h namataka , a s a t V in . ii. 1 1 5 , 1 3 4 . VA. 1 2 0 8 on i t s m e a n i n g a b o v e s a y s t h a t i t is m a d e o f s h e e p 's w o o l (o r g o a t s ' h a ir , elakaloma ).

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to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : 1 a llo w , m o n k s, a p ie c e of f e lt ." T h e n it o c c u rre d t o m o n k s : N o w , sh o u ld a p iece o f fe lt b e a llo tte d o r sh o u ld it b e a ssig n e d ? " x A piece o f fe lt, m o n k s, sh o u ld be n e ith e r a llo tte d n o r a s s ig n e d ." N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s a te (lea n in g again st) c h a se d c u sh io n s .2 P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : ' L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p lea su res o f th e se n s e s ." T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t e a t (lean in g a g ain st) c h a se d cu sh io n s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) e a t th e re is an o ffen ce [123] o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to b e ill. W h ile he w a s e a tin g h e w a s n o t a b le to h o ld a b o w l in his h a n d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s a s ta n d . 3 |j 1 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s a te fro m one d is h 6 a n d d ra n k fro m one b e a k e r 4 a i d sh a re d one c o u c h 5 a n d sh a red one c lo t h 5 a n d sh a re d one c o v e r in g 5 a n d sh a red one c o v e rin g c lo th . 0 P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u se h o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n ses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t e a t fro m one d ish n o r d rin k fro m one b e a k e r n or sh are one co u ch n or sh a re one c lo th n o r sh are one c o v e r in g n o r sh a re one c o v e rin g -c lo th . W h o e v e r sh o u ld sh a re (one), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . || 2 || 1 9 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a w a s a frie n d o f th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a .7 T h e n th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a a p p ro a c h e d th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w ers o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sp o k e th u s to th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a : < f I sa lu te y o u , m a s te r s ." W h e n h e h a d sp o k en th u s, th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w ers o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a d id n o t resp o n d . A n d a seco n d tim e. . . , A n d a th ird
1 N o t in c lu d e d a m o n g t h e a r t i c l e s a b o u t w h ic h t h e s a m e q u e s t io n w a s a s k e d a t V in . i. 2 9 6 - 7 . a asittakupadhdna. V A . 12 0 8 s a y s t h a t a s y n o n y m f o r t h i s is a peld ( b a s k e t , c h e s t ?) m a d e o f c o p p e r o r s i l v e r / 9 malorika, V A . 12 0 8 e x p la in s a s a p r o p ( m a d e o f) s t ic k s , daipifddhd aka . 4 A s l a x m o n k s d id a t V in . ii, 10 , iii. 18 0 . 6 A s t h e l a x m o n k s a n d a s t w o n u n s d id a t V in . i v . 288 (see B . D . iii. 304). 4 A s t h e l a x m o n k s a n d a s t h e t w o n u n s a t V in . i v . 2 8 9 (se e B . D . iii. 30 5 n .) . 7 C f . Vin . ii. 78 f ., iii. 1 6 2 .

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tim e d id th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a s p e a k th u s to th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a : " I sa lu te y o u , m a ste rs.'* A n d a th ir d tim e th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a d id n o t resp o n d . H e s a id : " D o I o ffe n d a g a in s t th e m a ste rs ? W h y d o th e m a ste rs n o t resp o n d to m e ? " " I t is b e c a u s e y o u , frie n d V a d d h a , w ere in d iffe re n t w h e n w e w e re b e in g m o le ste d b y D a b b a th e M a llia n ." " W h a t c a n I , m a ste rs, d o ? " " I f y o u , frie n d V a d d h a , w ere w illin g y o u c o u ld g e t th e L o r d to e x p e l th e v e n e r a b le 1 D a b b a th e M a llia n th is v e r y d a y ." W h a t c a n I, m a ste rs, d o ? H o w a m I a b le to d o t h a t ? " " C o m e y o u , frie n d V a d d h a , g o u p to th e L o r d ; h a v in g g o n e u p , s p e a k th u s to th e L o r d : ' T h is , L o rd , is n o t s u ita b le , it is n o t b e c o m in g t h a t th is q u a r te r w h ic h sh o u ld b e w ith o u t fe a r, secu re, w ith o u t d a n g e r, is th e v e r y q u a r te r w h ic h is fu ll o f fe a r, in se c u re , fu ll o f d a n g e r. W h e re th e re w a s a c a lm , n o w th e re is a g a le . I t se e m s a s if th e v e r y w a t e r is b la z in g . M y w ife h a s b e e n se d u c e d b y m a ste r D a b b a th e M a llia n / " || 1 || " V e r y w e ll, m a s te r s ," a n d th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a , h a v in g a n sw e re d th e m o n k s w h o w e re fo llo w e rs o f M e ttiy a a n d B h u m m a ja k a in a ss e n t, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g r e e te d th e L o r d , h e s a t d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s h e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a r e s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e [124], th e L ic c h a v i V a c jd h a s p o k e th u s to th e L o r d : T h is, L o r d , is n o t s u ita b le . . . . M y w ife h a s b e e n se d u c e d b y m a ste r D a b b a th e M a llia n . T h e n th e L o r d o n th is o c ca sio n , in th is c o n n e c tio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M a llia n , s a y i n g : " D a b b a , d o y o u re m em b er d o in g a s th is V a d d h a s a y s ? " " L o r d , th e L o r d k n o w s in re g a r d t o m e ." A n d a seco n d tim e th e L o r d . . . . A n d a th ir d tim e th e L o r d s p o k e th u s to th e v e n e r a b le D a b b a th e M a llia n : D a b b a , d o y o u re m e m b e r d o in g a s th is V a d d h a s a y s ? " " L o r d , th e L o r d k n o w s in re g a rd to m e , h e sa id . " D a b b a , th e D a b b a s d o n o t g iv e e v a s iv e a n sw e rs th u s.
1 H e is n o t c a l l e d a y a sm a b y t h e m o n k s a t t h e p a r a ll e l p a s s a g e a t V i n . iii. 1 6 2 , b u t h e is a t V i n . ii. 78 .

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I f w h a t w a s d o n e w a s d o n e b y y o u , s a y so ; if it w a s n o t done b y y o u , s a y it w a s n o t . L o rd , sin ce I w a s b o m I c a n n o t c a ll to m in d in d u lg in g in s e x u a l in terco u rse e v e n in a d rea m ; m u ch less so w h en I w a s a w a k e . || 2 || T h e n th e L o r d a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " B e c a u s e o f th is, m o n k s, le t th e O rd e r tu rn th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a 's b o w l u p sid e d o w n ,1 le t it im p o se n o n -e a tin g w ith th e O rd e r .2 M on ks, i f a la y fo llo w e r is p o ssessed o f e ig h t q u a litie s h is b o w l m a y b e tu rn e d u p sid e d o w n ;3 if h e trie s fo r n o n -re ce iv in g (of gains) b y m o n k s, if h e tries fo r n o n -p ro fitin g b y m o n k s, if he tries fo r n o n -resid en ce fo r m o n k s, i f he re v ile s a n d a b u ses m o n k s, if h e ca u se s m o n k to b r e a k w ith m o n k ,4 if h e sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e , if h e sp e a k s d isp ra ise o f dham m a , if h e s p e a k s d isp ra ise o f th e O rd er. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to tu rn a la y fo llo w e r s b o w l u p sid e d o w n if he is p o ssessed o f th ese e ig h t q u a litie s. || 3 | | A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e tu rn e d u p sid e d o w n : T h e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y i n g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a is d e fa m in g th e v e n e ra b le D a b b a th e M allian w ith an u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it .5 I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y tu rn th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a 's b o w l u p sid e d o w n , it m a y im p o se n o n -e a tin g w ith th e
1 aSrot a li t e r a l t u r n i n g u p s id e d o w n , b u t a s y m b o l i c a l o n e p e r fo r m e d b y a f o r m a l a c t o f t h e O r d e r f o r t u r n i n g d o w n , n i k k u jja n ji , a b o w l, a s d e s c r ib e d b e lo w in || 4 |j. V A . 12 0 9 s a y s h e r e , if a p e r s o n is p o s s e s s e d o f a n y o n e o f t h e s e e ig h t q u a l it i e s , h a v i n g g o n e w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r ie s o r o u t s id e t h e m ( th e O r d e r ) m a y t u r n i t d o w n . W h e n a n y o n e 's b o w l is t u r n e d u p s id e d o w n t h u s , n o a lm s m a y b e t a k e n in h i s h o u s e . . . . I t is s e t u p r i g h t ( a g a in ) b y a fo r m a l a c t c o n s is t i n g o f a m o t io n a n d a r e s o lu t io n , n a ttid u tiy a k a m m a .** A A . i v . 1 5 9 e x p la in s , ( t h e O r d e r ) m a y t u r n i t u p s id e d o w n b y a p r o c la m a t io n , k a m m a v aca f o r t u r n in g a b o w l u p s id e d o w n , o n a c c o u n t o f w h ic h t h e r e is n o r e c e iv in g o f a lm s g i v e n n o t b y p l a c i n g i t f a c e d o w n w a r d s / * T h e p h rase p a tta m n i k k u jj a t i a l t h o u g h u s e d in t h e o r d i n a r y s ig n if ic a t io n a b o v e , V . 9. 4 ( V i n , T e x ts iii. 1 1 9 , n . 2) is n o t h e r e . A la y m a n c e r t a i n l y w o u ld h a v e h a d n o b e g g in g b o w l t h a t c o u ld h a v e b e e n , l i t e r a l l y , t u r n e d u p s id e d o w n . 2 asatnbhog am sa m g h e n a k a ro tu . S e e a b o v e , C V . I . 25. 1 w h e r e n o n - e a t in g w it h a n O r d e r g o e s w i t h a n d is a m a r k o f a n a c t o f s u s p e n s io n . 3 T h is p a s s a g e r e c u r s a t A . i v . ^4S. T h e f i r s t f iv e q u a l it i e s a r e a ls o f o u n d a t V in . i. 84, ii. 1 8 . . 4 A t V i n . ii. 18 a f o r m a l a c t o f r e c o n c ilia t io n m a y b e c a r r ie d o u t f o r a m o n k if h e h a s t h e f ir s t f iv e o f t h e s e q u a lit ie s in r e s p e c t o f h o u s e h o ld e r s ; a n d i t m a y b e t o o i f h e h a s s p o k e n d is p r a is e o f t h e a w a k e n e d o n e , e t c . , t o h o u s e h o ld e r s . 6 A s a t V i n . ii. 7 9 , w h e r e a v e r d i c t o f in n o c e n c e " is g i v e n fo r D a b b a .

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O rd er. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a is d e fa m in g . . . o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it. T h e O rd e r is tu rn in g th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a s b o w l u p sid e d o w n , it is im p o sin g n o n -e a tin g w ith a n O rd er. I f th e tu rn in g u p s id e d o w n o f-th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a 's b o w l a n d th e im p o sin g o f n o n -e a tin g w ith th e O rd e r is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; h e t o w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g , sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a *s b o w l is tu rn e d u p sid e d o w n b y th e O rd e r (a n d th e re is to be) n o n -e a tin g w ith th e O rd er. I t is p le a s in g t o th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / | J 4 || T h e n th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a , h a v in g d ressed in th e m o rn in g , t a k in g h is b o w l a n d ro b e, w e n t u p to th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a s d w e lli n g ; h a v in g g o n e u p , h e s p o k e th u s to th e L ic c h a v i Va<^lha : " Y o u r b o w l, fr ie n d V a d d h a , is tu rn e d u p sid e d o w n b y a n O rd e r, y o u are n o n -e a tin g w ith th e O r d e r ." [125] T h e n th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a , th in k in g : " I t is sa id th a t m y b o w l is tu r n e d u p sid e d o w n b y a n O rd er, it is sa id t h a t I a m n o n e a tin g w ith th e O r d e r , fa in te d a n d fe ll on t h a t v e r y sp o t. T h e n th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a s frie n d s a n d in tim a te s , h is k ith a n d k in 1 sp o k e th u s t o th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a ; " E n o u g h , V a d d h a , d o n o t g r ie v e , d o n o t la m e n t, w e w ill re c o n c ile 2 th e L o r d a n d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s ." T h e n th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a w ith h is w ife a n d c h ild re n , w ith h is frien d s a n d in tim a te s , w ith h is k it h a n d k in , h is c lo th e s w e t, h is h a ir w e t a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " L o r d , a tra n sg re ssio n h a s o v e rc o m e m e ,3 in t h a t I , fo o lish , m isg u id e d , w ro n g t h a t I w a s, d e fa m e d m a s te r D a b b a th e M a llia n w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it. F o r th is, L o r d , le t th e L o r d a c k n o w le d g e m y tr a n s g re ssio n a s a tra n sg re ss io n fo r th e s a k e o f re s tra in t in th e fu t u r e ." " T r u ly a tra n sg re ssio n o v e r c a m e y o u , fr ie n d V a d d h a , in t h a t y o u , fo o lish , m isg u id e d , w ro n g t h a t y o u w ere, d e fa m e d D a b b a th e M a llia n w ith a n u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f fa llin g a w a y
1 C f . A . i. 222. * A s n o t e d a t V i n . T e x t s iii. 1 2 2 , n . 1 t h i s s a m e v e r b is u s e d in C V . I . 22. 3 w h e n a m o n k h a s o ffe n d e d a g a i n s t a l a y m a n .

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from m o ra l h a b it. B u t if y o u , frien d V a d d h a , h a v in g seen th e tra n sg ressio n as a tra n sg re ssio n , co n fe ss a c co rd in g to th e rule, w e 1 a c k n o w le d g e it fo r y o u . F o r , frie n d V a d d h a , in th e d isci pline of th e n o b le , th is is g ro w th : w h o e v e r h a v in g seen a tran sgressio n as a tra n sg re ssio n , con fesses it a c co rd in g to th e rule, h e a tta in s re stra in t in th e fu tu r e . || 5 || T h e n th e L o rd a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " W e ll, n o w m on ks, le t th e O rd er set u p r ig h t th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a J s b o w l, le t it g ra n t e a tin g w ith th e O rd er. M o n k s, if a la y fo llo w e r is possessed o f e ig h t q u a litie s his b o w l m a y b e se t u p rig h t : if he does n o t t r y fo r n o n -re c e iv in g (of gains) b y m o n k s, if he d oes n o t t r y fo r n o n -p ro fitin g b y m o n k s, if he does n o t t r y fo r n on -residen ce fo r m o n k s, if h e d o es n o t re v ile a n d a b u se m o n ks, if he does n o t ca u se m o n k to b r e a k w ith m o n k , if he d o es n o t sp e a k d isp ra ise o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e , if he d o es n o t s p e a k d is p raise o f dham m a , if h e d o es n o t sp e a k d isp ra ise o f th e O rd er. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to se t u p rig h t a la y fo llo w e r 's b o w l if h e is p ossessed o f th ese e ig h t q u a litie s. |j 6 || ff A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e s e t u p rig h t : M on ks, th a t L ic c h a v i V a d d h a , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd er, h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p e r ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u red th e m o n k s fe e t, h a v in g s a t d o w n on h is h a u n ch es, h a v in g sa lu te d th e m w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to th e m : ' H o n o u red sirs, m y b o w l w a s tu rn e d u p sid e d o w n b y th e O rd er, I a m n o t e a tin g w ith th e O rd er. B u t I, h o n o u re d sirs, a m c o n d u c tin g m y s e lf p ro p e rly , I a m su b d u e d , I a m m e n d in g m y w a y s, a n d I a sk th e O rd e r fo r th e s e ttin g u p rig h t o f th e b o w l.' A n d a seco n d tim e it sh o u ld be a sk e d fo r. A n d a th ird tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r. T h e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : [126] ' H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h e L ic c h a v i V a d ^ h a s b o w l w a s tu rn e d u p sid e d o w n b y th e O rd er, he is n o t e a tin g w ith th e O rd e r ; b u t he is c o n d u c tin g h im self p ro p e rly , he is su b d u e d , he is m e n d in g h is w a y ? ; he a sk s th e O rd er fo r th e se ttin g u p rig h t of th e b o w l. I f i t seem s r ig h t to th e
1 I n p a r a lle l p a s s a g e s t h e fir s t p e r s o n p lu r a l is lik e w is e u s e d h e r e , p e r h a p s t o e m p h a s is e t h a t ** c o n fe s s io n a c c o r d in g t o t h e r u le " is t o b e m a d e t o m o n k s a n d they a c k n o w le d g e i t a n d a r e t h e m e a n s b y w h ic h a t r a n s g r e s s io n c a n b e re m o ve d . A t t h e s a m e t im e , s in c e G o t a m a s e ld o m , a s r e c o r d e d , a d d r e s s e d la y p e o p le a s a v u s o , fr ie n d , i t is d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r h e is o r is in t e n d e d t o b e s p e a k in g h e r e a t a ll.

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O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y se t u p rig h t th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a 's b o w l, it m a y g r a n t e a tin g w ith th e O rd er. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e . T h e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a 's b o w l w a s tu rn e d u p sid e d o w n . . . h e a sk s th e O rd e r fo r s e ttin g u p r ig h t th e b o w l. T h e O rd e r is s e ttin g u p r ig h t th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a 's b o w l, it is g r a n tin g e a tin g w ith th e O rd er. I f th e s e ttin g u p r ig h t o f th e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a s b o w l a n d th e g r a n tin g o f e a t in g w ith th e O rd e r is p le a s in g to th e v e n e ra b le o n es, t h e y sh o u ld be sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a s in g sh o u ld s p e a k . T h e L ic c h a v i V a d d h a s b o w l is set u p r ig h t b y th e O rd e r (and th e re is) e a tin g w ith th e O rd er. I t is p le a s in g to th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d t h is . '' || 7 |] 20 || T h e n th e L o r d , h a v in g s t a y e d in V e s a li fo r a s lo n g as he fo u n d su itin g , set o u t on to u r fo r th e B h a g g a s .1 I n d u e co u rse, w a lk in g o n to u r, th e L o r d a r r iv e d a t th e B h a g g a s . T h e L o rd s ta y e d th e re a m o n g th e B h a g g a s on S u m s u m a ra H ill 2 in th e B h e s a k a la G r o v e in th e d e e r p a r k . N o w a t t h a t tim e K o k a n a d a 3 w a s th e n a m e o f P rin c e B o d h i's 4 p a la c e ; it h a d n o t lo n g b e en b u ilt a n d w a s a s y e t u n in h a b ite d b y re clu se o r b ra h m in o r b y a n y h u m a n c re a tu re . 'T h e n P rin c e B o d h i a d d re sse d th e b ra h m in y o u th , th e so n o f S a n jik a , 6 s a y in g : C o m e a lo n g , g o o d son o f S a n jik a , g o u p to th e L o r d ; h a v in g g o n e u p , in m y n a m e s a lu te th e L o r d 's fe e t w ith y o u r h e a d , a s k w h e th e r h e is w e ll, n o t in d isp o se d , o f b o d ily v ig o u r , stro n g , a b id in g in c o m fo rt, a n d s a y : L o r d , P rin c e B o d h i s a lu te s th e L o r d 's fe e t w ith h is h e a d a n d a s k s w h e th e r h e is w e ll . . . a b id in g in c o m fo r t/ a n d s a y s th is : * L o r d , m a y th e L o r d co n se n t to a m e a l w ith P rin c e B o d h i to m o r r o w to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er o f m o n k s .' "
1 y e n a B h a g g d . S e e M . ii. 9 1 w h e r e t h i s s t o r y a ls o a p p e a r s , g o i n g a s f a r a s p . 1 7 8 b e lo w , *4 a s h e w a s s it tiD g a t a r e s p e c t f u l d i s t a n c e / ' w h e r e t h e M . v e r s io n p r o c e e d s d i f f e r e n t ly . S e e a ls o 5 . iii. i a n d B . C . L a iw , T r ib e s in A n c i e n t I n d i a , 1 9 4 3 , p . 2 92 f . * S A . ii. 2 4 9 s a y s t h a t i t w a s c a lle d C r o c o d ile H i l l b e c a u s e a s i t w a s b e in g b u i l t a c r o c o d il e m a d e a n o is e . T h e B h e s a k a l a G r o v e w a s c a ll e d a f t e r a y a h k h in i w h o liv e d th e r e . 3 L o tu s. S e e B . D . iii. 1 3 9 , n . a n d M A iii. 3 2 1 . 4 D h p . 1 5 7 i s s a id t o h a v e b e e n u t t e r e d o n h is a c c o u n t , s e e D k A . iii. 13 4 . B S a n jik a p u tta . S e e D h A . iii. 1 3 4 , w h e r e h e w a r n e d t h e a r c h i t e c t t h a t B o d h i c o n t e m p la t e d k i l l i n g o r m a im in g h i m s o t h a t h e c o u ld n e v e r b u ild a n o th e r p a la c e lik e K o k a n a d a .

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V e r y w e ll, g o o d s ir / ' a n d th e b ra h m in y o u th , S a n jik a s son, h a v in g a n sw e re d P rin ce B o d h i in a ssen t, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g e x c h a n g e d g re e tin g s w ith th e L o rd , h a v in g c o n v e rse d in a c o u rte o u s a n d fr ie n d ly w a y , sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e . A s h e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a resp ectfu l d is ta n c e th e b ra h m in y o u th , th e so n o f S a n jik a , sp oke th u s to th e L o rd : P rin c e B o d h i sa lu te s th e re v e red G o ta m a s fe e t w ith h is h e a d . . . a n d s a y s m a y th e re v e red G o ta m a co n sen t to a m e a l w ith P rin c e B o d h i to m o rro w to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er o f m o n k s . T h e L o r d c o n se n te d b y b e co m in g silent. |] 1 || T h e n th e b ra h m in y o u th , S a n jik a s so n , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d th e L o rd 's co n se n t, risin g fro m his se a t a p p ro a c h e d P rin ce B o d h i ; [12 7] h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sp o k e th u s to P rin ce B o d h i : " I sp o k e , g o o d sir, in y o u r n a m e to th e L o rd G o ta m a , sa y in g : P rin c e B o d h i s a lu te s . . . to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er of m o n k s/ A n d th e reclu se G o ta m a c o n s e n te d . T h e n P rin ce B o d h i to w a rd s th e e n d o f t h a t n ig h t, h a v in g h a d su m p tu o u s fo o d s, so lid a n d so ft, p re p a re d , a n d h a v in g h a d K o k a n a d a p a la c e stre w n w ith w h ite c lo th s a s fa r as th e la s t fligh t o f s ta irs ,1 sp o k e th u s to th e b ra h m in y o u tfi, th e son o f S a n jik a : C o m e y o u a lo n g , g o o d fe llo w , a p p ro a c h th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , a n n o u n ce th e tim e to th e L o r d , s a y in g : 4 I t is tim e, L o rd , th e m ea l is r e a d y .' V e r y w ell, g o o d s ir , a n d th e b ra h m in y o u th , S a n jik a 's son, h a v in g a n sw e re d P rin c e B o d h i in a ssen t, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e a n n o u n c e d th e tim e to th e L o rd , s a y in g : I t is tim e, g o o d G o ta m a , th e m e a l is r e a d y . T h e n the L o rd , h a v in g d ressed in th e m o rn in g , ta k in g h is b o w l an d robe, a p p ro a ch e d P rin c e B o d h is d w e llin g . N o w a t th e tim e w hen th e L o rd w a s c o m in g P rin c e B o d h i w a s sta n d in g a t th e porch o f th e o u tsid e g a te w a y . P rin c e B o d h i s a w th e L o rd co m in g in th e d ista n c e , a n d seein g h im , h a v in g gon e fro m th ere to m eet h im , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o r d , h a v in g h o n o u re d h im , he a p p ro a c h e d K o k a n a d a p a la c e . T h e n th e L o r d sto o d still a t th e la s t flig h t o f sta irs. T h e n P rin c e B o d h i sp ok e th u s to th e L o r d : L o rd , le t th e L o r d tre a d on 2 th e c lo th s, le t th e w ell-farer
1 C f . M . ii. 9 2 , iii. 1. 2 a k k a m a tu . M . ii. 92 r e a d s a b h ir iih a tu .

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tr e a d on th e c lo th s so th a t it m a y b e fo r a lo n g tim e fo r m y b le ssin g a n d h a p p in e s s . W h e n he h a d sp o k e n th u s the L o r d b e c a m e sile n t. A n d a se c o n d tim e . , . * A n d a th ird tim e P rin c e B o d h i s p o k e th u s to th e L o r d : L o rd , le t th e L o r d tr e a d on . . . fo r m y b le ss in g a n d h a p p in e s s . T h e n th e L o r d lo o k e d to w a rd s th e v e n e r a b le A n a n d a . T h e n th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a s p o k e th u s to P rin c e B o d h i : L e t th e c lo th s , p rin c e , b e p a c k e d a w a y , th e L o r d w ill n ot tr e a d u p o n th e c lo th c a r p e tin g ,1 th e T ru th -fin d e r h a s c o m p a ss io n 2 fo r th e fo lk w h o co m e a f t e r . 3 || 2 | J T h e n P rin c e B o d h i, h a v in g h a d th e c lo th s p a c k e d a w a y , h a d a se a t m a d e r e a d y u p s ta irs in K o k a n a d a .4 T h e n th e L o rd h a v in g a sc e n d e d th e K o k a n a d a p a la c e , s a t d o w n to g e th e r w ith th e O rd e r o f m o n k s o n th e se a t m a d e r e a d y . T h e n P rin c e B o d h i, h a v in g w ith h is o w n h a n d s e r v e d a n d sa tisfie d w ith s u m p tu o u s fo o d s, so lid a n d s o ft, th e O rd e r o f m o n k s w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d , w h e n th e L o rd h a d e a te n a n d h a d w ith d r a w n h is h a n d fro m th e b o w l, sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . 5 T h e n th e L o r d , h a v in g g la d d e n e d , re jo ic e d , ro u sed , d e lig h te d P rin c e B o d h i a s he w a s s ittin g a t a re s p e c tfu l d ista n c e w ith t a lk o n dham m a , [128] risin g fro m h is s e a t, d e p a rte d . T h e n th e L o r d on th is o cca sio n , in th is co n n e ctio n , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n e d t a lk , a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t tr e a d on a c lo th c a r p e tin g . 6 W h o e v e r sh o u ld tr e a d o n on e, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . || 3 || N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in w o m a n w h o h a d h a d a m is c a rria g e , h a v in g in v ite d m o n k s , h a v in g h a d c lo th p re p a re d , sp o k e th u s : " R e v e r e d sirs, tr e a d o n th e c lo t h . T h e m o n k s, b e in g sc ru p u lo u s, d id n o t tr e a d on it. S h e s a id : " R e v e r e d
1 c e la p a ttik a . F o r a m o n k t o d o s o w a s a p p a r e n t l y a n a u s p i c e t h a t t h e h o u s e h o ld e r w o u ld h a v e a c h i ld . a a n u k a m p a ti , M . ii. 9 3 a p a lo k e ti, D h A . iii. 1 3 6 o lo k e ii. T h e le g e n d is t h a t G o t a m a k n e w t h a t B o d h i w o u ld h a v e n o c h i ld r e n b e c a u s e in a f o r m e r b i r t h , w h ile h e w a s l i v i n g o n a n is la n d , h e a t e a n d c o o k e d b i r d s ( M A . iii. 3 2 2 , D h A . iii. 1 3 7 ) . H e t h e r e f o r e w o u ld n o t b r i n g m o n k s in t o c o n t e m p t b y w a l k i n g o n t h e c l o t h s w h e n h e k n e w B o d h i w o u ld h a v e n o c h il d ( V A . 1 2 0 9 ). 9 p a c c h im a ja n a t a . S e e B . D . i. 6 6 , n . 1 f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s . 4 M . ii. 9 3 r e a d s K o k a n a d e p d s d d e . * M . v e r s io n g o e s o n d i f f e r e n t ly f r o m h e r e . 8 Q u o t e d a t M A . iii. 3 2 3 . V A . 12 0 9 s a y s t h a t h e la id d o w n t h i s r u le in c a s e a m o n k s h o u ld t r e a d o n o n e n o t k n o w i n g w h e t h e r t h e h o u s e h o ld e r w o u ld h a v e a c h i l d o r n o t ; a n d t h a t h e d id i t t o s a f e g u a r d t h e m o n k s f i o m t h e h o u s e h o ld e r s ' c o n t e m p t s h o u ld t h e r e n o t b e a c h i ld a f t e r t h e y h a d t r o d d e n o n t h e c l o t h c a r p e t in g .

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sirs, tre a d on th e c lo th fo r g o o d lu c k 's s a k e / ' T h e m o n k s, b e in g scru p u lo u s, d id n o t tre a d on it. T h e n th a t w o m a n sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th e se m a ste rs (alth o u gh ) b e in g a sk ed fo r g o o d lu c k s sa k e n o t tr e a d on th e c lo th c a rp e tin g ? " M onks h e a rd th is w o m a n w h o . . . sp re a d it a b o u t. T h e n these m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : H o u se hold ers, m o n k s, lo o k o u t fo r lu c k y s ig n s .1 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, w h en b e in g a sk e d b y h o u seh o ld ers fo r g o o d lu c k 's sa k e , to tre a d o n a c lo th c a r p e t in g .'* N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w ere d o u b tfu l w h e th e r to tre a d on a sh e et fo r u s e a fte r fe e t h a d b e en w a s h e d .2 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m on k?, to tre a d on a sh eet fo r u se a fte r fe e t h a v e b een w a s h e d ." || 4 I] 21 |j T h e S e co n d P o r tio n fo r R e p e a tin g 3 T h e n th e L o rd h a v in g s ta y e d a m o n g th e B h a g g a s fo r a s lo n g a s he fo u n d su itin g se t o u t o n to u r fo r S a v a tth i. W a lk in g on to u r in d u e co u rse h e a r r iv e d a t S a v a tth i. T h e L o rd s ta y e d th ere a t S a v a t t h i in th e J e t a G r o v e in A n a th a p in d ik a 's m o n a s tery. T h e n V is a k h a , M ig a ra 's m o th e r, ta k in g a sm a ll ja r 4 a n d a (c la y foot-) sc ru b b e r 5 a n d a b ro o m , a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o r d , she s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s sh e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c t ful d is ta n c e , V is a k h a , M ig a ra 's m o th e r, s p o k e th u s to th e L o r d : L o rd , m a y th e L o r d a c c e p t m y little ja r a n d (c la y foot-) sc ru b b e r a n d b ro o m so th a t it m a y b e fo r a lo n g tim e fo r m y b le ssin g a n d h a p p in e s s ." T h e L o r d a c c e p te d th e little ja r an d th e b r o o m ; th e L o r d d id n o t a c c e p t th e (c la y foot-) scru b b er. T h e n th e L o r d g la d d e n e d , re jo ic e d , rou sed , d e lig h te d V isa k h a , M ig a ra 's m o th e r, w ith t a lk on dham m a . T h e n
1 g i h l tn a n g a lik d , a s a t C V . V . 33. 3. S e e a ls o V A . o n M V . I . 2 . 2. Q u o t e d a t M A , iii. 3 2 3 . 2 d h o ta p a d a k a . V A . 1 2 0 9 s a y s 41 i t is a s h e e t s p r e a d o u t f o r t r e a d in g o n a f t e r t h e f e e t h a v e b e e n w a s h e d a t t h e p la c e f o r w a s h in g f e e t . " M onks w e r e a llo w e d t o t r e a d o n t h is , a n d e v i d e n t l y n o s y m b o li c m e a n in g w a s a t t a c h e d . * A s p o in t e d o u t a t V i n . T e x t s iii. 1 3 0 , n . 1 " t h e r e is n o m e n t io n in t h e t e x t o f w h e r e t h e f ir s t s u c h P o r t io n ends.** 4 g h a ta k a . 6 k a ta k a . T h is is o n e o f t h e t w o t h i n g s m a d e o f c l a y n o t a l lo w e d a t C V . V . 37. V A . 1 2 0 9 s a y s i t is m a d e , h a v i n g r a is e d u p p r o t u b e r a n c e s , fo r r u b b in g t h e f e e t ; i t m a y b e r o u n d o r f o u r - s id e d ; i t is f o r b id d e n a s a t h in g c o n n e c t e d w it h lu x u r y , i t m u s t n o t b e a c c e p t e d n o r m a d e u s e o f .

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V isa k h a , M ig a ra 's m o th e r, g la d d e n e d . . . d e lig h te d b y th e L o rd w ith ta lk on dham m a , risin g fro m h e r s e a t, h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , d e p a rte d k e e p in g h e r rig h t sid e to w a rd s h im . T h e n [129] th e L o rd on th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e c tio n , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : I a llo w , m o n ks, a little ja r a n d a b ro o m . M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t m a k e use o f a (c la y foot-) sc ru b b e r. W h o e v e r sh o u ld m a k e use o f o n e, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) fo o t-ru b b e rs r1 a s to n e ,2 a p e b b le ,3 se a -sc u m . 4 || i || T h e n V is a k h a , M ig a ra 's m o th e r, ta k in g a f a n 5 a n d a p a lm y ra w h is k , 6 a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d . . . (as in 22. i ) . . . . T h e L o rd a c c e p te d th e fan a n d th e p a lm y r a -w h is k . . . . T h e n th e L o rd on th is o cca sio n , in th is co n n e ctio n , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n ed ta lk , a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : I a llo w , m o n k s, a fa n an d a p a lm y r a -w h is k ." || 2 || 22 || N o w a t t h a t tim e a m o s q u ito -fa n 7 a c cru e d to an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a m o s q u ito -fa n / J A c h o w r y - fa n 8 a c c ru e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : M o n k s, a c h o w ry -fa n sh o u ld n o t b e u se d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld use one, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) fa n s : m a d e o f b a rk , m a d e o f k h u s -k h u s ,9 m a d e o f p e a c o c k s ta il fe a th e rs . |[ i || N o w a t t h a t tim e a su n sh a d e 2 0 a c c ru e d to an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a
1 padaghamsani. 1 s a k k h a ra . H e r e V A . 1 2 0 9 s a y s i t is c a l le d a s t o n e , p d s d n a . W o r d a ls o a t V i n . iii. 1 4 7 = J d . ii. 2 8 4 ; s e e B . D . i . 2 50 , n . 1 . 3 k a th a la . C f . s a k k h a r a k a th a la a t D . i . 8 4 , A . i. 9. * sam uddaphen aka. T h i s m a y b e t h e n a m e o f a b o n e ; c f. p h e n a k a a m o n g th e b o n e s * a t V is m . 2 5 4 , V b h A . 2 3 7 . V i n . T e x ts iii. 1 3 1 , n . 2 s a y s t h a t t h e w o r d d e s ig n a t e s " t h e b o n e s o f t h e c u t t le - f is h / * 6 v id h iip a n a . S e e B . D . iii. 2 5 3 , n . 3. 8 ta la v a n ta . V A . 1 2 1 0 s a y s t h i s is m a d e w i t h p a l m y r a p a l m le a v e s o r i t m ade w i t h b a m b o o , i v o r y a n d b a m b o o c h ip s , o r w i t h p eacocks' t a i l f e a t h e r s o r w i t h h id e s . C f . td la v a n ta k a a t C V . V . 29. 4. 7 m a k a s a v lja n i. V A . 1 2 1 0 s a y s i t is a l i t t l e s t i c k m a d e c f h o r n , m a d e iv o r y . I t is d if f ic u lt t o k n o w t h e d if i e r e n c e in t e n d e d b y t h e t w o w o r d s , v id h u p a n a a n d v i j a n l , b o t h h e r e t r a n s la t e d a s f a n . " A t V i n . i v . 26^ t h e fo r m e r is d e fin e d b y t h e la t t e r . 8 c a m a r a v lja n l. C a m a ra is a y a k . I t s b u s h y t a i l i s m a d e in t o a f a n o r w h is k t o d r i v e t h e flie s a w a y . * u s ir a ; s e e B . D . ii. 2 2 8 , n . 1 . 10 D e fin e d a t V i n . i v . 200, 33 8 .

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s u n s h a d e ." N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s to u re d a b o u t h a v in g p u t u p th e ir su n sh a d es. N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in la y fo llo w e r w e n t to a p le a su re g r o v e 5 to g e th e r w ith se v e ra l d iscip les o f N a k e d A s c e tic s . T h e se d iscip les o f N a k e d A s c e tic s s a w th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s c o m in g in th e d ista n ce w ith th e ir su n sh ad es u p ; seein g th e m , th e y sp o k e th u s to th a t la y fo llo w e r : < f T h e se re v e re d sirs o f y o u rs, m a ste r, are co m in g a lo n g w ith th e ir su n sh a d es u p lik e a g ro u p o f c h ie f m in iste rs." T h e se , m a ste rs, a re n o t m o n k s, t h e y are w a n d e r e rs ." T h e y m a d e a b e t a s to w h e th e r th e y w ere m o n k s o r n o t. T h e n t h a t la y fo llo w e r, h a v in g re co g n ise d th e m a s t h e y ca m e u p , lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic ise d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th ese re v e re d sirs [130] to u r a b o u t w ith th e ir su n sh a d es u p ? " M o n k s h e a r d t h a t la y fo llo w e r w h o . . . sp rea d it a b o u t. T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I s it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, . . . ? " I t is tru e , L o r d ." H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M onks, a su n sh a d e sh o u ld n o t be u se d .2 W h o e v e r sh o u ld use on e, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g ." || 2 j| N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to be ill3; th e re ca m e to be no c o m fo rt fo r h im w ith o u t a su n sh a d e . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a su n sh a d e to o n e w h o is ill. N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s, th in k in g : A su n sh a d e is a llo w ed b y th e L o r d to one w h o is ill, b u t n o t to o n e w h o is n o t i ll, w e re d o u b tfu l w h e th e r to u se a su n sh a d e in th e m o n a s te r y a n d m o n a s te r y p r e c in c ts . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a i d : I a llo w , m o n k s, a su n sh ad e to b e u sed in a m o n a s te r y a n d m o n a s te r y p re c in c ts b o th b y on e w h o is ill a n d b y o n e w h o is n o t i ll." || 3 j| 23 || N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , h a v in g tie d u p his b o w l w ith s tr in g ,4 h a v in g h u n g it on his w a lk in g s ta ff , 5 p a sse d a t th e
1 D e fin e d a t V in . i v . 298. a N u n s a r e n o t a llo w e d t o u s e t h e m , V in . i v . 3 3 8 . C f . D . i. 7 w h e r e i t is s a id t h a t G o t a m a r e f r a in s f r o m u s in g t h e m , b u t s e e D i a l . i. 1 3 , n . 2 w h ic h m a in t a in s T h i s is n o t q u it e a c c u r a t e . " V A . 1 2 1 0 s a y s in a l l c a s e s a s u n s h a d e m a d e o f o n e le a f is m e a n t . 3 C f . V i n . i v . 3 3 7 - 8 (o f a n u n ) . 4 F o r s im ila r p h r a s e o lo g y c f . C V . V . 8. 1. 6 da ru fa is d e n n e d a t V tn . i v . 200.

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w ro n g tim e 1 through- a c e rta in v illa g e g a te w a y . P e o p le , s a y in g : " T h is, m a ste rs, is a th ie f w h o is c o m in g , his sw o rd is g le a m in g / 2 h a v in g fo llo w e d h im a n d se ize d h im , le t h im g o on re co g n isin g h im . T h e n th is m o n k , h a v in g g o n e b a c k to th e m o n a s te ry , to ld th is m a tte r to th e m o n k s. B u t d id y o u , y o u r re v e re n c e , c a r r y a w a lk in g s ta ff w ith strin g on it ? " Y e s , y o u r re v e r e n c e s ." T h o se w h o w e re m o d e st m o n k s . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th is m o n k c a r r y a w a lk in g s ta ff w ith s trin g on it ? " T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " Is it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, ? " " I t is tru e , L o r d / ' H a v in g r e b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " M on ks, a w a lk in g s ta ff w ith s tr in g on it sh o u ld n o t be c a rrie d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld c a r r y one, th e r e is an o ffe n ce of w ro n g -d o in g ." || i || N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to b e ill ; h e w a s n o t a b le to to u r a b o u t w ith o u t a w a lk in g sta ff. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to g iv e an a g re e m e n t a s to a w a lk in g sta ff to a m o n k w h o is ill. A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e g iv e n : T h a t ill m o n k , h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e O rd e r, h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p er ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u re d th e fe e t o f th e sen io r m o n k s, h a v in g s a t d o w n on h is h a u n c h e s , h a v in g sa lu te d w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to it : ' I, h o n o u re d sirs, a m ill ; I a m n o t a b le to to u r a b o u t w ith o u t a w a lk in g sta ff, so I, h o n o u re d sirs, a s k th e O rd e r fo r th e a g re e m en t as to a w a lk in g s ta ff/ A n d a se c o n d tim e it sh o u ld b e a sk e d fo r. A n d a th ir d tim e it sh o u ld b e a s k e d fo r. T h e O rd e r sh o u ld be in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : [13 1] ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h is m o n k S o -a n d -so is ill ; h e is n o t a b le to to u r a b o u t w ith o u t a w a lk in g s ta ff ; he a sk s th e O rd e r fo r th e a g re e m e n t a s to a w a lk in g sta ff. I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd e r, th e O rd e r m a y g iv e th e a g ree m e n t as to a w a lk in g s ta ff t o th e m o n k S o -a n d -so . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e.

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T h is m o n k . . . as to a w a lk in g sta ff. T h e O rd er is g iv in g th e m o n k S o -a n d -so th e a g re e m e n t as to a w a lk in g sta ff. I f th e g iv in g to th e m o n k S o -a n d -so o f th e a g re e m e n t as to a w a lk in g sta ff is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, t h e y sh o u ld be sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e a g ree m e n t as to a w a lk in g s ta ff is g iv e n b y th e O rd e r to th e m o n k S o -a n d -so . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is .' '' || 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k ca m e to b e ill ; h e w as n o t a b le to c a r r y h is b o w l a b o u t w ith o u t strin g . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to g iv e an ill m o n k th e a g re e m e n t as to strin g . A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it be g iv e n . T h a t ill m o n k . . . (as in || 2 ||. In stea d o f to to u r a b o u t w ith o u t a w a lk in g s ta ff, e tc ., read to c a r r y h is b o w l a b o u t w ith o u t strin g , etc.) . . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to b e i l l ; h e w as n ot a b le to to u r a b o u t w ith o u t a w a lk in g s ta ff n o r w a s h e a b le to c a r r y h is b o w l a b o u t w ith o u t strin g . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, t o g iv e a n ill m o n k th e a g re e m e n t as to a w a lk in g s ta ff a n d strin g . A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld it be g iv e n : T h a t ill m o n k . . . (as in ]| 2 ||. R ead : I a m n o t a b le to to u r a b o u t w ith o u t a w a lk in g sta ff n o r a m I a b le to c a r r y m y b o w l a b o u t w ith o u t s trin g , etc.) ' . . . T h u s d o 1 u n d e r s ta n d th is / || 3 || 24 || N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k w a s a ru m in a to r1; he a te ru m in a tin g c o n tin u a lly . M o n k s . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : T h is m o n k is p a r ta k in g of a m e a l a t th e w ro n g tim e / ' 2 T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, th is m o n k h a s r e c e n tly p a sse d o n fro m th e w o m b o f a co w . I a llo w , m o n k s, ru m in a tio n fo r a ru m in a to r. B u t, m o n k s, one sh o u ld n o t e a t (a n y th in g ), h a v in g b ro u g h t it b a c k fro m th e m o u th 3 to o u tsid e o f it. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) e a t sh o u ld b e d e a lt w ith a c c o rd in g to th e ru le .4/ ' j| 25 ||
1 * 3 4 ro m a n th a k a . S e e P a c . 3 7. m ukh advara as a t P a c . X L a n d S e k h iy a 4 1. I . e . a c c o r d in g t o P a c . 3 7 o r 38.

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N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in g u ild h a d fo o d fo r an O rd e r ; m a n y h ea p s o f b o ile d rice w e re a llo w e d to fa ll in a re fe c to ry . P e o p le . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : " H o w ca n th ese recluses, so n s o f th e S a k y a n s , on b e in g g iv e n b o ile d rice, n o t a c ce p t it c a r e fu lly P1 E a c h o n e o f th e se h e a p s o f b o iled rice is th e re su lt o f a h u n d re d fo ld la b o u r , M o n k s [132] h e a rd th ese p eo p le . . . w h o sp re a d it a b o u t. T h e n th e s e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : *' I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, if a n y th in g fa lls th a t i? b e in g g iv e n to y o u ,2 to m a k e use o f it h a v in g p ic k e d it u p y o u r s e lv e s , fo r it is le ft b e h in d (for y o u ), m o n k s, b y b e n e fa c to r s / ' || 2 6 || N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k w a lk e d fo r a lm s fo o d w ith lo n g (finger-) n a ils .3 A c e rta in w o m a n , h a v in g seen h im , sp o k e th u s to t h a t m o n k : " C o m e , h o n o u re d sir, in d u lg e in s e x u a l in te rc o u rse / ' " N o , sister, th a t is n o t a llo w a b le / ' " I f y o u do n o t, h o n o u re d sir, I w ill n o w , h a v in g s c ra tc h e d m y lim b s w ith m y ow n n ails, m a k e a ro w ,4 s a y in g , T h is m o n k h a s m a ltre a te d m e / ' Y o u , sister, u n d e rsta n d t h a t / ' T h e n t h a t w o m a n , h a v in g sc ra tc h e d h er lim b s w ith h e r o w n n a ils, m a d e a ro w , s a y in g , " T h is m o n k h a s m a ltr e a te d m e / ' P e o p le , h a v in g ru n u p , to o k h o ld o f th a t m o n k . B u t th e se p e o p le s a w s k in a n d b lo o d on th a t w o m a n s n a ils ; s e e ir g th is, t h e y sa id : " T h is is th e w o rk o f th is w o m a n h e rse lf, th e m o n k is in n o c e n t," a n d t h e y le t g o o f th a t m o n k . T h e n th a t m o n k , h a v in g g o n e b a c k to th e m o n a ste ry , to ld th is m a tte r to th e m o n k s. T h e y sa id : B u t d o y o u , y o u r re v e re n c e , w e a r lo n g n a ils ? " " Y e s , y o u r r e v e re n c e s ." T h o s e w h o w e re m o d e st m o n k s . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th is m o n k w e a r lo n g n ails ? " T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M onks, lo n g n a ils sh o u ld n o t b e w o r n .5 W h o e v e r sh o u ld w ea r th e m , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g ." || 1 ||
sakkaccam, d u ly , p r o p e r ly , c a r e f u l l y , r e s p e c t f u l l y . a B u . s a y s t h a t t h is is e x p la in e d in t h e B h o j a n a v a g g a (Vin. i v . 6 9 9 0 ). 3 N a il s a r e d e fin e d a t Vism. 250 f. * kuppa , e x p la in e d b y B u . a s sadda, n o is e . V ^ . 1 2 1 0 p o in t s o u t t h a t t h e c u t t i n g o f t h e n a ils w a s a l lo w e d f o r r e a s o n s o f s e lf - p r o t e c t io n .

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N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s c u t 1 th e ir n a ils w ith th e ir n a ils a n d th e y c u t th e ir n a ils w ith th e ir m o u th a n d t h e y ru b b e d th e m d o w n on a w a ttle a n d d a u b w a ll ; th e ir fin gers b ecam e p a in fu l. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, c u ttin g o f th e n a ils . T h e y c u t th e ir n a ils d o w n to th e b lo o d ; th e ir fin g ers b e c a m e p a in fu l. I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to c u t*y o u r n a ils d o w n to th e h e ig h t 2 o f th e fle sh . N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s h a d th e ir tw e n ty (nails) p o lish ed . P e o p le . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e sen ses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t h a v e y o u r t w e n t y (nails) p o lish ed . W h o e v e r sh o u ld h a v e th is d o n e, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to re m o v e th e d irt o n ly . || 2 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m onks* h a ir 3 c a m e to b e lo n g . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " B u t , m o n k s, are th e m o n k s a b le to c u t one a n o th e r 's h a ir ? " T h e y are a b le (to d o so), L o r d . [133] T h e n th e L o rd , on th is o cca sio n , in th is co n n e ctio n , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " 1 a llo w , m o n k s, a ra zo r, a w h e tsto n e , a ra zo r-c a se ,4 a p iece o f fe lt , 5 a n d a ll a b a r b e r 's e q u ip m e n t . 6 j| 3 j] N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s h a d th e ir b e a rd s trim m e d ,7 t h e y m a d e th e ir b e a rd s g ro w (long8), th e y h a d th e m sh ap ed lik e a g o a t's b e a rd ,9, t h e y h a d th e m sh a p e d in to fo u r c o m e rs ,10t h e y h a d th e h a ir o n th e ir c h e sts s h a p e d ,11 t h e y h a d
1 ckindati , t o c u t o ff, t o c u t d o w n , t o r e m o v e , t o d e s t r o y . B u t a s V A . 12 10 s a y s t h e r e w a s n o o ffe n c e in c u t t i n g t h e n a ils b y m e a n s o f t h e n a ils a n d s o o n . I d o n o t t h i n k w e n e e d t r a n s l a t e ckindati b y *' t o r e o f f a s a t Vin. Texts iii. 1 3 7 . a pantdna, m e a s u r e ; o f t e n , a s in " t h e patndna o f a n a v e r a g e m a n / * m e a n in g h e ig h t . * kesa, d e n n e d a t Vism. 2 4 9 f. 4 khurasipdtika , e x p l a i n e d a t V A . 1 2 1 0 a s khurakosaka, a l i t t l e s h e a t h fo r a r a z o r . * nam ataka, a s a t C V . V . 1 1 . I ; 1 9 . I ; X . 10 . 4. 6 khurabhapd^a, a s a t V i n . i. 2 4 9 . S e e B . D . i v . 3 4 5 , n. 5 . C f. tantabhait^a a t C V . V . 28. 2. 7 massum kappapenti . V A . 1 2 1 1 s a y s kattariya massuijt chedapenti , c a u s e d t h e ir b e a r d s t o b e c u t o ff w i t h s c is s o r s (o r w i t h a k n if e ) . 8 A d d ed a t VA. 12 11. * golomikatf t kdrdpenti. V A . 1 2 1 1 s a y s , '* h a v i n g m a d e t h e m lo n g o n t h e c h in , t h e y a r e c a lle d : a r r a n g e d a s a g o a t s b e a r d , elakamassuka 10 caturassakan ti catukoyiam, V A . 1 2 1 1 . 11 parimukhatjt kdrdpenti, o f w h ic h V A . 1 2 1 1 s a y s t h i s w a s a g r o w in g , g a t h e r in g , c o ll e c t in g ( t h e r e fo r e a c u t t i n g ) , samharanat in t o lin e s o f t h e h a ir of th e ch e st.

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th e h a ir on th e ir sto m a c h s s h a p e d ,1 t h e y a rra n g e d w h isk e rs, t h e y h a d th e h a ir on th e ir b o d ies r e m o v e d .2 P e o p le . . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p leasu res o f th e se n s e s / T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t h a v e y o u r b e a rd s trim m e d . . . y o u sh o u ld n o t h a v e th e h a ir o f y o u r b o d ie s re m o v e d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld h a v e it re m o v e d th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g / '3 N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e t o h a v e a sore on a c e rta in p a r t o f his b o d y ;4 th e m e d ic a m e n t w o u ld n o t ad h ere. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to re m o v e th e h a ir o n th e b o d y in th e ca se o f illness/*
II 4 II

N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s h a d th e h a ir o f th e ir h e a d s c u t off w ith scissors. P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n se s/ ' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t h a v e th e h a ir o f y o u r h e a d s c u t o ff w ith scissors. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) h a v e it c u t off, th e r e is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . Now' a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to h a v e a sore on his h e a d ; h e w a s n o t a b le to s h a v e th e h a ir o f h is h e a d w ith a ra zo r. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to c u t o ff th e h a ir o f th e h e a d w ith scisso rs in th e ca se o f illn e ss. N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w o re th e h a ir in th e ir n o strils lo n g . P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e (Jem on-w orship p e rs / '5 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t w e a r th e h a ir in y o u r n o strils lo n g . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) w e a r it, th e re is a n o ffe n c e o f w ro n g -d o in g / 1
1 a ddharuka. V A . 1 2 1 1 s a y s a n a r r a n g e m e n t in t o lin e s o f t h e h a ir o n t h e s to m a c h .* ' * sa m b a d h e lo m a m s a m h a r d p e n ti. S e e n o t e b u t o n e a b o v e o n sa rn h a ra p a . C o r r e s p o n d in g r u le f o r n u n s a t N u n s * P a c . 2 a n d w h e r e sam b & dh a is d e fin e d . I t h i n k sa m h a r d p e n ti is m o r e c o r r e c t l y t o r e m o v e ( t h u s c u t t i n g i n t o a s h a p e ) t h a n g r o w " (a m e a n in g g iv e n a b o v e ) , in v i e w o f t h e o t h e r 4 s h a p i n g s / ' a n d a ls o b e c a u s e o f t h e o b j e c t io n s le v e lle d a t t h e n u n s a n d a ls o , a b o v e , a t th e m on ks. 3 A s V A . 1 2 1 1 n o t e s t h e r e is a d u h k a ta f o r t h e s h a p in g o f t h e b e a r d a n d e v e r y t h i n g e ls e . * 4 sam badhe, w h ic h , a s d e fin e d in N u n s ' P a c . 2 m e a n s t h e a r m p it s a n d p r i v a t e p a rts. 5 p is d c i lli k a , a s a t M V . I I I . 12. 3 , C V . V , 10. 2.

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N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s h a d th e h a ir in th e ir n o strils ta k e n o u t w ith pieces o f c r y s ta l 1 a n d b y m ean s o f b e e s w a x ; th e ir n o strils b c c a m e p a in fu l. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, tw e e z e r s . 2 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s h a d g r e y h a irs 3 ta k e n o u t. P e o p le . . . s p re a d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n ses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n ot h a v e g r e y h a irs ta k e n o u t. W h o e v e r sh o u ld h a v e th e m ta k e n o u t, th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f w ro rig -d o in g . || 5 || N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k 's e ars w ere sto p p e d w ith w a x . [134] T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, an in stru m e n t fo r re m o v in g d irt fro m th e e a rs .4 N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u sed v a rio u s k in d s o f in stru m e n ts fo r r e m o v in g d irt fro m th e ears, m a d e o f g o ld , m a d e o f silv e r. P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n ses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, v a rio u s k in d s o f in stru m e n ts fo r re m o v in g d irt fro m th e ears sh o u ld n o t b e u sed. W h o e v e r sh o u ld use (these), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w th e m , m o n k s, (to be) m a d e o f b o n e, m ad e o f iv o r y , m a d e o f h o rn , m a d e o f reed s, m a d e o f b a m b o o , m ad e o f a p ie ce o f s tic k , m a d e o f la c , m a d e o f c r y s ta l, m a d e o f co p p e r, m a d e o f th e ce n tre o f a c o n c h sh e ll . 5 || 6 || 2 7 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s m a d e a la rg e s to re of c o p p e r g o o d s, o f b ro n ze g o o d s. P e o p le to u r in g th e d w e llin g -p la c e , h a v in g seen th is, lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic is e d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : et H o w can th e se reclu ses, so n s o f th e S a k y a n s m a k e a la rg e sto re o f c o p p e r g o o d s, o f b ro n ze g o o d s lik e d ealers in b ro n ze ? 6 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : M o n k s, a store o f c o p p e r g o o d s, of b ro n z e g o o d s sh o u ld n o t b e m a d e. W h o ever sh o u ld m a k e one, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . Hi li_________________________________________________________________
1 s a k k h a r ik d C f . M V . V I . 14. 5 , lo n a -s a k -. * s a n d d sa a s a t M . ii. 7 5 , J a . i . 13 8 . 3 p a lita . C f . p a lita k e s i a t M . i. 8 8 . M A . ii. 60, p a n g a r a k e s a . 4 A llo w e d a g a in b e lo w , C V . V . 28. 2 . fi A s a t M V . V I . 12, 1 , 3 ; C V . V . 11, 1 , e t c . 6 k a tn sa p a tth a r ik a . V A . 1 2 1 1 e x p la in s a s k a m s a b h a n tfa v a tiija , m e r c h a n t s in b r o n z e g o o d s .

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N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w e re (too) sc ru p u lo u s to use a n o in tm en t b o x 1 a n d a n o in tm e n t s t ic k 2 a n d an in s tru m e n t fo r re m o v in g d irt fro m th e e a rs 3 a n d a h a n d le .4 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a n o in tm e n t b o x . . . a h a n d le . N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s s a t d o w n lo llin g 5 on th e ir o u te r c l o a k s , 6 th e c o tto n c lo t h 7 o f th e o u te r c lo a k s g a v e w a y .8 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t sit d o w n lo llin g on o u te r c lo a k s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) sit d o w n , th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g d o in g ." N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to b e ill ; th e re w a s n o c o m fo rt fo r h im w ith o u t a bandage. T h e y to ld th is rtiatter to th e L o r d . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s , a b a n d a g e ." T h e n it o ccu rre d to m o n k s : " N o w h o w sh o u ld a b a n d a g e b e m a d e ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a lo o m , sh u ttle s, s trin g s, tic k e ts a n d a ll th e e q u ip m e n t fo r a lo o m .1' j| 2 || 28 || N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k e n te re d a v illa g e fo r a lm s fo o d w ith o u t his w a is tb a n d ; o n a c a rria g e ro a d h is in n e r ro b e d ro p p ed d o w n .10 P e o p le s h o u te d o u t 11 a n d t h a t m o n k [135] b e ca m e a sh a m ed . T h e n th a t m o n k , h a v in g g o n e b a c k to th e m o n a ste ry , to ld th is m a tte r t o t h e m o n k s. T h e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t e n te r a v illa g e w ith o u t y o u r w a is tb a n d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so)

1 a n ja n l, a llo w e d a t M V . V I . 12, I , 2 , 4. 1 A llo w e d a t M V . V I . 12, 3. * A llo w e d a t C V . V . 27. 6 . 4 b a n d h a n a m a tta . M e a n in g u n c e r t a in . V A , 1 2 1 1 s a y s a b a n d h a n a m a ita f o r a v a sik a tta r a y a tth ik d d ln a m , a k n if e a r d m e n d ic a n t 's s t a f f . O r s h o u ld h a ita ra r e a d k a tta rl, s c is s o r s ? W e s h o u ld t h e n g e t " a s t i c k f o r k n i f e a n d scissors.** C f . b a n d h a n a m a tta tn a t M V . V . 11. i , V I I . 1. 5 , b u t in b o t h p a s s a g e s i t s e e m s t o h a v e a d if f e r e n t m e a n in g f r o m a b o v e . 6 C f . S e k h i y a 2 6 w h e r e " lo llin g '* is d e fin e d a s lo llin g o n t h e h a n d s , lo llin g o n c lo t h s . * A s a t C V . I V . 4 . 7 (e n d ). 7 R e a d p a itd i n s t e a d o f t e x t 's p a tta , a s n o t e d a t V i n .T e x t s iii. 1 4 1 , n . 6 . * A s a t M V . V I I I . 21. 1 w h e r e a r e m e d y is *' a l lo w e d ." S e e B . D . iv . 424. L u j j a n t i , ** g a v e w a y / * o c c u r s a ls o a t C V . V . 16. 2 , 17. 2 a n d is t h e r e t r a n s l a t e d " f e ll in .*' 9 ayog a , a s a t V i n . iii. 2 5 7 , i v . 1 7 0 . S e e B . D . ii. 1 4 4 , n . 2. 10 p a b h a s sitth a , a s a t V i n . i v . 1 5 9 . 11 A s a t V in . i v . 3 4 5 .

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e n te r one, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, a w a is tb a n d . 1 j| x || N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s w o re v a r io u s k in d s o f w a is tb a n d s ; th o se of m a n y s tr a n d s ,2 th o se lik e th e h e a d o f a w a te r-s n a k e ,3 th o se lik e ta m b o u rin e d ru m s ,4 th o se lik e c h a in s , 6 P e o p le . . . s p re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u se ho ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n s e s ." T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " M o n k s , v a r io u s k in d s of w a istb a n d s sh o u ld n o t b e w o rn : th o se o f m a n y s tra n d s . . . th o se lik e c h a in s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r one, th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g .6 I a llo w , m o n k s, tw o (kin d s of) w a istb a n d s : a strip o f c o tto n c lo th , 7 o n e w ith a w e ll m a d e e n d ." 8 T h e b o rd ers o f a w a is tb a n d w o re o u t. I a llo w , m on ks, th o se lik e ta m b o u rin e d ru m s, th o se lik e c h a in s ." T h e e n d of a w a is tb a n d w o re o u t. " I a llo w , m o n k s, a se w in g round, a k n o ttin g ." 10 T h e e n d o f a w a is tb a n d w h e re it w a s lo o p e d 11 w ore o u t. " I a llo w , m o n k s, a b u c k le ."12 N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s w o re v a rio u s k in d s o f b u c k le s, m a d e o f g o ld , m a d e o f silv e r. P e o p le * . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u s e h o ld e rs w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n se s." T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M on ks, v a rio u s k in d s o f b u c k le s sh o u ld n o t b e w o rn . W h o

I T a k e n f o r g r a n t e d a t M V . I . 25, 9 , 10 . * k a ld b u k a . V A . 1 2 1 1 e x p l a i n s b y b a h u r a jju k a . 5 ded 4**bhakatn ttdtna u d a k a s a p p is ls a s a d is a m , s o V A . 1 2 1 1 . 4 m u r a ja . V A 1 2 1 1 s a y s t h e y a r e m a d e , h a v i n g t w is t e d t h e s h a p e in t o a t a m b o u r in e d r u m (vatta, c ir c le , r o u n d ) . 6 m a d d a v in a . V A . 1 2 1 1 ( r e a d in g - v d n a ) s a y s p a m a n g a sa n th d n a rf 1. Cf. C V . V . 2. 1 w h e r e p d m a n g a o c c u r s . S e e a ls o B . D . i. 7 7 , n . 9. * B u . s a y s t h e r e m u s t n o t b e e v e n o n e o f t h e s e , m u c h le s s m a n y . 7 p a t t ik d . V A . 1 2 1 1 e x p l a in s t h a t h e r e i t is a p a itik d t h a t is w o v e n o r d in a r ily o r t h a t is w o v e n in t h e fis h a n d t h o r n d e s ig n (? tn a c ch a k a p th a k a v a y im d ), a n d i t c o n t in u e s , " t h e r e a r e t o b e n o d i v i s io n s in t o k u n ja r a c c h ik d d i.** K u i i j a is a h o llo w . 8 s u k a r a n ta k a . V i n . T e x t s iii. 14 3 " d o n o t v e n t u r e t o t r a n s la t e t h e te r m / * a n d i t s m e a n in g is e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l . V A . 1 2 1 1 h a s v .l. s-ukaran ^ a ka, a n d a ls o ( a t V i n . ii. 3 1 9 ) su k a r a n ta k a , w h ic h I a d o p t a s t h e m o s t in t e llig ib le , a lt h o u g h p o s s i b l y n o t t h e m o s t c o r r e c t r e a d in g . V A . 1 2 1 1 e x p la in s b y s a y i n g it is f a s h io n e d in t o a w e ll m a d e (su k a r a ) r o u n d c a s e f o r a k e y . * so b h a p a . V A . X 212 s a y s h a v i n g t w is t e d i t , t h e r e is t h e s e w in g o f a c ir c u la r e n d , " m u k h a v a tfis ib b a n a . 30 g u n a k a . C f . sa g u n a m k a tv d a t M V . 1 . 25. 9 . V A . 1 2 1 2 s a y s " a s e w in g a f t e r t h e s t y l e o f m u d d ik d {i.e. a s ig n e t r in g , a b u n c h o f g r a p e s ; o r tn u d d ik a , a n a c c o u n t a n t m a y b e m e a n t o n e w h o t i e s c o in s , e t c ., i n t o k n o t s in h is w a is t b a n d ?). II p a v a n a n ta . 14 v id h a , a s a t P a c . 86 . 2 . 2 . S e e B . D . iii . 8 9 , n . i

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e v e r sh o u ld w e a r one, th e re is a o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w th e m , m o n ks, (to be) m a d e o f b o n e . . . m a d e o f th e inside o f a co n ch sh e ll, m a d e o f t h r e a d .1 || 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a h a v in g p u t on lig h t-w e ig h t u p p e r ro b es ,2 e n te re d a v illa g e fo r a lm sfo o d ; h is u p p e r ro bes w ere b lo w n u p b y g u sts o f w in d .3 T h e n th e ve n e ra b le A n a n d a , h a v in g g o n e b a c k to th e m o n a s te ry , to ld th is m a tte r to th e m o n k s. T h e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : I a llo w , m o n k s, a b lo c k ,4 so m e th in g to t ie / 5 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u sed v a r io u s k in d s o f b lo c k s, m a d e o f g o ld , m a d e o f s ilv e r . P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e senses .'1 T h e y t o ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M onks, v a rio u s k in d s o f b lo c k s sh o u ld n o t b e u se d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld use th e m , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w th e m , m o n ks, (to be) m a d e o f b o n e . . . m a d e o f t h r e a d / ' N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s in se rte d b lo c k s a n d th in g s to tie in to th e ir ro b es ; th e ro b es w o re o u t. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a sh ie ld 6 fo r th e b lo c k s, a sh ield fo r th e th in g s to t i e . [136] T h e y in se rte d th e sh ield s fo r th e b lo c k s a n d th e sh ie ld s fo r th e th in g s to tie a t th e ed ge (of th e robe) ; a c o rn er w a s r e v e a le d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to in sert a sh ie ld fo r th e b lo c k s a t th e e d g e ; to in se rt a sh ie ld fo r th e th in g s to tie h a v in g ta k e n it b a c k se v e n fin g er b re a d th s o r e ig h t fin g er b r e a d th s . || 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s d ressed in h o u se h o ld ers' u n d e r g a rm e n ts : th e e le p h a n ts tr u n k ,7 " th e 1 This last, thread, is in addition to the usual list as given above, e.g. at CV. 2 7 . 6. 9 sa m g h d tiy o as it is in the plural must refer to more than the outer cloak ; and since the verb p d r u p a t i is used the reference is probably to this and to the upper robe. * O f. V i n . iv. 345. * gatythika. See B . D . iii. 88, n. 4. * p d s a k a , perhaps a bow for the dress. C f , T h lg . 4 1 1 and Morris, J P T S .
18 9 3 , p . 4 5 - 6 . 0 p h a la k a , perhaps a slip of wood or bark as in p h a la h a c lr a , used in making an ascetic's dress, V i n . i. 305, D . i. 167. 7 h a tth is o n g a k a . V A . 1212 says dressed, having made an appendage (hanging down) in the form of an elephant's trunk.

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fishs t a il ,1 th e fo u r c o rn er a rra n g e m e n t , 2 th e p a lm y r a w h isk a rra n g e m e n t / '3 " th e h u n d re d ju n g le ro p e s . 4 P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p leasu res o f th e se n ses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t d ress in h o u seh o ld ers' u n d er g a rm e n ts : th e e le p h a n t's tr u n k ' . . . ' th e h u n d re d ju n g le ro p e s/ W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) dress, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g . N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s p u t o n 6 h o u se h o ld ers' u p p e r garm ents. P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n ses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t p u t on h o u seh o ld ers' u p p e r g a rm e n ts. W h o e v e r sh o u ld p u t one on, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . || 4 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s d ressed in lo in c lo th s .7 P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : " L ik e a k in g 's sh a v e n b earers w ith c o ils . 8 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t d ress in lo in c lo th s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) dress, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . | J 5 || 29 | | N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s ca rrie d a d o u b le c a rry in g -p o le .8 P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e a 1 tn a cch a v d la k a . V A . 1212 says dressed, having hung the edge of the border on one side, the edge of the tie on the other. 2 V A . 1212 explains there were two above and two below, hence showing four corners when clothed thus. 3 td la v a n ta k a . C f . CV. V. 2 2 . 2. V A . 1212 says that when clothed one suspends the outer cloak in the manner of a palmrya whisk. 4 s a ta v a llik d . C f . v a llik d at CV. V. 2 . 1 where although the word may mean ear ornaments, these may be formed like jungle ropes. See also CV. V. 1 8 . 2. V A . 1212 says dressed by making a bracelet (-like arrangement), o va ttika , having folded over the long outer cloak a number of times ; or, dressed showing continual jungle ropes at the left and right sides. If one or two jungle ropes appear from the knee it is all right. C f . o v a ttik a at CV. V. 2 . 1. 6 On p a r u p a ti and n iv d s e ti, put on and dress in, see B . D . ii. 32, notes 2, 3. Bu. enumerates a number of upper garments which he classifies as householders', including a Jain*,s, a wanderer's,-a one-cloth ascetic's, and a biahmans. 7 s a m v e lliy a m . C f . s a m v e lliy a m k a tis u tta k a m at CV. X . 1 6 . 2. V A . 1212 says that they dressed having tied on long grass, k a cch a , like wrestlers and workmen, and that it is explained in the Sekhiyas that a monk must be dressed having covered up the three circles all round. (See Sekhiyas 1, 2). 8 m u n g a v a tti. V A . 1213 (with v .l. -vet h i ) says the meaning is people going anywhere for a king and carrying goods and equipment/' The coils vatti, would be the pads they wear on their heads to support the burden. I .e . with the weight at each end. C f . k d ja at MV. I. 2 0 . 19.

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k in g 's sh a v e n b e a re rs w ith c o ils / T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t c a r r y a d o u b le ca rry in g -p o le . W h o e v e r sh o u ld c a r r y one, th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, a sin g le c a rry in g -p o le , a ca rry in g -p o le fo r tw o b e a re rs ,1 a w e ig h t (carried) on th e h e a d , a w e ig h t (carried) on th e sh o u ld ers, a w e ig h t (carried) on th e h ip s, one h u n g o n / ' || 30 |] N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s d id n o t c h e w 2 to o th -w o o d 3; th e ir m o u th s ca m e to sm ell n a s ty . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " M o n k s, th e re a re th ese fiv e d is a d v a n ta g e s in n o t c h e w in g to o th -w o o d 4 : it is b a d fo r th e ^yes, th e m o u th b e co m e s n a s ty sm ellin g , th e c h a n n e ls of ta s te are n o t p u rifie d , p h elg m a n d m u c u s g e t on fo o d , o n e s fo o d is n o t e n jo y e d . T h e se , m o n k s, are th e fiv e d is a d v a n ta g e s o f n o t c h e w in g to o th -w o o d . M on ks, th ere are th e re fiv e a d v a n ta g e s in c h e w in g to o th -w o o d : it is g o o d fo r th e e y e s, th e m o u th d o es n o t b e co m e n a s ty sm ellin g , th e ch a n n e ls o f ta s te a re p u rifie d , p h e lg m a n d m u c u s do n o t g e t o n fo o d , o n e s fo o d [13 7 ] is e n jo y e d . T h e se , m o n k s, are th e fiv e a d v a n ta g e s o f c h e w in g to o th -w o o d , I a llo w , m o n k s, to o th -w o o d . || 1 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s c h e w e d lo n g p ieces o f to o th -w o o d ; t h e y e v e n flic k e d n o v ic e s w ith th e se. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : M o n k s, a lo n g p iece o f to o th -w o o d sh o u ld n o t b e c h e w e d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld c h e w one, th ere is an offence of w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, a p iece o f to o th -w o o d to b e e ig h t fin g e r b r e a d th s (in le n g th ) a t th e m o st. A n d a n o v ice sh o u ld n o t b e flic k e d w ith it. W h o e v e r sh o u ld flic k h im , th e re is an o ffen ce o f ^w rong-doing. N o w a t th a t tim e a s a c e rta in m o n k w a s c h e w in g a p iece o f to o th -w o o d th a t w a s to o sh o rt it b e c a m e lo d g e d in h is th ro a t. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : " M o n k s, to o sh o rt a p iece o f to o th -w o o d sh o u ld n o t b e c h e w e d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld c h e w one, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m o n ks, a p iece o f to o th -w o o d t o b e fo u r fin g er b r e a d th s (in len gth ) a t th e le a s t . || 2 || 3 1 j|
1 a n ta r a k a ja , which V A . 12 13 explains as one having the weight in the middle and that may be transported by two (men). 1 k h a d a n ti, eat. 8 d a n la k a tth a , used in cleaning the teeth. 4 As at A . iii. 250.

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s set fire to a fo r e s t .1 P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e fo rest firers/* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id ; M o n k s, a fo rest sh o u ld n o t b e se t on fire. W h o e v e r sh o u ld s e t o n e on fire, th ere is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t th a t tim e d w e llin g -p la c e s w ere ta n g le d o v e r w ith g ra ss ,2 A s th e fo re st fires w ere b u rn in g (fo rests a n d so on) th e y b u rn e d th e d w e llin g -p la c e s. M o n k s w e re d o u b tfu l w h e th e r to m a k e a c o u n te r-fire 3 to g iv e p ro te c tio n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, if a forest fire is b u rn in g , t o m a k e a c o u n te r-fire to g iv e p r o te c tio n / ' hi 1 1 N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s c lim b e d a tre e a n d ju m p e d fro m tre e t o tre e . P e o p le . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e m o n k e y s . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, a tre e sh o u ld n o t b e c lim b e d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld c lim b one, th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / N o w a t t h a t tim e a n e le p h a n t in fe s te d th e w a y o f a c e rta in m o n k w h o w a s g o in g to S a v a tth I th ro u g h th e K o s a la n d is tric ts . T h e n th a t m o n k ru sh ed u p to th e fo o t o f a c e rta in tre e (but) b ein g sc ru p u lo u s d id n o t c lim b th e tre e ; th e e le p h a n t w en t off b y a n o th e r (tra c k ). T h e n th a t m o n k , h a v in g re a c h e d S a v a tth I, to ld th is m a tte r to th e m o n k s. (T h e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d ).4 H e sa id : * I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, if th ere is a reason , to c lim b a tre e to th e h e ig h t o f a m a n , a n d a s h ig h as y o u lik e in ca ses o f d is tre ss / ' 6 || 2 f| 3 2 j| [138] N o w a t th a t tim e Y a m e lu a n d T e k u la * w ere th e n a m es o f tw o m o n k s w h o w ere b ro th e rs, b ra h m a n s b y b irth , w ith lo v e ly voices, w ith lo v e ly e n u n c ia tio n . T h e y a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , t h e y s a t d o w n
1 A s a t V in . iii. 8 5 . * A s a t A . i. 1 5 3 , iii, 12 8 . * p a ta g g itp d a tu m . C f . J d . i. 2 1 2 . V A . 12 1 4 s a y s h a v in g m a d e th e g ro u n d s q u a r e , i t is p o s s ib le t o c o n v e y g r a s s t h e r e a n d d ig i t in c a r e f u l l y , a n d h a v i n g b r o k e n o f f d a m p b r a n c h e s t o c o o l d o w n t h e fire . 4 O m it t e d in t h e t e x t . * S u c h a s s e e in g w i ld a n im a l s , f o r e s t fir e s , o r a p p r o a c h in g f lo o d s , o r s u c h a s w a n t in g t o s e e t h e r i g h t d ir e c t io n i f o n e is o n t h e w r o n g r o a d (so V A . 1 2 1 4 ) . 8 Y a m e ju te k u la . T h i s c o m p o u n d s h o u ld p o s s i b l y b e r e s o lv e d in t o Y a m e l a a n d T J te k u la , b u t is t a k e n a s r e p r o d u c e d a b o v e b y D . P . P . N . (u n d e r T e k u l a ) a n d V in . T e x ts iii. 14 9 , q .v . n o t e 3 . T h e s e m o n k s a r e m e n t io n e d n o w h e r e b u t h e re , I t h in k . ' H*

B O O K OF D I S C I P L I N E 194 a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s t h e y w e re s ittin g d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d ista n c e , th e se m o n k s s p o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " A t p re se n t, L o rd , m o n k s o f v a r io u s n a m e s, v a r io u s c la n s , v a rio u s so cial s tr a ta h a v e g o n e fo r th fro m v a r io u s fa m ilie s ; th ese c o rru p t th e sp eech o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e in (using) h is o w n d ia le c t .1 N o w w e , L o r d , g iv e th e sp e e c h o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e in m e tric a l fo r m / 2 T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd re b u k e d th e m , s a y in g : H o w c a n y o u , fo o lish m en , s p e a k th u s : ' N o w w e , L o r d , g iv e th e sp e e c h o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e in m e tric a l fo rm ? I t is n o t, fo o lish m en , fo r p le a s in g th o se w h o are n o t (yet) p le a se d . . . A n d h a v in g r e b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " M onks, th e sp ee ch o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e sh o u ld n o t b e g iv e n in m e tric a l fo rm . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) g iv e it, th e r e is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to le a rn th e sp eech o f th e A w a k e n e d O n e a c c o r d in g to his o w n d ia le c t ." 11*11 N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s le a r n t m e ta p h y s ic s .3 P e o p le , . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n s e s ." M o n k s h e a rd th e s e p e o p le w h o . . . sp re a d it a b o u t. T h e n th e s e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : N o w , m o n k s, c a n one w h o sees th e essen ce (as bein g) in m e ta p h y s ic s a tta in t o g r o w th , in crea se, m a tu r ity in th is dham m a a n d d is c ip lin e ? " T h is is n o t so, L o r d ." O r c o u ld one w h o sees th e essen ce (as being) in th is dham m a a n d d isc ip lin e le a rn m e ta p h y s ic s ? " T h is is n o t so . L o r d ." M onks, m e ta p h y s ic s s h o u ld n o t b e le a r n t. W h o e v e r sh o u ld le a rn th e m , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g ."
1 s a k d y a n ir u ttiy d . V A . 1214 says the current Magadhese manner of speech according to the awakened one. Cf. n iru ttx a t M. iii. 234. * ch a n d a so d ro p e m a . V A . 1214 explains, " we give (d ro p e m a ) a way of speech according to the honoured dialect (or vernacular, s a k k a ta b h a sa ) like a Veda.** S a k k a ta , v .t. s a k k a ta , may be Sanskrit. See four reasons for supposmg so at V i n . T e x t s iii. 150, n. C f . S d v itth l ch a n d a s o tn u k h a m at S n . 568, V i n . i. 246, and ch a n d o n id d n a m g d th d n a m at 5 . i. 38. * lo k d y a ta , name of a branch of brahman learning, probably metaphysics. See D i a l . i. 16 6 1 7 2 ; V i n . T e x t s iii. 151, n. 2 ; B . D . iii. 83, n. 1. Word also occurs at A . i. *63, 166, iii. 223, S n . p. 105, M . ii. 147. V A . 1214 says " it means everything is rejected, everything is unrejected ; it is the lore of other sects, connected with what is utterly groundless and which says by this or that method a crow is white, a crane is black.*'

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s ta u g h t m e ta p h y sic s. P e o p le o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s le a r n t w o r ld ly k n o w le d g e .1 P e o p le o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s ta u g h t w o r ld ly k n o w led g e . P e o p le o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . || 2 j[ N o w a t [139] t h a t tim e th e L o rd , su rro u n d e d b y a la rg e a ssem b ly , sn eezed w h ile h e w a s te a c h in g dham m a . M on ks, s a y in g : L o rd , m a y th e L o r d liv e (long), m a y th e w e llfa re r liv e (lo n g ), m a d e a lo u d n oise, a g re a t n o ise ; th e t a lk on dhamma w a s in te rru p te d b y th is noise* T h e n th e L o rd a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y i n g : N o w , m o n k s, w h e n (the ph rase) L o n g life is sp o k e n to one w h o h a s sn eezed , c a n he fo r th is reason liv e or d ie ? T h a t is n o t so, L o r d . M o n k s, L o n g life ' sh o u ld n o t b e sa id to one w h o h a s sn eezed . W h o e v e r sh o u ld s a y it, th e re is a n offen ce o f w ro n g d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e p e o p le sa id M a y y o u liv^e (long), h o n o u re d sirs t o m o n k s w h o h a d sn eezed . T h e m o n k s, b e in g s c ru p u lous, d id n o t re s p o n d .. P e o p le * . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th e se reclu ses, so n s o f th e S a k y a n s n o t resp o n d w h en (the ph rase) M a y y o u liv e (long), h o n o u re d s i r s is b e in g sp o k e n to th e m ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, h o u seh o ld ers lik e lu c k y sig n s .2 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, w h e n (the ph rase) * M a y y o u liv e (long), h o n o u re d sirs is b e in g sp o k e n t o y o u b y h o u se h o ld e rs t o s a y , ' L o n g life ' (to th e m ). || 3 II 33 || N o w a t t h a t tim e th e L o rd , su rro u n d e d b y a la rg e a s s e m b ly , w as te a c h in g dham m a s ittin g d o w n . A c e rta in m o n k h a d e a te n ga rlic ;3 he s a t d o w n to o n e sid e , th in k in g : In c a se th e m o n ks are in c o m m o d e d . T h e L o rd s a w t h a t m o n k w h o w a s sittin g d o w n a t one sid e ; se e in g h im , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, sa y in g : M on ks, w h y is th is m o n k s ittin g to one sid e ?
1 tir a c c k d n a v ijjd . Learnt and then taught by the group of six nuns at V in . iv. 305-6; a p a c ittiy a for them. The O ld C o rn y, on these Nuns* Pacittiyas, Nos. 49, 50, defines both tir a c c k d n a v ijjd and p a r iy a p u n d t it ** learn. See B . D . iii. 337-9 and notes there.

* As at CV. V. 2 1 . 4. 3 la su n a , defined at V i n . iv. 259.

196_________ B O O K

OF

D I S C I P L I N E ___________

L o rd , th is m o n k h a s e a te n g a rlic , so h e s a t d o w n a t one side, th in k in g : ' I n c a se th e m o n k s a re in c o m m o d e d V ' B u t , m o n k s, sh o u ld t h a t b e e a te n w h ic h , w h e n e a te n , ca n (m ake th e eater) o u tsid e su ch a dhamma-taNz a s th is ? T h a t is n o t so, L o r d . M onks, g a rlic sh o u ld n o t b e e a te n . W h o e v e r sh o u ld e a t it, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . 1 || i || N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta h a d w in d in h is sto m a c h . T h e n th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G re a t a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta : W h e n y o u h a d w in d in y o u r sto m a c h b e fo re , re v e re n d S a r ip u tta , b y w h a t m ea n s d id y o u g e t c o m fo rt ? I h a d g a rlic , y o u r re v e re n c e . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to e a t g a r lic in th e ca se o f illn e ss . 2 || 2 |j 3 4 J | N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s r e lie v e d th e m s e lv e s h ere, th e re a n d e v e ry w h e re in a m o n a s te r y ; th e m o n a s te r y w a s so iled . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : * I a llo w y o u m o n k s, to re lie v e y o u rs e lv e s a t o n e s id e . [140 ] T h e m o n a s t e r y b e c a m e n a s t y sm ellin g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , a v e s s e l. S ittin g d o w n , it w a s p a in fu l. I a llo w , m o n k s, u rin a l s h o e s . 3 T h e u rin a l sh oes w ere p u b lic ;4 m o n k s w e re a sh a m e d to re lie v e th e m se lv e s. I a llo w , m o n k s, th r e e (k in d s of) fe n c e s to fe n ce th e m in : a fe n ce o f b ric k s , a fe n ce o f sto n es, a fen ce o f w o o d . T h e v e sse l b e in g u n c o v e re d b e c a m e n a s t y sm e llin g . 4 4I allo w , m o n ks, a lid . || x | J N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s e v a c u a te d h e re , th e re a n d e v e r y w h e re in a m o n a s te ry . . . . (as in || 1 ||) . . . T h e m o n a s te r y b e c a m e n a s ty sm ellin g . " I a llo w , m o n k s , a c e s s p o o l. The fa c in g o f th e c e ssp o o l fe ll in .5 " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, t o p ile u p th re e (kin d s of) p ilin g s : a p ilin g o f b ric k s , a p ilin g o f sto n es, a p ilin g o f w o o d . T h e c e ssp o o l w a s to o lo w to th e g r o u n d 6 . . . I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a lu s t r a d e . S it t in g in sid e, * 1 * * *
1 A p d c iitiy a f o r n u n s , N u n s ' P a c . 1.

As a medicine, V A . 1214, Allowed at MV. V. 8. C f . CV. V. 1 7 . 1. As at CV. V. 1 7 . 2. As at CV. V. 1 1 . 6.

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th e y fell off. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, t o e v a c u a te h a v in g sp rea d (som ething) a n d m a d e a h o le in th e m id d le ." S ittin g d o w n , it w as p a in fu l. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, p r i v y s h o e s ." |j 2 |j T h e y e v a c u a te d o u tsid e. I a llo w , m o n k s, a tr o u g h ." T h e re w a s no w o o d fo r sc ra p in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, w o o d fo r s c ra p in g / ' T h e re w a s no re c e p ta c le 1 fo r sc ra p in g . " I a llo w , m onks, a re c e p ta c le (for th e w ood) fo r s c r a p in g ." T h e cess pool b e in g u n c o v e re d b e ca m e n a s t y sm ellin g . I a llo w , m on ks, a lid ." E v a c u a t in g in th e o p e n a ir, t h e y w ere b o th e re d b y th e c o ld a n d h e a t. I a llo w , m o n k s, a h u t fo r th e p r iv y .'" T h e re w a s n o d o o r to th e h u t. I a llo w , m o n k s, a d o o r . . .2 . . . sw o rd fish te e th , th e fiv e (pieces of) c lo th d esign , a b a m b o o fo r robes, a c o rd fo r ro b e s ." 3 N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m on k, w e a k th ro u g h a g e, [14 1] h a v in g e v a c u a te d , fe ll d o w n as he w a s g e ttin g u p . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a c h a ir w ith s u p p o r ts ." T h e h u t w a s n o t fe n ced in. " I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (kin d s of) fen ces w ith w h ich to fe n ce it in : a fe n ce o f b r ic k s , a fe n ce o f sto n e s, a fen ce o f w o o d ." f| 3 f| T h e re w a s n o p o rch . I a llo w , m o n k s, a p o r c h ." T h e re w a s no d o o r to th e p o rch . I a llo w , m o n k s, a d o o r . . .4 . . . a co rd to p u ll th r o u g h ." P o w d e re d g ra s s fe ll o n to th e p o rch . . .5 " . . . fiv e (pieces of) c lo th d e s ig n ." A c e ll b e ca m e sw am p y6 . . . I a llo w , m o n k s, a d ra in fo r th e w a t e r ." T h e re w a s n o vessel fo r th e w a te r fo r rin sin g . I a llo w , m o n k s, a vessel fo r th e w a te r fo r r in s in g ." T h e r e w a s no s a u c e r fo r the w a te r fo r rin sin g . 1 a llo w , m o n k s, a sa u c e r fo r th e w a te r fo r rin sin g . T h e y rin sed s ittin g d o w n ; it w a s p a in fu l. < fI allo w , m o n k s, sh o es t o b e w o rn fo r rin sin g .7 T h e sh o es fo r rin sin g w ere p u b l i c ; m o n k s w e re a sh a m e d to rinse. I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) fe n c e s to fe n c e th e m in : a fen ce o f b rick s , a fen ce o f sto n e s, a fe n ce o f w o o d ." T h e vessel fo r th e w a te r fo r rin sin g w a s u n c o v e re d ; it w a s litte r e d o v e r w ith p o w d e re d g ra ss a n d d u st. " I a llo w , m o n k s, a li d ." 1 14 I I 35 ][__________ ____________________________________ * As at CV. V. 1 4 . 3. * Last two items also at CV. V. 4 As at CV. V. 1 4 . 3. 6 As at CV. V. 1 1 . 6. 4 As at CV. V. 1 4 . 5, 7 Allowed at MV. V. 8. 3.
1 p id h a r a .
11,

6.

jgS

BOOK

OF

D ISCIPLINE

N o w a t th a t tim e th e g r o u p o f s ix m o n k s in d u lg e d in b a d h a b its lik e th is1 : t h e y p la n te d a n d c a u s e d to b e p la n te d sm a ll flo w erin g tre e s . . . a n d in d u lg e d in v a r io u s b a d h a b its . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e s a id : " M o n k s, v a r io u s k in d s o f b a d h a b its sh o u ld n o t b e in d u lg e d in. W h o e v e r sh o u ld in d u lg e in th e m , sh o u ld b e d e a lt w ith a c c o rd in g t o th e r u le ."2 || 3 6 || N o w a t th e tim e w h e n K a s s a p a o f U r u v e la w e n t fo rth m a n y c o p p e r g o o d s, w o o d e n g o o d s, c la y g o o d s a c c ru e d to th e O rd er. T h e n it o c cu rre d to th e m o n k s : N o w , w h a t c o p p e r g o o d s a re a llo w e d b y th e L o r d , w h a t a re n o t a llo w e d ? W h a t w o o d en g o o d s a re a llo w e d , w h a t a re n o t a llo w e d ? W h a t c la y g o o d s a re a llo w e d , w h a t a re n o t a llo w e d ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h e n th e L o r d on th is o c ca sio n , in th is c o n n e ctio n , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n e d t a lk , a d d re s se d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a ll c o p p e r g o o d s e x c e p t a w e a p o n ; a ll w o o d en g o o d s e x c e p t a s o fa ,3 [142] a d iv a n ,4 a w o o d e n b o w l ,6 w o o d e n s h o e s 6; a ll c la y g o o d s e x c e p t a (cla y-fo o t-) sc ru b b e r 7 a n d a la rg e e a rth e n v e s s e l ."8 || 3 7 j| T o ld is th e F if t h S e c tio n : t h a t on M in o r M a tte rs T h is is it s k e y : A g a in s t a tre e , a n d a g a in s t a p o s t, a n d a g a in s t a w a ll, on a ru b b in g -b o a rd (u sin g a) gandhci (-bba h a n d in stru m e n t), a strin g , h a v in g p lu n g e d in to , a sc ru b b e r, s c a b , a n d a g e , o r d in a r y m o d e w ith th e h a n d . 1 As at CV. I. 1 3 . 2 and For. Meeting. XIII. The passage has been translated at B . D . i. 314-318. * V A . 1214 says they should be dealt with by a p d c it t iy a for a p d c it t iy a matter and by a d u k k a ja for a d u k k a ta matter. * d s a n d i. See B . D . iii. 326, n. 1, and B . D . iv. 256, n. 5. 4 p a lla n k a . See B . D . iii. 271, n. 3. 6 See definition of bowl at B . D . ii. 1 1 5 , 415, iii. 213. At CV. V. 8 . 2 it is made a d u k k a ta to use a wooden bowl. 6 C f . MV. V. 6. 4 (k a tth a p a d u k a ), above d d r u p d d u k a . 7 k a ta k a . See CV. V. 2 2 . 1 . * k u m b h a k d r ik a . V A . 1215 says this is a hut made entirely of clay like Dhaniyas. Dhaniya's story is told at the beginning of Defeat II.

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A n d also e a r-o m a m e n ts, ch a in s, o rn a m e n ta l strin g s o f b e a d s fo r th e th r o a t 1 sh o u ld n o t be w o rn , o rn a m e n ta l g ird le s, b a n g le s, a rm le ts, b ra c e le ts , fin g er rin g s. L o n g , w ith a c o m b , w ith a s n a k e 's h o o d in stru m e n t, w ith th e h a n d s, w ith b e e s w a x , w ith o ily w a te r , sores in a m irro r a n d b o w l o f w a te r, o in tm e n t, w ith p a s te a n d ch u n a n , T h e y sm e a re d ,2 a n d p a in tin g th e lim b s, p a in tin g th e fa c e s, b o th th ese, disease o f th e e y e s , a n d th e m o u n ta in to p , lo n g -d ra w n , in to n in g ,3 o u tsid e ,3 M ango p e e ls, w ith w h o le (m a n g o es), a sn a k e , a n d h e c u t off, sa n d a l w o o d , v a rio u s k in d s, b a se s o f b o w ls, g o ld , th ic k , ja g s , C a rv e d , w a s sp o ile d 4, n a s ty sm ellin g , in th e h e a t, w ere b ro k e n , b y a so lid b e n c h , p la ste r flo o rin g, g ra ss (m at), p ie ce o f c lo th , a s ta n d , a n d on a w ic k e r sta n d , A b a g , a n d a s tr a p a t th e e d g e , th r e a d m a d e fo r ty in g , a peg, a n d on a c o u ch , a n d on a c h a ir, o n a la p , in a su n sh a d e, o p en ed , A g o u rd , a w a te r -p o t, a sk u ll, o d d b its , w a s te -tu b , sp lit o p e n , 5 h a n d le , g o ld , fe a th e rs a n d rin d , a tu b e , A n d y e a s t, b a rle y -m e a l, p o w d e re d sto n e , b e e s w a x , g u m , m issh ap en a t th e c o m e rs , ty in g , u n e v e n p la c e , on th e g ro u n d , o ld 5 a n d w a s (not) e n o u g h ,6 A m a rk , a n d a fa lse th re a d , u n w a sh e d , d a m p , sa n d a ls, fingers, a n d a th im b le , a sm a ll b o w l, a b a g , ty in g s , In th e o p en a ir, lo w to th e g ro u n d , a n d a lso a p ilin g ,th e y w ere in c o n v e n ie n c e d , th e y fe ll off, p o w d e re d g ra ss, a sm e a rin g in sid e a n d o u t, 1 Reading above is k a riria su tta m , an ornamental string hanging from the ear Oldenberg at V i n . ii. 320 queries whether it should not be k a xtth a sutta ip (see CV. V. 2 . 1) which is the reading in the Sinh. and Siam, editions. 3 Text here la n c a n i i ; at CV. V. 2 . 5, as also in Sinh. edn. la H c h e n ti . Siam. edn. la n c e n t i. * These two words, run together as sara-bdhiraryt, stand for sa ra b h a U H a and bdliiralomi (CV. V. 3 . 2 and 4 ). 4 Reading should be d u s s a ii as at CV. V- 9 . 3 and Sinh. and Siam*, edns., not as with Oldenberg d u s s a n ti. 5 v ip p a r i. Sinh. edn. v ip p h d l i and Siam. edn. v ip h a li . A t CV. V. 1 1 . 1 it is v ip d tetv d . 6 Text reads j i r a - p a t o t i c a ; Sinh. edn. jifir ia tft p a h o ti c a ; Siam. edn.
ji r a p p a h o t i ca .

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W h ite w a s h a n d tr e a tm e n t w ith b la c k c o lo u rin g a n d re d c h a lk , w re a th w o rk c re e p e rw o rk sw o rd fish te e th s trip s (o f c lo th )1 A n d a b a m b o o a n d c o rd fo r ro b e* th e L e a d e r a llo w e d (these). A n d t h e y w e n t a w a y h a v in g le ft, a kathina fra m e w a s sp lit, W a s tw is te d o u t o f p o s itio n ,2 a n d o n to a w a ll, t h e y w e n t a lo n g ta k in g in a b o w l, a b a g , a n d a th re a d fo r ty in g , h a v in g tie d , s a n d a ls ,3 O n a ro a d w a te r th a t w a s n o t a llo w a b le , stra in e r, lit t le p ie c e o f c lo th , re g u la tio n w a te r-p o t, tw o m o n k s, th e S a g e re a ch ed V e sa li, D o u b le (w a te r-stra in er), filte r, h e a llo w e d a stra in e r. B y m o sq u ito es, v e r y ill th ro u g h s u m p tu o u s (foods) a n d J iv a k a , [143] P la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in, b a th ro o m , in an u n e v e n p lace, lo w to th e g ro u n d , th re e p ilin g s, th e y w ere in c o n v e n ie n c e d , sta irs, b a lu s tra d e , ra ilin g , I n th e op en a ir, p o w d e re d g ra ss, a s m e a rin g in sid e a n d o u t w h ite w a sh a n d tre a tm e n t w ith b la c k c o lo u rin g a n d red c h a lk W r e a th w o r k c re e p e rw o rk sw o rd fish te e th s trip s (of c lo th )4 b a m b o o a n d c o rd fo r ro b es, a n d it m a y b e b u ilt h ig h to th e gro u n d , A p ilin g , sta irc a se a n d b a lu s tr a d e ,5 a d o o r, d o o rp o s t a n d lin te l, a h o llo w lik e a m o rta r, a sm a ll u p p e r p ro je c tio n , a n d a p o st, a " m o n k e y s h e a d , A p in , a (stic k u sed a s a) b o lt, a k e y h o le , a n d p u llin g th ro u g h , a co rd , a fa c in g , a n d a p ip e fo r ste a m , a n d in th e m id d le , c la y fo r th e fa ce, A n d n a s ty s m e llin g ,6it sco rc h e d , a r e c e p ta c le fo r w a te r ,7 a sau cer, 1 Text reads paiika ; Siam. edn. pdtikatn ; Sinh. edn. pattika ; CV. V. 11. 6 and similar passages pancapatthikaip. P .E .D * takes pattika pattaka made of or forming a strip of ciotb ; a bandage, a stiip (of cloth)/* Thus pancapatthika may be a design : the five strips (of cloth) design. 1 vinivethiya ; Siam. edn. vinivethiyati. a Sinh. edn. here inserts upahanattkavikan ca amsabandkanasuttakant, bag for sandals and thread or tying at the edge ; and Siam. edn. updhanatthavikaH ca arnsavaddhan ca suttakam, bag for sandals and a strap at the edge and thread. 4 Text here reads makarantaka&atikam, but Sinh. edn. makaradantaka paitikam and Siam, makaradantapatikam. 5 bah a here stands for dlambanabaha. 4 Siam. edn. this word is preceded by doni, a tub or a trough, and in Sinh. edn. by mattikado&i, a tub for clay, as at *CV. V. 14 . 3. 7 Text reads udakdtara , Siam. edn. udakhdnaiyi, and Sinh. edn. udakddhanarn, with which cf. Bias udakanidhdna on CV. V. 14. 3, p. 166 above (udakafthdna ), and also cf. udakddhdna at M . i. 414.

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an d it d id n o t m a k e th em sw e a t, s w a m p y , to w a sh , one m a y m a k e a d ra in , A n d a c h a ir ,1 a b o u t a p o rch , w o r k ,2 g r a v e l, sto n e s, a d rain , n a k ed , on th e g ro u n d , w h en it ra in e d , th re e c o v e rin g s th ere, A w ell, a n d it fe ll in ,3 b y m ea n s o f a cre e p e r ,4 b y m ean s of a w a istb a n d , a w ell-sw eep , h a n d -w h e el, a w h eel, m a n y vessels w ere b ro k en , C o p p er, w o o d en , strip s o f anim als* h id e s, a h a ll, g ra ss, a lid, a tro u g h , a pool, a fen ce, s w a m p y , a n d a b o u t a d ra in , C o o led d o w n , a ta n k , a n d sta le , w ith a c u r v in g roof, fo r fo u r m o n th s, a n d la y d o w n to sleep , a n d a piece o f fe lt, a n d it sh o u ld n o t be a llo tte d , C h a se d (cushions), a s ta n d ,6 e a tin g t h e y w o u ld sh are one, V acjd h a, a n d B o d h i, tr e a d on it, little ja r, (c la y foot-) scru b b e r, bro o m , S to n e p e b b le a n d scu m a s a fo o t-ru b b e r, fa n , p a lm y ra -w h isk , a n d also a m o sq u ito fa n , a c h o w ry , S u n sh ad e, a n d 7 w ith o u t, in a m o n a s te ry th e th r e e 8 w ith strin g , a g ree m e n t, ru m in a to r, lu m p s o f b o ile d rice, lo n g nails, th e y c u t, p a in fu l fingers. D o w n to th e b lo o d , a n d to th e h e ig h t, th e tw e n ty , lo n g -h a ired , ra zo r, w h e tsto n e , ra zo r-ca se , p ie ce o f fe lt, a b a rb e r's e q u ip m e n t, T h e y trim m e d b eard s, t h e y le t th e m g ro w , g o a t 's b e a rd , fo u r co rn ere d a rra n g e m e n t, on th e ir c h e sts a n d on th e ir sto m a c h s, w h isk e rs, re m o v e d th e h a ir on th e ir b o d ies, Illn ess, scissors, a sore, lo n g , a n d w ith a p iece o f c r y s ta l, g r e y h a ir, sto p p e d , a n d v a r io u s k in d s o f c o p p e r g o o d s, a store,
1 R e a d i n g p lt h a m w it h S in h - e d n . i n s t e a d o f t e x t 's p lt h e . * T h i s m u s t r e f e r t o t h e v v r e a th w o r k a n d c r e e p e r w o r k m e n t io n e d in C V . V . 8 R e a d in g l u j j a t i w it h S in h . a n d S ia m , e d n s ., in s t e a d o f t e x t 's lu jja - t i& i. 4 v a lliy d ; a t C V . V . 10. 2 v a ilik d y a . * C V . V . 19. 1 a n d S ia m . e d n . tn a lo rik a n t ; a b o v e tn a lo ra k a m ; S in h . e d n . m a lo jik a m . b * T ext r e a d s b h u n ja n to k a tu v a ita y y u m ; S in h . e d n . b h u H ja n t * eka tu v a ttik a m ; S i a m . e d n . b h u n ja n t* eka tn tu v a fta y u fjt. 7 R e a d ca w i t h S in g , a n d S ia m , e d n s ., in s t e a d o f t e x t 's va. 8 T h is r e f e r s t o t h r e e (o f t h e fo u r ) r u lin g s la id d o w n a t C V . V . 23. 2, 3 fo r t h e u s e o f s u n s h a d e s : ( 1 ) a llo w e d , (2) n o t a llo w e d , (3 ) a llo w e d ( o n ly ) t o a n i n v a lid , (4) a llo w e d t o b e u s e d b y a m o n k w h e t h e r ill o r w e ll in a m o n a s t e r y a n d m o n a s t e r y p r e c in c t s . ^ * n ic a y a , S in h . e d n . n ic a y d , t e x t n is a h a . S ia m . e d n . lo h a b h a n ^ a n k h a n i s a h a . S in h . e d n . in s e r t s b e t w e e n t h i s w o r d a n d " lo llin g b a n d h a n a m a ita tjt k u k k u c c d , (to o ) s c r u p u lo u s ( t o u s e ) a h a n d le , s e e n . a t C V . V . 28. 2 a b o v e .

14 4*

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A n d lo llin g , a b a n d a g e , s tr in g s ,1 tic k e ts , (w a ist-)b a n d , th ose o f m a n y stra n d s, lik e th e h e a d o f a w a te r-s n a k e , lik e ta m b o u rin e d ru m s, th o se lik e c h a in s ,2 P a lm y r a w h isk , h u n d re d ju n g le -ro p e s ,3 h a v in g p u t on h o u s e h o ld e rs 1 u p p er g a rm e n ts, loin clo th s, d o u b le c a rry in g -p o le , to o th w o o d , on flic k in g , L o d g e d in th e th ro a t, a n d a fo re s t, c o u n te rfire , a tre e , a n d b y a n e le p h a n t, Y a m e lu (and T e k u la ),4 t h e y le a rn t m e ta p h y s ic s , t h e y ta u g h t it* [144] W o r ld ly k n o w le d g e ,6 he sn eezed , g o o d lu c k , a n d h e a te , a fflic tio n o f w in d , a n d it w a s so ile d , n a s t y sm e llin g , p a in fu l, shoes, T h e y w ere a sh am ed , n a s ty sm e llin g (un-) c o v e r e d , 6 a n d th e y d id it h ere a n d th e re , n a s ty sm ellin g , cessp oo l, it fe ll in , 7 h ig h t o th e g ro u n d , a n d a b o u t a p ilin g , S ta irc a s e , b a lu stra d e , in sid e, p a in fu l a n d sh oes, o u tsid e, a tu b a n d w o o d , a n d a s t ic k ,8 u n c o v e re d , A h u t to r th e p r iv y , b o th a d o o r a s w e ll a s a d o o rp o st a n d lin tel, a h o llo w lik e a m o rta r, an u p p e r p r o je c tio n , a p o st, a n d a m o n k e y 's h e a d , A pin, a b o lt, a k e y h o le , a n d a h o le fo r p u llin g (cord) th ro u g h as w e ll as
1 T e x t p a ta m ; S in h . e d n . a n d C V . V . 28. 2 v a ta m . 8 S in h . a n d S ia m . e d n s . h e r e h a v e t h e f o l lo w in g : p a ttik a m ( S ia m , p a ttik a ) s iik a r a n ta n c a } dasd m u r a ja -v e p ik d ( S ia m , m u r a jja -) p a v a n a n to p i j i r a t i / g a n th ik a m u cca v a ca ii ca p h a la k a n te p i ogahe g ih in iv a tth a r n h a ttk is o n g a m m a cch a k a tn ca tu k a n n a k a r n f ( S ia m , g ih iv a tth a rn scm darn m a cch a v a la k a rn c a tu k k a n n a k a m ) a s t r ip o f c o t t o n c l o t h a n d o n e w i t h a w e ll m a d e e n d / b o r d e r s , lik e t a m b o u r in e d r u m s , a t w i s t i n g (v e n ik d , p r o b a b l y fo r so b h a n a a t C V . V . 29. 2 ), a n e n d , a n d k n o t t i n g t h e r e s t , a ls o w h e r e i t w a s lo o p e d , / i t w o r e o u t , a b l o c k , a n d v a r io u s k in d s , a ls o s h ie ld s a n d e d g e s , t a k i n g b a c k , / h o u s e h o ld e r s ' u n d e r g a r m e n t s : t h e e le p h a n t 's t r u n k , t h e fis h a r r a n g e m e n t , t h e f o u r c o r n e r e d a r r a n g e m e n t . T h i s c o v e r s C V . V . 29. 2 - 4 ( b e g in n in g ) , a n d c l e a r l y s h o u ld b e in s e r te d . 3 R e a d in g w it h S in h . e d n . s a ta v a llim , in s t e a d o f sa ta v a li a b o v e . 4 T e x t r e a d s Y a m e j e , w h ic h I t a k e t o b e a p lu r a l o f Y a m e l a a n d T e k u l a . " B u t S in h . e d n . r e a d s Y a m e l a . S ia m . S a k a t e , w i t h v .l. Y a m e l e . S e e n o te a b o v e t o C V . V . 33. 1 . * * 6 T e x t a n d S i a m . e d n . tir a c c h d n a k a th d . I f o l lo w S in h . tira cch a n a g a td v ij j a s in c e t h e r e is n o m e n t io n o f t a l k ** in C V . V . 33. 2. ' e paru. 7 S h o u ld r e a d l u j j a t i a s in S in h . a n d S i a m , e d n s ., n o t l u j j a n t i a s in t e x t . 8 C V . V . 35. 3 p id h a r o ; a b o v e p id h d r o ; S in h . e d n . p ld h a r o ; S i a m . e d n . pltha.ro .

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a co rd , a sm ea rin g in sid e a n d o u t, w h ite w a s h a n d b la c k co lo u rin g W re a th w o rk c re e p e rw o rk sw o rd fish fiv e strip s o f c lo th (design) a b a m b o o a n d a c o rd fo r ro b es, w e a k th ro u g h a g e , a fen ce, A n d a b o u t a p o rch , as b e fo re , a n d g r a v e l, flagsto n es, (w ater) re m a in e d , a d ra in , a n d also a ve sse l, a sa u cer. P a in fu l, sh am e, a lid , a n d t h e y in d u lg e d in b a d h a b its. H e a llo w e d c o p p e r g o o d s a w e a p o n b e in g e x ce p te d . A so fa a n d d iv a n , a w o o d e n b o w l a n d sh oes b e in g e x c e p te d th e G r a a t S a g e a llo w e d a ll (other) g o o d s m a d e o f w o o d . A n d th e T ru th -fin d e r, a (c la y fo o t-) sc ru b b e r a n d a n e a rth e rn v e sse l h a v in g been e x c e p te d , co m p a ssio n a te , a llo w e d a lso a ll (other) g o o d s m a d e o f c la y . T h e c h a r a c te r o f w h a te v e r m a tte r , if e q u a l to th e p re ced in g , eve n if it is b rief, is k n o w n fro m th e c o n te x t in th e k e y . T h u s th e h u n d re d a n d te n m a tte rs in th e M in o r M a tte rs in th e d iscip lin e are b a se d on w h a t is dham m a in d e e d a lso th e re is h e lp fo r th e w e ll b e h a v e d . T h e e x p e rt in d iscip lin e is w e ll tra in e d , fr ie n d ly in m in d , v e r y w e ll b e h a v e d , b rin g in g lig h t, s te a d fa s t, w o r th y o f h o n o u r, o n e w h o h a s h e a rd m u ch . [145]

204

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LESSER

D IV I S I O N

(C U L L A V A G G A )

VI

A t one tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd w a s s ta y in g a t R a ja g a h a in th e B a m b o o G ro v e a t th e sq u irre ls' fe e d in g p la c e . N o w a t th a t tim e lo d g in g s h a d n o t b e en p e r m itte d to m o n k s b y th e L o rd . So th ese m o n k s s ta y e d h ere a n d th e re : in a fo rest, a t th e ro o t o f a tree, on a h illsid e , in a g le n , in a m o u n ta in c a v e , in a c e m e te ry , in a fo rest g la d e , in th e o p e n air, on a h e a p o f s tr a w .1 E a r ly in th e m o rn in g s th e se w e n t o u t fro m th is a n d th a t p la c e : fro m th e fo re s t . . . fro m th e h e a p o f stra w , p le a sin g w h e n a p p ro a c h in g a n d w h e n re ce d in g , w h e n lo o k in g b e fo re , w h e n lo o k in g b a c k , w h e n b e n d in g b a c k (th eir arm s), w h en stre tc h in g th e m o u t, th e ir e y e s c a s t d o w n a n d possessed o f p le a sa n t b e h a v io u r .2 |j i || N o w a t th a t tim e a (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a w e n t e a r ly one m o rn in g to a p le a su re g r o v e .3 T h e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a s a w th e se m o n k s g o in g o u t fro m th is a n d th a t p la c e : fro m a fo rest . * . . fro m a h e a p o f s tr a w , ? n d se e in g th e m he m a d e u p h is m in d ,4 T h e n th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a a p p ro a c h e d th o se m o n k s ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e s p o k e th u s to th o se m o n k s : I f I , r e v e re d sirs, w e re to h a v e d w e llin g p la c e s b u ilt, w o u ld y o u s t a y in m y d w e llin g -p la c e s ? " H o u seh o ld er, d w e llin g -p la c e s h a v e n o t b e e n a llo w e d b y th e L o r d . W e ll th e n , re v e re d sirs, h a v in g in q u ir e d o f th e L o rd , te ll m e (w h a t h e s a y s ) . " V e r y w ell, h o u se h o ld e r, a n d th e s e m o n k s, h a v in g a n sw e re d th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a in a sse n t, a p p r o a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d , h a v in g g r e e te d h im , t h e y sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d istan ce* A s t h e y w e re s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e , th e s e m o n k s s p o k e th u s t o th e L o r d : L o r d > th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a is a n x io u s to h a v e 1 C f. same list at D . i. 71, M . iii. 3, A . ii. 210, and a shorter one at A . i. 241 The- * ns are defined at D A 209-210, V b h A . 366-7. \ or less stock; cf. V in . iii, 181, Z > * i. 70, M . iii. 35, 90, A . ii, 104, \d at
Vin. iv. 298. \ia*n pasidi, his mind

became clear or brigbt.

1.2-4]

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d w e llin g -p la ce s b u ilt. W h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld b e fo llo w ed b y us, L o r d ? T h e n th e L o rd on th is o ccasio n h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed t a lk a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " I a llo w , m o n k s, fiv e (kin d s of) a b o d e s r1 a d w e llin g -p la c e , a c u r v e d h o u se, a lo n g h o u se ,2 a m a n sio n ,3 a c a v e . 4 || 2 || T h e n [146] th ese m o n k s a p p ro a c h e d th e (great) m e rch a n t o f R a j a g a h a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , t h e y sp o k e th u s to th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a : H o u se h o ld e r, d w e llin g -p la ce s h a v e been a llo w ed b y th e L o rd . D o n o w w h a t seem s r ig h t.1' T h en th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a h a d s i x t y d w e llin g p la ces e sta b lish e d on one d a y alo n e . W h e n th e (great) m e rch a n t o f R a j a g a h a h a d h a d th e se s i x t y d w e llin g -p la c e s fin ish ed he a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , h e s a t d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s h e w a s s ittin g d ow n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e , th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : L o rd , m a y th e L o rd co n se n t to a m eal w ith m e on th e m o rro w to g e th e r w ith th e O rd e r o f m o n k s . T h e L o rd c o n se n te d b y b e c o m in g sile n t. T h e n th e (great) m e rch a n t o f R a ja g a h a , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d th e L o r d s co n sen t, risin g fro m h is se a t d e p a rte d k e e p in g h is rig h t side to w a rd s h im . |j 3 || ' T h e n th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a , h a v in g h a d su m p tu o u s fo o d s, so lid a n d s o ft, p re p a re d to w a rd s th e en d o f th a t n ig h t, h a d th e tim e a n n o u n c e d to th e L o rd , s a y in g : I t is tim e, L o rd , th e m e a l is r e a d y ." T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g d ressed in th e m o rn in g , ta k in g h is b o w l a n d ro b e, a p p ro a c h e d th e d w e llin g o f th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e s a t d o w n on th e a p p o in te d se a t to g e th e r w ith th e O rd e r o f m o n k s. T h e n th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a , h a v in g w ith h is o w n h a n d s e rv e d a n d sa tisfie d th e O rd e r of m o n ks w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d w ith su m p tu o u s food s, so lid a n d so ft, s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e w h en th e L o rd h a d eaten a n d h a d w ith d ra w n h is h a n d fro m his b o w l. A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e th e (great)
1 C f . M V . 1 . 80. 4 , a n d a ls o B . D . ii. 1 6 , n . 6 (o n p . 1 7 ) . 1 S e e B . D , ii. 1 6 , n . 5. P d s d d a is a g a in c a l le d d lg h a p d s a d a a t V A . 1 2 1 5 , on a b o v e p assa ge. # # , 8 h a m m iy a . S e e B . D . ii. 1 6 , n . 6 . V A . 1 2 1 5 s a y s ** a h a m m iy a is lik e a p d s d d a w i t h a c h a m b e r p la c e d o n t h e t o p m o s t o p e n - a ir f l o o r ." ^ 4 V A . 1 2 1 5 s a y s a c a v e , g u h d , in b r ic k s , in s t o n e s , in w o o d , in l a t e r it e , p a m s u . O n p a tjts u a s m e a n in g " l a t e r i t e " in t h i s c o n n e c t io n s e e A . K . C o o m a r a s w a m y , I n d . A r c h ite c tu r a l T e r m s , J A O S ., v o l. 4 8 , n o . 3 , p . 2 6 6 .

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m e rch a n t o f R a ja g a h a sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : L o rd , I h a d these s ix t y d w e llin g -p la c e s b u ilt b e ca u se I n e e d m e rit, b e cau se I need h e a v e n . W h a t line o f c o n d u c t a m I, L o rd , to fo llo w in re ga rd to th e se d w e llin g -p la c e s ? W e ll n o w , do y o u , h o u seh o ld er, e s ta b lis h th e se s i x t y d w e llin g -p la ce s fo r (the use of) th e O rd e r o f th e fo u r q u a r te r s ,1 p resen t a n d to c o m e / V e r y w ell, L o r d , a n d th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a , h a v in g a n sw e re d th e L o rd in a ssen t, h a d th o se s i x t y d w e llin g p la ce s e sta b lish e d fo r (th e use of) th e O rd e r o f th e fo u r q u a rte rs, p re se n t a n d to co m e. || 4 |) T h e n th e L o rd th a n k e d th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a in th ese ve rse s :2 T h e y w a rd o ff c o ld a n d h e a t a n d b e a s ts o f p r e y fro m th e re A n d c ree p in g th in g s a n d g n a ts a n d ra in s in th e w e t season . W h en th e d re a d e d h o t w in d arises, t h a t is w a rd e d off. T o m e d ita te a n d o b ta in in sig h t in a re fu g e a n d a t ease : A d w e llin g -p la c e is p ra ise d b y th e A w a k e n e d O n e as c h ie f g ift to a n O rd er. T h e re fo re a w ise m a n , lo o k in g to h is o w n w e a l, S h o u ld h a v e c h a rm in g d w e llin g -p la c e s b u ilt so t h a t th o se w h o h a v e h e a rd m u c h c a n s t a y th e re in .3 [14 7] T o th e se 4 fo o d a n d d rin k , ra im e n t a n d lo d g in g s H e sh o u ld g iv e , to th e u p r ig h t, w ith m in d p u rifie d . (Then) th e se 5 te a c h h im dham m a d is p e llin g e v e r y i l l ; H e, k n o w in g t h a t dham m a , h ere a tta in s n ib b a n a , c a n k e rle ss .6 T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g g iv e n th a n k s to th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a in th e se v e rse s, risin g fro m his s e a t, d e p a rte d ,
tl 5 II 1 II

P e o p le h e a rd : I t is sa id t h a t d w e llin g -p la c e s are a llo w e d b y th e L o r d , a n d t h e y z e a lo u s ly h a d d w e llin g -p la c e s b u ilt. T h e se d w e llin g -p la c e s d id n o t h a v e d o o rs, a n d sn a k e s , sco rp io n s a n d ce n tip e d e s g o t in. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd .
1 * * 4 6 * S e e S . D u t t , E a r ly B u d . A fo n a c h is m , p p . 8 3 ff., 1 3 1 , 14 3 . A s a t C V . V I . 9* 2 b e lo w , a n d J d . i. 93* D A . i. 3 0 4 , C f. M iln . 2 1 1 . F o r t h i s lin e a n d n e x t , cf. S . i. 10 0. T h is lin e a n d n e x t a t A . iii. 4 1 , 4 3 . C f . t h is lin e w it h S n . 7 6 5 .

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H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a d o o r / H a v in g m a d e a h o le in th e w a ll, th e y tie d on th e d o o r w ith ju n g le cree p e r a n d w ith co rd , b u t th e se w ere e a te n b y r a ts a n d w h ite a n ts a n d w h en th e ty in g s w ere e a te n th e d o ors fe ll d o w n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a d o o rp o st a n d lin te l, a h o llo w lik e a m o rta r (for th e d o or to re v o lv e in) a sm all u p p e r p ro je c tio n . 1 T h e d oors d id n o t m e e t. I a llo w , m o n k s, a h o le fo r p u llin g th ro u g h (th e co rd ), co rd fo r p u llin g th r o u g h . 1 T h e d o ors c o u ld n o t be clo sed . " I a llo w , m o n k s, a p o st fo r th e b o lt, a * m o n k e y s h e a d / a p in (to secure th e b o lt), a s tic k (used as a b o lt ). 1 N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w e re n o t a b le to o p e n a door. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n ks, a k e y h o le a n d th re e (kin d s of) k e y s : a c o p p e r k e y , a w o o d en k e y , a h o rn k e y . B u t th e d w e llin g -p la c e s w ere u n g u a rd e d 2 w h en th o se w h o , h a v in g u n fa ste n e d 3 (the d oors), e n te red . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : I a llo w , m o n ks, a b o lt a n d a pin (to secu re th e b o lt ). 4 J |x | J N o w a t th a t tim e d w e llin g -p la c e s w e re ro o fe d w ith g ra ss ; th e y w ere c o ld in th e c o ld w e a th e r, h o t in th e h o t w e a th e r. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : ! I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, h a v in g la sh e d on (a ro o fin g), to g iv e it a sm e a rin g in sid e a n d o u t . 5 N o w a t th a t tim e d w e llin g -p la c e s h a d n o w in d o w s .6 T h e y w e re b a d fo r th e e y e s a n d n a s t y sm ellin g . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, th ree (kinds of) w in d o w s : a ra ilin g w in d o w ,7 a la ttic e w in d o w ,8 a s tic k w in d o w . 9 S q u irre ls a n d b a ts g o t th ro u g h th e sp aces

1 O n t h e s e it e m s s e e C V . V . 14. 3. 2 a g u tta , a s w e r e t h e l o d g in g s a t C V . V I I I . 3. 1. 3 ugghatetvd, a s a t C V . V I I I . 1. 1 o f t h e g h a tik d , s t i c k u s e d a s a b o lt . * y a n ta k a tji s iic ik a m . V A . 12 16 sa y s W h a t e v e r o n e s e e s t h a t is a y a n ta k a , a n d o n e c a n m a k e a p in t o o p e n it.** C f . y a n ta k a m d e ti, t o s e c u r e t h e b o lt , t o lo c k u p , a t D h A . i. 22 0 . 6 A s a t C V . V . 11. 6 : V . 14. 3 , e t c . _ * P r o b a b l y w in d o w h o le s , b e c a u s e t h e a b o v e w o r d , v d ta p d n a , is u s e d a t V in . iv . 4 7 t o e x p l a i n d lo k a s a n d h i , t h e h o le s f o r l i g h t a n d a ir . V d ta p d n a m e n t io n e d a t M V . I . 25. 1 8 . _ 7 v ed ik d v d ta p d n a . V A . 1 2 1 6 s a y s l i k e t h e r a ilin g o f a s h r in e . S o , a g r ille in a r a ilin g p a t t e r n . S e e A . K . C o o m a r a s w a m y , I n d . A r c h ite c tu r a l T e r m s, J A O S . v o l. 48, n o . 3 , p . 2 7 3 f o r s h o r t d is c u s s io n o f t h e s e t h r e e t y p e s o f w in d o w s . 8 jd la v d ta p d n a . V A . 1 2 1 6 s a y s s o m e t h in g t i e d n e t w is e , s o a l a t t ic e . * sa ld k a v d ta p d n a . V A . 1 2 1 6 s a y s a l i t t l e p o s t o r p i l la r w in d o w . T h ese w o r d s w ill b e m o r e r e a d il y u n d e r s t o o d i f i t is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t v d ta p d n a i s a n a p e r t u r e a n d n o t w h a t c lo s e s i t .

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in th e w in d o w s. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, d r a p e r y 1 a c ro ss th e w in d o w s ." S q u irre ls a n d b a ts g o t in e v e n th ro u g h th e d r a p e r y . I a llo w , m o n k s, s h u tte rs 2 a cross th e w in d o w s, little b o ls te rs 3 a cro ss th e w in dow<=. || 2 j| N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s la y d o w n to sleep on th e g ro u n d a n d th e ir lim b s a n d ro b es w ere so ile d w ith d u st. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a g ra ss m a ttin g . T h e g ra ss m a ttin g [148] w a s e a te n b y r a ts a n d w h ite a n ts. I a llo w , m o n k s, a so lid b e n c h . 4 B e c a u s e of th e so lid b e n ch th e ir lim b s b e ca m e p a in fu l. I a llo w , m o n k s, a little c o u ch o f sp lit b a m b o o . 5 N o w a t th a t tim e a b ie rlik e lo n g c o u c h 6 a c c ru e d to a n O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a lo n g c o u c h . A lo n g c h a ir a c cru e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s , a lo n g c h a ir ." N o w a t th a t tim e a b ie rlik e c o u c h w ith s la t s 7 a c cru e d to a n O rd er . . . a c h a ir w ith s la ts . . . a b ie rlik e c o u ch w ith c u r v e d le g s 8 . . . a ch a ir w ith c u r v e d le g s . . . a b ie rlik e c o u c h w ith re m o v e a b le legs . . . a c h a ir w ith re m o v e a b le legs a c cru e d . I a llo w , m o n k s, a c h a ir w ith re m o v e a b le le g s .
il 3 II

N o w a t th a t tim e a r e c ta n g u la r c h a ir 10 a c c ru e d to a n O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n ks, a re c ta n g u la r c h a ir . A ta ll r e c ta n g u la r c h a ir 11 a c c ru e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s,

1 cakkalika. th e fe e t. '
* k a v d ta k a .

V A , 12 16 says " I allow yo u to tie on clo th used for w iping

* bhisikd. C f . B .D . ii. 47, n. 1 on bhisi. 4 m idhi . See C V . V . 9 . 4. V A . 1 2 1 6 here explains b y plthaphalaka. ^ 6 bidalamaricaka. Cf. J d . i. 9, D h A . i. 135 where m entioned as a fe a tu ie in th e life of one who has gone forth. V A . 1 2 16 says a tw ig cou ch or one w oven w ith bam boo chips. mas&raka defined in P a c. 14. F or notes on these four kind s of couches and chairs see B .D . ii. 240. 7 bundikabaddha, defined in P ac. 14, as are also th e n e x t tw o term s. kuhrapddaka. % ahaccapddaka. 10 asandika. V A . 1216, reading dsandhika , says it is called a four-cornered (or squaie, caturassa) chair. Cf. K h A . 44. 1 1 uccako asandiko.

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e v e n 1 a ta ll re c ta n g u la r c h a ir . 2 A th re e -sid e d (co u ch )8 a ccru e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w , m on ks, a th re e -sid e d (co u ch ). A ta ll th re e -sid e d (couch) a ccru e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, e v e n a ta ll th re e -sid e d (co u ch ). A p la ite d c h a ir 4 a c cru e d . . . a c lo th c h a ir 6 . . . a sheep-footed c h a ir . . . a s ta lk s o f th e e m b lic m y ro b a la n c h a ir 7 . . . a w o o d en (ch air )8 . . . a sto o l* . . . a stra w c h a ir a c cru e d to an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a s tr a w c h a ir . || 4 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s la y d o w n to sleep on h ig h co u ch es. P e o p le to u rin g th e lo d g in g s, h a v in g seen th e m . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p lea su res o f th e se n ses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t lie d o w n to sleep on h ig h co u ch es. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) lie d o w n to sleep , [149] th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , ly in g d o w n to sleep on a lo w c o u ch , w a s b itte n b y a sn a k e . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, su p p o rts fo r th e co u ch e s . 10 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u sed ta ll su p p o rts
1 p i , also meaning " too, also," but in view of the efforts made to prevent monks from using chairs, couches and beds that were too high, ** even *' seems a permissible translation* % V A . 1216 says a long chair is on a support eight finger-breadths (high), but if it exceeds that measure it should be called a rectangular chair. 8 sat tan ga, lit. seven limbs/ parts, members 01 constituents. V A . 1216 says that it is a couch that is finished, a support having been made towards three (of the) quarters." It therefore occupied three sides ot a square, and had four ends (two outei and two innei), making a total of seven parts. * baddhapitha. V A . 1216 says a chair made entirely of twigs. 5 plthikd. V A . 1216 says just a chair plaited in cloth. 4 elakapadaka. V A . 1216 says "having placed the upper parts of the legs in white woollen cloth round the wood, it is a finished chair like a slab for food, b h o j a n a p h a l a k a C f . kullrapadaka, lit. " crab-footer, for which see B .D . ii. 240, n. 4. 7 amdlakavantika pitha. V A . 1217 says this is a chair of many legs plaited in the manner (or on the pattern) of emblic myrobalan. 8 phalaka. See phalakapuha at Vin. iv. 40 and B . D . ii. 242, n. 5. Cf. apassenaphalaka at MV. I. 25 . 15, CV. VI. 20 . 2. koccha. See B . D . ii. 239, n. 1* and Old Comy's definition at B . D . ii. 240. On above passage V A . 1217, omitting made of bark,* saysmade of khus-khus, made of mwfl/a-grass (which at V A . 1217 reads puHjamaya)t made of reeds. 10 mancapafipddaka, as at MV. I. 25 , 16, CV. VIII. 1 . 3. See B . D . iv. 64, n. 4.

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fo r th e co u ch e s ; t h e y ro c k e d to a n d fro to g e th e r w ith th e ta ll su p p o rts fo r th e co u ch e s. f M o n k s, ta ll su p p o rts fo r co u ch es sh o u ld n o t b e u sed . W h o e v e r sh o u ld use th e m , th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m o n k s, a su p p o rt fo r a c o u ch to be e ig h t fin g e r-b re a d th s a t th e m o s t . 1 j| 5 || N o w a t th a t tim e th r e a d a c c ru e d to a n O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, t o w e a v e a c o u c h / ' T h e en d s u se d u p m u c h th re a d . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g p ie rc e d th e e n d s ,2 to w e a v e sm a ll sq u a re s . 3 A p ie ce o f c o tto n c lo th a c cru e d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a c a r p e t . 4 A c o tto n quilt a c c ru e d to a n O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e s a id : *' I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g u n ra v e lle d it, to m a k e a s q u a ttin g m a t 6 o f th re e (k in d s of) c o tto n :7 c o tto n fro m trees, c o tto n fro m cree p e rs, c o tto n fro m g ra s s . N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u se d s q u a ttin g m a ts h a lf (th e size o f a m an 's) b o d y . P e o p le , to u r in g th e d w e llin g -p la ce s, h a v in g seen th e m . . , sp re a d it a b o u t, sa y in g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n ses. T h e y t o ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " M o n k s, s q u a ttin g m a ts h a lf (the size o f a m a n s) b o d y sh o u ld n o t b e u se d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld use o n e, th e re is a n o ffe n ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a s q u a ttin g m a t th e size o f a h e a d . 8 II 6 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e re c a m e to b e a fe s tiv a l on a m o u n ta in to p n e a r R a ja g a h a .0 P e o p le a rra n g e d m a ttre ss e s 10 fo r th e On this expression see B . D . ii. 240, n. 5 . " Legs ** is I think a better translation than " sides { V i n . T e x t s iii. 166-7). 3 aithapadaka as at M V . V I I I . 2 1. i . Perhaps meaning in thechequered board fashion/' a tth a p a d a , on which sea B . D . i. 316, n. 2. 4 c ilim ik d . See B . D . ii. 241, n. 8. V A . 1217 on above says " when the earth is treated with plaster, a c ilim ik d is called a covering, a tth a r a n a , for protecting the surface, c h a v i /' 6 t u lik a , as at M V . V . 10 . 4. b im b o h a n a . Similar allowance made at C V . V I . 14 . 7 tu la . See similar definition at V i n ., iv. 170 ( B . D . iii, 93, q .v . n. 2). V A . 1217 says cotton from any vegetable growth can be used for squatting mats, but apart from trees, creepers and grasses there is no other vegetable growth. 8 C f . V b h A . 365 which elaborates saying that in width it can be four standard finger breadths, in length the measure of the width of the couch. * See B . D . ii, 335, n. r. Phrase also occurs at C V . V . 2 . 6. 10 b h is i. See B . D . ii. 47, n. 1.
1 C f . Pac. 87. 8 ange v ijjh itv d .

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g re a t m in iste rs : m a ttre ss e s o f w o o l, m a ttre ss e s of c o tto n c lo th , m a ttre sses o f b a rk , m a ttre ss e s o f tin a -g rass, m a ttre ss e s o f le a v e s .1 W h e n th e fe s tiv a l w a s o v e r t h e y c o n v e y e d th e m a w a y h a v in g ta k e n off th e co v e rs. M o n k s sa w m u c h w o o l a n d c o tto n c lo th a n d b a rk a n d /iw a-grass a n d le a v e s th ro w n a w a y a t th e fe s tiv a l p la c e ; a n d se e in g it t h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s, fiv e (k in d s of) m a t t resses : a m a ttre s s o f w o o l . . . o f c o tto n c lo th . . . o f b a r k . . . o f m -grass, a m a ttre ss o f le a v e s . N o w a t th a t tim e w o v e n c lo th 2 a s a re q u is ite fo r lo d g in g s a c cru e d to a n O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to c o v e r a m a ttre ss (w ith i t ) / N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s p a c k e d a w a y a c o u c h -m a t tre ss on a c h a ir, th e y p a c k e d a w a y a c h a ir-m a ttre s s on a c o u c h ; th e m a ttresses fe ll to b it s .3 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a c o v e r e d c o u ch , a c o v e re d c h a ir / ' 4 [150] T h e y p a c k e d th e m a w a y w ith o u t h a v in g p u t a c o b w e b c lo th (b e n e a th 5 a n d th e stu ffin g ) c a m e o u t fro m b e lo w . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g p u t a c o b w e b c lo th (b e n e ath th e m a ttre ss), h a v in g s p re a d it, to c o v e r a m a ttr e s s / ' H a v in g re m o v e d th e c o v e rs, t h e y c a rrie d th e m a w a y . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to s p r in k le 6 th e m / ' T h e y s till c a rrie d th e m a w a y . I a llo w , m o n k s, line d e c o r a tio n / ' 7 T h e y s till c a rrie d th e m a w a y . I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, th e o u tlin e o f th e h a n d / ' 8 ________________________________________________ II 7 II I I
1 S a m e f iv e k in d s g i v e n a t Vin . i v . 4 0 . S e e B .D . ii. 24 0 , n . 7. dussa. 8 A s a t C V . V . 1 1 . 2. 4 onaddhamaiica onaddhapitha. T h i s m u s t m e a n c o v e r e d w i t h m a t t r e s s e s t o f it t h e m . C f. Vin . i. 1 9 4 , ii. 2 70 . 6 ullokam akaritva, w h ic h V A , 1 2 1 8 e x p l a i n s b y hetthd cim ilikam adaivd. O n cimilika s e e a b o v e , p . 2 1 0 , n . 4 . Ullohd o c c u r s a t Vin. i. 48 = ii. 20 9. 4 positurn, w h ic h s h o u ld r e a d phositum a s d o e s V in . i. 205 a n d V A . 1 2 1 8 . T h i s l a t t e r s a y s t o g i v e s p r in k lin g s (o r t o u c h e s , phusitdni) o n t o p w it h d y e s o r w it h t u r m e r ic / * 7 bhattikamma. V A . 1 2 1 9 r e a d s bhittikamma, w a ll- w o r k , a n d s a y s it is a bhittikamma o n t o p o f t h e m a t t r e s s c o v e r . W h a t e v e r t h e e x a c t m e a n in g o f t h e t e r m , it is n o d o u b t a d if f e r e n t p r o c e s s f r o m t h e s p r in k lin g " w h ic h , a s p e r h a p s a f o r e r u n n e r t o t h e t i e - a n d - d y e i n d u s t r y , w o u ld p r o b a b l y r e s u l t in s p o t s . C f. bhatikamma a t C V , V . 9 . 2. 6 hatthabhitti. Bhitti is o f c o u r s e a w a ll. V A . 1 2 1 9 s a y s pancanqulabhitti, t h e w a ll o f t h e f iv e fin g e r s . A l l t h e s e m a r k s w e r e p r o b a b l y a p p lie d so a s t o d is f ig u r e t h e m a t t r e s s e s a n d t h u s d is s u a d e m o n k s f r o m c a r r y i n g t h e m o ff ; O r t h e y m a y h a v e b e e n id e n t if i c a t io n m a r k s . B u t a ll t h e cf. P a c . 5 8 . r e a d in g s , a n d t h e r e fo r e t h e m e a n in g s , a r e u n c e r t a in . R e a d i n g in t h e J k e y ,* ' Vin. ii. 1 7 8 , is hatthabhatti, lin e o f t h e h a n d . O n pancangulikam datwrn cf. a b o v e , p . 17 0 .

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e s le e p in g p la c e s 1 o f m e m b e rs o f o th er se c ts w ere w h ite w a s h e d , th e g r o u n d w a s c o lo u re d b la c k , th e w a lls w ere tr e a te d w ith re d c h a lk .2 M a n y p e o p le w e n t t o see th e slee p in g p la c e s. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e said : I a llo w , m o n k s , w h ite w a s h , b la c k c o lo u rin g , red c h a lk (to b e used) in a d w e llin g - p la c e / ' N o w a t t h a t tim e th e w h ite w a s h d id n o t a d h e re to th e ro u g h w a lls. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g a p p lie d lu m p s o f g ra in -h u sk s, h a v in g k e p t so m e b a c k w ith a sp o o n ,3 to p u t on th e w h it e w a s h ." T h e w h ite w a s h w o u ld n o t s tic k on. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g a p p lie d so ft c la y , h a v in g k e p t so m e b a c k w ith a sp o o n , to p u t o n th e w h ite w a s h . The w h ite w a s h w o u ld n o t s tic k on. " I a llo w , m o n k s, w h a t e x u d e s fro m tre e s 4 a n d flo u r-p a s te . N o w a t th a t tim e th e re d c h a lk d id n o t a d h e re to th e ro u g h w a lls . . . (as above) . * . T h e re d c h a lk w o u ld n o t s tic k on. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g a p p lie d th e re d p o w d e r o f rice h u s k s (m ix e d w ith ) c la y , h a v in g k e p t so m e b a c k w ith a sp o o n , to p u t on th e red c h a lk ." T h e red c h a lk w o u ld n o t s t ic k o n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s, m u s ta rd -p o w d e r , 5 o il o f b e e s w a x . I t w a s to o thick. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to sp o n g e it o v e r 7 w ith a p ie ce o f c lo t h / ' N o w a t th a t tim e th e b la c k c o lo u rin g d id n o t a d h e re to th e ro u g h w a lls . . . (as above) . . . T h e b la c k c o lo u rin g w o u ld n o t s tic k on. T h e y t o ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g a p p lie d c la y (m ix e d w ith th e e x c r e m e n t of) e a rth w o rm s ,8 h a v in g k e p t so m e b a c k w ith a sp o o n , to p u t on th e b la c k c o lo u rin g . T h e b la c k c o lo u rin g w o u ld n ot
1 s e y y d , defined at V i n . iv. 17 = 20, 41, * See CV. V. 11 . 6 for these words. * papika, Bu. says nothing. C/. paniyd at CV. V. 1 . 5. 4 ik k d s a . V A . 1219 says r u k k h a n i y ( y ) d s a m v a s ile s a m v a . Gum, resin, and juice all exude from trees. C f . n iy y d s a k h d d a n ly a at V A . 832, 837 and n iy y a s a r u k k h a at V i s m . 74. * ~ku44 a of text should read -kutfa. e V A . 1219 says it stayed there in drop upon drop. 7 fia c c u d d h a r itu m (as at CV- V* 17 . 1) explained at V A . 1219 as p u n c h i t u m , to tyipe. " g a p ^ a m a ttik d . V A . 1219, reading with v J . ga # # **-, explains as above.

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stic k on. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, w h a t e x u d e s fro m tre es, a n a s trin g e n t d e co c t i o n .^ || 1 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s h a d a b o ld d e sig n 2 m ad e w ith figu res o f w o m en , figu res o f m en , in a d w e llin g p lace. P e o p le to u rin g th e d w e llin g -p la c e s, h a v in g seen th is, . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e [1 5 1 ] h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n se s. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t h a v e a b o ld d esign m ad e w ith figu res o f w o m en , figu res o f m en . W h o e v e r sh o u ld h a v e o n e m a d e , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w , m on ks, w re a th -w o rk , cree p e r-w o rk , sw o rd fish te e th , th e fiv e s trip s (of c lo th d e sig n ). 3 || 2 || N o w a t t h a t tim e d w e llin g -p la c e s w ere lo w to th e g ro u n d . . .4 " . . . I a llo w m o n k s, a b a lu s t r a d e / N o w a t t h a t tim e d w e llin g -p la c e s w ere th ro n g e d w ith p e o p le .6 M o n k s w ere (too) m o d e st t o lie d o w n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a c u r ta in . 6 T h e y lo o k e d in, h a v in g lift e d u p th e c u rta in . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a sm a ll h a lf- w a ll. T h e y lo o k e d in o v e r th e to p o f th e sm a ll h a lf-w a ll. " I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) in n e r ro o m s : a p a la n q u in -lik e in n e r ro o m ,7 a tu b e -lik e in n e r ro o m ,8 a n in n er room on th e r o o f . 9 N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s m a d e an in n er ro o m in th e m id d le o f a sm a ll d w e llin g -p la c e ; th e re w a s n o a cce ss .10 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd .. H e s a i d : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a n in n e r ro o m a t o n e sid e o f a sm all d w e llin g -p la c e , in th e m id d le o f a la rg e o n e . || 3 |j medicines.
1 kasava .
C f.

MV. VI.

4,

where certain specified ones are allowed as

% patibhanacitta, as at V in . iv. 61 (see B . D . ii. 285, n. 5 ) and iv. 298. VA. 1219 says not only the figures of women and men, but also figures of animals, even of an earthworm.*' 8 As at CV. V. 1 1 . 6. 4 As at CV. V. 11. 6: 6 dlakamandd. At D . ii. 147, 170 said to be the capital of the devas, with many people and crowded with yakkhas. Spelt in both passages as A faka-. V A . 1219 says each open space was crowded with people. e tirokaranl as at Vin. i. 276. 7 sivikagabbha. V A . 1219 calls it a quadrangular (or four-sided) inner room. 8 nalikdgabbha. V A . 1 2 1 9 says it is a long room whose length is two or three times its width. 0 hammiyagabbha. See B . D . ii. 16, n. 6 on hammiya. V A . 1219 calls it a room in the gable on the open air floor or a room on the bare roof.

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e b a se o f a w a ll o f a d w e llin g -p la c e d is in te g ra te d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a tim b e r b u ttr e s s . 1 A w a ll o f a d w e llin g p la c e le t in th e ra in .2. I a llo w , m o n k s , a p r o te c tin g screen 3 (and) p a ste a n d w a te r . 4 N o w a t t h a t tim e a s n a k e fe ll fro m a g ra s s ro o fin g on to a c e rta in m o n k 's sh o u ld er. T e rrifie d , h e u tte re d a c r y o f d istress. M on ks, h a v in g ru n u p , sp o k e th u s t o th is m o n k : W h y d id y o u , y o u r re v e re n c e , u tte r a c r y o f d istre ss ? T h e n th is m o n k to ld th is m a tte r to th e m o n k s . T h e m o n k s t o ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a c a n o p y . 5 II 4 I I N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s h u n g th e ir b a g s a t th e fe e t o f co u ch es, a n d a t th e fe e t o f c h a irs : t h e y w e re e a te n b y r a ts a n d w h ite a n ts. T h e y to ld th is m a t t e r t o th e L o r d . H e s a id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a p e g in th e w a ll, a n ' e le p h a n t-tu s k ' (peg ). 6 N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s la id a sid e th e ir ro b es o n a c o u c h a n d on a c h a ir. T h e ro b es fe ll to p ieces. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a m b o o fo r ro b es, [152] a c o rd fo r ro b e s . 7 N o w a t t h a t tim e d w e llin g -p la c e s h a d n o v e r a n d a h s 8 a n d w ere w ith o u t shelter. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a v e r a n d a h , a c o v e r e d te r r a c e ,1 0 a n in n e r c o u r t ,11 a v e r a n d a h ro o fin g . 12 T h e v e r a n d a h s w ere
I kulaiikapadaka . S e e M o r r is , J P T S . 18 8 4 , p . 7 8 , * ovassati a ls o a t C V . V . 16. 1 . 3 pavittanakitika. C f. satnsaranakitika ugghdtanakitika in U 5 b e lo w . 4 uddhasudha. V A . 1 2 1 9 r e a d in g uddha - w i t h v.l. uda-t s a y s c l a y p o u n d e d t o g e t h e r w it h a s h e s a n d c o w d u n g . S i n h . e d n . r e a d s udda -. 6 vitanA , a n it e m in s o m e o f t h e " n o o f fe n c e '* c l a u s e s in t h e S u t t a v i b h a n g a , e.g. a t Vin . iii. 2 2 5 / 2 2 7 , 2 2 9 , 233* i v . 1 7 1 , 2 7 9 . 6 C f. C V . V . 9 . 5 w h e r e m o n k s h u n g t h e i r b a g s o n t h e s e p e g s . 7 A ls o a llo w e d a t C V . V . 11. 6 ; 14. 3. 8 alinda . V A . 1 2 1 9 e x p l a in s a s pam ukha . S e e M V . V I . 36. 4 , a n d B .D , i v . 3 4 2 , n . 3. 9 apatissarapa, S in h . e d n . appatissarand. 10 paghancp. i f A . 12 2 0 , r e a d in g palighana b u t s a y i n g i t is a ls o c a l l e d paghana, s p e a k s o f it a s a katapadesa, a s h a p e d ( a r t if ic ia l) p l a c e o r l o c a l i t y . I t w as a t t h e d o o r o f t h e d w e llin g - p la c e s . II pakuta, S in h . e d n . pakuggar V A . 1 2 2 0 r e a d in g pakudda a n d s a y in g pakutta i^ a ls o a r e a d in g , e x p la i n s a s " t h e w h o le o f t h e in n e r r o o m in t h e m id d le is c a lle d pariydgdro ** : pakuddan ti fnajjhe gabbhassa samantd pariydgaro vuccati. W i t h t h i s p h r a s e cf. V in . iii. 1 1 9 . Pariydgdra m e a n s " s u r r o u n d e d b y a h o u s e .'* 12 osarika. V A . 1 2 2 0 r e a d s , osarika, w i t h v.l. osaraka a n d s a y s " h a v i n g p u t a b a m b o o in a d w e llin g - p la c e w i t h o u t a v e r a n d a h , h a v i n g h a d s m a ll s t ic k s t a k e n fr o m t h a t , tato osaretvd, a v e r a n d a h - c o v e r in g , chadanapatnukha, is m a d e .

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p u b lic. M o n k s w ere (too) m o d e st to lie d o w n . I a llo w , m o n ks, a m o v e a b le sc re e n ,1 a screen t h a t c a n b e d ra w n .** || 5 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s p a r tic ip a tin g in a m ea l in th e o p e n a ir w ere b o th e re d b y c o ld a n d h e a t. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a n a s s e m b ly h a ll." T h e a s s e m b ly h a ll w a s lo w to th e g ro u n d . . .2 . . . a c o rd fo r ro b e s ." N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s s p re a d o u t th e ir ro b es in th e o p e n a ir on th e g ro u n d . T h e ro b es w ere so iled b y d u st. I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a m b o o fo r ro b es a n d a c o rd fo r ro b es in th e o pen a ir ." || 6 || T h e d rin k in g w a te r b e c a m e t e p id .3 I a llo w , m o n k s, a h a ll fo r th e d rin k in g w a te r, a sh e d fo r th e d rin k in g w a t e r ." T h e h a ll fo r th e d rin k in g w a te r w a s lo w to th e g ro u n d . . ,a . . . a c o rd fo r r o b e s ." T h e re w a s n o v e sse l fo r th e d rin k in g w a te r. I a llo w , m o n k s, a co n ch sh e ll fo r d rin k in g w a te r, a sa u cer fo r d rin k in g w a te r . || 7 [| N o w a t t h a t tim e d w e llin g -p la c e s w ere n o t fe n c e d in. I allo w , m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) fen ces t o fen ce th e m in : a fen ce o f b rick s, a fen ce o f sto n es, a fe n ce o f w o o d . T h e re w a s no p orch. I a llo w , m o n k s, a p o r c h ." T h e p o rch w a s lo w to th e gro u n d . I t w a s flood ed w ith w a te r. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to b u ild it h ig h to th e g r o u n d . T h e re w a s no d o o r to th e p o rch . " I a llo w , m o n k s, a d o o r, a d o o r-p o st a n d lin te l . . . a c o rd to p u ll th r o u g h ." 4 P o w d e re d g ra ss fe ll fro m th e p o rc h . 5 T allo w , m o n k s, . . * th e fiv e (pieces of) c lo th d e sig n ," 4 N o w a t th a t tim e a ce ll c a m e to b e s w a m p y .6 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to sp rin k le g r a v e l." T h e y d id n o t s u c c e e d in d o in g so. " I a llo w y o u , [15 3] m o r k s , to l a y d o w n fla g s to n e s ." W a te r re m a in ed . I a llo w , m o n k s, a d ra in fo r th e w a te r ." || 8 j| N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s m a d e a firep la ce h ere a n d th e re in a c e l l ; th e c e ll b e ca m e so ile d .7 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a t o n e sid e a h a ll fo r th e fire . T h e h a ll fo r th e fire w a s lo w to th e g ro u n d 1 sa m s a r a n a k itik a . V A . 1220 says c a k k a la y u tta . C f , c a k k a ltk a at CV. VI. 2 . 2 and c a k k a ll at CV. VI. 1 9 . 3 As at CV. V. 1 1 . 6. 3 o ia p p a t i , perhaps evaporated, dried up.* C f . o ta p eti, to dry in the sun. 4 A s a tC V . V. 1 4 . 4. 6 kotth aka above ; ko tth a ke at CV. V. 1 4 . 4. 8 A s'at CV. V. 1 4 . 5 I" 3 5 . 4. 1 u k ld p a , as at V i n . i. 46.

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. . / " I a llo w , m o n k s, a b a lu s tr a d e . T h e h a ll fo r th e fire h a d n o d oor. " I a llo w , m o n k*, a d o o r, a d o o rp o st a n d lin te l . . .2 a c o rd fo r p u llin g th r o u g h , P o w d e re d g r a s s 2 fe ll in to th e h a ll fo r th e fire. " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, - . * a co rd fo r ro b e s / ' || 9 |j A m o n a s te ry w a s n o t fe n ced in : g o a ts a n d c a t t le 3 in ju re d th e little p la n ts .4 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . He sa id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, th re e (k in d s of) h ed g es to fe n ce it in : a h ed g e o f b a m b o o , a h e d g e o f th o rn s, a d it c h / ' T h e re w a s no p o rch . A s b e fo re , g o a ts a n d c a t t le in ju re d th e lit t le p la n ts . " I a llo w , m o n k s, a p o rc h , a n in te r la c in g o f s ta k e s a n d th o r n s , 5 a h ed g e o f s w a llo w -w o rt , 8 a g a te w a y , a d o o r-b a r . 7 P o w d e re d g ra ss fe ll fro m th e p o rc h . " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, . . .8 th e fiv e (pieces of) c lo th d e s ig n ." T h e m o n a s te r y b e c a m e s w a m p y a d ra in fo r th e w a t e r / ' || 10 || N o w a t th a t tim e K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a w a n te d to h a v e a lo n g ho u se w ith a sm e a rin g o f p la s te r a n d c la y b u ilt fo r an O rd er. T h e n it o c cu rre d to m o n k s : N o w w h a t k in d of ro o fin g is a llo w e d b y th e L o rd , w h a t is n o t a llo w e d ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e s a i d : " I a llo w , m o n k s, fiv e (k in d s of) ro o fin g s : a ro o fin g o f tile s, a ro o fin g o f sto n es, a ro o fin g o f p la s te r, a ro o fin g o f tin a - g ra ss, a ro o fin g o f le a v e s / '10 || 11 |j 3 |[ T o ld is th e F ir s t P o r tio n fo r R e p e a tin g . N o w a t th a t tim e th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in ^ ik a w a s th e h u sb a n d of a siste r o f a (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in tfik a w e n t to R a ja g a h a on som e b u sin ess or o th er. A t th a t tim e th e O rd e r w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d h a d b e e n in v ite d fo r th e m o rro w b y th e (great) 1 As at CV. V. 1 1 . 6. * As at CV, V, 1 *. 3. ii. 345, iv. 359. V A . 1 2 2 0 reading a p e s i, says having inserted stakes with long pieces of wood, having covered with thorny branches, it is made for Closing up the doorway.*' 6 ahkavd^a. Sinh. edn. reads y a m a k a k a v a ta , a pair of doors. 7 p a lig h a . V A . 1 2 2 0 says '* as in village gateways, it is for closing a door that is joined to a wheel.*' * As at CV. V. 1 4 . 4. * As at CV. V. 1 4 . 5 ; 8 5 . 4. 10 These five kinds of roofings mentioned at V i n . iv. 48.
* p a su ka . 4 up aropa. C f . u p a r o p a k a at J a . * a p e s iy a m . Sinh. edn. a p e s in t.

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m e rch a n t o f R a ja g a h a . T h e n th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a j a g a h a e n jo in e d s la v e s a n d s e rv a n ts , s a y in g : " W e ll n o w , g o o d peo p le, g e ttin g u p e a r ly in th e m o rn in g , c o o k c o n je y s , c o o k rice ,1 p re p a re 2 cu rries, p re p a re v e g e ta b le s . 3 T h e n it o ccu rre d to th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in g lik a : " N o w , on m y a r r iv a l fo rm e rly th is h o u seh o ld er, h a v in g p u t a sid e a ll d u tie s, d id n o th in g e x c e p t e x c h a n g e g re e tin g s w ith m e, b u t n o w he seem s e x c ite d a n d e n jo in s s la v e s a n d s e r v a n ts , s a y in g : ' W e ll n o w , g o o d p eo p le . . . [15 4 ] p re p a re v e g e ta b le s .' N o w c a n th e re b e fo r th is h o u seh o ld er a le a d in g to 4 (a b rid e 's hom e) or c a n th e re b e a le a d in g a w a y fr o m 5 (a b rid e 's hom e) o r is a g re a t o b la tio n a rra n g e d or is K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a in v ite d fo r th e m o rro w to g e th e r w ith h is tro o p s ? " || x || T h e n th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a , h a v in g e n jo in e d th e s la v e s a n d se rv a n ts , a p p ro a c h e d th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th ap in < J ik a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g e x c h a n g e d g re e tin g s w ith th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in c jik a , he s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n ce. T h e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a sp o k e th u s to th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a a s h e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e : " F o r m e r ly y o u , h o u seh o ld er, on m y a rriv a l, h a v in g p u t a sid e a ll d u ties, d id n o th in g e x c e p t e x c h a n g e g ree tin g s w ith m e, b u t n o w y o u seem e x c it e d a n d e n jo in s la v e s an d se rv a n ts , s a y in g : ' W e ll n o w , g o o d p e o p le . . . p re p a re v e g e ta b le s / N o w c a n th e re b e fo r y o u , h o u seh o ld er, a le a d in g to . . . o r is K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a in v ite d fo r th e m o rro w to g e th e r w ith h is tro o p s ? " T h e re is to b e fo r m e, h o u seh o ld er, n e ith e r a le a d in g to (a b rid e 's h o m e), n o r is th e re to b e a le a d in g a w a y fro m (a b rid e 's h o m e), nor is K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a in v ite d fo r th e m o rro w to g e th e r w ith h is tro o p s. B u t a g re a t o b la tio n is a rra n g e d b y m e : th e O rd e r is in v ite d fo r th e m o rro w w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d . " D id y o u , h o u seh o ld er, s a y A w a k e n e d O n e ? ' A w a k e n e d O n e ' I d^d s a y , h o u s e h o ld e r/ ' " D id y 6u , h o u seh o ld er, s a y A w a k e n e d O n e ' ? "
1 b h a tta n i. C f . B . D . ii. 149, iii. 11. These four words are, above, all. in the plural suggesting that separate portions should be got ready for each monk. 1 s a m p a d e ti, as at V i n , iii. 208. * u tta rib h a n g a , or tit-bits, dainties. See B . D . i. 275, n* 5. 4 As at V i n . iii. 135. See B . D , i. 229, n. 2. * As at V i n . iii. 135. See B . D . i. 230, n. 1.

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" A w a k e n e d O n e ' I d id s a y , h o u s e h o ld e r ." D id y o u , h o u seh o ld er, s a y 'A w a k e n e d O n e * ? A w a k e n e d O n e ' I d id s a y , h o u s e h o ld e r. E v e n th is so u n d , h o u se h o ld e r, is h a rd to co m e b y in th e w orld , th a t is to s a y 'A w a k e n e d O n e, A w a k e n e d O n e .' N o w w o u ld it b e p o ssib le, h o u seh o ld er, a t th is tim e 1 to g o u p an d see th is L o rd , a p e rfe c te d one, a fu lly S e lf-a w a k e n e d O n e ? " T h is tim e is n o t a rig h t tim e , h o u seh o ld er, to g o u p a n d see th is L o rd , a p e rfe c te d one, a fu lly S e lf-a w a k e n e d O n e. B u t n o w , e a r ly to -m o rro w y o u s h a ll g o u p to see th is L o rd , a p e rfe c te d one, a fu lly S e lf-a w a k e n e d O n e . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , t h in k in g : E a r l y to -m o rro w I w ill g o u p to see th is L o r d . . , fu lly SelfA w a k e n e d O n e , la y d o w n w ith m in d fu ln e ss (so m uch) d ire c te d to th e A w a k e n e d O n e ,2 th a t he g o t u p th re e tim e s d u rin g th e n ig h t th in k in g it w a s d a y b r e a k . j| 2 || T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a a p p ro a c h e d th e g a t e w a y to th e C o o l G r o v e ,3 a n d n o n -h u m a n b e in g s o p e n e d th e g a te w a y . T h e n a s th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a w a s g o in g o u t fro m th e to w n , lig h t v a n is h e d , d a rk n e ss a p p e a re d ; fe a r, c o n ste rn a tio n , [155] h a ir s ta n d in g on e n d 4 arose so t h a t h e w as d esiro u s o f tu r n in g b a c k fro m th e re . T h e n th e y a k k h a ST vaka, in v isib le , m a d e th is so u n d h e a rd : A h u n d re d elephants, a h u n d re d ho rses, a h u n d re d c h a rio ts w ith sh e -m u les ,6 A h u n d re d th o u s a n d m a id e n s a d o rn e d w ith je w e lle d e a r rin g s------T h e se a re n o t w o rth th e s ix te e n th p a r t o f o n e le n g th o f strid e. A d v a n c e , h o u seh o ld er, a d v a n c e , h o u seh o ld er. A d v a n c e is b e tte r fo r y o u , n o t r e tr e a t. T h e n d a rk n e ss v a n is h e d fo r th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , lig h t a p p e a red , so t h a t h is fe a r, c o n ste rn a tio n , h a ir s ta n d in g on en d su b sid e d . A n d a se co n d tim e . . . . A n d a th ir d tim e 1 For this episode to the end of H4 || c f , S . i. 210 12. * b u d d h a g a td y a s a tiy a . * Sltavana. S. i. 211 reads Slvathika, from the name of Slvathika (v .l. Sivaka) of the y a k k h a who lived in the Sltavana. * As at e.g . V i n . iii. 69. * C f . the first three of these lines with V v j 20, 8 ; 43. 8 . * a ss a ta r i. C f . v a c c h a ta r l at MV. V. 9 . 1, 3.

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d id th e y a k k h a S lv a k a m a d e th is so u n d h e a rd : . . A dvance is b e tte r fo r y o u , n o t r e tr e a t. A n d a th ir d tim e d a rk n e ss va n ish ed fo r th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , lig h t a p p e a re d , so th a t his fe a r, c o n ste rn a tio n , h a ir s ta n d in g on en d su b sid e d . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a a p p ro a c h e d th e C o o l G ro ve . N o w a t th a t tim e th e L o rd w a s p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in th e op en a ir, h a v in g g o t u p in th e n ig h t to w a rd s d a w n . T h e n th e L o r d s a w th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a c o m in g in th e d ista n c e ; se e in g h im , h a v in g ste p p e d d o w n fro m th e p la ce fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in , he s a t d o w n o n an a p p o in te d seat, a n d s ittin g d o w n th e L o rd sp o k e th u s to th e h o u seh o ld er A n a t h a p in d ik a : C o m e , S u d a t t a . 1 T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , th in k in g : " T h e L o r d a d d re sse d m e b y n a m e , jo y fu l, e la te d , a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g in c lin e d h is h e a d to th e L o r d 's fe et, h e sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " I h o p e. L o r d , th a t th e L o rd is liv in g a t e a s e . H e sa id : Y e s , a lw a y s a t ease he liv e s, th e b ra h m in , a tta in e d to n ib b a n a , W h o is n o t sta in e d b y lu s ts ,2 c o o led , w ith o u t a tta c h m e n ts .3 H a v in g re n t a ll c lin g in g s , h a v in g a v e r te d h e a r t's ca re, T ra n q u il he liv e s a t ease, h a v in g w o n to p e a c e o f m in d . 4 II 4 I I T h e n th e L o r d ta lk e d a p ro g re ssiv e t a l k 1 t o th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , th a t is to s a y ta lk on g iv in g , ta lk o n m o ral h a b it, t a lk on h e a v e n , he e x p la in e d th e p^ril, th e v a n it y , th e d e p r a v ity o f p le a su re s o f th e senses, th e a d v a n ta g e in ren o u n c ing (them ). W h e n th e L o r d k n e w t h a t th e m in d o f th e ho u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a w a s re a d y , m a lle a b le , d e v o id o f 1 S A .1.315 says that Anathapindika thinks that there are many other sects, those of Purana Kassapa and so on, who say they are awakened ones ; but if this teacher is the awakened one he will address him by his k u la d a tt ik a name, i.e. by the name given him in his family, because no one but Anathapindika himself knows this. See also K . S . i. 273, n. 1. * y o n a t i p p a t i k d n te su , as at S n . 625. C f . K a t h a U p . V. 11 where the Sun is not defiled or contaminated, n a lip y a te , by what he sees outside himself. See A. K. Coomaraswamy, A N o t e o n th e S t ic k fa s t M o t i f , J o u r n a l A m e r ic a n F o lk lo r e , Vol. 57, No. 224, April-June, 1944, p. 128. * C f . Sw. 642. 4 Besides S . i. 212, where the S . version of this episode ends, this verse occurs at A . i . 138. 1 As at MV, I. 7 . 5. 10 ; V. 1 . 9, 10 ; VI. 2 6 . 8, 9.

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th e h in d ra n ces, u p lifte d , p le a se d , th e n he e x p la in e d t o h im t h a t te a c h in g on dham m a w h ic h th e a w a k e n e d o n es h a v e th e m selv e s d is c o v e re d : ill, u p risin g , s to p p in g , th e W a y . A n d a s a clea n [156] c lo th w ith o u t b la c k sp e c k s w ill e a s ily ta k e d y e , e v e n so as h e w a s (sittin g ) on th a t v e r y se a t, dham m avisio n , d u stless, sta in le ss, a ro se to th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , th a t " w h a te v e r is lia b le to u p risin g , a ll th a t is lia b le to s to p p in g . T h e n th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g seen dham m a , a tta in e d dham m a , k n o w n dham m a , p lu n g e d in to dham m a , h a v in g cro sse d o v e r d o u b t, h a v in g p u t a w a y u n c e r ta in ty , h a v in g a tta in e d w ith o u t a n o th e r s h e lp t o fu ll co n fid en ce in th e T e a c h e r s in s tru c tio n , sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " E x c e lle n t, L o rd ! E x c e lle n t, L o rd ! E v e n , L o r d , a s one m ig h t se t u p r ig h t w h a t h a s been u p s e t, o r m ig h t u n c o v e r w h a t w a s co n cea le d , o r m ig h t sh o w th e w a y to o n e w h o is a s tr a y , o r m ig h t b rin g an o il la m p in to th e d a rk n e ss, th in k in g , * T h o se w ith e y e s to see m a y see sh a p e s,' e v e n so is dham m a e x p la in e d in m a n y a figure b y th e L o rd . I m y se lf, L o r d , g o to th e L o rd fo r re fu g e, to dham m a , a n d to th e O rd e r o f m o n k s. M a y th e L o rd a c c e p t m e a s a la y -d is c ip le g o in g fo r re fu g e fro m th is d a y fo rth fo r a s lo n g a s life la sts . A n d , L o r d , m a y th e L o r d c o n se n t to a m e a l w ith m e o n th e m o r r o w to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er o f m o n k s . T h e L o rd c o n se n te d b y b e c o m in g sile n t. T h e n th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d th e L o rd 's co n se n t, risin g fro m h is se a t, h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , d e p a rte d k e e p in g h is rig h t sid e to w a r d s h im . || 5 || T h e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a h e a rd : I t is sa id th a t th e O rd er w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d is in v ite d fo r th e m o rro w b y th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a t h a p in d ik a . T h e n th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a s p o k e th u s to th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a : " I t is said , t h a t th e O rd e r w ith th e A w a k e n e d O ne a t its h e a d is in v ite d b y y o u , h o u seh o ld er, fo r th e m o rro w . B u t y o u are in c o m in g .1 I c a n g iv e y o u , h o u se h o ld e r, th e m ea n s b y w h ic h y o u ca n m a k e a m e a l fo r th e O rd e r w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d . 1 1 T h a n k y o u , h o u seh o ld er, b u t I h a v e th e m e a n s b y w h ich I ca n m a k e a m e a l fo r th e O rd e r w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t , its h e a d . 1 As opposed to resident.

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T h e u rb a n c o u n c il o f R a ja g a h a h e a rd : T h e O rd e r w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d is in v it e d fo r th e m o rro w b y th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a . T h e n th e u rb a n c o u n c il o f R a ja g a h a sp o k e th u s t o th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a : I t is sa id th a t th e O rd er, . . . W e c a n g iv e y o u , h o u se h o ld e r, th e m ea n s b y w h ic h y o u c a n m a k e a m e a l fo r th e O rd e r w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d ." T h a n k y o u , m a ste rs, b u t I h a v e th e m e a n s * . . a t its h e a d . K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a h e a rd : " T h e O rd er
*>

T h a n k y o u , sire, b u t I h a v e th e m e a n s b y w h ic h I c a n m a k e a m eal fo r th e O rd e r w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d . || 6 || T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g h a d su m p tu o u s foods, so lid a n d so ft, p re p a re d to w a r d s th e e n d o f t h a t n ig h t in th e d w e llin g o f th e (g reat) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a , [15 7] h a d th e tim e a n n o u n c e d to th e L o rd , s a y in g : I t is tim e , L o rd , th e m e a l is r e a d y . T h e n th e L o r d , h a v in g d ressed in th e m orn in g, ta k in g h is b o w l a n d ro b e, a p p ro a c h e d th e d w e llin g of th e (great) m e rc h a n t o f R a ja g a h a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sa t d o w n on th e a p p o in te d se a t to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er of m o n k s. T h e n th e h o u s e h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g w ith his o w n h a n d s e r v e d a n d sa tisfie d w ith su m p tu o u s fo o d s, solid a n d s o ft, th e O rd e r o f m o n k s w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d , w h e n th e L o r d h a d e a te n a n d h a d w ith d r a w n his h a n d fro m th e b o w l, sa t d o w n a t a r e s p e c tfu l d ista n c e . A s h e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a r e s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : L o rd , m a y th e L o r d co n sen t to a ra in s-resid e n ce 1 fro m m e a t S a v a tth I to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er o f m o n k s . B u t, h o u seh o ld er, T ru th -fin d e rs d e lig h t in e m p ty p la c e s .1' I t is u n d e rsto o d , L o r d , it is u n d e rsto o d , W e ll-fa r e r . T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g g la d d e n e d , re jo ic e d , ro u se d , d e lig h te d th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a w ith t a lk o n dham m a , risin g fro m h is s e a t, d e p a rte d . || 7 |j N o w a t th a t tim e th e h o u s e h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a h a d m a n y friends, m a n y co m p a n io n s, h is w o rd c a rrie d w e ig h t .2 T h e n 1 v a ssd v d sa , as in MV. III. 1 . 1, and c f . MV. III. 1 4 . a d d e y y a v d c a . V A . 1220 says his speech would be taken up by the many folk thinking, * It seems he should be heard V*

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th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g c o n c lu d e d t h a t bu sin ess a t R a ja g a h a , se t o u t fo r S a v a t t h i. T h e n th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a e n jo in e d p e o p le on th e w a y , s a y in g : M asters, b u ild m o n a steries, p re p a re d w e llin g -p la c e s, fu rn ish g ift s ; an A w a k e n e d O n e h a s arisen in th e w o rld , a n d th is L o rd , in v ite d b y m e, w ill co m e a lo n g b y th is r o a d / ' T h e n th e se p e o p le , u rg e d o n b y th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , b u ilt m o n a ste ries, p re p a re d d w e llin g -p la c e s, fu rn ish ed g ifts . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g a rriv e d a t S a v a tth i, lo o k e d a ll ro u n d S a v a t t h i, th in k in g r1 N o w w h e re c o u ld th e L o r d s t a y th a t w o u ld b e n e ith e r to o fa r fro m a v illa g e , n o r to o n ear, s u ita b le fo r c o m in g a n d g o in g , a c ce ssib le to p eo p le w h e n e v e r t h e y w a n t, n o t c ro w d e d b y d a y , h a v in g little noise a t n ig h t, little so u n d , w ith o u t fo lk s b re a th , se c lu d e d fro m p eo p le, fittin g fo r m e d ita tio n ? || 8 || T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a s a w P rin c e J e t a s p lea su re g ro v e , n e ith e r to o fa r fro m a v illa g e . . . fittin g fo r m e d ita tio n , a n d seein g it, he a p p ro a c h e d P rin c e J e t a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d h e sp o k e th u s to P rin c e J e t a : G iv e m e, y o u n g m a ster, th e p le a su re g ro v e to m a k e a m o n a s te r y . " T h e p lea su re g r o v e is n o t to b e g iv e n a w a y , h o u seh o ld er, e v e n fo r th e p rice o f a h u n d re d th o u s a n d . 2 Y o u n g m a ste r, th e m o n a s te r y is t a k e n . T h e m o n a s te ry is n ot ta k e n , h o u s e h o ld e r / T h e y a sk e d th e c h ie f m in isters o f ju s tic e ,3 s a y in g : " I s it ta k e n o r is it n o t ta k e n ? T h e c h ie f m in iste rs sp o k e th u s : [158 ] T h e m o n a s te ry is ta k e n a t th e p ric e fix e d b y y o u , y o u n g m a s te r . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g h a d g o ld c o in s 4 b ro u g h t o u t b y m ean s o f w a g o n s, h a d th e J e ta G ro v e sp re a d w ith th e p rice o f a h u n d re d th o u s a n d .5 || g || T h e g o ld co in s th a t w e re ta k e n o u t th e first tim e w e re n o t en o u g h fo r a sm a ll o p e n sp a c e n e a r to th e p o rch . T h e n th e 1 As at MV. I. 2 2 . 16, 17 where Bimbisara is giving the Bamboo Grove. * As at J a . i. 94. # C f . similar passage at V i n . iv. 223 ( B . D . iii. 178). 4 h ir a n n a ; see n. at B . D . i. 28. 5 ko tisa n th a ra rn sa n th a r a p e s i. V A . 1220 says having given a hundred thousand k a h a p a n a s , having had them spread out (on the ground), having taken the measure of the circumference of trees and ponds there, he gave having had them (i.e. the k a h a p a n a s ) spread out in a certain place." Most likely the gold coins were not round but square, see V i n . T e x ts iii. 188, n. 1.

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h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a e n jo in e d th e p e o p le , s a y in g : G o b a c k , g o o d p e o p le , b rin g (m ore) g o ld co in s, I w ill sp re a d th is open s p a c e / ' T h e n it o c cu rre d to P rin c e J e t a : " N o w th is ca n be n o o r d in a r y m a tte r 1 in a sm u c h as th is h o u s e h o ld e r b e sto w s so m a n y g o ld c o in s / ' a n d h e sp o k e th u s to th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a : " E n o u g h , h o u seh o ld er ; le t m e sp re a d th is o p e n sp ace , g iv e th is o p en sp a ce to m e, it w ill b e m y g i f t . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , th in k in g : " T h is P rin ce Jeta, is a d istin g u ish e d , w e ll-k n o w n m a n ; s u r s ly th e fa ith in th is dham m a a n d d iscip lin e o f w e ll-k n o w n m en lik e th is is v e r y e ffica cio u s / ' 2 m a d e o v e r th a t op en sp a c e to P rin ce J e ta . T h e n P rin c e J e t a b u ilt a p o rc h 3 on t h a t o p e n sp ace. T h e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a h a d d w e llin g -p la c e s m a d e, he h a d c e lls 4 m a d e . . , p o rc h e s . . . a tte n d a n c e h a lls . . . fire h a lls . . . h u ts fo r w h a t is a llo w a b le . . . p riv ie s . . . p la ce s fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in . . . h a lls in th e p la c e s fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in . . , w e lls . . . h a lls a t th e w e lls . . . b a th ro o m s . . . h a lls in th e b a th ro o m s . . . lo tu s p o n d s . . . he h a d sh e d s m a d e. || 10 || 4 || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t R a ja g a h a fo r a s lo n g as he fo u n d su itin g , set o u t on to u r fo r V e sa li. I n d u e co u rse, w a lk in g on to u r, h e a r r iv e d a t V e sa li. T h e L o r d s ta y e d th ere a t V e s a li in th e G re a t G ro v e in th e H a ll o f th e G a b le d P illa rs. N o w a t th a t tim e p eo p le w e re m a k in g re p a irs c a r e fu lly a n d th e y w ere also a tte n d in g c a re fu lly , w ith th e re q u isite s o f robes, alm sfood , lo d g in g s a n d m ed icin es fo r th e sick , to th o se m o n k s w h o w ere lo o k in g a fte r th e rep a irs. T h e n it o c cu rre d to a c e rta in p o o r ta ilo r : N o w th is c a n b e no o rd in a ry m a tte r in a sm u ch as th e se p eo p le are m a k in g re p a irs c a re fu lly . W h a t n o w if I to o sh o u ld m a k e re p a irs ? " T h e n th a t p o o r ta ilo r, h a v in g h im self k n e a d e d m u d , h a v in g p ile d u p b ric k s , h a d w a ttle a n d d a u b w a lls e recte d . B u t b e c a u s e h e w a s n o t sk ilfu l th e p ilin g w a s c ro o k e d a n d a w a ll fe ll d o w n . A n d a 1 n a o ra k a m b h a v a s s iti. C f . MV. I. 9 . I, and below CV. VI. 5 . I. 8 As atM V. VI. 3 6 , 3. a kotth a ka is a word of unsettled meaning. V A . 1221 says that he built a seven storeyed long house with a porch (or storehouse) at the gateway
(d v a r a k o tth a k a p a sa d a ). 4 C f . this list with that

at MV. III.

5.

6, < ).

224
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DISCIPLINE a w a ll fe ll d o w n .

seco n d tim e. . . . A n d a th ir d tim e . . .

T h e n th a t p o o r ta ilo r . . . s p r e a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : T h e se reclu ses, [15 9 ] sons o f th e S a k y a n s , e x h o r t, in s tr u c t th o se w h o g iv e th e m th e re q u is ite s o f ro b es, a lm sfo o d , lo d g in g s, m e d icin e s fo r th e sick , a n d th e se lo o k a fte r th e ir re p a irs. B u t I a m poor. N o o n e e x h o r ts o r in s tr u c ts m e o r lo o k s a fte r m y re p a ir s ." M o n k s h e a rd th is p o o r ta ilo r a s h e w a s . . . s p re a d in g it a b o u t. T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . T h e n th e L o rd o n th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e c tio n , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n e d ta lk , a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p u t re p a irs in c h a rg e (of a m o n k ).1 M on ks, th e m o n k w h o is in c h a rg e o f re p a irs sh o u ld m a k e an e ffo rt ,2 th in k in g , H o w c a n th e d w e llin g -p la c e b e b r o u g h t to a ra p id te rm in a tio n ? ' a n d h e sh o u ld re sto re b ro k e n a n d d ila p id a te d p a r ts .3 ]| 2 || A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld t h e y b e g iv e n in c h a r g e : F ir s t, a m o n k sh o u ld b e a s k e d ; h a v in g a s k e d h im , th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n c e d , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : ' H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, le t th e O rd e r g iv e th e re p a irs to th e d w e llin g -p la c e o f th e h o u seh o ld er S o -a n d -so in c h a rg e o f th e m o n k S o -a n d -so . T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r lis te n to m e. T h e O rd e r is g iv in g th e re p a irs . . . in c h a rg e o f th e m o n k S o -an d -so . I f th e g iv in g in c h a r g e o f th e m o n k S o -a n d -so , o f th e re p a irs to th e d w e llin g -p la c e o f th e h o u s e h o ld e r S o -a n d -so , is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le on es, t h e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; h e t o w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld s p e a k . R e p a ir s to th e d w e llin g -p la c e o f th e h o u se h o ld e r S o -a n d -s o a re g iv e n in c h a rg e o f th e m o n k S o -a n d -so . I t is p le a s in g t o th e O rd e r ; th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is || 3 ||.5 |) T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s t a y e d a t VesalT fo r a s lo n g a s h e fo u n d s u itin g ,4 se t o u t on to u r fo r S a v a tth I . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s w h o w e re p u p ils o f th e g r o u p o f s ix m o n k s, h a v in g g o n e
1 navakam m arp. d a tu m . F o r v a r io u s r u le s f o r m a k in g r e p a ir s s e e C V . V I .

u s s u k k a m d p a j ji s s a t i . C f . u s s u k k a m k a r o ti a t V i n . i v . 280 , 2 9 1 , 300. * A t A . iii. 2 6 3 t h i s is o n e o f f iv e t h i n g s s a id t o m a k e a r e s i d e n t m o n k v e r y u s e fu l t o h is r e s id e n c e . * F o r t h e in c id e n t r e la t e d h e i e , c f. J d . N o , 3 7 .

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a lo n g in fro n t o f th e O rd er o f m o n k s w ith th e A w a k e n e d O ne a t its h e a d , to o k p o ssession o f d w e llin g -p la c e s, t h e y to o k possession o f slee p in g p la c e s, s a y in g : T h is w ill b e fo r o u r p re cep to rs, th is w ill b e fo r o u r te a ch e rs, th is w ill be fo r u s ." T h e n th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta , h a v in g g o n e a lo n g clo se b eh in d th e O rd er o f m o n k s w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d , n ot b ein g a b le to g e t a slee p in g p la c e th e d w e llin g -p la c e s b e in g ta k e n p o ssession o f, th e sle e p in g p la c e s b e in g ta k e n possession o f s a t d o w n a t th e ro o t o f a c e rta in tree. T h e n th e L o rd , g e ttin g u p d u rin g th e n ig h t to w a r d s m o rn in g , c o u g h e d . T h e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta a lso c o u g h e d . " W h o is th e re ? " I t is I , L o rd , S a r ip u t t a . " W h y a re y o u , S a r ip u tta , s ittin g h e r e ? T h e n th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d .1 || 1 || T h e n th e L o rd o n th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " I s it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, [160] t h a t m o n k s w h o a re p u p ils th is w ill be fo r u s * ? " I t is tru e , L o r d . T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd re b u k e d th e m , s a y in g : " H o w , m o n k s, c a n th e se fo o lish m en , h a v in g g o n e a lo n g in fro n t o f * . . s a y in g . . th is w ill b e fo r u s * ? I t is n o t, m o n ks, fo r p le a sin g th o s e w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d . , . A n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " W h o , m o n ks, is w o r th y o f th e b e st se a t, th e b e st w a te r 2 (for w a sh in g ), th e b est a lm s ? S o m e m o n k s sp o k e th u s : " W h o e v e r, L o rd , h a s g o n e fo r th fro m a n o b le fa m ily , h e is w o r th y o f th e b e st . . . a lm s . S o m e m o n k s sp o k e th u s : " W h o e v e r, L o rd , h a s g o n e fo rth fro m a b ra h m in fa m ily . . fro m a h o u se h o ld e r's fa m ily . . . . W h o e v e r , L o rd , k n o w s th e suttantas 3 . . . is a n e x p e r t on d isc ip lin e . . . is a te a c h e r o f dham m a . . . is p o ssessed o f th e first m e d ita tio n 4 . . . is po ssessed o f th e se co n d m e d ita tio n . . . is p o ssessed o f th e th ird m e d ita tio n . . . is p o ssessed o f th e fo u rth m e d ita tio n 1 C f . a similar passage at V i n . i v . 16. 1 a g g o d a k a tn , explained by d a k k h in o d a k a at V A . 1221 = M A . i. 145. Af. i. 28, ii. 204. 8 With this and the next two items c f. a similar list at V i n , iii. 159. 4 With this list to the end, c f. V i n . iv. 24.
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. . . is a stre a m -w in n e r . . . a o n c e -re tu rn e r . . . a n o n re tu rn e r . . . o n e p e rfe c te d . . . a th re e fo ld w isd o m m a n . . . a s ix fo ld su p e rk n o w le d g e m a n , h e is w o r th y o f th e b e st se a t, th e b e st w a te r (for w a s h in g ), th e b e st a lm s . || 2 || T h e n th e L o rd a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " F o r m e r ly ,1 m o n k s, th e re u sed t o b e a la rg e b a n y a n on a slo p e o f th e H im a la y a s. T h re e frien d s liv e d n e a r it : a p a rtrid g e , a m o n k e y a n d a b u ll-e le p h a n t. T h e se liv e d c o u rte o u s , d e fe re n tia l, p o lite 2 to one a n o th e r. T h e n , m o n k s, it o c c u rre d to th e se frie n d s : ' N o w le t u s find o u t w h ic h o f u s is th e e ld e s t b y b irth . W e sh o u ld re sp e ct, re v e re, re v e re n ce , h o n o u r h im , a n d w e sh o u ld a b id e b y h is a d v ic e / T h e n , m o n k s, th e p a rtrid g e an d th e m o n k e y a sk e d th e b u ll-e le p h a n t : Y o u , frie n d , w h a t lo n g -a g o th in g d o y o u re m em b er ? " ' W h e n I, frien d s, w a s y o u n g I u se d t o p ass o v e r th is b a n y a n k e e p in g it b e tw e e n m y th ig h s , a n d th e to p m o s t sh o o ts b ru sh e d a g a in st m y b e lly . T h is , frien d s, is a lo n g -a g o th in g th a t I re m e m b e r/ " T h e n , m o n k s, th e p a r tr id g e a n d th e b u ll-e le p h a n t a sk e d th e m o n k e y : Y o u , frien d , w h a t lo n g -a g o th in g d o y o u re m em b er ? * " ' W h e n I , frien d s, w a s y o u n g , h a v in g s a t d o w n on th e g ro u n d , I u sed to e a t th e to p m o s t sh o o ts o f th is b a n y a n . T h is, frien d s, is a lo n g -a g o th in g th a t I re m e m b e r/ " T h e n , m o n k s, th e m o n k e y a n d th e b u ll-e le p h a n t a s k e d th e p a r tr id g e : ' Y o u , frien d , w h a t lo n g -a g o th in g d o y o u re m em b er ? * F rie n d s, in a c e rta in o p e n sp a c e th e re w a s a g re a t b a n y a n . I , h a v in g e a te n one o f its fru its, re lie v e d m y s e lf in t h a t o pen sp ace , a n d th is b a n y a n h a s g ro w n fro m th a t. S o I , frien d s, a m th e eld est b y b ir th / [16 1] " T h e n , m o n k s, th e m o n k e y a n d th e b u ll-e le p h a n t sp o k e th u s to th e p a r tr id g i ; ' Y o u , frien d , a re th e e ld e s t o f us b y b ir th . W e w ill re sp e ct, re v e re , re v e re n c e , h o n o u r y o u a n d w e w ill a b id e b y y o u r a d v ic e / T h e n , m o n k s, th e p a r tr id g e ca u se d th e m o n k e y a n d th e b u ll-e le p h a n t to u n d e rta k e th e fiv e m o ra l h a b its a n d h im se lf fo llo w ed th e o b se rv a n c e o f th e fiv e m o ra l h a b its . T h e y ,
1 T h i s e p is o d e f o r m s t h e T ittir a jd ta k a , J d . N o . ^7* a A s a t M V . I . 25 . 6, V . 4 . 3. '

227 C U L L A V A G G A VI 6 .3 - 5 ] h a v in g liv e d c o u rte o u s, d e fe re n tia l, p o lite to one a n o th e r, a t th e b r e a k in g u p o f th e b o d y a fte r d y in g aro se in a h a p p y b o u rn , a h e a v e n w o rld . T h is, m o n ks, ca m e to be k n o w n a s the P a rtrid g e B r a h m a -fa r in g / 1 T h o se w h o re v e ren ce th e o ld th o se m en are sk illed in
dham m a,

W o r th y o f p ra ise h ere a n d n o w a n d a h a p p y b o u rn h ere a fte r. || 3 || " W e ll th e n , m o n k s, if a n im a ls, b re a th e rs, c a n liv e c o u rteo u s, d e fere n tia l, p o lite to one a n o th e r, so d o y o u , m o n k s, le t y o u r lig h t sh in e fo r th h ere so t h a t y o u , g o n e fo rth in th is dham m a a n d d iscip lin e w h ic h a re w e ll ta u g h t, liv e lik e w ise co u rteo u s, d e fere n tia l, p o lite to one a n o th e r. I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d . . . . " H a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , h e a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g ; " I a llo w , m o n k s, g re e tin g , risin g u p for, jo in in g th e p a lm s in sa lu ta tio n , p ro p e r h o m a g e , th e b e st s e a t, th e b e st w a te r (for w a sh in g ), th e b e st a lm s a c c o rd in g to se n io rity . B u t, m o n ks, w h a t b e lo n g s to .an O rd er sh o u ld n o t b e re se rv e d a c co rd in g to se n io rity . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) re se rv e it, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . |j 4 || M onks, th e re are th ese te n w h o a re n o t to b e g re e te d ; one o rd a in e d la te r is n o t t o b e g re e te d b y one o rd a in e d e a rlie r ; one n o t o rd a in e d is n o t to b e g re e te d ; o n e b e lo n g in g to a d ifferen t co m m u n io n (even) if he is m o re sen io r (yet) sp e a k s w h a t is n o t -d h a m m a is n o t to be g re e te d ; a w o m a n is n o t to b e g re e te d ; a e u n u c h . * . one u n d e r p r o b a tio n 2 . . . one w ho d e se rve s to b e se n t b a c k t o th e b e g in n in g 3 * . . one w h o d eserves m anatta . . , o n e u n d e rg o in g m anatta . . , one d e se rvin g re h a b ilita tio n is n o t to b e g re e te d . T h e se , te n , m o n k s, a re n o t to b e g re e te d . T h e se th ree, m o n k s, a re t o b e g re e te d : one o rd a in e d e a rlie r is to b e g re e te d b y one o rd a in e d la te r ; one b e lo n g in g to a d iffere n t co m m u n io n if h e is m ore sen io r an d sp e a k s w h a t is dham m a is to b e g re e te d ; a n d , m o n k s, a T r u th finder, a p e rfe cte d on e, a fu lly S e lf-a w a k e n e d o n e 4 is t o b e g ree te d in th e w o rld w ith it s devas , w ith it s M aras, w ith its
1 * * * T h is s e n t e n c e is q u o t e d a t D A . i. 1 7 8 . S e e C V . XI. 1. 2 . S e e C V . I I I . 15. Cf. A. ii. 34j TU p . 8 7 f.

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B ra h m a s, b y c re a tu re s w ith reclu ses a n d b ra h m in s, w ith devas a n d m a n k in d . T h e se th re e , m o n k s , a re to b e g r e e te d ." || 5 || 6 || N o w a t th a t tim e p e o p le p re p a re d sh e d s fo r a n O rd er, th e y p re p a re d ru gs, t h e y p re p a re d o p e n sp a ce s. [16 2 ] M o n k s w h o w ere p u p ils o f th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s ,1 s a y in g : O n ly w h a t b elo n g s t o a n O rd e r is n o t a llo w e d a c c o rd in g to s e n io r ity b y th e L o rd , n ot w h a t is m a d e o n p u rp o se fo r i t , " h a v in g g o n e a lo n g in fro n t o f th e O rd e r o f m o n k s w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d , to o k possession o f th e sh ed s, to o k p o ssessio n o f th e ru gs, to o k possession o f th e o p e n sp a ce s, th in k in g : " T h is w ill b e fo r o u r p re c e p to rs, th is w ill be fo r o u r te a c h e rs , th is w ill be fo r u s / ' T h e n th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta , h a v in g g o n e a lo n g clo se b e h in d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d , n ot h a v in g a c h a n c e to g e t an o p e n sp a c e th e sh ed s b e in g ta k e n possession of, th e ru g s b e in g ta k e n p o ssession o f, th e o p e n sp a c e s b e in g ta k e n p o ssessio n o f s a t d o w n a t th e ro o t o f a c e rta in tre e. T h e n th e L o rd , g e ttin g u p d u rin g th e n ig h t to w a rd s m o rn in g , c o u g h e d . T h e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta a lso co u g h e d . W h o is th e re ? " I t is I, L o rd , S a r ip u tta ." W h y are y o u , S a r ip u tta , s ittin g h ere ? " T h e n th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . T h e n th e L o rd on th is o cca sio n , in th is c o n n e c tio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : Is it tru e , a s is said , m o n k s, H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M o n k s, e v e n w h a t is m a d e on p u rp o se fo r a n O rd e r sh o u ld n o t be re se rve d a c c o rd in g to s e n io rity . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) re se rv e it, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g -d o in g ." || 7 || N o w a t th a t tim e in a r e fe c to r y in sid e a h o u se p e o p le a p p o in te d h ig h a n d b ro a d th in g s to reclin e u p o n , th a t is to s a y :2 a s o fa ,3 a d iv a n , a lo n g -h a ire d c o v e r le t, a m a n y -c o lo u re d c o v e rle t, a w h ite c o v e rle t, a w o o l c o v e r le t b esp ren t w ith flow ers,
1 A s in C V . V I . 6 . 1. * L i s t a s a t M V . V . 10. 4 . S e e B . D . i v . p . 2 5 6 f o r n o t e s . D e fin it io n o f a s a n d i a t T h a g A . i. 1 3 7 is t h a t i t is a lo n g - le g g e d fo u r c o r n e r e d c h a ir u p o n w h ic h i t is p o s s ib le t o s it b u t n o t t o lie .

8 9 .i]

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a c o tto n q u ilt, a w o o l c o v e r le t d e c o ra te d w ith a n im a ls form s, a w o o l c o v e rin g w ith h a ir o n th e u p p e r sid e, a w o o l c o v e rin g w ith h a ir a t one side, a silk e n sh e et stu d d e d w ith je w e ls, a sh eet m a d e w ith silk th re a d a n d stu d d e d w ith je w e ls , a d a n c e r's c a rp e t, an e le p h a n t ru g , a h orse ru g , a c h a rio t ru g , ru g s o f b la c k a n te lo p e skin s, a sp le n d id sh e e tin g o f th e h id e o f th e kadali- deer, a sh e et w ith an a w n in g a b o v e , a c o u c h w ith a red cu sh io n at e ith e r en d . M o n k s, b e in g sc ru p u lo u s, d id n o t s it d o w n on th e m .1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o r d . H e sa id : I a llo w yo u , m o n ks, e x c e p t fo r th e th re e : a so fa , a d iv a n , a c o tto n q u ilt, to sit d o w n on w h a t is d is p la y e d b y h o u seh o ld ers, b u t not to lie d o w n on i t ."2 N o w a t th a t tim e in a r e fe c to r y in sid e a h o u se p eo p le a p p o in te d a c o u ch a n d a c h a ir, b o th c o v e r e d u p w ith c o tto n .3 M on ks, b e in g sc ru p u lo u s, d id n o t sit d o w n on th e m . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, t o sit d o w n on w h a t is d is p la y e d b y h o u seh o ld ers, b u t n ot to lie d o w n on i t / 3 || 8 || T h e n th e L o r d , w a lk in g on to u r, in d u e co u rse a r r iv e d a t S a v a tth i. T h e L o rd s ta y e d th e re a t S a v a t t h i [16 3 } in th e J e t a G ro v e in A n a th a p in d ik a s m o n a ste ry . T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , he s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n ce. A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " L o rd , m a y th e L o rd co n sen t to a m e a l w ith m e on th e m o rro w to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er o f m o n k s / ' T h e L o rd c o n se n te d b y b e c o m in g silen t. T h e n th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d th e L o r d 's co n se n t, risin g fro m h is se a t d e p a rte d k e e p in g h is rig h t side to w a rd s h im . T h e n th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g h a d su m p tu o u s fo o d s, so lid a n d s o ft, p re p a re d to w a rd s th e en d o f th a t n ig h t, h a d th e tim e a n n o u n c e d t o th e L o rd , s a y in g : " I t is tim e , L o rd , th e m ea l is r e a d y . T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g d ressed in th e m o rn in g , ta k in g his b o w l a n d ro b e, a p p ro a ch e d th e d w e llin g o f th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a ;
1 M a d e a n o ffe n c e o f w r o n g - d o in g a t M V . V . 10. 5 t o u s e a n y o f t h e s e t h in g s . a C f . V in . i. 19 4 ( B . D . i v . 2 5 9 ). 8 tu lo n a d d h a . C f . o n a d d h a m a n ca o n a d d k a p ith a a t C V . V I . 2. 7 , a n d V in . ii. 2 7 0 . C f . a ls o V i n . i. 1 9 4 .

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h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , he sa t d o w n on th e a p p o in te d se a t to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er o f m o n k s. T h e n th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g w ith his o w n h a r d se rv e d a n d sa tis fie d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s w ith th e A w a k e n e d O n e a t its h e a d w ith s u m p tu o u s food s, so lid a n d so ft, w h e n th e L o r d h a d e a te n a n d h a d w ith d ra w n his h a n d fro m h is b o w l, sa t d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : W h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t am I, L o rd , to fo llo w in re g a rd to th e J e t a G r o v e ? " W e ll n o w , d o y o u , h o u seh o ld er, h a v e th e J e t a G ro v e p re p a re d fo r (the use of) th e O rd e r o f th e fo u r q u a r te r s ,1 p re se n t a n d to c o m e ." V e r y w e ll, L o r d ," a n d th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a , h a v in g a n sw e re d th e L o rd in a ss e n t, h a d th e J e t a G ro v e p re p a re d fo r (the use of) th e O rd e r o f th e fo u r q u a rte rs , p re se n t a n d to co m e. || x || T h e n th e L o r d th a n k e d th e h o u se h o ld e r A n a th a p in d ik a in th ese ve rse s :2 T h e y w a rd o ff co ld a n d h e a t a n d b e a sts o f p r e y fro m th e re . . . H e, k n o w in g th a t dham m a h e re , a tta in s n ib b a n a , c a n k e rless. [164] T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g g iv e n th a n k s to th e h o u seh o ld er A n a th a p in d ik a in th e s e v e rse s, ris in g fro m h is se a t d e p a rte d . II 2 II 9 j| N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in c h ie f m in iste r w h o w a s a d iscip le o f th e N a k e d A s c e tic s h a d a m e a l fo r a n O rd er. T h e v e n e ra b le U p a n a n d a , th e so n o f th e S a k y a n s , h a v in g a r r iv e d a fte r (the others) w h ile th e m ea l w a s y e t u n fin ish e d , tu r n e d a w a y th e m o n k w h o w a s n e x t to h im ,3 a n d th e re w a s a n u p ro a r in th e re fe c to ry . T h e n th a t c h ie f m in iste r . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th e se reclu ses, so n s o f th e S a k y a n s , h a v in g a rriv e d a fte r (th e o th ers) tu rn a w a y m o n k s w h ile a m ea l is y e t u n fin ish ed so t h a t th e re is a n u p ro a r in th e r e fe c to r y ? N o w , is it n o t p o ssib le, e v e n s ittin g so m e w h e re else, to e a t
1 S e e M V . V I I I . 27. 5 ; C V . V I . 1. 4. a A s a t C V . V I . 1. 5 a b o v e a n d J d . i. 9 3 . * I . e . in t h e p r o c e s s io n f o r a lm s . T e x t r e a d s h e r e a n d a t V i n . iv . 234 a n a n ta r ik a w h ic h V i n . T e x t s iii* 19 8 , n . 4 s a y s ** is a m i s p r i n t " f o r d n a n ta r ik a . C f . V i n . i. 3 2 1 .

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as m u ch a s one p lea ses ? M o n k s h e a rd th is c h ie f m in iste r as he . . . sp rea d it a b o u t. T h o se w h o w e re m o d est m o n k s . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th e v e n e ra b le U p a n a n d a , th e son o f th e S a k y a n s , h a v in g a r r iv e d a fte r (the oth ers), tu rn a w a y th e m o n k w h o is n e x t to h im w h ile th e m eal is y e t u n fin ish e d so th a t th e re is a n u p ro a r in th e r e fe c to r y ? T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " Is it tru e , as is sa id , th a t y o u , U p a n a n d a , h a v in g a rriv e d . . . in th e r e fe c to r y ? " I t is tru e , L o r d . T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd re b u k ed h im , s a y in g : " H o w c a n y o u , fo o lish m a n , h a v in g a r r iv e d . . . in a re fe c to ry ? I t is n o t, fo o lish m a n , fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o are n ot (yet) p le a se d . . . / ' H a v in g re b u k e d h im , h a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M o n k s, a m o n k sh o u ld n o t tu rn (another) a w a y w h ile a m e a l is y e t u n fin ish ed . W h o e v e r sh o u ld tu rn (another) a w a y , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I f he tu rn s (another) a w a y w h o is in v ite d (to th e m eal), he sh o u ld b e to ld , O o a n d fe tc h w a te r / I f th is is th u s a c co m p lish e d , th a t is g o o d ; if it is n o t a c co m p lish e d , h a v in g sw a llo w e d lu m p s o f b o ile d rice p ro p e rly , h is se a t sh o u ld b e g iv e n to a se n io r m o n k . B u t th is I sa y , m o n k s : th a t n o t b y a n y m e th o d sh o u ld a se a t be re se rve d fo r a sen io r m o n k . W h o e v e r sh o u ld re se rve one, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' || 1 l| N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s tu rn e d ill m o n k s a w a y . T h e ill ones sp o k e th u s : " W e , y o u r re ve ren ce s, a re n o t a b le to g e t up, w e a re ill. S a y in g , " W e w ill tu rn th e v e n e ra b le ones a w a y , h a v in g ta k e n h o ld o f th e m , h a v in g tu rn ed th e m a w a y , th e y le t g o (of them ) w h ile t h e y w ere sta n d in g . T h e ill ones, on b e in g le t g o o f, fe ll d o w n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e ra id : M on ks, o n e w h o is ill sh o u ld n o t b e tu r n e d a w a y . W h o e v e r sh o u ld tu r n h im a w a y , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix [165] m o n k s, s a y in g : W e are ill, w e are n o t to b e tu rn e d a w a y , k e p t to th e b est sleep in g p la ce s. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to g iv e a s u ita b le slee p in g p la c e to one w h o is ill. N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s re se rv e d lo d g in g s

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on (som e sligh t) p r e t e x t .1 T h e y to ld th is m a t t e r to th e L o rd . H e said : M on ks, a lo d g in g sh o u ld n o t be re se rv e d on (som e sligh t) p r e te x t. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) re se rv e it, th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g ." || 2 || 10 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f se v e n te e n m o n k s 2 w ere re p a irin g 3 a la rg e d w e llin g -p la c e in th e n e ig h b o u rh o o d , th in k in g : " W e w ill sp en d th e ra in s h e r e . T h e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s sa w th e g ro u p o f se v e n te e n m o n k s a s t h e y w e re re p a irin g th e d w e llin g -p la ce , a n d se e in g th e m , t h e y sp o k e th u s : " Y o u r re ve ren ce s, th e g ro u p o f se v e n te e n m o n k s are re p a irin g a d w e llin g -p la c e . C o m e, w e w ill tu rn th e m a w a y / S o m e sp o k e th u s : " W a it , y o u r re v e ren ce s, u n til t h e y h a v e rep aired it ; w h en it is re p a ire d , w e w ill tu r n th e m a w a y ." T h e n th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s s p o k e th u s to th e g r o u p o f se ve n te e n m o n k s : " G o a w a y , y o u r re v e ren ce s, th e d w e llin g p la ce w a s o b ta in e d 4 b y u s . Y o u r re v e ren ce s, sh o u ld n o t th is h a v e b e en e x p la in e d b efo re, a n d w e w o u ld h a v e re p a ire d a n o th e r ? " Y o u f re v e ren ce s, d o es n o t a d w e llin g -p la c e b e lo n g to th e O rd er P " Y e s , y o u r re v e ren ce s, a d w e llin g -p la c e b e lo n g s to th e O rd e r/ ' " G o a w a y , y o u r re ve ren ce s, th e d w e llin g -p la c e w a s o b ta in e d b y u s/' Y o u r re ve ren ce s, th e d w e llin g -p la c e is b i g ; y o u s ta y , a n d w e to o w ill s t a y . G o a w a y , y o u r re ve ren ce s, th e d w e llin g -p la c e w a s o b ta in e d b y u s , a n d a n g ry , d isp lea sed , h a v in g ta k e n th e m b y th e th r o a t, the}' th re w th e m o u t. T h e se b e in g th ro w n o u t, w e p t. M o n k s sp o k e th u s : W h y do y o u , y o u r re v e ren ce s, w e e p ? Y o u r re ve ren ce s, th is g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, a n g r y , d is p leased , th re w u s o u t o f a d w e llin g -p la c e b e lo n g in g to th e O rd e r. T h o se w h o w e re m o d e st m o n k s lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c riticise d , sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th is g r o u p o f
1 le s a k a p p a . V A . 12 2 2 s a y s f o r a s m a ll t h i n g , n o t h in g m o r e t h a n a h e a d a c h e . 1 A s a t P ic . 17. T r a n s l a t e d a t B . D . ii. 2 5 0 1 , q ,v t fo r n o t e s . p a fis a m k h a r o ti, r e s t o r e , r e p a ir , m e n d . 4 p a p u n a ti.

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s ix m o n ks, a n g ry , d isp leased , th ro w o u t m o n k s fro m a d w ellin g p la ce b e lo n g in g to a n O rd e r ? T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : Js it tru e, as is sa id , m o n k s, th a t th e g ro u p o f s ix m on ks, a n g r y , d isp le a se d , th re w o u t m o n k s fro m a d w e llin g -p la c e b e lo n g in g to a n O rd e r ? I t is tru e, L o r d .*'1 H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , he a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M onks, a m o n k sh o u ld n o t be th ro w n o u t o f a d w e llin g p la ce b e lo n g in g to an O rd er b y one w h o is a n g ry , d isp leased . W h o e v e r (such) sh o u ld th ro w h im o u t sh o u ld be d e a lt w ith a c co rd in g to th e r u le .2 I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to a ssig n 3 lo d g in g s . f| 1 f| T h e n it o ccu rre d to th e m o n k s : " N o w b y w h o m sh o u ld lo d g in g s b e a ssig n e d ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . [166] H e s a i d : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to a g ree u p o n a m o n k e n d o w e d w ith fiv e q u a litie s a s a ssig n e r o f lo d g in g s one w h o w o u ld n ot fo llo w a w ro n g co u rse 5 th ro u g h d esire, one w h o w o u ld n o t fo llo w a w ro n g co u rse th ro u g h h a tre d , one w h o w o u ld n o t fo llo w a w ro n g co u rse th ro u g h s tu p id ity , o n e * w h o w o u ld not fo llo w a w ro n g co u rse th ro u g h fe a r, a n d one w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t is ta k e n a n d w h a t is n o t ta k e n . A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld he be a g ree d u p o n : F ir s t, a m o n k sh o u ld be a sk e d . H a v in g a sk e d h im , th e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y an e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : * H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n to m e. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er sh o u ld a g ree upon th e m o n k S o -a n d -so a s assig n er o f lo d g in g s. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h e O rd er is a g re e in g u p o n th e m o n k S o -a n d -so as assig n er o f lo d g in g s. I f th e a g re e m e n t u p o n th e m o n k S o -a n d -so as assig n e r o f lo d g in g s is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, th e y sh o u ld b e sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e m o n k S o -a n d -so is a g re e d u p o n b y th e O rd er as assig n er
1 C u la v a g g a a n d P d c it t iy a v e r s io n s p r o c e e d d i f f e r e n t ly f r o m h e r e . 8 P a c . 17. * ga h etu m . 4 sen d sa n a g a h d p a k a ; c f. p a tta g d h d p a k a a n d s e e B . D . ii. 1 2 2 , n . 1 . To t h e e n d o f || 2 || is t h e s a m e a s t h e p a s s a g e a t V i n . iii. 2 4 6 - 7 { B .D . ii. 12 2 ) d e a lin g w it h t h e a s s ig n e r o f b o w ls . * S e e B . D . ii. 1 2 2 , n . 2.

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o f lo d g in g s. I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is V ' || 2 || T h e n it o ccu rred to th e m o n k s w h o w ere th e assig n ers of lo d g in g s : N o w , h o w sh o u ld th e lo d g in g s be a ssig n e d ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, first to c o u n t th e m o n k s ; h a v in g c o u n te d th e m o n k s, to c o u n t th e slee p in g p la c e s h a v in g c o u n te d th e sle e p in g p laces, to assign a c co rd in g to th e a c c o m m o d a tio n fo r sle e p in g p la c e s . 2 A s sig n in g a c co rd in g to th e a c c o m m o d a tio n fo r slee p in g p la ces (some) slee p in g p la c e s w ere le ft o v e r .3 I a llo w yo u , m o n ks, t o a ssig n a c c o rd in g t o th e a c co m m o d a tio n in d w e llin g -p la c e s. A s sig n in g a c c o rd in g to th e a c c o m m o d a tion in d w e llin g -p la c e s (some) d w e llin g -p la c e s w ere le ft o v e r. I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to a ssig n a c c o rd in g to th e a c co m m o d a tio n in c e lls . 4 A s sig n in g a c c o rd in g to th e a c c o m m o d a tio n in ce lls (some) ce lls w ere le ft o v e r. " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to g iv e a n a d d itio n a l s h a r e 5 a ls o . W h en an a d d itio n a l sh a re h a d been o c cu p ie d a n o th e r m o n k a rriv e d . I t n eed n o t be g iv e n (to h im if th e o ccu p ier) is n o t w illin g . 8 N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s a ssig n ed lo d g in g s to one w h o w a s sta n d in g o u tsid e a b o u n d a ry . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id ; M onks, a lo d g in g sh o u ld n o t be a ssig n ed to one s ta n d in g o u tsid e a b o u n d a ry . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) assign it, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s, h a v in g o c c u p ie d lo d g in g s, re se rv e d th e m fo r all tim e. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M onks, h a v in g o c c u p ie d a lo d g in g , it sh o u ld n o t be r'eserved fo r a ll tim e. W h o e v e r sh o u ld re se rv e it (th u s), th ere is an o ffen ce o f w rq n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to reserve
1 V A . 12 2 3 c a l ls t h e s e t h e p l a c e s f o r c o u c h e s . * seyya ggen a. V A . 12 2 3 e x p l a i n s b y s e y y a p a r ic c h e d e n a , b y t h e s p a c e , ra n ge , a n d s p e a k s o f e a c h m o n k h a v in g a p la c e fo r a c o u c h . C f . b h ih k h a g g e n a , a t C V . X I I . 1. i , a p p a r e n t ly m e a n in g t h e n u m b e r o f m o n k s . * u s s d d iy im s u . C f . V i n . i v . 99 a n d B . D . ii. 3 6 4 , n . 1 . * p a riv e tia . A ? p o in t e d o u t a t V i n . T e x t s iii. 2 0 3 , n . 1 a *' c e ll h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a u n i t la r g e r t h a n a d w e llin g - p la c e . B u t I d o n o t th in k th a t t h is is n e c e s s a r ily t h e c a s e . P r o b a b l y n o t m o r e t h a n o n e m o n k s l e p t in a c e ll, b u t a d w e llin g - p la c e m ig h t h a v e b e e n u s e d b y t w o a t l e a s t . V A . 12 2 3 in e x p la in in g a n u b h d g a , s a y s t h a t i f t h e r e a r e t o o f e w m o n k s ( fo r t h e a v a i l a b l e s p a c e ) t w o o r t h r e e c e lls s h o u ld b e g i v e n t o e a c h m o n k . 5 an u bhd g a . * n a a kdm a a s a t M V . V I I I . 24. 4.

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it fo r th e th re e m o n th s o f th e ra in s b u t n o t to re se rve it fo r th e d r y se a so n .*'1 || 3 || T h e n it o c cu rre d to th e m o n k s : N o w , h o w m a n y (tim es for) th e a ssig n m e n t o f lo d g in g s a re th e re ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, th e re a re th e se th re e (tim es for) th e a ssig n m e n t o f lo d g in g s : th e e a rlie r ,2 th e la te r ,2 th e in te r v e n in g .3 T h e e a rlie r o n w h ic h t h e y are to be a ssig n ed is th e d a 3' fo llo w in g th e fu ll m oon o f A s a lh a ; th e la te r on w h ic h t h e y are to b e a ssig n ed is th e m o n th fo llo w in g th e fu ll m o o n o f A s a lh a ; th e in te r v e n in g on w h ic h t h e y a re to be a ssig n ed is th e d a y fo llo w in g th e I n v ita tio n , w ith referen ce to th e n e x t rain s-resid en ce. T h e se , m o n k s, a re th e th re e (tim es for) th e a ssig n m e n t o f lo d g in g s/* |j 4 || 11 || T h e S e c o n d P o r tio n fo r R e p e a tin g . [167]

N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le U p a n a n d a , th e son o f th e S a k y a n s , h a v in g o c cu p ie d a lo d g in g in S a v a tth I, w e n t a w a y to som e v illa g e resid en ce a n d o c c u p ie d a lo d g in g th e re too. T h e n it o ccu rre d to th ese m o n k s : " N o w y o u r re v e ren ce s, th is v e n e ra b le U p a n a n d a , th e son o f th e S a k y a n s , is a m a k e r o f strife , a m a k e r o f q u a rrels, a m a k e r o f c o n te n tio n , a m a k e r of d isp u te s, a m a k e r o f le g a l q u e stio n s in th e O rd er. I f he w ill sp en d th e ra in s h ere, n o t one o f us ca n liv e in c o m fo rt. C om e, le t u s a sk h im . T h e n th ese m o n k s sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le U p a n a n d a , th e so n o f th e S a lty a n s : " H a v e y o u n o t, re v e re n d U p a n a n d a , o c cu p ie d a lo d g in g in S a v a tth I ? " Y e s , y o u r r e v e re n c e s ." B u t d o y o u , re v e re n d U p a n a n d a , (a lth o u g h ) a lo n e reserve tw o (lodgings) ? I , y o u r re v e ren ce s, a m g iv in g u p th e o n e h ere a n d o c c u p y in g th e one th e r e . T h o se w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th e v e n e ra b le U p a n a n d a , th e so n o f th e S a k y a n s ,
1 C f , V I . 17. 2 , b e lo w . 1 S e e M V . I I I . 2 . 2 . T h e s e t w o d a t e s a r e t h e s a m e a s t h e e a r lie r a n d t h e la t e r p e r io d s f o r e n t e r in g o n t h e r a in s - r e s id e n c e . 3 T h e " in t e r v e n in g / * a n ta r d m u tta k a , d o e s n o t r e f e r t o a d a t e b e t w e e n t h e s e e a r lie r a n d l a t e r t im e s , b u t t o t h e t i m e b e t w e e n t h e r a in s - r e s id e p c e of one yea r an d th e n e x t. T -o d g in g s w o u ld b e c o m e v a c a n t a t t h e e n d o f t h e r a in s (s e e a b o v e || 3 ||) a n d t h e n a s s ig n m e n t f o r t h e n e x t r a in s c o u ld t a k e p la c e . I t s e e m s t h a t t h e f ir s t t w o a r e c o m p u ls o r y , t h e t h ir d o p t io n a l, s e e V A . 12 2 3 .

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(although) a lo n e re se rv e tw o (lod gings) ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h e n th e L o r d on th is o c ca sio n , in th is c o n n e ctio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s c o n v e n e d , q u e stio n ed th e v e n e ra b le U p a n a n d a , th e so n o f th e S a k y a n s , s a y in g : " Is it tru e , a s is sa id , th a t y o u , U p a n a n d a . . . (lodgings) ? I t is tru e , L o r d ." T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd , re b u k e d him , s a y in g : " H o w c a n y o u , fo o lish m a n , (a lth o u g h ) a lo n e re se rv e tw o (lodgings) ? T h e one o c c u p ie d b y y o u th e re , fo o lish m a n , is lo st h e re ,1 th e one o c c u p ie d b y y o u h ere is lo s t th e re . T h u s are y o u , fo o lish m a n , e x c lu d e d fro m b o th . I t is n o t, fo o lish m an , fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d h a v in g g iv e n re aso n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " M onks, tw o (lodgings) sh o u ld n o t b e re se rv e d b y one (m onk). W h o e v e r sh o u ld re se rv e (th em ), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . || 12 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e L o r d 2 in m a n y a fig u re t a lk e d a ta lk on d iscip lin e t o th e m o n k s, h e sp o k e in p ra ise o f d isc ip lin e , he sp ok e in p raise o f a c c o m p lis h m e n t in d isc ip lin e , h e sp o k e in p raise o f th e v e n e ra b le U p a li, re fe rrin g (to him ) a g a in a n d a g a in . M o n k s sp o k e th u s : " T h e L o rd in m a n y a figu re t a lk e d a ta lk on d iscip lin e . . . h e s p o k e in p ra ise o f th e v e n e ra b le U p a li, referrin g (to him ) a g a in a n d a g a in . C o m e , y o u r re v e re n c e s, le t u s m a ste r d iscip lin e u n d e r th e v e n e ra b le U p a li, a n d th e y , m a n y m o n k s eld ers a n d n e w ly o rd a in e d a n d th o s e o f m id d le sta n d in g m a ste re d d iscip lin e u n d e r th e v e n e ra b le U p a li. T h e v e n e ra b le U p a li, o u t o f re sp e c t fo r th e m o n k s w h o w e re eld ers, re cite d s ta n d in g , a n d also th e m o n k s w h o w e re eld ers, o u t o f re sp e ct fo r dham m a ,3 h a d it re c ite d sta n d in g , so t h a t th e m o n k s w h o w ere eld ers w ere tire d as w e ll as th e v e n e ra b le U p a li. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m onks, [168] w h e n a n e w ly o rd a in e d m o n k is re c itin g to sit d o w n on a se a t th a t is th e sa m e (heigh t) o r on a h ig h e r one o u t o f resp ect fo r dham m a ; w h e n a m o n k w h o is a n eld er
1 has * * T h e o n e ta k e n , in e a c h p l a c e is a u t o m a t i c a l l y l o s t j u s t b e c a u s e a' m o n k ta k e n th e m b o th . T h e t w o i n t r o d u c t o r y s e n t e n c e s o c c u r a l s o a t V i n . i v . 1 4 2 ( B . D . iii. 4 0 ). C f . S e k h i y a s , N o s . 5 7 - 7 2 a n d e s p e c ia ll y N o . 6 9 .

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is h a v in g it re cite d to sit d o w n o n a se a t th a t is th e sam e (height) o r o n a lo w e r one o u t o f re sp e c t fo r dham m a . |j r || N o w a t th a t tim e m a n y m o n k s sta n d in g n e a r th e v e n e ra b le U p a li g re w tire d w a itin g fo r th e re c ita tio n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to s it d o w n w ith th o se e n title d to se a ts o f an e q u a l (h e ig h t). T h e n it o ccu rre d to m o n k s : " N o w , in re sp e c t o f w h a t is one e n title d to se a ts o f an e q u a l (height) ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to sit d o w n to g e th e r w ith th o se w h o a re w ith in th re e y e a r s (of yo u r) s ta n d in g .'*1 N o w a t t h a t tim e se v e ra l m o n k s e n title d to se a ts o f an e q u a l (h eigh t), h a v in g s a t d o w n on a c o u ch , b ro k e th e c o u c h ; h a v in g sa t d o w n on a c h a ir, t h e y b ro k e th e ch a ir. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a c o u c h fo r a g ro u p o f th re e (persons ),2 a c h a ir fo r a g ro u p o f th re e (p erson s). B u t a g ro u p o f th re e (people), h a v in g sa t d o w n o n a c o u ch , b ro k e th e c o u c h ; h a v in g sa t d o w n o n a ch a ir, th e y b ro k e th e c h a ir. I a llo w , m o n k s, a c o u ch fo r a g ro u p of tw o (persons), a c h a ir fo r a g ro u p o f tw o (p erso n s). N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s w ere (too) sc ru p u lo u s to sit d o w n on a lo n g se a t w ith th o se n o t e n title d to a se a t o f a n e q u a l (h eigh t). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, e x c e p t w ith a e u n u ch , a w o m a n , a h e rm a p h ro d ite , to sit d o w n on a lo n g se a t w ith th o se n o t e n title d to a se a t o f an e q u a l (h e ig h t). T h e n it o ccu rre d to th e m o n k s : N o w , w h a t is th e m a x im u m (length) o f k ' lo n g se a t ? I a llo w , m o n ks, th e m a x im u m (length) o f a lo n g se a t ' (to be) w h a te v e r is th e m a x im u m (length) th a t suffices (to seat) th re e (p erso n s). || 2 || 1 3 || N o w a t t h a t tim e V is a k h a , M ig a ra s m o th e r, w a n te d to h a v e a lo n g h o u se w ith a v e ra n d a h o f th e " e le p h a n t-n a il t y p e 3 b u ilt fo r a n O rd er. T h e n it o c cu rre d to th e m o n k s : " W h a t a p p u rte n a n c e s o f a lo n g h o u se are a llo w e d b y th e L o r d , w h a t are n o t a llo w e d ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a ll th e a p p u rte n a n c e s o f a lo n g h o u s e .
1 I .e . s in c e t h e t i m e o f o r d in a t io n . a tivag ga, t h r e e f o ld . * h a tth in a k h a k a . S e e A . K . C o o m a ra sw a m y , In d . A rch . T erm s, J A O S ., V o l. 48, N o . 3, p . 2 58 .

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ra n d m o th e r o f K in g P a se n a d i o f K o s a la passed a w a y .1 O n h e r p a ssin g m a n y u n a llo w a b le g o od s a ccru e d to an O rd er, th a t is to s a y 2 a so fa , a d iv a n . . . a c o tto n q u ilt . . . a c o u c h w ith a re d cu sh io n a t e ith e r end. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g b ro k e n o ff 3 th e legs o f a so fa , [169] to m a k e use o f it ; h a v in g d e stro y e d th e h o rse-h a ir (stuffing) o f a d iv a n , to m a k e use o f it ; h a v in g u n ra v e lle d th e c o tto n q u ilt, to m a k e a s q u a ttin g m a t ;4 to m a k e a g ro u n d c o v e r in g w ith w h a t is o v e r . |j 1 4 || N o w a t th a t tim e in a c e rta in v illa g e re sid e n ce n o t fa r fro m S a va tth T th e re sid e n t m o n k s w ere w o rrie d a t p re p a rin g lo d g in g s fo r th e in co m in g m o n k s w h o a rriv e d . T h e n it o c cu rre d to th e se m o n k s : A t p re se n t w e, y o u r re v e re n c e s, are w o rried a t p re p a rin g lo d g in g s fo r in c o m in g m o n k s w h o a rriv e . C o m e, y o u r re ve ren ce s, le t us m a k e o v e r a ll th e lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to th e O rd e r to one (m onk) a n d w e w ill m a k e use o f th e m as b e lo n g in g t o h im ." S o th e s e m a d e o v e r to one (m onk) a ll th e lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to th e O rd e r. In c o m in g m o n k s sp o k e th u s to th e s e m o n k s : " M a k e r e a d y lo d g in g s, y o u r re ve ren ce s, fo r u s . Y o u r re ve ren ce s, th e r e a re n o lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to th e O rd er, w e h a v e m a d e th e m a ll o v e r to o n e (m o n k ). B u t h a v e y o u , y o u r re v e re n c e s, d isp o se d o f lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g t o a n O rd e r ? " Y e s , y o u r re v e re n c e s. T h o s e w h o w e re m o d e st m o n k s . . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th e s e m o n k s d isp o se o f w h a t b e lo n g s to an O rd e r ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id :
1 C f . s. i. 9 7 . * L is t a s a t M V . V . 10. 4 ; C V . V I . 8. * C / . N u n s P a c . 4 2 , w h e r e a n u n m a y u s e a s o fa a n d a d i v a n i f s h e c u t s d o w n , c k in d itv d , t h e l e g s o f t h e f o r m e r a n d c u t s o u t , c h in d itv d , t h e s t u f fin g fr o m t h e l a t t e r . A b o v e b h in d itv a o c c u r s in b o t h p la c e s in s t e a d o f c h in d itv d , ^ ee iii. 3 2 6 , n . 1 ; 3 2 7 , n 3. D A , 88 , q u o t i n g a b o v e p a s s a g e , u s e s b o t h w o r d s : a s a n d iy a p a d e c h in d itv d . . - p a lla n k a s s a v a le b h in d itv a . At M V . V , 10. 5 i t is a d u k k a ta f o r a m o n k t o u s e a s o fa , d i v a n o r c o t t o n q u i l t . t C V . V I . 8 t h e y f o r m t h e t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e t h i n g s d is p l a y e d b y a h o u s e h o ld e r t h a t a m o n k m a y s i t d o w n o n . A b o v e t h e y a r e a l lo w e d i f c e r t a in c o n d it io n s a r e fu lf ille d . 4 S im i la r a llo w a n c e a t C V . V I . 2 . 6 .

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I s it tru e , a s is said , m o n ks, t h a t m o n k s d isp o sed o f lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to an O rd e r ? " I t is tru e , L o r d . T h e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd , re b u k ed th e m , s a y in g : H o w , m o n k s, can th e se fo o lish m en d isp o se of lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to a n O rd e r ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d . . . A n d h a v in g re b u k e d th em , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n ks, s a y in g : M on ks, th e se fiv e th in g s n o t to b e d isp o sed o f 1 sh o u ld n o t be d isp o sed of b y an O rd e r o r b y a g ro u p o r b y an in d iv id u a l e v e n if d isp o sed o f t h e y a re n o t (really) d isp o sed of. W h o e v e r sh o u ld d isp o se o f th e m , th e re is a g r a v e offen ce. W h a t a re th e fiv e ? A m o n a ste ry , a site fo r a m o n a ste ry . T h is is th e first th in g n o t to b e d isp o se d o f th a t sh o u ld n ot be d isp o sed o f b y a n O rd er o r b y a g ro u p o r b y an in d iv id u a l e v e n if d isp o sed o f it is n o t (really) d isp o se d o f. W h o e v e r sh o u ld d isp o se o f it, th e re is a g r a v e offen ce. A d w e llin g -p la c e , a site fo r a d w e llin g -p la c e . T h is is th e se co n d th in g . . . . A c o u ch , a ch a ir, a m a ttre ss, a s q u a ttin g m a t. T h is is th e th ir d th in g . . . . A c o p p e r p o t, a c o p p e r b o x , a c o p p e r ja r , a c o p p e r ve sse l, an a d ze , a h a tc h e t, a n a x e , a hoe, a sp a d e . T h is is th e fo u rth th in g . . . . J u n g le -ro p e , b a m b o o , c o a rse g ra ss, reed s, Una- grass, c la y , w o o d en go od s, c la y go od s. T h is is th e fifth th in g n o t to b e d isp o sed of t h a t sh o u ld n o t b e d isp o se d o f b y a n O rd er or b y a g ro u p o r b y a n in d iv id u a l even if d isp o sed o f it is n o t (really) d isp o sed o f. W h o e v e r sh o u ld d isp o se o f it, th e re is a g r a v e offen ce. M on ks, th e se fiv e th in g s n o t to b e d isp o sed of sh o u ld n o t b e d isp o se d of b y a n O rd e r o r b y a g ro u p o r b y a n in d iv id u a l e v e n if d isp o sed o f th e y a re n o t (really) d isp o sed o f. W h o e v e r sh o u ld d isp o se o f th e m , th e re is a g r a v e o ffe n c e ." II 2 || 1 5 || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t S a v a tth I fo r a s lo n g fo u n d su itin g , [170 ] se t o u t on to u r fo r K it a g ir i w ith a O rd er o f m o n k s, w ith a t le a st fiv e h u n d re d m o n k s a n d S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a . T h e n th e m o n k s w h o
1 a v is s a jjiy d n i . C f . a v is s a jjik a m a t M V . V I I I . 27. 5 ; v is s a jja k a a t V in . ii. 1 7 7 , i v . 38.

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fo llo w ers o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u k a h e a rd : T h e y s a y th a t th e L o rd h a s a r r iv e d a t K it a g ir i w ith a la rg e O rd e r of m o n k s . . . a n d w ith S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a . C o m e, y o u r r e v e r ences, le t u s d is trib u te a ll th e lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to th e O rd er. S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a are o f d e p ra v e d d esires, t h e y are u n d e r th e in flu en ce o f d e p ra v e d d esires ; w e w ill n o t m a k e re a d y lo d g in g s fo r t h e m / ' T h e y d is tr ib u te d a ll th e lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to th e O rd er. T h e n th e L o rd , w a lk in g on to u r, g r a d u a lly re a ch ed K it a g ir i. T h e n th e L o rd a d d re sse d se v e ra l m o n ks, s a y in g : D o y o u go, m o n ks, a n d h a v in g g o n e u p to th e m o n k s w h o are fo llo w ers o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u k a , sp e a k th u s : T h e L o rd , y o u r re v e ren ce s, h a s c o m e to g e th e r w ith a la rg e O rd er o f m o n k s . . . a n d w ith S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a ; so, y o u r re ve ren ce s, m a k e r e a d y lo d g in g s fo r th e L o r d a n d for th e O rd er o f m o n k s a n d fo r S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a ' . " V e r y w e ll, L o r d , a n d th e se m o n k s, h a v in g a n sw e re d th e L o rd in assen t, w e n t u p to th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u k a ; h a v in g g o n e u p to th e m o n k s w h o w ere fo llo w ers o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u k a , t h e y s p o k e th u s : T h e L o rd , y o u r re ve ren ce s, h a s co m e . . . m a k e r e a d y lo d gin gs fo r th e L o rd a n d fo r th e O rd e r o f m o n k s a n d fo r S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a . " T h e re a re no lo d g in g s, y o u r re v e re n c e s, b e lo n g in g to th e O rd er ; a ll w ere d is trib u te d b y us. T h e L o rd , y o u r re v e ren ce s, is w elcom e, th e L o r d c a n s t a y in w h a te v e r d w e llin g -p la c e h e lik es. S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a are o f d e p ra v e d d esires, t h e y a re u n d e r th e in flu en ce o f d e p r a v e d d esires ; w e w ill n o t m a k e re a d y lo d g in g s fo r th e m . || i J | B u t d id y o u , y o u r re ve ren ce s, d is tr ib u te lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to th e O rd e r ? Y e s , y o u r re v e re n c e s. T h o se w h o w e re m o d est m o n k s - . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w c a n th e se m o n k s w h o a re fo llo w e rs o f A s s a ji a n d P u n a b b a s u k a d is trib u te lo d g in g s b e lo n g in g to a n O rd e r ? T h en th ese m o n ks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " Is it tru e , a s is said , m o n k s, t h a t m o n k s d is tr ib u te d . . . t o an O rd er ? " I t is tru e , L o r d . " H o w , m on ks, c a n th e se fo o lish m e n d is trib u te lo d g in g s

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b e lo n g in g to a n O rd e r ? I t is n o t, m o n k s, for p le a sin g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d . . . H a v in g reb u k ed th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , he a d d re sse d th e m o n ks, s a y in g : M on ks, th e se fiv e th in g s n o t to b e d iv id e d u p 1 sh o u ld n o t be d iv id e d u p b y a n O rd e r o r b y a g ro u p o r b y an in d iv id u a l e ve n if d iv id e d u p t h e y a re n o t (really) d iv id e d u p . W h o e v e r sh o u ld d iv id e th e m u p , th e re is a g r a v e o ffen ce. W h a t are th e fiv e ? A m o n a s te r y 2 - . . a g r a v e o ffe n c e . || 2 || 1 6 |j [1 7 1 ] T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t K it a g ir i fo r a s lo n g as he fo u n d su itin g , se t o u t on to u r fo r A la v i. G r a d u a lly , w a lk in g on to u r, h e a r r iv e d a t A la v i. T h e L o rd s ta y e d th e re a t A la v i a t th e c h ie f sh rin e o f A la v i .3 N o w a t th a t tim e th e -m onks o f A la v i g a v e re p a irs su c h a s th e se in to th e c h a rg e (of a m onk) :4 th e y g a v e re p a irs in c h a rg e w h e n th e re w a s m e r e ly p u ttin g asid e in h e a p s 6 . . . w h e n th e re w a s m e r e ly sm e a rin g a w a ll . . . w h en th e re w a s m e re ly p la c in g a d o or . . . w h e n th ere w a s m e re ly m a k in g a p o ck et fo r a b o lt . . . w h en th e re w a s m e re ly m a k in g a w in d o w -h o le . . . w h e n th e re w a s m e re ly tr e a tin g w ith w h ite w a s h . . . w h e n th e re w as m e re ly tre a tin g w ith b la c k c o lo u rin g . . . w h e n th e re w a s m e re ly tr e a tin g w ith red c h a lk . , . w h e n th e re w a s m e r e ly ro o fin g . . . w h en th e re w a s m e r e ly jo in in g . . . w h e n th e re w a s m e re ly p u ttin g on a b a r (to a d o o rp o st ) 8 . . . w h e n th e re w a s m e re ly re sto rin g b ro k e n a n d d ila p id a te d p a r t s 7 . . . w h e n th e re w a s m e re ly p la ste rin g th e flo o rs ;8 an d t h e y g a v e re p a irs in c h a rg e fo r tw e n t y y e a r s , a n d t h e y g a v e re p a irs in c h a rg e fo r t h ir t y y e a rs, a n d t h e y g a v e re p a irs in c h a rg e fo r life , a n d t h e y g a v e th e re p a irs t o a c o m p le te d d w e llin g -p la c e in to th e ch a rg e (of a m o n k u n til) th e tim e o f h is cremation.
1 * 4 * * A t. avebha-hgiydni. C f . a v eb h a n g ik a tp a t M V . V I I I . 27. 5 . A s a t C V . V I . 15. 2 . S e e B . D . i. 2 4 7 , n . 2 . C f . t h e g i v i n g in c h a r g e o f r e p a i r s in a g e n e r a l w a y a t C V . V I . 5 . Vin. Texts iii. 2 1 3 t a k e s t h i s t o r e f e r t o " c l a y o r e a r t h . " O ld e n b e r g 's t e x t r e a d s g a n g ik d d h d n a m a tte n a ; V A . 12 4 5 r e a d s b h a & g ik a J a . iii. 4 1 b h a n g ik a is v.l f o r g a ftg ik d . S e e V i n . T e x ts iii. p . 2 1 3 , n . 4. 7 A s a t C V . V I . 5 . 2. * paribhap 4a V A . 1 2 4 5 s a y s d o in g u p a "* flo o t w i t h c o w d u n g , w i t h a n a s t r in g e n t d e c o c t io n . C f. C V . V . 9 . 4. * d h U m a k a lik a , s m o k e - t im e , i.e . w h e n t h e s m o k e a r is e s f r o m h is f u n e r a l p y r e . C f . J a . iii. 4 2 2 . W o r d o c c u r s a t C V . X I . 1. 9 .

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T h o se w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s . . . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w ca n th e m o n k s o f A la v l g iv e re p a irs su ch a s th e se in to th e c h a rg e (of a m onk) . * . (until) th e tim e o f h is c re m a tio n ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I s it tru e , as is sa id , m o n k s, t h a t th e m o n k s o f A la v l . . . th e tim e o f his c re m a tio n ? " I t is tru e , L o r d ." H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M on ks, re p a irs w h e n th e re is m e r e ly p u ttin g a sid e in h e a p s sh o u ld n o t be g iv e n in to th e c h a rg e (of a m o n k) . . , n o r sh o u ld rep a irs t o a c o m p le te d d w e llin g -p la c e b e g iv e n in to th e ch a rg e (of a m onk) u n til th e tim e o f h is c re m a tio n . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) g iv e in ch a rg e , th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to g iv e re p a irs to a d w e llin g -p la c e in to th e ch a rg e (of a m onk) if it is n o t (yet) b u ilt o r if it is n ot (yet) fin ish ed -,1 in re fere n ce to w o r k on a sm a ll d w e llin g -p la c e , rep airs m a y b e g iv e n in c h a rg e fo r s ix or fiv e y e a r s ; in referen ce to w o rk on a c u r v e d h o u se re p a irs m a y b e g iv e n in c h a rg e fo r se v e n o r e ig h t y e a rs ; in re fere n ce t o w o rk on a la rg e d w e llin g -p la c e o r a lo n g h o u se, re p a irs m a y b e g iv e n in c h a rg e fo r te n o r tw e lv e y e a r s . |j i || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s g a v e th e w h o le o f a d w e llin g -p la c e in to c h a rg e fo r re p a irs. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M on ks, th e w h o le o f a d w e llin g -p la c e sh o u ld n o t b e g iv e n in c h a rg e fo r re p a irs. W h o e v e r sh o u ld g iv e one in ch a rg e, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s g a v e tw o (d w ellin g -p la ces) in to th e ch a rg e o f o n e (m on k). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M o n k s, tw o (d w ellin g -p la ces) sh o u ld n o t b e g iv e n in to th e c h a rg e o f o n e (m on k). W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) g iv e in ch a rg e , th e re i? a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s, h a v in g ta k e n o n re p a irs, m a d e a n o th e r liv e (there). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o r d . H e sa id : " M onks, [172 ] h a v in g ta k e n on re p a irs, y o u sh o u ld n ot m a k e a n o th e r liv e (there). W h o e v e r sh o u ld m a k e (another) liv e (there), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w r o n g - d o in g / N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks, h a v in g ta k e n on re p a irs, re se rv e d
1 A c c o r d in g t o V A . 1 2 4 5 - 6 , i f t h e r a f t e r s h a v e n o t b e e n p u t u p , f o r w h e n t h e y a r e u p m u c h h a s b e e n b u ilt .

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(for th e ir o w n use) w h a t b e lo n g e d to an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, h a v in g ta k e n on rep a irs, y o u sh o u ld n o t re se rv e (for y o u r o w n use) w h a t b e lo n g s to an O rd er. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) re se rv e it, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to o c c u p y one g o o d sle e p in g p la c e . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s g a v e re p a irs in to th e c h a rg e o f one o u tsid e a b o u n d a ry . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, re p a irs sh o u ld n o t b e g iv e n in to th e c h a rg e of o n e o u tsid e a b o u n d a ry . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) g iv e th e m in c h a rg e , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s, h a v in g ta k e n on re p a irs (to a b u ild in g ), re se rv e d it fo r a ll tim e . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " M o n k s, h a v in g ta k e n o n re p a irs (to a b u ild in g ), y o u sh o u ld n o t re se rv e it fo r a ll tim e . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) re se rv e it, th e re is an o ffen ce of w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, t o re se rv e it fo r th e th re e m o n th s of th e rain s, b u t n o t to re se rv e it fo r th e d r y se a so n . 1 || 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s, h a v in g ta k e n on re p a irs, w e n t a w a y 2 a n d le ft th e O rd er a n d p a sse d a w a y , a n d t h e y p re te n d ed to b e n o v ic e s a n d t h e y p re te n d e d t o be d isa v p w ers o f th e tra in in g . . . to b e c o m m itte rs o f e x tre m e o ffen ces . . . to be m a d . . . to b e u n h in g e d . . . to h a v e b o d ily p a in s . . . to b e su sp e n d e d fo r n o t seein g an o ffe n ce . . . to b e su sp en d ed fo r n o t m a k in g a m e n d s fo r an o ffen ce . . . t o b e su sp en d ed fo r n ot g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w a n d t h e y p re te n d ed to b e e u n u ch s . . . to b e liv in g in co m m u n io n a s it w ere b y th e ft . . . t o h a v e g o n e o v e r t o a se c t . . . t o b e a n im a ls . . . to b e m a tricid e s . . . t o b e p a rricid e s . . . t o b e s la y e rs o f o n e * p e rfe c te d . . . t o b e se d u cers o f n u n s . . . to b e sc h is m a tic s . . . to b e sh e d d e rs o f a (T ru th -fin d er's) b lo o d a n d t h e y p re te n d e d t o b e h e rm a p h ro d ite s. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , h a v in g ta k e n on rep airs, g o es a w a y . T h in k in g , * D o n o t le t th e O rd e r s u ffe r/ (th e rep airs) sh o u ld b e g iv e n in to th e c h a rg e o f a n o th e r. T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k , h a v in g ta k e n on rep a irs,
1 C f . V I . 11. 3, a b o v e . * S e e M V . I I . 22. 3 ; 36. 1 - 3 ; I X . 4. 2 . 7 .

B O O K OF D I S C I P L I N E 244 le a v e s th e O rd er, p asses a w a y , p re te n d s to b e . . . a h e rm a p h ro d ite . T h in k in g , D o n o t le t th e O rd e r su ffe r/ (th e repairs) sh o u ld b e g iv e n in to th e c h a rg e o f a n o th e r. T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h e re a m o n k , h a v in g ta k e n on re p a irs, g o es a w a y w h ile th e y are y e t u n fin ish e d . . . p re te n d s to be a h e rm a p h ro d ite . T h in k in g , * D o n o t le t th e O rd e r s u ffe r/ (th e repairs) sh o u ld b e g iv e n in to th e c h a rg e o f a n o th e r. T h is is a ca se , m o n ks, w h ere a m o n k , h a v in g ta k e n on re p a irs, on th e ir c o m p le tio n g o es a w a y ; t h e y a re s till in h is (ch a rg e ).1 T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , h a v in g ta k e n o n re p a irs, on th e ir c o m p le tio n le a v e s th e O rd e r . . . p re te n d s to h a v e c o m m itte d an e x tre m e o ffen ce : th e O rd e r is th e o w n er. T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , h a v in g ta k e n on re p a irs, on th e ir co m p le tio n p re te n d s to b e m a d . . . [17 3 ] p re te n d s to b e su sp e n d e d fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w : t h e y a re s till in h is (charge). T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h e re a m o n k , h a v in g ta k e n o n re p a irs, on th e ir c o m p le tio n p re te n d s to b e a eu n u ch . . . p re te n d s to be a h e rm a p h ro d ite : th e O rd e r is th e o w n e r / ' It 3 II 1 7 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s m a d e use e lse w h e re 2 o f lo d g in g s a p p u rte n a n c e s o f a d w e llin g -p la c e b e lo n g in g to a l a y fo llo w er. T h e n th a t la y fo llo w e r . , . sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w ca n th e se r e v e re d sirs m a k e use e lse w h e re o f a p p u r te n an ces b e lo n g in g so m e w h e re else ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t m a k e use elsew h ere o f a p p u rte n a n c e s b e lo n g in g so m e w h e re else. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) m a k e use o f th e m , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s ,3 b e in g (too) sc ru p u lo u s t o c o n v e y to th e O b se rv a n c e h o u se a n d t o th e m e e tin g p la c e (th in g s to sit on), s a t d o w n on th e g ro u n d . T h e ir lim b s a n d ro b e s w e re c o v e re d w ith d u st. T h e y t o ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to c o n v e y (th in gs) t e m p o r a r ily ." N o w a t th a t tim e a g re a t d w e llin g -p la c e b e lo n g in g to an O rd er fe ll in to d e c a y . M o n k s, b e in g sc ru p u lo u s, d id n o t t a k e o u t th e lo d g in g s .4 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e
1 toss* eva tafft. V A . 12 4 8 e la b o r a t e s " f o r t h e r a in s .'* 1 A s a t Vin. iii. 6 5 - 6 6 . Cf. Vin, i v . 7 6 , 8 1 ( b o t h e a t in g e ls e w h e r e " ) . * A s a t Vin. iii, 6 6 . 4 V A . 1 2 4 8 e x p la i n s t h a t h a v i n g c o n v e y e d t h e m e ls e w h e r e t h e y d o n o t m a k e u se o f th e m .

18 20.2]________ C U L L A V A G G A

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sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to c o n v e y (things) fo r th e sa k e of p ro te c tin g (th e m ). |j 1 8 || N o w a t th a t tim e a c o s tly w o o llen b la n k e t an a c ce sso ry to a lo d g in g a c cru e d to an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to b a r te r 1 it fo r (som eth ing) a d v a n ta g e o u s / ' N o w a t t h a t tim e a c o s tly w o v e n c lo th . . * " to b a r te r it fo r (so m eth in g) a d v a n ta g e o u s / ' N o w a t th a t tim e a b e a r's h id e 2 a c c ru e d to a n O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to m a k e a to w e l fo r th e fe e t . D r a p e r y 3 a c cru e d . " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a to w e l fo r th e fe e t . C lo t h 4 a ccru e d . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a to w e l fo r th e fe e t . |j 1 9 || N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s tro d u pon a lo d g in g w h ile th e ir fe e t w ere u n w a sh e d ;6 th e lo d g in g w a s so iled . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : M o n k s, a lo d g in g sh o u ld n o t b e tro d d e n u p o n w h ile y o u r fe e t a re u n w a sh e d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) tre a d u p o n one, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s tro d u p o n a lo d g in g w h ile th e ir fe et w ere d a m p . . . [174 ] . . . w ith th e ir sa n d a ls on . o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . j| 1 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s s p a t on g ro u n d th a t h a d b een tr e a te d ;a th e c o lo u r w a s sp oiled . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n ot s p it u p o n g ro u n d th a t h a s b een tre a te d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) s p it, th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, a s p itto o n / ' N o w a t th a t tim e th e leg s o f c o u ch e s a n d th e le g s o f ch a irs sc ra tc h e d g ro u n d t h a t h a d b een tre a te d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to w ra p th e m ro u n d w ith a p ie c e o f c lo t h .

1 p a r iv a tte ti. C f B . D . ii. 5 5 , n . 8. V A . 1 2 4 8 s a y s t h a t t h e m e a n in g is t o g e t a lo d g in g , c o u c h o r c h a i r o f e q u a l o r g r e a t e r v a lu e . * A t V i n . i. 19 2 t h i s is n o t in c lu d e d a m o n g t h e la r g e h id e s w h ic h w e r e n o t a llo w e d . * c a k k a ll. C f . C V . V I . 2. 2 . * col a ka . C f . M V . V I I I . 18. * C f . M V . V . 6. i w h e r e m o n k s a r e a llo w e d t o w e a r s a n d a l s s o a s n o t t o s o il c o u c h e s a n d c h a ir s w h e n t h e y g e t u p o n t o t h e m . fl E i t h e r w i t h w h it e w a s h , b l a c k c o lo u r in g o r r e d c h a lk ; c f. V . 11. 6 ; V I . 3 . i ; 17. i . M V . I . 25. 1 5 m akefe i t a p p e a r a s i f b la c k w e r e f o r t h e g r o u n d a n d re d f o r t h e w a lls .

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N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s le a n t a g a in s t a w a ll t h a t h a d been tre a te d ; th e c o lo u r w a s sp o ile d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t le a n a g a in s t a w a ll th a t h a s b een tre a te d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld le a n a g a in s t one, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a re clin in g b o a r d . 1 T h e re clin in g b o a rd s c r a tc h e d th e g ro u n d u n d e rn e a th , it d e s tro y e d th e w a ll a b o v e . I a llo w y o u , m on ks, to w ra p it ro u n d w ith a p ie ce o f c lo th a t th e lo w er a n d th e u p p er (e n d s)/' N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s 2 w e re (too) sc ru p u lo u s to lie d o w n on a p la c e fo r tre a d in g o n w ith w a s h e d f e e t .3 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to lie d o w n (in su ch a p la ce ), h a v in g sp re a d a s h e e t ." 4 || 2 || 20 || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t A la v i fo r a s lo n g a s he fo u n d su itin g , s e t o u t on to u r fo r R a ja g a h a . G r a d u a lly , w a lk in g on to u r, h e a r r iv e d a t R a ja g a h a . T h e L o rd s ta y e d th e fe a t R a ja g a h a in th e G r e a t G r o v e a t th e s q u irre ls fe e d in g p la ce . N o w a t th a t tim e R a ja g a h a w a s sh o rt o f fo o d . P e o p le w ere n ot a b le to m a k e a m e a l fo r th e O rd e r (but) th e y w a n te d to m a k e a m ea l fo r sp ecial (m o n ks ),6 a n in v ita tio n (-m eal ),6 fo o d (a llo w ed b y) t i c k e t ,7 (food g iv en ) o n a d a y o f th a w a x in g or w a n in g o f th e m oon , (given) on a n O b s e r v a n c e d a y , (given) on th e d a y a fte r an O b s e r v a n c e d a y . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, a m eal fo r a n O rd er, a m e a l fo r a sp e c ia l (m o n k), a n in v ita tio n (m eal) . . . (food g iv en ) on th e d a y a fte r a n O b s e rv a n c e d a y . 8 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, h a v in g ch o sen th e sw e e t fo o d s fo r th e m s e lv e s, g a v e p o o r fo o d s to (other) m o n ks. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to a g re e u p o n a m o n k p o ssessed o f
1 M e n t io n e d a t M V . I . 25. 1 5 , 16 . 1 O m i t t e d in O J d e n b e r g 's t e x t . 3 d h ota p & d a ka . V A . 1 2 4 9 g i v e s t h e a b o v e m e a n in g , a n d s a y s t h a t dh ota p a d a k e is a ls o a r e a d in g . 4 p a cca tth a ritv a . O n " s h e e t/ * p a cc a tth a r a n a , s e e B . D . ii. 3 4 , n . 1 ; 4 6 , n . 3. 6 C f . M V . V I . 19. 1 a n d P a c . 4 6 . * 6 D e fin e d a t V in . i v . 100. 7 F o r t h i s a n d t h e n e x t t h r e e s e e n o t e s a t B . D . ii. 3 1 3 - 3 1 4 . * V A . 1 2 5 0 s a y s t h a t t h i s a llo w a n c e w a s m a d e b y t h e L o r d f o r t im e s o f p l e n t y w h e n p e o p le c a n a g a in g i v e fo o d t o a w h o le O r d e r .

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fiv e q u a litie s a s issu er o f m e a ls i1 [17 5 ] o n e w h o w o u ld n o t fo llo w a w ro n g co u rse fro m d e sire . . . fro m h a tr e d . . . fro m s tu p id ity . . . fro m fe a r, a n d o n e w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t is issu e d a n d w h a t is n o t issu ed . A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld he b e a g re e d u p o n : F ir s t, a m o n k sh o u ld b e a sk e d . . \ . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is V ' T h e n it o c cu rre d to th e m o n k s w h o w e re issu ers o f m e a ls : " N o w , h o w sh o u ld a m e a l b e issu ed ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to issue (the food) a fte r h a v in g p u t it in to h e a p s a n d h a v in g tie d on a tic k e t or a le a f . 3 || r ]| N o w a t th a t tim e th ere w a s n o a ssig n e r o f lo d g in g s 4 fo r an O rd e r .5 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to a g ree u p o n a m o n k en d o w e d w ith fiv e q u a litie s a s assig n er o f lo d g in g s . * . a n d one w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t is a ssig n e d a n d w h a t is n o t assigned* A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld he b e a g re e d u p o n . . . e . . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is V N o w a t th a t tim e th ere w a s n o k e e p e r o f th e s to re ro o m 7 for an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, . . . a n d o n e w h o w o u ld i k n o w w h a t is g u a rd e d a n d w h a t is n o t g u a rd e d . A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld he b e a g re e d u p o n T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is V* N o w a t t h a t tim e th e re w a s no a c c e p te r o f r o b e s 8 fo r an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w . . . a n d one w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t is ta k e n a n d w h a t is n o t ta k e n T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is V* N o w a t t h a t tim e th e re w a s no d is trib u to r o f ro b e m a te ria l 9 . . . n o d is tr ib u to r o f c o n je y 10 . . . n o d is trib u to r o f fr u it 10 fo r an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s . . . a n d one w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t
1 D a b b a -was a g r e e d u p o n f o r t h i s o ffic e a t C V . I V . 4 . a b o v e , a n d a t F o r . M e e t . V I I I (Vin. iii. 1 5 8 = ii. 7 5 ) . S e e a ls o A . iii . 2 7 5 . 1 A s in C V . I V . B * pattika. B u . , r e a d in g pattika , s a y s i t is a l e a f (panpa) o f a b a m b o o , re e d o r p a lm . 4 T h is o ffic e w a s a ls o g i v e n t o D a b b a . B T h e f o llo w in g lis t o f o ffic e s a ls o o c c u r s a t A . iii. 2 7 4 5 . * A s in C V . I V . 4 . 3. 7 bhart^dgdrika, a s a t V in . i. 2 8 4 . 8 clvarapatiggahakat a s a t Vin. i. 2 8 3 . * civarabhajaka, a s a t Vin. i. 2 8 5. 10 M e n tio n e d a t Vin. i v . 38, 1 5 5 .

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is d is trib u te d a n d w h a t is n o t d is tr ib u te d T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is N o w a t th a t tim e th e re w a s no d is tr ib u to r o f so lid fo o d 1 fo r an O rd er. T h e so lid fo o d , n o t b e in g d is trib u te d , w a s lo s t . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u . . . a n d one w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t is d is tr ib u te d a n d w h a t is n o t d is trib u te d . T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is V* II 2 I I N o w a t t h a t tim e triflin g a cce sso rie s h a d a c c ru e d in th e sto rero o m o f a n O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to a g re e u p o n a m o n k e n d o w e d w ith fiv e q u a litie s [176 ] a s d isp o se r o f trifle s i 1 . . . o n e w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t is d isp o sed o f a n d w h a t is n o t d is p o se d o f T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is .' E a c h n e e d le is to be g iv e n b y th e m o n k w h o is th e d isp o se r o f trifle s, p a irs o f scisso rs are to be g iv e n , s a n d a ls a re to b e g iv e n , w a is tb a n d s . . . sh o u ld er stra p s . . . stra in e rs . . re g u la tio n w a te r p o ts 2 . . . cross-seam s 3 . . . sh o rt cro ss-sea m s 3 . . . c ir c u la r se a m s 3 . . . sh o rt c irc u la r sea m s 3 . . . b ra id in g 4 . . . b in d in g 4 is to b e g iv e n . I f th e re co m es to be g h e e o r o il o r h o n e y o r m o lasses fo r a n O rd er, it m a y b e g iv e n to b e p a r ta k e n o f a t o n ce ;6 if th e re is need fo r it y e t a g a in , it m a y b e g iv e n y e t a g a in ; if th e re is n eed fo r it y e t a g a in , it m a y b e g iv e n y e t a g a in . N o w a t th a t tim e th e re w a s n o a c c e p te r o f o u te r c lo a k s 6 . . . a c c e p te r o f b o w ls 7 fo r an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to a g re e u p o n . . . one w h o w o u ld k n o w w h a t is ta k e n a n d w h a t is n o t ta k e n . A n d th u s, m o n k s, . . . \ . . T h u s d o I u n d e rs ta n d th is N o w a t t h a t tim e a n O rd e r h a d n o s u p e rin te n d e n t o f m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n ts . T h e m o n a s te r y a tte n d a n ts , n o t b e in g su p erin te n d e d , d id n o t d o th e w o rk (p ro p e rly ). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , to a g ree u p o n a s u p e rin te n d e n t o f m o n a s te r y a tte n d a n ts . . .

1 * a * 6 not * 7

M e n t io n e d a t V i n . i v . 3 8 , 1 5 5 . M e n t io n e d a t C V . V . 13. 1 . S e e M V . V I I I . 12. 2. S e e B . D . ii. 409, n . 7 , 8 ; B . D . i v . 3 5 4 , n . 7 , 8 ; a n d C V . V . 11. 3. C f . N is s a g . 23 a n d M V . V I . 15. 1 0 , w h e n t h e s e t h i n g s m e d ic in e s m a y b e s to re d fo r m o re th a n se v e n d a y s . sa tiy a g a h a p a k a . S e e N is s a g . 22 ( V i n . iii. 2 4 6 - 7 ) .

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a n d o n e w h o k n o w s w h a t is su p e rin te n d e d a n d w h a t is n ot su p e rin te n d e d T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is N o w a t th a t tim e an O rd er h a d n o su p e rin te n d e n t fo r th e n o vices. T h e n o v ic e s , n o t b e in g su p e rin te n d e d , d id n o t do th e w o rk (p ro p erly). T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is

113112111

T h e S ix th S e c tio n : th a t on L o d g in g s.

T h is is its k e y : A t th a t tim e a d w e llin g -p la c e h a d n o t been p e rm itte d b y th e b e st o f A w a k e n e d O nes ; th e se d iscip les o f th e C o n q u e ro r w e n t o u t fro m th is an d th a t p la c e (their) h a b ita tio n .1 / A m e rch a n t h o u seh o ld er, h a v in g seen th e m , sa id th is to th e m onks : 4 4 I f I w ere to h a v e (d w ellin g-p laces) b u ilt, w o u ld y o u s t a y (in th em ) ? T h e y a sk e d th e L e a d e r. / D w e llin g -p la c e , c u r v e d h o u se, a n d lo n g h o u se, m a n sio n , c a v e , he a llo w e d fiv e (kinds of) a b o d e s. T h e m e rc h a n t h a d d w e llin g p la c e s b u ilt. / P e o p le h a d a d w e llin g -p la c e b u ilt d oorless, un clo sed , d oor, d o o rp o st a n d lin te l, h o llo w lik e a m o rta r a n d so on, / H o le a n d co rd fo r p u llin g th ro u g h , p o st fo r a b o lt, a n d " m o n k e y 's h e a d , [17 7 ] a p in , a s tic k , a k e y o f co p p e r, w o o d , h o rn , / A n d ju s t a b o lt a n d a p in , ro o fin g sm ea re d in sid e a n d o u t, ra ilin g , la ttic e a n d s tic k , c lo th a n d a b o u t m a ttin g , / S o lid b en ch , a n d c o u c h o f s p lit b a m b o o , b ie rlik e lo n g c o u ch , w ith sla ts , a n d c u r v e d legs, re m o v e a b le , r e c ta n g u la r, ta ll ones, / A n d th ree-sid ed , p la ite d c h a ir, c lo th c h a ir, sh e e p -fo o te d , e m b lic m y r o b a la n ,2 w o o d e n ,2 sto o l, a n d ju s t a s tra w c h a ir, / O n e a h ig h o n e ,3 a n d a s n a k e ,3 s u p p o r ts ,4 a n d su p p o rts o f e ig h t fin g er-b re ad th s,
1 T e x t r e a d s d v d sd ta m h d te ; S i n h . a n d S i a m . e d n s . v dsd te. O ld e n b e r g , V i n . ii. 323 s a y s " t h e m e t e r is q u i t e c o r r e c t i f w e e x p u n g e ta m hd te . * S ia m , edn*, w h ic h I f o llo w , r e a d s d m a la k d p h a la k d . V i n . ii. 323 s u g g e s t s d m a la k a -p h a la k d . T e x t r e a d s d m a fd m a la k a ; S in h . e d n . d m a ld m a la k d . * R e a d in g u cce ca a h i w i t h S in h . a n d S ia m , e d n s ., i n s t e a d o f T e x t 's u ccd h i, 4 I s u g g e s t p d d a k d , in s t e a d o f T e x t 's a tip d d a k d a n d S in h . a n d S ia m . e d n s . p d d d n i, le g s .

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th re a d , sq u a res, c o tto n c lo th , c o tto n q u ilt, h a lf (th e size o f a m a n s) b o d y , j F e s tiv a l a n d a lso m a ttre ss e s , w o v e n c lo th , a n d also lo d g in g s, co v e re d , it fe ll fro m b e lo w , a n d h a v in g re m o v e d th e y c a rrie d aw ay, / A n d lin e, a n d th e T ru th -fin d e r 1 a llo w e d th e o u tlin e o f th e h a n d , a n d a lso o th e r se cts in a d w e llin g -p la c e ,1 g ra in -h u sk , a n d so ft c la y , / W h a t e x u d e s fro m trees, a sp o o n , a w a ll, m u s ta rd p o w d e r (and) oil o f b e e s w a x , to sp o n g e o v e r th e th ic k (places), ro u g h , c la y (an d th e e x c r e m en t of) e a rth w o rm s ,2 / W h a t e x u d e s fro m trees, a n d a b o ld d esign , lo w , a n d a p ilin g , t h e y a scen d ed , t h e y fe ll off, th ro n g e d , h a lf-w a ll, a g a in th re e , / I n a sm all (one), a n d a b u ttr e s s ,3 le t in th e ra in , c r y o f d is tre s s ,4 p eg, a n d b a m b o o a n d c o rd fo r ro b es, v e ra n d a h , a n d a b o u t a scre e n , / B a lu s tr a d e , p o w d e re d g ra ss th e m e th o d sh o u ld b e d o n e in th e w a y b e lo w ,5 in th e op en air, b e c a m e te p id , h a ll, a n d a s b e lo w , ve sse l, / D w e llin g -p la c e , a n d ju s t a p o rch , lit t le h a ll fo r a fire in a cell, m o n asteries, p o rch e s a g a in , th e m e th o d sh o u ld b e d o n e ju s t (as) b e lo w . / P la s te r ,8 a n d fa ith fu l A n a th a p in d ik a w e n t to th e C o o l G ro v e , th in g s seen, h e in v ite d th e L e a d e r w ith th e O rd er. / H e en jo in ed on th e w a y , a g ro u p b u ilt a m o n a s te ry , re p a irs a t V e sa ll, in fro n t o f a n d ta k in g p o ssession o f, / W h o is w o r th y o f th e b e st fo o d ? a n d th e p a rtrid g e , n o t to be g ree te d , ta k e n possession of, in sid e a h o u se, c o tto n , h e v is ite d S a v a t t h i, / H e p rep ared a m o n a ste ry , a n d a n u p ro a r in a r e fe c to ry , ill, a n d a g o o d sleep in g p la ce , p r e te x ts , th e se v e n te e n th e re , /
1 S ia m . e d n . o m it s ta tha g a ta a n d r e a d s in s t e a d titth iy a seta k a ta v ih d re c & p i . S in h . e n d . h a s tathdgato b u t n o t titth iy a , r e a d in g tathdgato se ta k a la v ih d r e p i . * S ia m . e d n . r e a d s ta n g u m a ttik a m , S in h - la p d a -. 8 H ere kugdapada. ' 4 R e a d in g v issa ra tjt w i t h S i a m . e d n . in s t e a d o f sa ra m . S e e e .g . " k e y " t o C V . V . ( t o w a r d s e n d o f V i n . ii. 14 3 a n d a g a in t o w a r d s t o p o f p . 1 4 4 ). 6 T h is s h o u ld r e a d s u d h a a s in 8. 1 1 a b o v e , a n d a s in S i a m . e d n ,. a n d a s s u g g e s t e d a t V i n . ii. 3 2 3 , a n d n o t s u d d h a .

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N o w , b y w h o m ? " N o w , h o w ? " h e d is tr ib u te d a c co rd in g to th e a c co m m o d a tio n in th e d w e llin g -p la ce s, a n d in ce lls, an a d d itio n a l sh a re, shares*need n o t b e g iv e n if one is n ot w illin g , / O u tsid e a b o u n d a ry , a n d fo r a ll tim e , th re e (tim es for) a ssig n m e n t o f lo d g in g s, an d U p a n a n d a , h e p ra ised , sta n d in g , e q u a l se a ts, / T h o se e n title d to se a ts o f an e q u a l (height) b ro k e th e m , g ro u p s of th re e (and) fo r a g ro u p o f tw o ,1 a lo n g (seat) fo r th o se n o t e n title d to se a ts o f an e q u a l (height), to m a k e u se of a v e r a n d a h ,2 / G ra n d m o th e r ,3 a n d n o t fa r, a n d d is trib u te d , K it a g ir i, [178] A la v i : in h ea p s, on w a lls, d o or, s o c k e t, / A n d w in d o w -h o le, w h ite w a s h , b la c k co lo u rin g , red c h a lk , ro o fin g, jo in in g , b a r, b ro k e n (p arts), d o in g u p , tw e n ty , t h i r t y a n d fo r life , / C o m p le te d , n o t b u ilt, in c o m p le te ,4 fo r s ix o r fiv e y e a rs if it is a sm a ll one, a n d se v e n o r e ig h t if it is a c u r v e d h o u se, te n a n d tw e lv e fo r a la rg e one, / A w h o le d w e llin g -p la c e , o f one, t h e y m a d e a n o th e r ,liv e (there), w h a t b e lo n g s to a n O rd er, o u tsid e a b o u n d a ry , a n d fo r a ll tim e , h e g o es a w a y , a n d t h e y le a v e th e O rd e r, / A n d passed a w a y , a n d (p reten d ed to be) a n o v ic e , d is a v o w e rs o f th e tra in in g , e x tre m e , m ad , a n d u n h in g e d , p a in s, n o t seein g an offence, / N o t m a k in g a m e n d s fo r, w ro n g v ie w , e u n u ch s, as it w ere b y th e ft, o th e r se cts, a n im als, (slayers) o f m o th e r, o f fa th e r , a n d o f one p e rfe cte d , sed u cers, / S c h ism a tics, sh ed d ers o f (a T r u th -fin d e r s) b lo o d , a n d th en h e rm a p h ro d ite s,

1 R e a d i n g w it h S in h . e d n . ca d u v a g g ik a m , a s s u r m is e d w o u ld b e r i g h t a t V in . ii. 3 2 3, in s t e a d o f t e x t 's ca tu v a g g ik a m . S ia m , r e a d s ca d u v a g g ik a . 1 S in h . a n d S i a m . e d n s . a lin d a m p a r ib h u n jit u m , a s f o r C V . V I . 14. in s t e a d o f t e x t s ta m d v ittn a m , p a r ib h u n ji s u . * S in h . a y y a k a ca\ a s s u r m is e d w o u ld b e r i g h t a t V i n . ii. 3 2 3 . S ia m . a y y ik d ca ; t e x t ay y d ca , 4 T h e r e is n o sabbarn t w h o le , in t h e c o n t e x t t o w h ic h t h i s r e f e r s (i.e . C V . V I . 17. 1 ) . S h o u ld r e a d v ip p a m a s d o e s S ia m , (fo r v ip p a k a ta tp ) .

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D o n o t le t th e O rd e r su ffer th e w o r k sh o u ld b e g iv e n to a n o th e r, / A n d w h e n (yet) u n fin ish ed to a n o th e r ; if h e g o es a w a y w h e n it is b u ilt it is s till in h is (charge) ; if he le a v e s th e O rd er, p asses a w a y , a n d p re te n d s to b e a n o v ice, / A n d d is a v o w s th e tr a in in g , (p re te n d s to h a v e c o m m itte d an) e x tre m e (offence a n d t o be) a e u n u c h , th e O rd er its e lf b e c o m e s th e o w n e r ; i f h e is m a d , u n h in g e d , in p a in , / (Suspen d ed for) n o t seein g, fo r n o t m a k in g a m e n d s fo r, (for n o t g iv in g up) a w ro n g v ie w t h e y a re s till in h is (charge) ; E u n u c h , a n d a s it w e re b y th e ft, m e m b e r o f a n o th e r se c t, a n im a l, m a tric id e , p a rricid e , S la y e r o f one p e rfe c te d , a n d th e n a se d u cer, s c h is m a tic , sh e d d e r o f (a T ru th -fin d e r's) b lo o d , h e rm a p h ro d ite if h e p re te n d s th u s , t h e O rd e r its e lf b e co m e s th e o w n e r. / T h e y c o n v e y e d , elsew h ere, sc ru p u lo u s, a n d fe ll in to d e c a y , w o o llen b la n k e t, a n d w o v e n c lo th s , h id e , d ra p e r y , a c lo th , a n d t h e y tr o d u p o n , / D a m p , sa n d a ls, sh o u ld n o t s p it, t h e y s c r a tc h e d ,1 a n d t h e y le a n t a g a in st, reclin in g b o a rd , even th e n it s c r a tc h e d ,2 a b o u t s p re a d in g w h e re w a sh e d ,3 / T h e y w e re u n a b le to in R a ja g a h a , p o o r, issu e r o f m eals, " N o w , h o w ? assign er, a g re e m e n t u p o n a sto re ro o m k e e p e r, / A n d th e n a c c e p te r, d is tr ib u to r , a n d c o n je y , d is tr ib u to r o f fr u it, a n d e v e n a d is trib u to r o f so lid fo o d , d isp o se r o f trifle s, / A n d e v e n a n a c c e p te r o f o u te r c lo a k s , lik e w ise a n a c c e p te r o f b o w ls, a n d a g ree m e n t u p o n a s u p e rin te n d e n t o f m o n a s te r y a tte n d a n ts a n d o f novices* / T h e L e a d e r w h o h a s o v e rc o m e a ll, k n o w e r o f th e w o rld s, h is m in d b e n e v o le n t, (is one) to m e d ita te u p o n a n d h a v e in sig h t in to th e n e e d fo r a b o d e s a n d ease. [179 ]
1 S in h . a n d S ia m , lik h a n ii ; t e x t k h ll a n i i ; C V . V I . 20. 2 v ili k h a n t i . 1 S ia m , lik h a t * ev a ; S in h . lik h a & e v a ; t e x t k h a lite va ; C V . V I . 20. 2 v ilik h a ii. 1 R e f e r r in g t o t h e d h o ta p a d a k a a t V I . 20 . 2.

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A t one tim e th e A w a k e n e d O n e, th e L o rd , w a s s ta y in g a t A n u p iy a . A n u p iy a 1 is a little to w n 2 o f th e M a lla s .3 N o w a t th a t tim e m a n y d istin g u ish e d S a k y a n y o u n g m en h a d g o n e fo rth in im ita tio n o f th e L o r d w h o h a d g o n e fo rth . N o w a t th a t tim e M a h a n a m a th e S a k y a n a n d A n u r u d d h a th e S a k y a n w ere tw o b ro th e rs. A n u r u d d h a th e S a k y a n w a s d e lic a te ly n u rtu re d . H e h a d th re e p a la c e s ,4 one fo r th e c o ld w e a th e r, one fo r th e h o t, one fo r th e ra in s. B e in g w a ite d on fo r fo u r m o n th s in th e p a la c e fo r th e ra in s b y fe m a le m u sician s, he d id n o t co m e d o w n fro m t h a t p a la c e . T h e n it o ccu rre d to M a h a n a m a th e S a k y a n :6 A t p re se n t m a n y d istin g u ish e d S a k y a n y o u n g m en h a v e g o n e fo rth in im ita tio n o f th e L o rd w h o h a s go n e fo rth , b u t n o o n e fro m o u r fa m ily h a s g o n e fo rth fro m ho m e in to h o m elessn ess. S u p p o se I sh o u ld g o fo rth , or A n u ru d d h a ? T h e n M a h a n a m a th e S a k y a n a p p ro a c h e d A n u ru d d h a th e S a k y a n ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sp o k e th u s to A n u ru d d h a th e S a k y a n : A t p re se n t, d e a r A n u ru d d h a , m a n y d istin g u ish e d S a k y a n y o u n g m e n . . . b u t n o one fro m our fa m ily h a s g o n e fo r th fro m h o m e in to h o m elessn ess. W e ll now , e ith e r y o u g o fo rth o r I w ill g o fo r t h / 6 B u t I h a v e b een d e lic a te ly n u rtu re d , I a m n o t a b le to g o fo rth fro m h o m e in to h o m elessn ess .7 Y o u g o fo r t h ." || i || C o m e a lo n g , d e a r A n u ru d d h a , I w ill in s tru c t y o u in w h a t b elo n g s to th e h o u seh o ld life. F ir s t th e field s h a v e to b e p lo u g h e d ;8 h a v in g h a d th e m p lo u g h e d th e y m u st b e s o w n ; h a v in g h a d th e m so w n w a te r m u st b e le d in to th e m ; h a v in g
1 N e u t e r f o r m u s e d h e r e , a lt h o u g h t h e l o c a t i v e is fo r m e d a s t h o u g h t h e w o r d w e r e f e m in in e . C f . J a . i. 6 5 6 6 , B u d v A . 284 w h ic h s a y t h e B o d h is a t ta s p e n t t h e f ir s t w e e k a f t e r h e h a d g o n e f o r t h in t h e m a n g o g r o v e a t A n u p iy S L a S e e B . D . ii. 6 3 , n . 2* I t is m o r e u s u a l t o n a m e t h e e x a c t l o c a l i t y in t h e p la c e w h e r e t h e L o r d w a s s t a y in g . 4 Cf. M V . I . 7 . 1 w h e r e t h e s a m e is s a id o f Y a s a . * A t A . i. 2 6 h e is c a l le d c h ie f o f t h o s e w h o g i v e s u m p t u o u s a lm s . Q u o t e d D h A . i. 1 3 3 ; A A . i. 1 9 1 . 7 Q u o te d D h A r i. 1 3 5 - 6 . * Q u o t e d D h A . i. 1 3 6 . Cf. s im ila r l i s t o f o p e r a t i o n s a t J S . i. 2 1 5 a n d a n o t h e r a t A . i. 2 4 1 .

B O O K OF D I S C I P L I N E 254 h a d w a te r le d in to th e m th e w a te r m u st be le d a w a y ; h a v in g le d th e w a te r a w a y y o u m u st h a v e th e w e e d s d u g u p ; h a v in g h a d th e w eed s d u g u p y o u m u st g e t th e c ro p re a p e d ; h a v in g h a d th e cro p re a p e d y o u m u st h a v e it h a r v e s te d ; h a v in g h a d it h a r v e s te d y o u m u st h a v e it m a d e in to sto o k s ; h a v in g h a d it m ad e in to sto o k s y o u m u st h a v e it th re sh e d ; h a v in g h a d it th re sh e d y o u m u st h a v e th e s tr a w w in n o w e d ; h a v in g h a d th e s tr a w [180] w in n o w e d y o u m u st h a v e th e ch a ff w in n o w ed ; h a v in g h a d th e c h a ff w in n o w e d y o u m u st h a v e it sifte d ; h a v in g h a d it s ifte d y o u m u st h a v e it 1 b ro u g h t in ;2 h a v in g h a d it b ro u g h t in it is to b e d on e ju s t th e sa m e th e n e x t y e a r, a n d it is to b e d o n e ju s t th e sa m e th e n e x t y e a r / ' T h e o p e ra tio n s d o n o t s to p ,3 n o e n d to th e o p e ra tio n s is to be seen. W h e n w ill th e o p e ra tio n s s to p ? W h e n w ill an e n d to th e o p e ra tio n s be seen ? W h e n w ill w e, po ssessed o f a n d p ro v id e d w ith th e fiv e fo ld s tr a n d o f sense p le a su re s, am u se o u rse lv e s u n c o n c e rn e d ly ? " B u t , d e a r A n u ru d d h a , th e o p e ra tio n s d o n o t sto p , no en d to th e o p e ra tio n s is to be seen. E v e n w h e n o u r fa th e r s an d g ra n d fa th e rs p a ssed a w a y th e o p e ra tio n s w ere n o t s to p p e d . " W e l l n o w , y o u u n d e rsta n d 4 ju s t w h a t b e lo n g s to th e h o u s e h o ld life. I w ill go fo r th fro m h o m e in to h o m e le ssn e ss/' T h e n A n u ru d d h a th e S a k y a n a p p ro a c h e d h is m o th e r ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sp o k e th u s to h is m o th e r : " I , m o th e r, w a n t to g o fo rth fro m h o m e in to h o m elessn ess. C o n se n t to m y g o in g fo rth fro m h o m e in to h o m e le ssn e ss . 5 W h e n h e h a d sp o k e n th u s , th e m o th e r o f A n u r u d d h a th e S a k y a n sp o k e th u s to A n u ru d d h a th e S a k y a n : Y o u tw o b o y s , d e a r A n u r u d d h a , are d e a r to m e , 6 b e lo v e d , a g reea b le. In th e ca se o f y o u r d e a th I w o u ld b e u n w illin g ly s e p a ra te d fro m y o u . S o h o w c a n I , w h ile y o u a re s till liv in g , a llo w a g o in g fo rth fro m h o m e in to h o m elessn ess ? And a seco n d tim e . . . . A n d a th ir d tim e A n u ru d d h a th e S a k y a n sp o k e th u s to his m o th e r : . . . th e m o th e r o f A n u r u d d h a th e
1 I.e. t h e g r a in , o r t h e g o o d g r a s s . 1 a tih a r a ti , a s a t N u n s* P a c . 7 (a ls o o f g r a in ) . * na khiyanti , d o n o t w e a r a w a y , b e c o m e e x h a u s t e d o r u s e d u p . 4 T e x t r e a d s upajdna ; VA . 1 2 7 4 upajandhi. * Cf. D h A . i. 1 3 7 . B o y s u n d e r f if t e e n h a d t o o b t a i n t h e ir p a r e n ts * c o n s e n t f o r g o in g f o r t h , V i n . i. 7 9 , 83. * Cf. Vin. iii. 13 ; M . ii. 58 .

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S a k y a n sp o k e th u s to A n u r u d d h a th e S a k y a n : . . how can I, w h ile y o u are s till liv in g , a llo w a g o in g fo rth fro m h o m e in to ho m elessn ess ? " || 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e B h a d d iy a 1 th e S a k y a n c h ie fta in w a s ru lin g o v e r th e S a k y a n s a n d w a s a frien d o f A n u r u d d h a th e S a k y a n . T h e n th e m o th e r o f A n u r u d d h a th e S a k y a n th in k in g : " N o w th is B h a d d iy a * . . is a frien d o f A n u r u d d h a ; he w ill n o t be a b le to go fo rth fro m ho m e in to h o m e le ssn e ss," sp o k e th u s to A n u ru d d h a th e S a k y a n : I f, d e a r A n u ru d d h a , B h a d d iy a th e S a k y a n c h ie fta in goes fo rth fro m h o m e in to hom elessness y o u can go fo r th lik e w is e ." 2 T h e n A n u r u d d h a th e S a k y a n a p p ro a c h e d B h a d d iy a th e S a k y a n c h ie fta in ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sp o k e th u s to B h a d d iy a th e S a k y a n c h ie fta in : " M y g o in g fo rth , frien d , is d ep en d en t on y o u r s ." I f y o u r g o in g fo rth , frien d , is d e p en d e n t on m in e, le t it be in d ep en d en t. I , w ith y o u . . . .3 G o fo rth a c co rd in g to y o u r w is h ." C o m e, frien d , w e w ill b o th go fo rth fro m ho m e in to h o m e le ssn e ss." I, frien d , a m n o t a b le to g o fo rth fro m ho m e in to h o m e lessness. [18 1] W h a te v e r else I a m a b le t o d o fo r y o u , th a t w ill I do. Y o u go fo r th . M y m o th e r, frien d , sp o k e th u s to m e : ' I f, d e a r A n u ru d d h a , B h a d d iy a th e S a k y a n c h ie fta in go es fo rth fro m hom e in to hom elessness, y o u c a n g o fo rth lik e w is e . B u t , frien d , these w o rd s w ere sp o k e n b y y o u : * I f y o u r g o in g fo rth is d ep en d en t on m ine, le t it b e in d e p e n d e n t. I , w ith y o u . . . , G o fo rth a c co rd in g to y o u r w ish .' C o m e, frien d , w e w ill b o th go fo rth fro m h o m e in to h o m e le ssn e ss." N o w a t t h a t tim e p e o p le w ere sp e a k e rs o f tr u th , p le d g e d to th e tru th . T h e n B h a d d iy a th e S a k y a n c h ie fta in sp o k e th u s to A n u ru d d h a th e S a k y a n : " W a it, frie n d , fo r se v e n y e a r s . A f t e r seven y e a rs w e w ill b o th go fo rth fro m ho m e in to h om elessn # e ss ."
1 H e w a s , a s s a id a t U d . I I . 10 , A A . i. 19 2 , t h e so n o f K a l i o f t h e G o d h a s ; see P s s . B r e th . p . 3 1 5 , n. 2 . B h a d d i y a 's v e r s e s a r e a t T h a g . 8 4 2 -8 6 5 . At A . i. 2 3 h e is c a lle d c h i e f a m o n g t h e d is c ip le s o f h ig h f a m i l y . A A . i. 19 2 s a y s he w e n t fo rth w ith A n u ru d d h a . 2 C f . D h A . i. 1 3 7 . * V A , 1 2 7 4 s a y s t h a t o u t o f a f f e c t io n f o r h is f r ie n d h e w a n t e d t o s a y , 4t I , w it h y o u , w i ll g o f o r t h , b u t h e w a s n o t a b le t o fin is h t h e s e n t e n c e a s t h e g r e e d f o j r u lin g o v e r c a m e h is h e a r t .

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" S e v e n y e a rs are to o lo n g , frie n d , I a m n ot a b le to w a it fo r se v e n y e a r s . W a it, frien d , fo r s ix y e a r s . . . fiv e . . . fo u r . . . th re e . . tw o y e a rs . . . fo r o n e y e a r . " O n e y e a r is to o lo n g, frie n d , I a m n ot a b le to w a it one y e a r . " W a it, frien d , fo r se v e n m o n th s. A ft e r se v e n m o n th s w e w ill b o th g o fo rth fro m ho m e in to h o m e le ssn e ss. " S e v e n m o n th s are to o lo n g , frie n d , I a m n ot a b le to w a it se ve n m o n th s . " W a it , frie n d , fo r s ix . . * fiv e . . . fo u r . . . th re e . . . tw o m o n th s . . . one m o n th . . . fo r h a lf a m o n th , a fte r h a lf a m o n th w e w ill b o th g o fo rth fro m hom e in to h o m elessn ess. H a lf a m o n th is to o lo n g, frie n d , I am n o t a b le to w a it h a lf a m o n th . " W a it , frien d , fo r se v e n d a y s u n til I h a n d o v e r th e k in g d o m to m y sons a n d b ro th e rs . S e v e n d a y s a re n o t to o lo n g , frie n d , I w ill w a it . j| 3 j| T h e n 1 B h a d d iy a th e S a k y a n c h ie fta in a n d A n u r u d d h a 2 a n d A n a n d a a n d B h a g u 3 a n d K im b ila 2 a n d D e v a d a t t a w ith U p a li th e b a rb e r 4 a s th e s e v e n th , a s t h e y h a d o fte n p r e v io u s ly g o n e o u t to a g ro u n d in a p le a su re g r o v e w ith a fo u rfo ld a r m y 6, so d id t h e y (now) go o u t w ith a fo u r fo ld a rm y . H a v in g g o n e fa r, h a v in g sen t b a c k th e a rm y , h a v in g p a sse d in to o th e r te r r ito r y , h a v in g ta k e n off th e ir o rn a m e n ts, h a v in g tied th e m u p in to a b u n d le w ith th e ir u p p er ro b e s ,8 th e y sp o k e th u s to U p a li th e b a r b e r : " C o m e , g o o d U p a li, re tu rn , th is w ill be e n o u g h fo r y o u r liv e lih o o d . T h e n it o c c u rre d to U p a li th e b a rb e r a s he w a s g o in g b a c k : " T h e S a k y a n s a re fierce. T h in k in g : ' T h is one h a s m a d e th e y o u n g m e n c o m e fo r th ,' t h e y m a y e v e n k ill m e. B u t if th ese y o u n g S a k y a n m en w ill g o fo rth fro m h o m e in to hom elessness, w h y sh o u ld n o t I ? H a v in g loosen ed th e b u n d le, h a v in g h u n g th e g o o d s u p on a tre e, a n d h a v in g sa id : " W h o e v e r sees it, it is g iv e n (to h im ), [482] le t h im ta k e i t , 7 he a p p ro a c h e d th e y o u n g S a k y a n m en .
F o r t h e f o llo w in g in c id e n t c f. D H A . i . 1 3 7 f . a S e e B .D . iv . 50 1. S e e B . D . iv . 4 2 8 , 500. 4 S e e V i n . i v . 308 a n d B . D . iii. 3 4 4 , n . 2. S e e d e fin it io n o f a r m y " a t V t n . i v . 10 5 . A s a t V i n . iii. 208, i v . 1 6 2 . 7 A s a t V i n . iii. 208.

C U L L A V A G G A VII 257 1-4-5] These y o u n g S a k y a n m e n s a w U p a li th e b a rb e r c o m in g in th e d is ta n c e ; h a v in g seen h im , th e n sp o k e th u s to U p a li th e b a rb er: W h y h a v e y o u , g o o d U p a li, re tu rn e d ? N o w , it o c cu rre d to m e, y o u n g g e n tle m e n , as I w a s g o in g b a c k , ' T h e S a k y a n s a re fierce . . . t h e y m a y e v e n k ill m e. B u t if th e se y o u n g S a k y a n m en w ill g o fo r th fro m h o m e in to hom elessn ess, w h y sh o u ld n o t I ? S o I, y o u n g g e n tle m e n , h a v in g lo o sen ed th e b u n d le . . . ' . . . le t h im ta k e i t / re tu rn e d a g a in fro m t h e r e / Y o u d id w ell, g o o d U p a li, in th a t y o u d id n ot g o b a c k . T h e S a k y a n s a re fierce . . . t h e y m ig h t e v e n h a v e k ille d y o u / ' T h e n th e se y o u n g S a k y a n m en , ta k in g U p a li th e b a rb e r, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , t h e y s a t d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s t h e y w ere s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e se y o u n g S a k y a n m en sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " W e , L o rd , a re S a k y a n s , w e a re p ro u d . L o rd , th is b a rb e r, U p a li, h a s b e en o u r a tte n d a n t fo r a lo n g tim e . M a y th e L o r d le t h im g o fo r th first. W e w ill g re e t h im , rise u p b e fo re h im , sa lu te h im w ith jo in e d p a lm s, a n d d o th e p ro p e r d u tie s. T h u s w ill th e S a k y a n p rid e b e h u m b le d in u s S a k y a n s ." T h e n th e L o rd le t U p a li th e b a rb e r g o fo r th first, a n d a fte rw a rd s th e s e y o u n g S a k y a n m en. T h e n th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a w ith in one y e a r re a lise d th e th re e fo ld k n o w le d g e ,1 th e v e n e ra b le A n u ru d d h a o b ta in e d deva- s ig h t ,2 th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a re alised th e fr u it o f s tre a m a tta in m e n t, D e v a d a t t a a c q u ire d o rd in a ry p s y c h ic p o w e r .3 || 4 |j N o w a t t h a t tim e 4 th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a , d w e llin g in a fo rest a n d a t th e ro o t o f a tre e a n d in a n e m p ty p la c e , c o n s ta n tly u tte re d th is u tte r a n c e : " A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss I A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! T h e n s e v e ra l m o n k s a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , t h e y s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e . A s t h e y w e re s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e se m o n k s sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d :
1 A A . i. 1 9 1 s a y s B h a d d i y a a t t a i n e d a r a h a n t s h ip in t h e s a m e y e a r (a s h e w e n t fo rth ). 1 A t A . i. 2 3 c a ll e d c h ie f o f m o n k s o f deva- s ig h t . 8 A A . i. 1 9 1 s a y s D e v a d a t t a w o n t h e e ig h t a t t a i n m e n t s ; a n d a d d s t h a t B h a g u a n d K i m b i l a a t t a i n e d a r a h a n t s h i p la t e r . 4 A s a t U d . I I . 10 . T h e f o llo w i n g in c id e n t , w it h a s u m m a r y o t t h e p r e c e d in g s e c t io n s , a ls o fo r m s t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s t o r y t o t h e 1 0 th J a t a k a . K*

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" L o rd , th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a , d w e llin g in a fo re s t . . . u tte rs th is u t t e r a n c e : A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! A h , w hat h a p p in ess ! D o u b tle ss, L o rd , th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a fa re s th e B ra h m a -fa rin g d is sa tisfie d ,1 a n d (alth o u g h ) d w e llin g in a fo rest a n d a t th e ro o t o f a tree a n d in a n e m p t y p la c e , h e u tte r s th is u tte ra n c e , A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! ' w h ile he is re c a llin g th e fo rm e r jo y s o f k in g s h ip / ' T h e n th e L o rd a d d re sse d a c e rta in m o n k , s a y in g : " C o m e y o u , m o n k , in m y n a m e a d d re ss th e m o n k B h a d d iy a s a y in g : ' T h e T e a c h e r, re v e re n d B h a d d iy a , is su m m o n in g y o u V ' [183] " V e r y w e ll, L o r d / a n d t h a t m o n k , h a v in g a n sw e re d th e L o rd in a ssen t, a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a : " T h e T e a c h e r, re v e re n d B h a d d iy a , is s u m m o n in g y o u / ' || 5 | | " V e r y w e ll, y o u r r e v e r e n c e / ' a n d th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a , h a v in g a n sw e re d t h a t m o n k in a sse n t, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , he s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . T h e L o r d s p o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a as he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e : Ts it tru e , a s is sa id , th a t y o u , B h a d d iy a , d w e llin g in a fo rest a n d a t th e ro o t o f a tre e a n d in a n e m p t y p la c e , a re c o n s ta n tly u tte rin g th is u tte ra n c e , A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! A h , w h a t h a p p in ess ! ? " Y es, L o rd /' ,r W h a t c irc u m s ta n c e s w e re y o u , B h a d d iy a , ta k in g in to a c co u n t w h e n , d w e llin g in a fo re st a n d a t th e ro o t o f a tre e a n d in an e m p ty p la c e , y o u c o n s ta n tly u tte r e d th is u tte ra n c e , 4A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! ' ? " F o r m e r ly , L o rd , w h e n I w a s a ru le r th e re w a s a fu lly a p p o in te d g u a r d b o th w ith in m y p r iv a te q u a rte rs a n d o u tsid e m y p r iv a te q u a rte rs , th e re w a s a fu lly a p p o in te d g u a r d b o th w ith in th e to w n a n d o u tsid e th e to w n , a n d th e re w a s a fu lly a p p o in te d g u a rd w ith in th e c o u n t r y d is tric ts . B u t I, L o rd , a lth o u g h b e in g g u a rd e d a n d w a r d e d th u s , d w e lt a fra id , a n x io u s fe a rfu l, a la rm e d .2 B u t n o w I , L o r d , d w e llin g in a fo rest a n d a t th e ro o t o f a tre e a n d in an e m p t y p la c e , a m u n a fra id , n o t a n x io u s, n o t fe a rfu l, n ot a la rm e d . I a m u n co n ce rn ed ,
1 Q u o te d U d A . 16 1 . 1 S a m e q u a r t e t o f w o r d s b e lo w , C V . V I I . 2 . i ; 3 , 4, 7.

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u n ru ffled ,1 d e p en d e n t on o th e rs ,2 w ith a m in d b e co m e a s a w ild c r e a tu r e 's .3 T h is , L o rd , w a s th e c irc u m s ta n c e I w a s ta k in g in to a c c o u n t w h en , d w e llin g in a fo rest a n d a t th e ro o t o f a tre e a n d in a n e m p ty p la ce , I c o n s ta n tly u tte r e d th is u tte ra n c e , 'A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! A h , w h a t h a p p in e ss ! ' " T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d th is m a tte r , a t t h a t tim e u tte r e d th is u tte ra n c e : " In w h o m th e re in ly lu rk no sp ite s, w h o h a s o v e rc o m e b e c o m in g a n d n o t b e c o m in g th u s or th u s ,4 H im , g o n e p a st fe a r, b lissfu l, so rro w less, th e devas d o n o t w in to s e e ." | J 6 || 1 J | T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t A n u p iy a fo r as lo n g as he fo u n d su itin g , set o u t on a lm s to u r fo r K o sa m b l. G r a d u a lly , w a lk in g on to u r, h e a rriv e d a t K o s a m b l T h e L o rd s ta y e d th ere a t K o s a m b l in G h o s ita 's m o n a ste ry . T h e n a s D e v a d a t t a w a s m e d ita tin g in p r iv a te a re a so n in g aro se in h is m in d th u s : " W h o m 5 n o w c o u ld I p lea se, so th a t b e c a u se h e is p le a se d w ith m e, m u ch g a in a n d h o n o u r w o u ld a c cru e (to m e) ? " 6 T h e n it o ccu rred to D e v a d a t t a : " T h is P rin c e A j a t a s a t t u is y o u n g [184] a n d a lso h a s a n a u sp ic io u s fu tu re . , W h a t n o w if I w ere to m a k e P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u p le a se d , so th a t b e cau se he is p lea sed w ith m e, m u c h g a in a n d h o n o u r w o u ld a c cru e (to me) ? "
1 p a n n a lo m a . C f . lotn a m p d te ti a s a t C V , I . 6 . 1. * p a ra d a tta v u tta . V A . 1 2 7 5 , M . i. 4 5 0 , U d . 1 9 r e a d p a ra d a v u tto , w it h v .ll. U d A . 1 6 3 s a y s l i v i n g o n t h e g i f t s o f o t h e r s in r e s p e c t o f r o b e s a n d so o n . M A . iii. 1 6 7 e x p la in s b y p a r e h i d in n a v u ttin o p a r a to la d d h e n a y d p e n td , w h o s e liv e lih o o d is g i v e n b y o t h e r s , s u b s is t i n g o n w h a t is o b t a in e d f r o m a n o th e r. W o o d w a r d , V e r . U p li f t , p . 24 , n . 3 s a y s t h a t '* s u c h m e a n in g s a r e h a r d l y a p p l ic a b le in t h e c o n t e x t . " H e t r a n s la t e s a s " lig h t s o m e / ' f o llo w in g P . E . D . s s u g g e s t io n t h a t p a v a d a is " f o n d o f " w i t h v u tta ** b e in g p r e p a r e d / * a c t iv e , a l e r t . I c h o o s e d e p e n d e n t o n o t h e r s / ' f o l lo w in g t h e C o m m e n t a r ie s , a n d a s b a l a n c i n g h is f o r m e r d e p e n d e n c e o n t h o s e o t h e r s w h o g u a r d e d h im . 3 S a m e q u a r t e t o f w o r d s a s a t M . i. 4 50 , ii. 1 2 1 . M A . iii. 1 6 7 s e e m s t o e x p l a in t h e la s t w o r d , m ig a b h u te n a ce ta sd , a s n o t e x p e c t i n g o r h o p in g fo r a n y t h in g . 4 itib h a v d b h a v a ta m . H e r e V A . 1 2 7 5 a n d U d A . 1 6 4 e x p la i n bha v a a n d v ib k a v a m u c h a s d o S n A . 2 0 , S A . iii. 2 9 5 , M A . iii. 2 2 3 , a n d s a y t h a t o n e is f r e e d f r o m t h i s s t a t e o f b e c o m in g t h i s o r t h a t b y m e a n s o f t h e f o u r w a y s . C f . a ls o fu lle r e x p l a n a t i o n a t U d A . 1 6 4 , t h e r a t h e r d if f e r e n t e x p l a n a t io n a t M A . ii. 74 , a n d n o t e t h a t V A . 1 2 7 5 s a y s t h a t v ib h a v a a n d abhava a r e i d e n t ic a l in m e a n in g . T h i s lin e o c c u r s a t U d . I I . 10 a n d S n . 6. C f . itib h a v d b k a v a k a lk d a t V i n . i v . 1 6 4 a n d p a r a l le l p a s s a g e s m e n t io n e d a t

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T h e n D e v a d a tta , h a v in g p a c k e d a w a y his lo d g in g , ta k in g h is b o w l a n d ro b e, se t o u t fo r R a ja g a h a ; in d u e co u rse he a rriv e d a t R a ja g a h a .1 T h e n D e v a d a t t a , h a v in g th ro w n off h is o w n fo rm , h a v in g a ssu m e d th e fo r m 2 o f a y o u n g b o y c la d in a g ird le o f s n a k e s ,3 b e c a m e m a n ife s t in P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u 's la p . T h e n P rin c e A j a t a s a t t u w a s a fr a id , a n x io u s , fe a rfu l, a la rm e d .4 T h e n D e v a d a t t a sp o k e th u s to P rin ce A ja t a s a t t u : A r e y o u , p rin c e , a fr a id o f m e ? Y e s , I a m a fr a id . W h o a re y o u ? " " I am D e v a d a tta / ' " I f y o u , h o n o u re d sir, a re r e a lly m a s te r D e v a d a tta , p le a se b eco m e m a n ifest in y o u r o w n fo r m / ' T h e n D e v a d a t t a , h a v in g th ro w n o ff th e y o u n g b o y 's fo rm , s to o d , w e a rin g h is o u te r c lo a k a n d (other) ro b es a n d c a r ry in g h is b o w l, b e fo re P rin c e A j a t a sa ttu - T h e n P rin c e A j a t a s a t t u , g r e a t ly p le a se d w ith th is w o n d er o f p s y c h ic p o w e r on D e v a d a t t a s p a r t, m o rn in g a n d e v e n in g 6 w e n t to w a it on h im w ith fiv e h u n d re d c h a rio ts , a n d fiv e h u n d re d o ffe rin g s o f rice c o o k e d in m ilk w e re b ro u g h t as a g ift o f fo o d .6 T h e n th e re a ro se to D e v a d a t t a , o v e rco m e b y g a in s, h o n o u rs a n d fa m e ,7 h is m in d o b sessed b y th e m , so m e su ch lo n g in g a s th is : I t is I w h o w ill le a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s ."8 B u t a t th e v e r y o c c u rre n c e o f th is th o u g h t D e v a d a t t a d eclin ed in his p s y c h ic p o w e r .9 |[ i || N o w a t th a t tim e 10 K a k u d h a 11 th e K o liy a n ,12 th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G r e a t's a tte n d a n t, h a d ju s t d ie d a n d h a d arisen in a c e rta in m in d -m a d e 13 b o d y , a n d su c h w a s th e re in s ta te m e n t
1 T h i s e p is o d e , a s f a r a s w h e r e D e v a d a t t a s t a n d s b e fo r e A j a t a s a t t u . is a ls o t o ld a t D h A . i. 13 9 . * Cf. V i n . i. 3 , w h e r e M u c a li n d a a s s u m e d t h e f o r m o f a b r a h m a n y o u t h . * V A . 1 2 7 5 s a y s h a v i n g b o u n d a s n a k e r o u n d t h e h ip s . D h A . i. 1 3 9 e la b o r a t e s t h a t t h e r e w e r e f o u r p o is o n o u s s n a k e s , i.e . o n e o n e a c h h a n d a n d f o o t ; a ls o o n e h u n g r o u n d t h e n e c k , o n e w a s m a d e in t o a c o i l o n t h e h e a d , a n d o n e a r r a n g e d o v e r o n e s h o u ld e r . 4 A s a b o v e , V I I . 1 . 6. 6 A s a t S . ii. 2 4 2 . * C f . Vin. iii. 15 . 7 A s a t S. ii. 2 28 f . Cf. Ldbhasakkdra Samyutta , 5 . ii. 2 2 5 - 4 4 . s Cf. D h A . i. 1 3 9 . A t D . ii. 10 0 G o t a m a t e l l s A n a n d a t h a t t h i s t h o u g h t d o e s n o t o c c u r t o t h e T r u t h - fin d e r . * S e e E . J . T h o m a s , Life o f B u d d h a , p . 1 3 2 ff. 10 in c id e n t t o t h e e n d o f j| 4 || is a ls o t o l d a t A . iii. 1 2 2 - 1 2 6 . 11 S e e n o t e a t G.S. iii. 9 5 . 11 S p e l t K o l i y a a b o v e . O n t h i s tT ib e s e e v o l. I . 1 7 7 a n d B . C . L a w , Tribes in Ancient India, 290 ff. 13 manomaya, a s a g a in a t A . iii. 19 2 .

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o f his in d iv id u a lity 1 th a t it w a s lik e tw o o r th re e M a g a d h a n v illa g e fie ld s ,2 y e t e v e n w ith t h a t re in s ta te m e n t o f in d iv id u a lity he in ju re d n e ith e r h im self n o r a n o th e r. T h e n K a k u d h a th e y o u n g deva a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G r e a t ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G re a t, h e sto o d a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s h e w a s s ta n d in g a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e , th e y o u n g deva K a k u d h a sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G re a t : T o D e v a d a tta , h o n o u re d sir, o v e rc o m e b y g a in s, h o n o u rs an d fa m e , h is m in d o b sessed b y th e m , so m e su c h lo n g in g as th is aro se : I t is I w h o w ill le a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s . B u t, h o n o u red sir, a t th e v e r y o c cu rre n c e o f th is th o u g h t D e v a d a t t a d e clin e d in h is p s y c h ic p o w e r .'1 T h u s sp o k e K a k u d h a th e y o u n g deva . H a v in g sp o k e n th u s , h a v in g g re e te d th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G r e a t, k e e p in g h is r ig h t sid e to w a rd s him he v a n ish e d th en a n d th e re . T h e n th e v e n e r a b le M o g g a lla n a th e G re a t a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; [185] h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g ree te d th e L o rd , h e s a t d o w n a t a r e s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s h e w as s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e v e n e ra b le M o g g a lla n a th e G r e a t sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : K a k u d h a th e K o liy a n , L o rd , m y a tte n d a n t, h a s ju s t d ied a n d h a s arisen in a c e rta in m in d -m a d e b o d y . . . . T h e n K a k u d h a th e y o u n g deva a p p ro a c h e d m e . . . k e e p in g h is rig h t sid e to w a rd s m e, h e v a n is h e d th e n a n d th e r e ." B u t, M o g g a lla n a , d o es K a k u d h a th e y o u n g deva so co m p a ss y o u r m in d w ith his m in d fo r y o u to k n o w th a t w h a te v e r K a k u d h a th e y o u n g deva sa y s, a ll th a t is so a n d n o t o th e rw ise ? L o rd , K a k u d h a th e y o u n g deva so co m p a sses m y m in d w ith his m in d fo r m e to k n o w th a t w h a te v e r K a k u d h a th e y o u n g deva s a y s , a ll t h a t is so a n d n o t o th e r w is e . " M ind w h a t y o u s a y , M o g g a lla n a , m in d w h a t y o u s a y ,3 M o g g a lla n a . T h is fo o lish m a n 4 w ill n o w b e t r a y h im self, b y h im self. || 2 || M o g g a lla n a , th e se fiv e te a ch e rs a re fo u n d in th e w o r ld .5 W h a t fiv e ?
1 * 3 4 6 a tta b h d v a p a tild b h a . A A . iii. 2 7 7 e x p la in s a tta b h d va b y s a r lr a , b o d y . S iz e s o f t h e s e g i v e n a t A A . iii. 2 7 7 . A s a t M . i. 50 2 . I .e . D e v a d a t t a . S e c t i o n s jj 3, 4 \ \ r e p e a t e d b e lo w C V . V I I . 3. 10 .

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" T h is is a case, M o g g a lla n a , w h e n so m e te a c h e r, n o t p ure in m o ra l h a b it, p re te n d s I a m p u re in m o ra l h a b it/ a n d he sa y s, M y m o ra l h a b it is p u re , c le a n , u n ta rn is h e d / D is c ip le s k n o w th is a b o u t h im : 4T h is w o r t h y te a c h e r, n o t p u re in m o ra l h a b it p re te n d s . . . u n ta r n is h e d / B u t t h e y th in k : ' I f w e sh o u ld te ll th is to h o u seh o ld ers, h e w o u ld n o t lik e it, a n d h o w c o u ld w e c a r r y o u t 1 w h a t h e w o u ld n o t lik e ? M o re o v e r he co n se n ts t o (a c c e p t )2 th e re q u is ite s o f ro b es, a lm sfo o d , lo d g in g s a n d m e d icin e s fo r th e sic k . W h a te v e r a n y o n e 3 sh a ll do, even b y t h a t sh a ll h e 3 be k n o w n / M o g g a lla n a , d iscip les p ro te c t su ch a te a c h e r in re g a rd to m o ra l h a b it a n d su c h a te a c h e r e x p e c ts p ro te c tio n fro m d isc ip le s in re g a rd to m o ra l h a b it. || 3 || A n d a g a in , M o g g a lla n a , th is is a c a se w h e n so m e te a c h e r, n o t p u re in m o d e o f liv e lih o o d , p re te n d s . . . [186] . . . n o t p u re in te a c h in g o f dham m a , p re te n d s . . * n o t p u re in e x p o sitio n . . . n ot p u re in k n o w le d g e a n d v isio n , p re te n d s . . . M o g g a lla n a , d iscip les p r o te c t su c h a te a c h e r in re g a rd to k n o w le d g e a n d v isio n , a n d su ch a te a c h e r e x p e c ts p r o te c tio n fro m d iscip les in re g a rd to k n o w le d g e a n d visio n . T h e se , M o g g a lla n a , are th e fiv e te a c h e rs fo u n d in th e w o rld . B u t I, M o g g a lla n a , a m p u re in m o ra l h a b it, I a c k n o w le d g e th a t I a m p u re in m o ra l h a b it, t h a t m y m o ra l h a b it is p u re, clean , u n ta rn ish e d . A n d d iscip les d o n o t p r o te c t m e in re g a rd to m o ra l h a b it a n d I d o n o t e x p e c t p r o te c tio n fro m d iscip les in re g a rd to m o ra l h a b it. I a m p u re in m o d e o f liv e lih o o d . . . I a m p u re in dham m a te a c h in g . . . I a m p u re in e x p o s itio n . . . I a m p u re in k n o w le d g e a n d v isio n . I a c k n o w le d g e th a t I a m p u re in k n o w le d g e a n d v isio n , t h a t m y k n o w le d g e a n d v isio n are p u re , c le a n , u n ta rn ish e d . A n d d iscip les d o n o t p ro te c t m e in re g a rd to k n o w le d g e a n d v isio n , a n d I d o n o t e x p e c t p ro te c tio n fro m d isc ip le s in re g a rd to k n o w le d g e a n d v is io n / ' || 4 || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s t a y e d a t K o sa m b I fo r a s lo n g a s he fo u n d su itin g , s e t o u t on a to u r fo r R a ja g a h a . G r a d u a lly , w a lk in g on to u r, he a r r iv e d a t R a ja g a h a . T h e L o r d s ta y e d
1 sa m u d a ca re y y a m a , e x p la in e d a t A A . iii. 278 a s k a th e y y a m a t s a y , s p e a k .
s a m m a n n a ti, V A . 1275 e x p l a i n i n g a s s a m m a n e ti , a n d A A . iii. 278 a s sa m m a n a tjt k a r o ti , h e m a k e s o r p r o d u c e s h o n o u r , i.e . b y a c c e p t i n g t h e s e g i f t s . * tu m o , e x p la in e d b y V A . 12 75 a s s o > a n d b y A A . iii. 278 a s e sa . . . eso (v .l. 50), t h i s o n e . C f . tu m o a t S n . 890, 908.

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th ere a t R a ja g a h a in th e B a m b o o G r o v e a t th e sq u irre ls' feed in g p la c e .1 T h e n se v e ra l m o n k s a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , t h e y s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e . A s t h e y w ere s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e , th e s e m o n k s sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u , L o rd , g o es m o rn in g a n d e v e n in g to w a it on D e v a d a t t a w ith fiv e h u n d re d c h a rio ts, a n d fiv e h u n d re d o fferin gs o f rice c o o k e d in m ilk are b ro u g h t as a g ift o f fo o d ." D o n o t, m o n k s, e n v y D e v a d a t t a 's g a in s a n d h o n o u rs a n d fa m e. F o r a s lo n g , m o n k s, as P rin c e A j a t a s a t t u g o es m o rn in g a n d e v e n in g to w a it on D e v a d a t t a w ith fiv e h u n d re d c h a rio ts [18 7] a n d (as lo n g as) fiv e h u n d re d o ffe rin g s o f rice c o o k e d in m ilk a re b ro u g h t as a g ift o f fo o d , th e re m a y b e e x p e c te d for D e v a d a t t a d e clin e in s k ille d m e n ta l s ta te s , n o t g ro w th . I t is a s if, m o n k s, t h e y w e re to th r o w 2 a b la d d e r 3 a t a fierce d o g 's nose as t h a t d o g , m o n k s, w o u ld b e co m e m u c h fiercer, e ve n so, m o n k s, fo r a s lo n g as P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u g o es m o rn in g a n d e v e n in g . . . th e re m a y b e e x p e c te d fo r D e v a d a t t a d e clin e in sk ille d m e n ta l s ta te s , n o t g ro w th . D e v a d a t t a 's g a in s, h o n o u rs a n d fa m e 4 b rin g a b o u t h is o w n h u rt, D e v a d a t t a 's g a in s, h o n o u r a n d fa m e b rin g a b o u t h is d e stru c tio n . A s , m o n k s, a p la n ta in b ears fru it to its o w n h u r t, b e a rs fr u it t o its d e stru c tio n , e ve n so, m o n k s, d o D e v a d a t t a 's g a in s, h o n o u rs a n d fa m e b rin g a b o u t his o w n h u rt, d o D e v a d a t t a 's g a in s, h o n o u rs a n d fa m e b rin g a b o u t h is d e s tru c tio n . A s , m o n k s, a b a m b o o . . . a reed b e a rs fru it t o its o w n h u r t . . . e ve n so, m o n k s, do D e v a d a t t a 's g a in s, h o n o u rs a n d fa m e b rin g a b o u t . . . h is d e stru c tio n . A s , m o n k s, a sh e-m u le c o n c e iv e s to h e r o w n h u rt, c o n c e iv e s to h er d e stru c tio n , e v e n so, m o n k s, d o D e v a d a t t a 's g a in s, h o n o u rs a n d fa m e b rin g a b o u t . . . h is d e stru c tio n . T r u ly its fr u it th e p la n ta in d o es d e s tro y , I t s fr u it th e b a m b o o , its fr u it th e reed ; S o h o n o u r d o es d e s tr o y th e fo o l, J u s t a s its e m b r y o th e m u le ." 5 j| 5 || 2 |[ T o ld is th e F ir s t P o r tio n fo r R e p e a tin g .
1 C f . S . ii. 2 42 f o r t h i s e p is o d e d o w n t o t h e e n d o f t h e s im ile o f t h e f ie r c e d o g . * b k in d e y y u tn is e x p la in e d a t S A . ii. 2 1 2 b y p a k k h ip e y y u m . 3 p itta . S e e M o r r is , J P T S . 18 9 3 , p . 4 a n d U d A . 6 5 . S / l . ii. 2 1 2 e x p l a i n s p itta a s t h a t o f a b e a r o r a fish . C f . S . ii. 2 4 1 , A . ii. 73 t o t h e e n d o f t h e v e r s e . 6 Q u o t e d S, i. 1 5 4 , M i l n . 1 6 6 , N e tti. 13 0 .

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e L o r d w a s s ittin g d o w n te a c h in g dhamma su rro u n d e d b y a la rg e c o m p a n y , b y a c o m p a n y w h ich in c lu d e d th e k in g .1 T h e n D e v a d a t t a , risin g fro m h is se a t, h a v in g a rra n g e d his u p p e r ro b e o v e r o n e sh o u ld er, h a v in g s a lu te d th e L o rd w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sp o k e th u s t o th e L o rd : L o rd , th e L o rd is n o w o ld , w o rn , stric k e n in y e a r s , h e h a s liv e d his sp an a n d is a t th e clo se o f his life 2 ; L o r d , le t th e L o r d n o w b e c o n te n t to liv e d e v o te d to a b id in g in ease h ere a n d n o w ,3 le t h im h a n d o v e r th e O rd e r of m o n k s to m e. I t is I w h o w ill le a d th e O rd er of m on ks/' " E n o u g h , D e v a d a tta , p le a se d o n o t le a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s . A n d a se c o n d tim e . . . A n d a th ird tim e D e v a d a t t a sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d ; " L o r d , th e L o r d is n o w o ld , w o rn , s tric k e n in y e a r s . . . I t is I w h o w ill le a d th e O rd e r o f m onks/* " I, D e v a d a tta , w o u ld n o t h a n d o v e r th e O rd e r o f m o n k s even to S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a . H o w th e n c o u ld I to y o u , a w re tc h e d one to b e v o m ite d lik e s p ittle ? 4 T hen D e v a d a tta , th in k in g : [188] T h e L o rd in an a ss e m b ly w h ic h in c lu d e d a k in g d is p a ra g e d m e b y (using) th e term , ' one to b e v o m ite d lik e s p it t le / w h ile h e e x to lle d S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g a lla n a , a n g r y , d isp le a se d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , d e p a rte d k e e p in g h is r ig h t sid e to w a rd s h im . A n d th is w a s th e first tim e t h a t D e v a d a t t a fe lt m a lice to w a rd s th e L o rd . || i|| T h e n th e L o rd a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : W e ll th e n , m on ks, le t th e O rd er c a r r y o u t a (form al) a c t o f I n fo r m a tio n 5 a g a in st D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a to th e e ffe c t th a t w h e re a s D e v a d a t t a s n a tu re w a s fo r m e r ly of o n e k in d , n o w it is of a n o th e r k in d ; a n d t h a t w h a te v e r D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld d o b y g estu re a n d b y v o ic e , in t h a t n e ith e r th e A w a k e n e d O n e n o r
1 C f . a n o t h e r v e r s io n o f t h i s e p is o d e , a s f a r a s ** t h e a c t o f I n f o r m a t i o n " a t D h A . i. 1 3 9 -4 0 . a S t o c k , a s a t V i n . iii. 2 , M . i. 82, S n . p p . 5 0 , 9-2. * d itth a d h a m m a su k h a v ih d ra , a s a t V i n . i. 3 4 1 . * T e x t r e a d s k h e ld p a k a s sa , V A . 1 2 7 5 h h e ld sa k a . V A . 12 75 e x p la in s : r e q u is it e s a c c r u in g b y m e a n s o f a n e v i l m o d e o f l iv e l ih o o d s h o u ld b e e je c t e d l i k e s p it t l e b y t h e n o b le o n e s . T h a t is w h y t h e L o r d s a id " t o b e v o m i t e d lik e s p it t le / * k h e ld s a k a , ( t o e x p la in ) t h a t h e ( D e v a d a t t a ) e a t s r e q u is i t e s o f t h is n a t u r e . * p a k d s a n iy a k a m m a . V i n . T e x ts iii. 2 3 9 ,. n . 2 r i g h t l y s a y s " T h i s is n o t a m o n g t h e r e g u la r o f fic ia l a c t s o f t h e O r d e r a s d e s c r ib e d in C V . I , " b u t it is w r o n g t o s a y " i t is n o t r e fe r r e d t o b y t h e D h p . c o m m e n t a t o r *' f o r i t is m e n t io n e d a t D h A . i. 14 0 .

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dhamma nor th e O rd er sh o u ld b e seen , b u t in th a t o n ly D e v a d a tta sh o u ld be seen. A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it be ca rrie d o u t : T h e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm e d b y an e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : ' H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, le t th e O rd er c a r r y o u t an a c t o f In fo rm a tio n a g a in s t D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a , to th e e ffect th a t w h e re a s D e v a d a t t a s n a tu re w a s fo rm e rly o f one k in d , n o w it is o f a n o th e r k in d , a n d t h a t w h a te v e r D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld d o . . . in th a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld b e seen. T h is is th e m o tio n . H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e. T h e O rd er is c a r ry in g o u t th e (form al) a c t o f In fo rm a tio n a g a in st D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a , to th e e ffect t h a t . . . in t h a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld b e seen. I f th e c a r ry in g o u t o f th e (form al) a c t o f In fo rm a tio n a g a in s t D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a to th e effect th a t * . . in th a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld b e seen is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le ones, th e y sh o u ld be sile n t ; h e to w h o m it is n ot p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e (form al) a c t of In fo rm a tio n a g a in s t D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a to th e e ffect th a t . . . in th a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld b e seen is c a rrie d o u t b y th e O rd er. I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s d o I u n d e r sta n d th is , T h e n th e L o r d ad d ressed th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta , s a y in g : W e ll th e n , d o y o u , S a r ip u tta , in fo rm a g a in s t D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a . F o rm e rly , L o rd , I sp o k e p ra ise o f D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a s a y in g : G o d h is son is o f g re a t p s y c h ic p o w er, G o d h is son is o f g re a t m a je s ty .' H o w c a n I, L o r d , in fo rm a g a in s t D e v a d a tta in R a ja g a h a ? W a s n o t th e tr u th sp o k en b y y o u , S a r ip u tta , w h en y o u sp ok e p ra ise o f D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a s a y in g : ' G o d h is son is o f . . . g re a t m a je s t y ? '* Y e s , L o r d ." E v e n so, S a r ip u tta , w h e n y o u in fo rm a g a in s t D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a it w ill b e ju s t as t r u e . V e r y w e ll, L o r d , th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta an sw ered th e L o rd in a ssen t. | J 2 || T h e n th e L o r d a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " W e ll th en , m on ks, le t th e O rd e r a g ree fo r S a r ip u tta to in fo rm a g a in st D e v a d a tta in R a ja g a h a s a y in g : * F o r m e r ly D e v a d a t t a s n a tu re w a s of su ch a k in d , n o w it is o f a n o th e r k in d , a n d th a t w h a te v e r

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D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld d o b y g e stu re a n d b y v o ic e , in th a t n e ith e r th e A w a k e n e d O n e n o r dham m a n o r th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e seen, b u t in th a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld b e se e n .' A n d th u s , m o n k s, sh o u ld S a r ip u tta b e a g re e d u p o n : F ir s t, S a r ip u tta sh o u ld b e a sk e d ; h a v in g b een a sk e d , th e O rd e r sh o u ld be in fo rm e d b y a n e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : H o n o u re d sirs, le t th e O rd e r liste n to m e . I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y agree fo r th e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta [189] to in fo rm a g a in st D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a s a y in g : F o r m e r ly D e v a d a t t a 's n a tu re w a s o f one k in d . . . in t h a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld be se e n / T h is is th e m o tio n . I f th e a g re e m e n t u p o n S a r ip u tta to in fo rm a g a in s t D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a , s a y in g : F o r m e r ly D e v a d a tta 's n a tu re w a s o f one k in d . . . in th a t o n ly D e v a d a tta sh o u ld be seen ' is p le a sin g to th e v e n e ra b le o n es, th e y sh o u ld be sile n t ; he to w h o m it is n o t p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . T h e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta is a g re e d u p o n b y th e O rd e r to in fo rm a g a in s t D e v a d a t t a in R a ja g a h a , sa y in g : * F o r m e r ly D e v a d a t t a 's n a tu re w a s o f o n e k in d . . . in th a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld b e s e e n / , . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is sile n t. T h u s do I u n d e rsta n d th is T h e v e n e ra b le S a r ip u tta , (thus) a g re e d u p o n , h a v in g en te red R a ja g a h a to g e th e r w ith s e v e ra l m o n k s, in fo rm e d a g a in s t D e v a d a tta in R a ja g a h a to th e e ffe c t t h a t : F o r m e r ly D e v a d a t t a s n a tu re w a s o f one k in d , n o w it is o f a n o th e r k in d , a n d th a t w h a te v e r D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld d o b y g e stu re a n d b y v o ic e , in th a t n e ith e r th e A w a k e n e d O n e n o r dham m a n o r th e O rd er sh o u ld b e seen, b u t in th a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld be s e e n ." T h o se p e o p le w h o w ere o f little fa ith , n o t b e lie v in g , w h o w ere o f p o o r in te llig e n c e , sp o k e th u s : T h e se reclu ses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s a re je a lo u s, t h e y are je a lo u s o f D e v a d a t t a 's g a in s a n d h o n o u rs / ' B u t th o se p e o p le w h o h a d fa ith a n d w ere b e lie v in g , w h o w ere w ise, in te llig e n t, sp o k e th u s : T h is ca n be no o rd in a ry m a tte r in t h a t th e L o rd h a s D e v a d a t t a in fo rm ed a g a in st in R a ja g a h a ." || 3 || T h e n D e v a d a t t a a p p ro a c h e d P rin c e A j a t a s a t t u ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , he sp o k e th u s to P rin c e A j a t a s a t t u : " F o r m e r ly / p rin ce, peo p le w ere lo n g -liv e d , n o w a d a y s t h e y are sh o rt-liv e d , a n d it is p ossible t h a t y o u , w h ile s till a p rin ce, m ig h t p ass a w a y .
1 Q u o t e d D h A . i. 14 0 , D A . 1 3 5 .

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W e ll now , do y o u , p rin ce, h a v in g sla in y o u r fa th e r, b e co m e kin g . I , h a v in g sla in th e L o rd , w ill b e co m e th e A w a k e n e d O n e . A n d P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u , t h i n k i n g : N o w , m a ste r D e v a d a tta is o f g r e a t p s y c h ic p o w er, o f g re a t m a je s ty ; m a ste r D e v a d a tta m u st k n o w (w h a t is r ig h t ) / ' h a v in g fa ste n e d a d a g g e r 1 a g a in st his th ig h , a t an e a r ly h o u r (alth ou gh ) a fra id , a n x io u s, fe a rfu l, a la rm e d , e n te re d th e (k in g's) p r iv a te q u a rte rs fo rc ib ly . B u t th e c h ie f m in isters in a tte n d a n c e in th e p r iv a te q u a rte rs sa w P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u a t an e a r ly h o u r (alth ou gh ) a fra id , a n x io u s, fe a rfu l, a la rm e d , e n te rin g th e (k in g s) p r iv a te q u a rters fo rc ib ly . S e e in g h im , t h e y la id h o ld o f h im . T h e se e x a m in in g h im , a n d h a v in g seen th e d a g g e r b o u n d a g a in s t his th ig h , sp o k e th u s to P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u : W h a t is it th a t y o u , p rin ce, w a n t t o do ? " " I w a n t to s la y m y fa t h e r / ' B y w h o m are y o u b e in g in c ite d ? " B y m a ste r D e v a d a t t a ." S o m e c h ie f m in iste rs g a v e th is o p in io n : T h e P rin c e sh o u ld b e sla in a n d D e v a d a tta a n d a ll th e m o n k s sh o u ld b e sla in ." 2 S o m e c h ie f m in iste rs g a v e th is op in io n : T h e m o n k s sh o u ld n o t b e sla in fo r th e m o n k s are n o t g iv in g o ffe n ce ,3 b u t th e P rin c e sh o u ld b e sla in a n d D e v a d a t t a / ' S o m e c h ie f m in iste rs g a v e th is o p in io n : ** T h e P rin ce sh o u ld n o t be slain , n or D e v a d a t t a , th e m o n k s sh o u ld n o t b e slain . T h e k in g sh o u ld b e to ld a n d w e w ill d o w h a te v e r th e k in g s a y s ." jj 4 || T h e n th e se c h ie f m in iste rs, ta k in g P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u , a p p ro a ch e d K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a ; [190] h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , t h e y to ld th is m a tte r to K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra of M a g a d h a . H e sa id : " W h a t o p in io n , m y g o o d m en , h a v e th e c h ie f m in iste rs fo rm e d ? " Som e c h ie f m in isters, S ire, g a v e th is o p in io n . . . . S o m e ch ie f m in iste rs g a v e th is o p in io n . . . . S o m e c h ie f m in iste rs g a v e th is o p in io n : T h e P rin c e sh o u ld n o t b e slain , n o r D e v a d a tta , th e m o n k s sh o u ld n o t b e slain . T h e k in g sh o u ld be to ld a n d w e w ill do w h a te v e r th e k in g s a y s " W h a t, m y g o o d m en , c a n th e A w a k e n e d O n e or dham m a or th e O rd er h a v e to do (w ith this) ? H a s n o t th e L o rd a lre a d y
1 p o ith a n ik a r n . A s a t V i n . i. 2 1 7 , w h e r e t r a n s l a t e d ** b u t c h e r 's k n ife / * a Q u o t e d a t D A . 13 5 . a a p a r a jjh a n ti, a s a t V i n . iii. 16 2 .

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h a d D e v a d a tta in fo rm ed a g a in s t in R a ja g a h a to th e e ffe c t th a t fo rm e rly D e v a d a t t a s n a tu re w a s o f one k in d , n o w it is o f a n o th e r k in d , an d th a t w h a te v e r D e v a d a t t a m a y d o b y g e stu re or b y sp eech , in th a t n e ith e r th e A w a k e n e d O ne n o r dham m a n o r th e O rd e r is to b e seen , b u t in th a t o n ly D e v a d a t t a sh o u ld be seen ? T h o se c h ie f m in iste rs w h o h a d g iv e n th e ir o p in io n th u s : " T h e P rin ce sh o u ld b e sla in a n d D e v a d a t t a a n d a ll th e m o n k s sh o u ld be s la in / th e se he d is c h a r g e d .1 T h o se c h ie f m in iste rs w h o h a d g iv e n th e ir o p in io n th u s : T h e m o n k s sh o u ld n ot be slain, fo r th e m o n k s d o n o t g iv e a n y o ffen ce, b u t th e p rin ce sh ou ld be slain a n d D e v a d a t t a , th e se h e s e t in lo w ly p o sitio n s. T h o se c h ie f m in isters w h o h a d g iv e n th e ir o p in io n th u s : T h e p rin ce sh o u ld n o t be sla in , n o r D e v a d a t t a , n o r sh o u ld th e m o n k s be slain . T h e k in g sh o u ld b e to ld a n d w e w ill do w h a te v e r th e k in g s a y s , th e s e he s e t in h ig h p o sitio n s. T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a sp o k e th u s to P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u : " W h y d o y o u , p rin ce, w a n t to s la y m e ? S ire, I h a v e n eed o f a k in g d o m . I f it be th a t y o u , p rin ce, h a v e n eed o f a k in g d o m , th is k in g d o m is y o u r s , a n d h e h a n d e d o v e r th e k in g d o m to P rin ce A ja t a s a t t u . || 5 j| T h e n D e v a d a t t a a p p ro a c h e d P r in c e A j a t a s a t t u 2 ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , he sp o k e th u s t o P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u : Y o u r M a je s ty , c o m m a n d y o u r m en so th a t t h e y d e p riv e th e reclu se G o ta m a o f life . T h e n P rin c e A ja t a s a t t u c o m m a n d ed h is m en, s a y in g : M y g o o d m en, d o w h a te v e r m a ste r D e v a d a tta s a y s . T h e n D e v a d a t t a e n jo in e d th e m en , s a y in g : " G o alo n g, frien d s, th e reclu se G o ta m a is s t a y in g a t a c e rta in p lace. H a v in g d e p riv e d h im o f life , co m e b a c k b y a c e rta in ro a d , an d he se t tw o m en on t h a t ro a d , s a y in g : " W h a te v e r m an com es alon e a lo n g th is ro a d , h a v in g d e p r iv e d h im o f life, com e b a c k b y th is r o a d / ' a n d h a v in g s e t fo u r m en on t h a t ro ad ,
1 te abhabbe a k a s i , h e r e n d e r e d t h e m i n c a p a b le (o f h o l d in g a n o ffic ia l p o s it io n ) . a V i n . T e x ts iii, 2 4 3, n . 2 p o in t s o u t t h a t A j a t a s a t t u is n o t c a l l e d k i n g '* h e re , a n d t h a t t h e r e fo r e t h e e v e n t s d e s c r ib e d in t h i s p a r a g r a p h t o o k p la c e b e fo r e h e a c t u a l l y b e c a m e k in g , a n d t h a t t h e p a r a g r a p h p r o b a b ly s t o o d o r ig in a lly in s o m e o t h e r c o n n e c t io n . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t s h o u ld b e n o t ic e d t h a t D e v a d a t t a a d d r e s s e s h im a s m a h a ra ja .

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sa y in g : W h a te v e r co u p le o f m en co m e a lo n g b y th is ro a d , h a v in g d e p riv e d th e m o f life , co m e b a c k b y th is road,'* a n d h a v in g set e ig h t m en on th a t ro a d , s a y in g : " W h a te v e r fo u r m en co m e a lo n g b y th is ro a d , [1 9 1 ] . . . co m e b a c k b y th is ro a d / ' a n d h a v in g se t s ix te e n m en on th a t ro ad , h e sa id : " W h a te v e r e ig h t m en com e a lo n g b y th is ro ad , h a v in g d e p riv e d th em of life, co m e b a c k / |j 6 || T h e n th a t m a n w h o w a s alo n e, h a v in g g ra sp e d a sw o rd an d sh ield , h a v in g b o u n d on a b o w a n d q u iv e r ,1 a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , w h en h e w a s q u ite n e a r th e L o rd he sto o d still, h is b o d y q u ite r ig id 2 a fra id , a n x io u s, fe a rfu l, a la rm e d .3 T h e L o rd s a w th a t m an s ta n d in g still, his b o d y q u ite rigid , a fra id , . ,a la rm e d a n d seein g h im , h e sp o k e th u s to th a t m an : " C o m e, frien d , d o n o t b e a fra id /* T h e n th a t m an, h a v in g p u t h is sw o rd a n d sh ie ld to one side, h a v in g la id d ow n his b o w a n d q u iv e r, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h a v in g in clin ed his h e a d to th e L o rd 's fe e t, he sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : 1 1 L o rd , a tra n sg re ssio n h a s o v e rc o m e m e , fo o lish , m isg u id ed , w ron g th a t I w as, in th a t I w a s c o m in g h ere w ith m y m in d m a lig n a n t ,4 m y m in d on m u rd e r .5 L o rd , m a y th e L o rd a c k n o w le d g e fo r m e th e tra n sg re ssio n as a tra n sg re ssio n fo r th e s a k e o f re s tra in t in th e fu t u r e / T r u ly , frie n d , a tra n sg re ssio n o v e rc a m e y o u , fo o lish , m isgu id ed , w ro n g t h a t y o u w ere, in th a t y o u w ere co m in g here, w ith y o u r m in d m a lig n a n t, y o u r m in d on m u rd e r. B u t if y o u , frien d , h a v in g seen th e tra n sg re ssio n a s a tra n sg re ssio n , confess a c co rd in g to th e ru le, w e a c k n o w le d g e it fo r y o u ; for frien d in th e d isc ip lin e o f th e n o b le , th is is g r o w th : w h o e v e r h a v in g seen a tra n sg re ssio n a s a tra n sg re ssio n , co n fesses a c co rd in g to th e ru le, h e a tta in s re stra in t in th e fu tu r e / 6 T h e n th e L o rd ta lk e d a p ro g re ssiv e t a lk 7 to th is m a n , th a t is to s a y t a lk on g iv in g , t a lk on m o ra l h a b it, t a lk on h e a v e n . . . so rro w , its u p risin g , s to p p in g , th e W a y . J u s t a s a c le a n
* S t o c k , a s a t e .g . A . iii. 9 3 - 4 , M . i. 86 , ii. 9 9 . * p a tth a d d h a , a s a t T h a g . 1 0 7 4 . V A . 1 2 7 5 , d a y s " w i t h h is b o d y m o t io n le s s lik e a fig u r e m o d e lle d in c l a y . A s a t C V . V I I . 1. 6 . * d u tth a citta , a s a t A f . iii. 6 5 . * v a d h a ka citta , a s a t D . iii. 7 2 . * C f . V in . i v . 1 8 - 1 9 , e t c . 7 A s a t V in . i. 1 5 .

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c lo th w ith o u t b la c k sp e c k s w ill ta k e a d y e e a s ily , e ve n so (as he w a s sittin g ) on th a t v e r y se a t d id dham m a- visio n , d u stless, stain less, arise to th a t m a n , t h a t w h a te v e r is o f a n a tu re to arise, a ll th a t is o f a n a tu re to s t o p / T h e n th a t m a n 1 as one w h o h a s seen dham m a , a tta in e d dham m a , k n o w n dham m a , p lu n g ed in to dham m a , h a v in g cro sse d o v e r d o u b t, h a v in g p u t a w a y u n c e rta in ty , h a v in g a tta in e d w ith o u t a n o th e r's h elp to fu ll con fid en ce in th e T e a c h e r s in s t r u c t io n sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : E x c e lle n t, L o r d : L o rd , it is e x c e lle n t. I t is a s if one w ere to set u p rig h t w h a t h a s b een u p se t . . . th u s is dham m a e x p la in e d in m a n y a figu re b y th e L o r d . S o I , L o rd , [192 ] a m g o in g to th e L o rd fo r re fu g e a n d to dham m a a n d to th e O rd er o f m o n k s. M a y th e L o r d a c c e p t m e as a la y -fo llo w e r g o in g fo r re fu g e fro m th is d a y fo r th fo r as lo n g a s life la s t s / T h e n th e L o r d sp o k e th u s to t h a t m a n : " D o n o t y o u , frien d , g o b y th a t ro a d . G o b y th is r o a d , a n d he sen t h im off b y a n o th e r ro a d . || 7 |j T h e n th o se tw o m en , th in k in g : W h y is th a t m a n w h o is a lo n e so slo w in c o m in g ? g o in g a lo n g to m eet h im s a w th e L o rd s ittin g a t th e ro o t o f a tre e. S e e in g h im , t h e y a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , th e y sa t d o w n a t a re s p e c tfu l d is ta n c e . T h e L o rd ta lk e d a p ro g ressive ta lk to th ese . . . t o fu ll co n fid e n ce in th e T e a c h e r s in stru c tio n , sp o k e th u s t o th e L o r d : E x c e lle n t, L o r d . . . M a y th e L o r d a c c e p t u s as la y -fo llo w e rs g o in g fo r re fu g e fro m th is d a y fo rth fo r a s lo n g as life la s ts . T h e n th e L o rd sp o k e th u s t o th e se m e n : D o n o t y o u , frien d s, go b y th a t ro a d . G o b y th is r o a d , a n d he se n t th e m off b y a n o th e r ro a d . T h e n th o se fo u r m en , th