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a c ie o

IB o o k s o f tb e

B u t iO & t f f t g

tD o l, 311) .

T H E BOOK O F T H E D ISCIPLIN E
VOLUM E IV

OF

T H E BOOK T H E DISCIPLINE
(V I N A Y A - P I T A K A ) V O L U M E IV

(M A H A V A G G A )

Translated by L B* HORNER, M .A . A ssociate o f Neumharn College, Cambridge

LONDON

LUZAC
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T h e p re se n t v o lu m e o f th e B ook o f the D is c ip lin e c o v e rs th e w h o le o f th e M a h a v a g g a , th e G r e a t, o r G r e a te r D iv is io n o f th e V in a y a , a n d is th u s a tra n sla tio n o f th e first v o lu m e o f O ld e n b e rg s V in a y a P iia k a tn , p u b lish e d in 18 79 . T h e M ah av a g g a w a s tra n s la te d in fu ll b y R h y s D a v id s a n d O ld e n b erg , a n d co m p rises m o st o f V o lu m e I a n d th e first p a r t o f V o lu m e I I o f th e ir V in a y a T exts (th e ir C u la v a g g a tra n sla tio n a lso b egin s in V o lu m e II ), p u b lish e d in the S a c re d B o o k s o f th e B a s t, V o lu m e s X IT T a n d X V I I , in 18 8 1, 1882- T h e s e vo lu m es, a lth o u g h th e y first a p p e a re d s e v e n t y y e a rs a g o , are s till in d isp en sa b le fo r a s t u d y o f e a r ly B u d d h is t m o n a stic life . T h is n e w tra n sla tio n in th e B ook o f the D is c ip lin e is, h o w e v e r, ju s tifie d I th in k , fo r va rio u s reasons. F o r e x a m p le , re ce n t e v e n ts h a v e fo c u se d a tte n tio n on th e B u d d h is t la n d s o f S o u th E a s t A s ia w h ere B u d d h is t m onks still fo llo w th ese a n cien t ru les ] B u d d h is m itse lf is stirrin g a n d se e k in g to k n o w m ore o f its o w n tre asu re s, a n d i t is a ttr a c tin g n o n -B u d d h is ts to b eco m e a c q u a in te d w ith th em lik e w ise . T h e m o m e n t is th erefo re n o t u n s u ita b le to re -tra n sla te one o f th e p rin c ip a l w o rk s o f th e P a li c a n o n , th e m ore e s p e c ia lly a s m a n y W e ste rn s tu d e n ts are n o w d e b a rre d fro m co n su ltin g th e o rig in a l E n g lis h tra n sla tio n , V in a y a T e x ts , since u n fo r tu n a te ly i t is o u t o f p rin t. M o reo ver, th e sch o la rsh ip w h ich h a s been la v is h e d on th e P a li c a n o n d u rin g ro u g h ly th e la s t c e n tu ry h a s in e v ita b ly re su lte d in a n in creased u n d e rsta n d in g of th e te c h n ic a l an d o th e r te rm s so a b u n d a n t in th e V in a y a a n d w h ic h in m a n y cases a lso o c c u r in o th e r p a rts o f th e P a h canon. F o llo w in g th is , th e re h as re su lte d a su rer k n o w led g e o f P a li B u d d h is m a s a w h o le . N o w th a t referen ces, a llu sio n s, rem arks, n o t to m e n tio n w o rd s th e m selv e s, can b e c o m p a red w ith o th e r c o n te x ts , w h ic h h a d been e ith e r n o t e d ite d in rom an le tte r s o r n o t tra n s la te d b y th e tim e V in a y a T exts w a s p u b lish ed , t h e y are a b le to ta k e on a fresh a n d a fu lle r m ean in g, F o r th e sa m e reaso n v a r io u r te rm s a n d p h rases, h ith e r to d ifficu lt a n d p e rh a p s b a fflin g , h a v e b eco m e easie r to u n d e rsta n d , an d h en ce to tra n sla te . I h a v e th erefo re a tte m p te d tra n sla tio n s o f v a r io u s w o rd s t h a t R h y s D a v id s a n d O ld en b erg , fo r one reason o r a n o th e r, k e p t in th e P a li. I d o n o t cla im o r ig in a lity , h o w e v e r, fo r m y v

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ren d erin g s, fo r m o st, if n o t ail o f th ese te rm s h a v e a lre a d y b e e n tra n sla te d w h ere t h e y occur in o th e r ca n o n ica l te x ts an d h a v e a p p e a re d in th e ir a p p ro p ria te b o o k s in th e P a li T e x t S o c ie ty 's T ra n sla tio n Series or in th e Sacred B o o k s o f th e B u d d h is ts. S o m e o f th ese w ord s m a y be m en tion ed here. F o r e x a m p le , a s in th e first three vo lu m es o f th e B oo k o f the D is c ip lin e , samgha is ren d ered a s O rd er ; dukkapz as w ro n g d o in g (a ty p e o f offence) o f c o n sta n t o ccu rren ce in th is vo lu m e , sdmanera a s n o v ic e ; titihiya a s o th e r s e c t s ; bhikkhu and bhikkhunt as m o n k a n d n u n j chabbaggiya bhikkhit a s th e six fo ld g ro u p o f m o n k s ; vassa a s the ra in s ; parivdsa as p ro b a tio n ; upa.jjhd.ya a s p r e c e p to r ; saddhiviharika a s th e one w h o sh ares h is c e l l ; acariya a s te a c h e r (in a te c h n ic a l sense), a n d antevasin a s h is p u p il ; an d pavarai^a a s In v ita tio n . Tn th is vo lu m e T h a v e also tra n slate d a n u m b e r o f o th e r w ords, lik ew ise le ft u n tra n s la te d b y R h y s D a v id s and O ld en b erg , a n d w h ich h a v e n o t o ccu rre d in m y th ree p reced in g vo lu m es. F o r e x a m p le , I h a v e tra n sla te d parisuddhi a s entire p u r ity ; nissaya a s d ep en d en ce ; and natii a s m o tio n w h ile natticatuttha is a m o tio n fo llo w ed b y a reso lu tio n p u t th ree times* I h a v e also g iv e n th e n am es o f th e form al a c ts o f th e O rd er in E n g lish . A ll th e se are te c h n ic a l term s, a n d sh ould be u n d ersto o d , fo r th e y n a tu r a lly h elp to c la r ify som e o f th e d e p th s a n d co m p lica tion s o f the V inaya. In alm o st e v e r y case th e n o te s w h ich R h y s D a v id s a n d O ld e n b erg ap p en d to th e ir u n tra n sla ted w o rd s are o f g re a t v a lu e an d m e rit ca refu l consultation* I h a v e m a d e no a tte m p t to tra n s la te d h a m m a a n d n ib b a n a . B u t I h o p e b y tra n sla tin g su ch te rm s a s I h a v e m en tion ed a b o ve I h a v e, w h ile k e e p in g to th e P a li in ten tio n , p erh a p s c lo th e d th em in a m e a n in g an d sign ifican ce easier fo r th e E n g lish read er to g ra sp th a n w h e n h e is co n fro n ted w ith th e P a li form s. T h is v o lu m e opens w ith th e a c c o u n t, o f th e g re a te st im p o rt a n ce to h istorian s a n d d evo tees o f B u d d h ism alike, o f the d a y s im m e d ia te ly p reced in g th e fo rm a tio n o f th e O rd er itse lf, b e g in n in g w ith th e se v e n d a y s ' co n te m p la tio n u n d er th e B o -tre e w h ere G o ta m a sat e n jo y in g th.e bliss o f d eliv era n ce ju s t a fte r h e had a tta in e d th a t fu ll aw aken in g , illu m in a tio n o r en ligh ten m en t w h ich m a rk e d h is p assage from B o d h isa tta h o o d to B uddhahood. A c c o rd in g to th is M a h a v a g g a a cco u n t, d u rin g e a ch o f " th e

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th ree w a tc h e s o f th e n ig h t " p re su m a b ly th e la st o f th e se v e n sp en t u n d e r th e B o -tre e h e u tte r e d a so le m n u tte ra n c e co n cern ed w ith cau se, a n d then w ith th e ro u tin g o f M a ra (in th e th ir d w a tc h ). T h e Dham m apada Com m entary { D h A . iu. 127) s a y s t h a t in th e first w a tc h he d issip a te d th e d a rk n e ss (ignorance) v e ilin g his fo rm er abodes, o r liv e s, b irth s ; th a t in th e second he p u rifie d h is d e v a -v isio n ; a n d t h a t in th e th ird , o u t o f co m p assio n fo r crea tu re s, h e p a id rig h t m in d fu ln e ss t o d e p en d e n t o rig in a tio n b o th in fo rw a rd a n d re v e rse o rd er. T h en , se lf-a w a k e n e d to th e fu llest se lf-a w a k e n in g , h e u tte re d th e solem n u tte ra n c e co m m o n to h u n d re d s o f th o u sa n d s o f B u d d h a s , n a m e ly th e tw o verses b e g in n in g anakujdtisarnsdram {Dhp. 15 3 ; Thag. 18 3 ; J d , i. 76}. T h e In tro d u c tio n to th e V in a y a Com m entary (Sam antapdsddikd ), V o l. I, p . 1 7 , a n d th e Dtgha Com m entary ( D A . i. 16), agree th a t these v e rse s are th e first B u d d h a v a c a n a ; w h ile th e U ddna Com m entary (p. 208) a n d th e Suttanipata Com m entary (ii. 392) a lso s a y t h a t he u tte re d th e se verses a fte r h e h a d a tta in e d the th ree k n o w le d g e s in th e th re e w a tc h e s o f th e n ig h t. T h e K huddakapatha Com m entary (p. 1:313), e la b o ra tin g fu rth e r, o r p e rh a p s fo llo w in g som e o th e r tra d itio n , s a y s th a t w h ile th e se tw o v e rs e s w ere th e first o f a ll w o rd s to be u tte re d b y th e B u d d h a (B u d d h a , b e cau se n o w , a lth o u g h v e r y re c e n tly , " a w a k e n e d " ) , t h e y w ere o n ly sp o k en m e n ta lly a n d n o t o u t lo u d . F o r w h a t he first sp o k e o u t lo u d , so th is C o m m e n ta ry co n tin u e s, w a s th e v e rse w h ic h in th e M a J ia va g g a is a ttrib u te d t o th e e n d o f th e first w a tc h o f th e n ig h t o f a w a k en in g . A t th e e n d o f th e th ir d w a tc h of th is c r u c ia l n ig h t th e B u d d h a w e n t, a c co rd in g to th e M a h a v a g g a , to th e fo o t o f th e A ja p a la b a n y a n a n d sa t th ere fo r se v e n d a y s ; h e th e n sp e n t a n o th e r se v e n d a y s a t th e fo o t o f th e M u calin d a tree, a n d a s till fu r th e r se v e n a t th e fo o t o f th e R ajcL yatana. W h ile h e w a s a t th e first o f these th ree tre es h e w a s v isite d b y a b ra h m a n , re p re s e n ta tiv e o f on e o f th e sects w h ic h a b o u n d ed in Tndia a t th a t tim e , a n d th e B u d d h a s ta te d h is v ie w o n w h a t it is to b e a " b ra h m a n (in th e tru e sense). W h ile h e w a s a t th e seco n d tre e a n a g a -k in g a rriv e d to o ffe r h im p ro te c tio n in d ic a tiv e o f th e clo se a n d . o n th e w h o le, frie n d ly re la tio n s w h ic h in th e B u d d h is t tra d itio n e x is te d b e tw e e n se rp e n ts a n d h u m a n b e in g s. A g a in G o ta m a m ade a sh o rt s ta te m e n t, th is tim e on w h a t it is th a t c o n stitu te s

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" h ig h e st bliss " , p a ja m a sukha. A lth o u g h th is sta te m e n t la c k s th e terseness o f th a t a ttr ib u te d to G o ta m a in th e M dgandiya Sufta (M . S ta . 75) : th a t n ib b a n a is th e h igh est bliss " , it n e v erth eless co n ta in s te n e ts th a t th ro u g h o u t th e lo n g h is to ry o f B u d d h is m h a v e re m a in e d at th e h eart o f its te a ch in g ; th a t th e a b sen ce o f m a lic e , th e absence o f fe elin g a ttr a c te d to c o n d itio n e d th in gs, th e tran scen d in g o f sense-pleasures, a n d th e a v e r tin g (or c o n tr o l vinaya) o f p rid e in th e th o u g h t " T am " th a t th e se are th e h ig h est bliss. In th e T a lk o n B r a h m a s E n t r e a t y " d u rin g th e tim e o f th e B u d d h a s h e sita tio n to te a ch d h a m m a , co n cep ts em erge w h ich , w ith m o re in siste n ce or less, are fo u n d in m o st o f th e P a li c a n o n ica l te x ts : th e deepness a n d d iffic u lty o f d h am m a, its p ea ce, an d th e con sequ en t need to te a ch it in a w o rld so d e lig h tin g an d re jo ic in g in sensual p leasu re th a t it w a s a ve rse to le ttin g its e lf b e p e rsu a d e d th a t d h am m a, e a rn e s tly practised , led u p s tre a m , a g a in st th e cu rren t, patisotagdm in, a n d b y th e d e a th o f c ra v in g o p e n e d the doors o f d eath lessn ess t o n ib b an a, th e so u rce o f tru e an d sup rem e bliss. T h e first K h a n d h a k a , Section or C h a p te r o f th e M a lia v a g g a , c a lle d th e G re a t {mahd) S e ctio n , also co n ta in s G o ta m a 's fam o u s u tte ra n c e to U p a k a , th e N a k e d A sce tic , o f h is victo rio u sn ess, p e rfe ctio n a n d self-aw ak en in g , o f his uniquen ess, a n d o f his h a v in g h a d n o te a ch er (r. 8. 8). H e is th erefo re d ifferen t from o th e r h u m an b ein gs. T h e n there com es, p reced ed b y fu rth e r stress on th e fin d in g o f d eath lessn ess, th e F ir s t D iscourse, d e liv ere d to th e fiv e e a rlie st fo llo w ers, a n d called elsew here th e D h a m m a c a k k a p p a v a tta n a S u tta , th e D isco u rse on th e R o llin g o f th e W h ee l o f D h a m m a , in w h ich th e M iddle Course b etw een th e tw o e x trem e s, the d ead -en d s o f to o g re a t lu x u r y a n d to o g re a t a u s te r ity , is called th e A r iy a n E ig h tfo ld W a y . T h is W a y is g ra d e d into stla, sam adhi an d p an n a {1 \i. i. 30 1) a n d cen tres on dukhhat iin satisfacto rin ess, ill or suffering, a n d th e sto p p in g o f it, epitom ised la te r b y G o ta m a w hen he is re co rd e d to s a y (A f. i. 140) : " A s fo rm e rly , so now , th is is p re c ise ly w h a t T te a c h : ill an d th e sto p p in g o f ill.J' A rin a ta K o p d a n n a w as th e first o f the d iscip les to ap p reh en d th is c e n tra l fa c t in c a u s a lity , th a t " w h a te v e r is o f th e n atu re to arise, a ll th a t is o f th e n a tu re to sto p I t w a s his visio n o f d h a m m a , as it w as soon a fte rw a rd s t h a t o f his four com panion s.

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A s th is d h a m m a -v isio n arose in e a c h o n e o f th e m h e ask ed fo r th e " g o in g fo rth " or ad m issio n , pabbajjd, a n d fo r th e ordination, u-pasampada, in th e L o r d 's p resen ce. I n resp o n se, G o ta m a u tte r e d t h e w o rd s, C om e, m o n k , ehi bhikkku, w e ll ta u g h t is d h a m m a , fa re th e B ra h m a -fa rin g fo r th e u t t e r en d in g o f i l l ." T h is, th e o rig in a l fo rm u la , u se d b y G o ta m a w h e n th e O rd e r w a s b e g in n in g to fo rm a n d w h ile it w a s s till in it s in fa n c y , c o v e r s sim u lta n e o u s a d m issio n a n d o rd in a tio n . L a t e r , tw o se p a ra tb p ro ced u res su p e rv e n e d , an d as th e M a h a v a g g a sh o w s, ad m issio n in to th e O rd e r h a d to b e g a in e d b efo re o rd in a tio n c o u ld b e conferred . A f t e r th e S e c o n d D isc o u rse , th a t o n th e im p o s s ib ility o f th e five^ hhandhas b e in g self b ecau se t h e y a re im p e rm a n e n t a n d su fferin g , a n d also sp o k e n t o the five o rig in a l fo llo w ers, a n d a fte r th e o rd in a tio n o f Y a s a , his fo u r frien d s, a n d th e n his f i f t y frie n d s, th e re w e re six ty -o n e a r a h a n ts in th e w o rld (1. 10. 4). F r e e d from a ll s n a r e s ," th e y w ere to ld b y G o ta m a to go o u t o n to u r a n d p re a c h d h a m m a fo r th e g o o d a n d th e w e lfa re o f th e m u ltitu d e . A s a re su lt m a n y p eo p le b e c a m e a n x io u s fo r ad m issio n an d o rd in a tio n , b u t, jo u r n e y in g to G o ta m a so as to b e a d m itte d a n d o rd a in e d b y h im , t h e y a rriv e d e x h a u ste d . A c c o r d in g ly h e th e re u p o n allo w ed m o n k s th e m s e lv e s to a d m it a n d o rd ain in a n y d is tr ic t, in a n y q u a rte r. T h e y w e re n o t, h o w e v e r, in stru c te d to u se th e w o rd s " C o m e, m o n k ." O n th e c o n tra ry , it is n o w th e c a n d id a te w h o h a s th ree tim es to re p e a t a n o th e r fo rm u la . T h is is ca lle d ad m issio n and o rd in a tio n b y th e " th re e g o in g s fo r re fu g e T h is m a rk s th e secon d sta g e in th e o rd in a tio n p ro ceed in gs. I n th e u sa g e to b e fo llo w ed b y th o se w h o w ish ed to b e m o n a stic fo llo w ers, th e th re e refu ges b e cam e sta b ilise d as buddham saranam gacchdm i, dhamrnam saranaift gacchafni, sdmghattt saranani gacchdm i , e a c h p h rase to be re p e a te d th ree tim es. T h ose w h o w ish e d to b e c o u n te d as la y d isc ip le s (up asa ka , fem . updsika) a sk e d fo r th is s ta tu s b y re p e a tin g th e s lig h tly d iffere n t fo rm u la o f ta k in g re fu g e n o t in biiddham, dhamrnam a n d samgham, b u t in bhagavantant , dhamrnam a n d bhikkkusam ghatn ,1 o r in bhavantam Gotam am , dhamrnam a n d bJiikkhusarhgham .1
* Besides th e M ahSvagga references, see e.g. A f. i. 363, 3.79, 391, 3<X>. * See also e.g. M . i. 290, +13, 489, 501.

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I t is p ro b a b le th a t th is m eth o d o f a d m ittin g an d ord ain in g d id n o t la s t v e r y long. T h e reasons g iv en fo r ab o lish in g it are p erh ap s n o t v e r y c o n vin cin g , a n d w e sh o u ld h a v e e x p e cte d m o re d e ta ils a n d ta le s o f m ish aps sh o w in g th a t it no lo n g e r su fficed and th erefo re needed re v isin g . A t all e ve n ts, as th e M a h a v a g g a sta n d s, on a n occasion w h e n S a rip u tta a sk e d him h o w he sh o u ld a d m it an d ordain a c e rta in brah m an , G o ta m a d id n o t a n sw er th a t th e b ra h m a n 's rep etitio n o f th e three goings fo r re fu g e w ould c o n stitu te his o rd in a tio n . (I. 38. 3-} In stea d th e th ird p h ase n o w aro se : th a t o f th e O rd er o rd ain in g a c a n d id a te , p resen ted b y h is p recep tor, b y m ean s o f a fo rm a l a c t (kamma ,) co n sistin g o f a m o tion a n d a reso lu tio n p ro claim ed th re e tim e s {naiticatzdtha). T h is m ean s th a t it is n o w th e O rd er alone w h ich h as th e a u th o rity , th e p o w er and th e le g a l rig h t to o rd ain . Tn a d d itio n , th e c a n d id a te fo r o rd in a tio n n o w has to h a v e a p re c e p to r, agreed u p o n b y th e O rd er, w h o m ust p resen t him to th e O rd er th a t is to th e one d w e llin g w ith in th e b o u n d a ry w h ere h e w a n ts to ta k e u p h is residence and w h o m u st h a v e p rep a red him b efo reh an d so th a t, w ith o u t feelin g a sh am ed o r co n fu se d , he w ill be a b le t o an sw er a n u m b er o f ro u tin e q u e stio n s t h a t w ill b e p u t to h im in th e m id st o f th e O rd er. N o d o u b t o f g ra d u a l g ro w th , th e se ro u tin e questio n s fo rm a k in d of e x a m in a tio n , and it is im pressed on th e c a n d id a te b y h is p re c e p to r th a t n o w , a b o ve a ll tim es, is a tim e fo r tru th -s p e a k in g . T h e se are, h o w e v e r, m e re ly som e of the fe a tu re s a m o n g th e m a n y le a d in g to th e fin alised form o f th e ord in atio n proceedings. T h ese m u ltip lie d a n d becam e in tric a te to su it th e d y n a m ic an d p ro g re ssiv e p h ase in w h ich th e y to o k sh ape. G on e is th e o ld s im p lic ity o f 'C o m e , m o n k " . R e g u la tio n s h a v e to in crease to m e e t a c o m p le x ity o f em e rg e n t e v e n tu a litie s. T h e resources, nissa ya , th e m inim um n u m b er o f m o n ks co m p o sin g a n O rd er c o m p e ten t to ordain, th e n u m b er o f y e a rs a m onk m u st h a v e been o rd a in e d before h e is reck on ed a s su ita b le or c o m p e te n t to ordain others, liv in g in depen dence, nissaya vaithurn, on a te a ch er, g iv in g g u id a n ce , n issa y a m datum , th e q u a litie s th a t a m o n k sh o u ld be possessed o f in order to ordain, and th e o rd in a tio n a n d p ro b a tio n o f fo rm er m em bers o f o th e r sects, a n d th e age a t w h ic h a p erson m a y b e ord am ed , are all s u b je c ts b ro u g h t u n d er review . T h e inner life of th e O rd er

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h a d to b e sa fe g u a rd e d a s m u ch a s h a d it s re la tio n s to th e w o rld o u tsid e. T h a t th e c a n d id a te fo r o rd in a tio n h a d to u n d e rg o a p rio r p erio d o f p re p a ra tio n a n d in stru c tio n a t th e h a n d s o f a p re c e p to r im p lies a p a ssa g e o f tim e elap sin g b e tw e e n " g o in g fo r th " o r p re lim in a ry a d m issio n , a n d o rd in a tio n o r fin a l a d m issio n , f t w o u ld seem th a t in o rd er to m eet d iffic u ltie s, p e rh a p s c re a te d b y th e d ra w in g p o w er o f G o ta m a J s O rd er itse lf, w h a t h a d o n ce been one o p e ra tio n b e ca m e sp lit in to tw o . T h is is th e in te n tio n o f C h a p te r 28 o f M a h a v a g g a T w h ic h , w ith o u t m e n tio n in g a d m ission , a llo w s m o n k s to ord ain b y a fo rm a l a c t c o n sistin g of th e m o tio n a n d th e reso lu tio n p u t to th e O rd e r th re e tim es. Sin ce th e m e th o d o f ad m issio n is n o t fo rm u la te d here, a lth o u g h S a x ip u tta h a d a s k e d h o w to a d m it a n d h o w to o rd a in , it b eco m es c le a r t h a t th ese tw o pro ceed in gs, h ith e rto sim u lta n e o u s, are n o w in th e pro cess o f se p a ra tin g . C h a p te r 30 sh o w s e v e n m ore co n fu sio n . Tt cite s a n in sta n c e w h ere m o n k s a d m it a n d o rd ain a b ra h m a n w h o h a d a s k e d fo r a d m issio n (only). G o ta m a re p ro ve d th em fo r a d m ittin g a n yo n e w h o w e n t fo rth fo r th e sa k e o f th e go od m ea ls th e m o n ks w ere re p u te d to e n jo y a n d th e n p o in te d o u t th e fo u r ** re so u rces fo r o n e b e in g ord ain ed , s a y in g th a t a d m issio n w a s fo r th e sa k e , n o t o f g o o d fo o d , b u t o f e a ch o n e o f th e resources. Tt is, h o w e v e r, c le a r th a t tw o stages w e re b e c o m in g n e c e s sa ry b efo re th e fu ll s ta tu s o f a m o n k c o u ld b e a cq u ire d , a n d th a t in th e earlier o f th ese tw o stages, e n te re d on to b y fiabbajjd, ad m ission , th e m o n k s sta n d in g , rig h ts a n d d u tie s w o u ld b e d ifferen t fro m th o se in th e la tte r sta g e , e n te re d on to b y uftasam pada , o rd in a tio n . H en ce w hen p abbajja w a s fu n c tio n a lly s e p a ra te d from upasam padd, it re ce iv e d a n ew a n d sp ecia lised sig n ifica n ce , co m in g to m e a n ad m issio n to n o v ic ia te sh tp . O n e becam e a n o v ice, samatpera, b y th e c o n fe rm e n t o f p a b b a jja , a n e w ly o rd ain ed m o n k , navii, b y the co n fe rm en t o f up asam padd . T h e fo rm er, lik e th e la tte r , h a d its o w n m a c h in e r y fo r its p ro p er e n a ctm en t (L 50- 61). F o r e x a m p le , a b o y sh o u ld n o t be a llo w ed to " g o fo r th unless h e h a d his p a re n ts co n sen t, a n d u n less h e h a d re a c h e d th e age o f fifteen , e x c e p t o n th e stran g e co n d itio n th a t he co u ld scare cro w s (L 51)- a te s t p erh a p s t h a t h is first in fa n c y w as p a st. M eth o d s o f d e a lin g w ith r e fr a c to r y n o vices a re la id dow n {T. 57- 60). A s d e p ra v e d

T R A N S L A T O R S I N T R O D U C T I O N m o n k s c o u ld be e x p e lle d a fte r t h e y h ad been ordained, so d e p ra v e d n o v ic e s c o u ld b e e xp e lle d b efo re th e y w ere ordained. T h e g o in g for re fu g e in th e buddha, dhamma a n d satngha, a lth o u g h a b o lish ed from th e n o rm a l p rocedure o f o rd in a tio n J w a s re ta in e d a s th e fo rm u la n o vices are to rep eat w h en being a llo w e d to go fo rth (I. 54. 3). I t is also th e fo rm u la to be used b y those fo rm er m em bers of o th e r sects, w h o la te r w ill be e lig ib le fo r o rd in a tio n , w h en th e y are a sk in g to e n te r on a fo u r m o n th s' p ro b a tio n a ry period w h ic h th e y h a v e to observe first (I. 38). B y e n la rg in g the O rd e r to in clu d e n o vices, w h o m ig h t b e th o se w h o sh ared a cell (w ith a precep tor) o r p u p ils (of a tea ch er), b y n o t lim itin g it to G o ta m a him self a n d the first s ix t y m on ks, a ll o f w h o m were a ra h a n ts, b y e x h o rtin g these o rig in a l a d ep ts " to g o fo rth an d te a ch d h am m a a n d a s a re su lt o f th e ir re tu rn in g w ith an unspecified num ber o f people se e k in g fo r ad m ission a n d ord in atio n , th e O rd er w as rendered a cce ssib le to m en w h ose pow ers o f a tta in in g th e m a tch less d e liv e ra n c e (I. 13. x) w ere n o t so g re a t as those o f th e origin al d iscip les. T h e se w ere m o n ks w h o th erefo re sto o d in need o f tra in in g . B u t in sp ite o f m a n y o p p o rtu n ities o f su b m ittin g t o i t a n d p ro fitin g b y it, th e y d id n o t a lw a y s tu rn out s a tis fa c to r ily . H ence it m a y be p resu m ed th a t th e bhikkhusathgka o f th e th ird refuge fo r la y fo llo w ers sa id less th a n w a s in te n d e d . T h e samgha of a ra h a n ts, or at least o f a riy a n s is m e a n t, n o t th a t o f a v e ra g e m en. T h e Samgha. o f th e T rip le G em is n o t th e c o m m u n ity of m onks a s such, not th e c o m m u n ity th a t in clu d es the g ro u p s o f six or se v e n te e n m o n ks, n o toriou s fo r th e ir b a d h a b its a n d a s m akers o f tro u b le , or the quarrelsom e m o n k s o f K o sa m b I, o r those d e p ra v e d or ill-b eh aved in d iv id u a ls on acco u n t o f all o f w h om ru les were fo rm u la te d , regu lation s d e v ise d , and offences d iscrim in ated fro m w h a t w ere not classed a s offen ces, a n d w h ose m isd oin gs p ro v id e th e raison d 'f t r e of d iscip lin e, of vinaya, o f the o u tw a rd sta n d a rd of self-co n tro l so m u ch needed n o t m e rely to d istin g u ish th e m onks from m e m b ers of o th er sects, a lth o u g h in som e cases a c e rta in a m o u n t o f im ita tio n w as p e rm itte d , b u t also to g a in th e lo y a lt y and su p p o rt o f th e la y follow ers- F o r on th ese d epen ded t o a large e x te n t th e p h y sic a l co n d itio n s w h ich w o u ld m ake a m o n k free t o d e v o te him self to his train ing, th e g o a l of w h ich w as th e

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v isio n o f n ib b a n a . T h e Satngha o f th e th ird re fu g e h as in r e a lity referen ce o n ly t o th o se ste a d fa s t d iscip les w h o , h a v in g en te red th e sotdpanna sta g e are o n th e su p ra m u n d a n e p a r ts o f th e W a y , an d s o are th e m se lv e s o f su p ra m u n d a n e s ta tu r e a n d a tta in m e n ts lokuttara b ecau se u n a ife c te d b y a ll t h a t is lok iy a , of th e w o rld , co m p o u n d e d a n d c o n d itio n e d . " T h e y areu n ited b y th e co m m u n io n o f u n d e rsta n d in g a n d e th ic a l b e h a v io u r, a c co rd in g to th e C o m m en ta ries on th e Bhayabh.era.va Sutta (M A . i. 130 ff.) a n d th e Khuddakapdpha { K h A . 1 8 - 1 9 ) , in b o th o f w h ic h th e m e a n in g o f " g o in g fo r re fu g e " is d iscu ssed a t le n g th a n d a t a h ig h le v e l n o t a p p ro a c h e d in th e V in a y a Com m entary . T h e first tw e n ty -fo u r c h a p te rs o f th e F ir s t S e c tio n , th e M a h a k h a n d h a k a , o f th e M a h a v a g g a a p p e a r to g iv e a ch ro n o lo g ic a l a c c o u n t o f e v e n ts fro m th e n ig h t o f A w a k e n in g u n d e r th e B o -tre e on th e b a n k s o f th e riv e r N e ra n ja ra to th e ad m issio n a n d o rd in a tio n o f S a r ip u tta a n d M o g g allan a, th e p a ir o f c h ie f d iscip les, a lr e a d y go n e fo r th from h o m e in to hom elessness a s w a n d erers. F r o m th is p o in t o n , a p recise h isto ric a l n a rra tio n is n o t so a p p a re n t, fo r th e M a h a v a g g a n o w b e g in s to g ro u p to g e th e r s u b je c t-m a tte r th a t b elon gs to g e th e r. S tr ic t ch ro n o lo g y is su sp en d ed , n o d o u b t in the in te re sts o f c la s s ify in g t h is s u b je c t-m a tte r a n d re d u c in g its c o m p le x ity t o som e k in d o f m a n a g e a b le o rd er, th e b e tte r t o be fixed in th e m e m o ry . W h a t n e e d w a s th e re fo r t h e e x is tin g or fo r a n y su b se q u en t O rd e r to k n o w th e e x a c t processio n o f e v e n ts ? I t w a s o f g r e a te r v a lu e to le a rn a n d m a ste r th e ru les a n d p ro ce d u re g o v e rn in g b o th th e recu rren t o cca sio n s and th e d a ily o o n d u ct o f m o n a stic life, a n d th is could b e m o re e a sily a cco m p lish e d if th e m a te ria l fo r th e v a rio u s to p ic s w e re gro u p ed to g e th e r in ste a d o f b e in g s c a tte re d th ro u g h o u t th e im m ense c o m p ila tio n k n o w n a s th e V in a y a - P i ta k a . I f, in th e h a n d s o f th e e a r ly ed ito rs th e seq u en ce of e v e n ts b e ca m e se c o n d a ry to sy ste m a tisa tio n , th is p la n n o n eth eless w e ll sh o w s b o th th e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d th e sta b ilis a tio n o f th e O rd er a s a u n ifo rm in s titu tio n , th e g ro w th o f se v e ra l m o n a stic p ra c tic e s, o f g o v e rn m e n t w ith in it fo r th e sa k e o f its own. p re se rv a tio n a n d co n tin u a n ce w h ich , in tu rn , d e p en d e d o n th e e ssen tia l q u a litie s o f scru p u lo u sn ess a n d s tr iv in g on th e p a r t o f th e in d iv id u a ls w h o b e ca m e its m em bers. T h e se th e re fo re

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w ere b e in g c o n tin u a lly b ro u g h t to liv e in c o n fo rm ity w ith a s ta n d a rd o f b e h a v io u r sp e c ia lly su ita b le to reclu ses, samana, an d w o r th y o f th o se w h o h a d " l e f t th e w o r ld " w ith its e v a n e sc e n t p leasu res an d its tro u b le s an d h a d in stea d en tered on a w a y o f life w h ere w o rld ly jo y s an d sorrow s w ere g ra d u a lly to be re n o u n ced so t h a t th e o th e r-w o rld ly an d h ig h er jo y th a t tra n sc e n d e d th e m co u ld b e ap p reh en d ed . F o r a c h ie v in g this, th e life o f th e O rd e r regard ed a s a w h ole c a m e to b e , n o d o u b t g ra d u a lly , p la n n ed an d a rran ged and a d a p te d to c ircu m sta n ces, w hile, ru n n in g p a ra lle l t o . such d e v e lo p m e n ts, th e life o f its m em bers becam e c a re fu lly regu la te d , T h u s the first ste p s o f a ll ad m ission an d ord in ation in to th e O rd er w ere exp erim en ted w ith u n til va rio u s typ es o f a p p lic a n ts rega rd ed a s n o t eligible fo r e n try co u ld be exclu d ed b y rules, b a se d e ith e r on exp erien ce or on fo reth o u g h t. T h is le ft th e O rd er op en o n ly to th e so rt of person w hom it w a s n o t u n re a so n a b le to suppose m ig h t b e a ssim ila ted w ith o u t b rin g in g it in to d isg race. E v e n so, th ere w ere backslid ers, as a lre a d y m en tion ed . D isgrace w o u ld h a v e been co u rted if, fo r e x a m p le , d e b to rs and th o se in th e ro y a l se rvice had been a llo w ed to escap e th e ir o b lig a tio n s b y b eco m in g m onks. T h erefo re t h e y w e re d e b a rre d fro m en terin g th e O rder. A fte r its first S e c tio n on A d m issio n an d O rd in atio n , the M a h a v a g g a proceed s to a n acco u n t o f the n a tu re and estab lish m en t o f th e grea t fo rtn ig h tly O b se rv a n ce o f uposatha, w h ose p rin c ip a l fe a tu re is th e re c ita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a rules. T h is p ro v id e s m o n k s w ith a n occasion to re v e a l a n y offence th e y m a y h a v e c o m m itte d . T h e ir silence, o n th e o th e r h a n d , is ta k e n to m ea n th a t th e y have e n tire p u rity , parisuddhi, in re sp e ct o f a d h eren ce to th e rules. A s u su al, all kin d s o f su b s id ia ry m a tte r s h ad to be defined an d regu larised in o rd er t o a c h ie v e th e sm oo th running o f th e m a in concerns. In th e case of th e U p o s a th a it w a s for e x a m p le d e t e r m i n e d th a t o n ly m o n ks liv in g w ith in th e sam e recogn ised bo u n d ary should g a th e r to g e th e r on o n U p o sa th a d a y . T h erefo re m eth o d s o f fixin g b o u n d aries h ad to be e stab lish ed . M o reo ver th e U p o sa th a c o u ld n o t b e held at som e place chosen a t random ; a place o f a m a x im u m size fo r the cu rren t needs h ad to be agreed upon w ith in each b o u n d a ry so th a t a ll th e m o n ks liv in g th ere sh ould k n o w w h ere to go a n d a rriv e in tim e. I f th e y h a d d iffic u lty

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in cro ssin g a riv e r one th a t ra n th ro u g h th e ir b o u n d a r y to g e t th ere, i t m ig h t b e a g re e d b y th e O rd e r t h a t t h e y n e e d n o t co m e b rin g in g a ll th e ir th re e robes ; b u t i f t h e y le ft th e m b e h in d t h e y m u s t n o t l a y th e m a sid e in a n u n s u ita b le p la c e w h e re t h e y m ig h t g e t lo st or b u rn t o r ea ten b y r a ts (II. 12 ). R ig h t a n d w ro n g m e th o d s of r e c itin g th e P a tim o k k h a a re g iv e n ; w h e th e r o r n o t it sh o u ld b e re c ite d in fu ll o r in b rief, w h ic h to som e e x te n t d ep en d ed o n th e a b se n ce o r p resen ce o f te n so u rces o f d a n g e r. I t w as, id e a lly , to b e re c ite d b y an e ld er (tkera ), b u t i f h e w a s in c o m p e te n t, th e n i t w a s t o be re cite d b y som e o th e r e xp erien ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k ; i f th e re w e re n o n e w ith in th e b o u n d a ry , a n e w ly o rd a in e d m o n k w a s t o b e s e n t to a n e ig h b o u rin g resid en ce to le a m i t th e r e , e ith e r in f r ill o r in b rie f, a n d th e n re tu rn (I I . 17. 6). I f a m o n k , o w in g to illn ess, c o u ld n o t a tte n d th e r e c ita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a , he h a d to se n d h is " e n tire p u r it y " , pari&uddhi, b y a n o th e r. T h is m o n k c o n v e y e d i t o n b e h a lf o f th e o n e w h o w a s i ll a n d d e cla re d it (datum) to th e O r d e r ; b u t m a n y occasio n s are p o site d w h e n th e e n tire p u r it y co m es t o be n o t c o n v e y e d o n a c co u n t o f a v a r ie ty o f th in g s t h a t m ig h t h a p p e n to th e c o n v e y e r b o th w h ile o n his w a y fro m th e in v a lid to th e m e e tin g -p la ce a n d a fte r his a rriv a l th e re b u t b e fo re he h a d g iv e n th e e n tire p u r ity . This., and th e c o n v e y a n c e a n d g iv in g , o r d e cla ra tio n o f th e co n sen t (chandam ddtutn) on b e h a lf o f a m o n k w h o is ill fo r th e c a rry in g out o f a fo r m a l a c t o f th e O rd er, se rv e to sh o w h o w e x tr e m e ly im p o rta n t i t w a s h e ld t o be a p o in t stressed o v e r a n d o v e r a g a in t h a t a n O rd e r sh o u ld be ** co m p le te w h e n e v e r its b usin ess w a s b e in g d isch a rg ed . T h is w a s n o t t o fa ll in to th e hands o f th e fe w . E v e n th o se w h o, lik e M a h a k a p p in a , c la im e d to be " p u rifie d w ith th e h ig h e st p u r ity " (II. 5. 5), w ere n o t n o t to g o . F o r a n O rd e r w o u ld n o t h a v e b een co m p le te i f e v e n one m o n k w e re a b se n t. I t w o u ld seem th a t th e o n ly reason s for n o t g o in g to th e O b se rv a n ce in p erso n w e re severe illn ess a n d m a d n ess. In th e fo rm er c a se th e O rd e r c o u ld b e re g a rd e d a s co m p le te a lth o u g h in fa c t n o t co m p le te , p ro v id e d th a t th e e n tire p u r it y a n d th e co n sen t w e re p ro p e rly a n d s a fe ly c o n v e y e d a n d d e cla re d . I n th e la tte r , th e O rd er m u s t g ra n t th e m a d m o n k , h ere ty p ifie d b y G a g g a , th e ag reem en t fo r a m a d m a n . T h is a g re e m e n t is to the e ffect th a t w h e th e r th e m a d m o n k rem em b ers th e

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O b se rv a n c e or n o t, c o m e s fo r it or n o t, w h e th e r he rem em bers a form ed a c t o f th e O rd e r o r n o t, co m es fo r it o r n o t, th e O rd e r e ith e r w ith him or w ith o u t h im c a n le g itim a te ly c a r r y o u t b o th th e O b se rv a n c e a n d th e form al a c t. S u c h are so m e o f th e item s a n d p ro b lem s w h ich h a d to be se ttle d a n d so lv ed b e fo re th e recital o f th e P a tim o k k h a re ce iv e d its fin a l fo rm . T d o n o t re ca p itu la te a ll th ese here, fo r th e y m a y b e re ad in th e t e x t . T h o se I h a v e g iv e n m a y b e reg a rd e d a s ty p ic a l o f th e c a re ta k e n to fo re s ta ll a n d c irc u m v e n t d e lete rio u s co n tin g e n cies th a t m ig h t arise a n d , d is ru p t th e m o n k 's s ta n d in g e ith e r in h is ow n eye s o r in th o se o f h is fe llo w s or th o se o f th e w o rld . T h e stre n g th o f th e re g u la tio n s g o v e rn in g m o n a stic p ro ce ed in g s an d in d iv id u a l co n d u c t lies in th e sta n d a rd or criterio n t h e y g iv e o f h o w to a c t in a m u ltitu d e o f c irc u m sta n c e s a ffe c tin g a m o n k s life. W h e n th e M a h a v a g g a com es to d e a l w ith th e r a in y season it p a y s a lm o st e q u a l a tte n tio n to e n te rin g on th e ra in s a n d th e n k e e p in g th em b y resid in g in one m o n a ste ry fo r e ith e r th e first th re e o r th e seco n d th re e o f th e fo u r m o n th s o f th is perio d , as i t does to th e jo u rn e y s m o n ks m a y ta k e a w a y fro m th e ir rain s-resid en ce. T h e p rim e m o tiv e u n d e rly in g th e esta b lish m e n t o f rain s-resid en ces w as p ro te c tio n or n o n -in ju ry : th e p ro te ctio n o f cro p s th e econom ic m a in sp rin g o f life a n d th e p ro te c tio n o f th e te e m in g sm a ll c re a tu re s th a t som e P a c ittiy a s also se e k to sa fe g u a rd . O n e of th e resu lts o f th is a n x ie ty n o t to h a rm v e g e ta b le o r a n im a l life, a n d w h ic h som etim es re ce ive d a n im p etu s fro m th e criticism s th e la ity m ad e, w a s th e allo w an ce g iv e n m o n ks an d n u n s to en ter on th e rain s, fo llo w ed b y a n a tte m p t to im m o b ilise th e m durin g th is season. B u t restric tio n s su ch as th is la t t e r were a t v a ria n ce w ith th e im m ense v it a lit y th e O rd ers possessed, as is sh ow n b y th e num erous o ccasio n s w h en it is d eem ed not o n ly perm issib le b u t d esirable fo r m o n k s to le a v e th e rains-residence on v a rio u s kin d s o f m o n a stic business o r o n co m p assio n ate m issions. E v e n a s life m u st g o on, so the O rd e rs business m u st go on. A n d th e life o f th is sm a lle r w o rld w ith in th e la rg er o n e co u ld n o t close d ow n e n tire ly fo r a th ird o f e a ch y e a r 1 ; m o n ks w ere to o m uch
1 T i l t rain s la ste d for lo u r m on ths. E a c h m o u lt co u ld ch oose w h e th e r lie w o u ld o b se r v e th e f a s t ttiree m o n th s or th e second th ree m on th s, b u t b e w as n o t e x p e c te d to o b serve alt four.

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in v o lv e d with, th e w o rld outsid e, t h e y w ere d e p en d e n t on it (III. 10.11. 4)j a n d h a d c o m m itm en ts to w a rd s it* a n d th e ir liv e s w ere to o m u ch in te rlo c k e d w ith th o se o f th e la ity to m a k e this fe a sib le. A co m p ro m ise h a d th erefo re to be fo u n d betw een , on th e one h an d , s ta y in g m a residence for th e w h o le o f th e three m o n th s of th e ra in s, w h e re b y th e m in im u m o f h a rm w o u ld b e b ro u g h t to th e cro p s and th e life o f m in u te crea tu re s, an d , on th e o th er, le a v in g th e residence fo r business w h ich m ig h t re a s o n a b ly be reg a rd e d as u rgen t. T h is co m p ro m ise w a s e ffecte d b y lim itin g th e tim e o f a b sen ce to se v e n d a y s ; and th e business c a llin g for a m o n k 's p resen ce b e in g c a r e fu lly d efined, if he c o u ld n o t tr a n s a c t it w ith in th is tim e , he sh o u ld n o t u n d e rta k e it a t all. T h e en d o f th e rain s w a s m a rk ed b y tw o cerem onies. O n e of th ese w a s th e P a v a r a n a , w h en m o n ks in v ite d one a n o th e r to sp eak o f offences th e y h a d seen, h e a rd or su sp e c te d t o h a v e been c o m m itte d d u rin g th e rain s. T h e re cita l o f th e P a tira o k k h a w a s to " rem o ve offences, b y co n fessin g th em , d u rin g th e nine d r y m on th s o f th e y e a r ; th e I n v ita tio n w a s to re m o ve a n y offences th a t m o n ks had co m m itte d d u rin g th e th re e w et m on th s, an d w o u ld h e lp th em to a im a t g ra sp in g d iscip lin e ( r v , 1 . 1 3 ). T h e o th e r cerem o n y h e ld a t the en d o f th e rain s w a s n o t d is c ip lin a ry in n a tu re o r con n ected w ith th e confession o f offences. Tt w a s fo r th e m akin g u p o f th e kathhui c lo th , or c o tto n c lo th th a t h a d a c cru e d b y w a y o f g ift to th e m o n ks, in to robes to re p la ce those th a t had b eco m e th in a n d s h a b b y or sp o iled b y th e rain s (S ectio n V II). T h u s th e rep len ish m en t o f ro b e-m a te ria l com es u n d er co n sid era tio n , a n d h a d to be m a n a g ed in a n o rd e rly a n d p rescrib ed w a y . F u rth e r, v a rio u s officers w ere crea ted fo r lo o k in g a fte r ro b em a te ria l : the a cce p to r, th e g u a rd ia n , th e d is t r ib u t o r ; places su ita b le fo r store-room s are p rescribed : d y e s a n d m e th o d s of d y e in g la id d o w n ; th e u se of three ro b es o n ly (one d o u b T ed h ow ever) a llo w ed ; w h ile th e kinds o f m ed icin e m o n ks m ig h t ta k e are d iscussed in co n sid erab le d e ta il. T h e kin d s o f shoes a n d sa n d a ls th e y m ig h t w ea r, a n d th e u se t h e y m ig h t m a k e o f a n im a ls' sk in s are tre a te d w ith eq u al precision. B o t h o f these ca te g o rie s n o d o u b t sp rin g from th e d esire n o t to ta k e life, h o w ev er in fin itesim a l. W o o d en shoes, or clo gs, are o b je c te d to

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b ecau se if m o n k s w o re th e m and ste p p e d on in se cts t h e y m ig h t k ill th e m (V . 6. 3}, besides d istu rb in g m o n ks w h o w ere m e d ita tin g . F u r th e r , sa n d a ls m ad e o f y o u n g p a lm y r a p alm s a n d y o u n g b a m b o o s ca m e to be fo rb id d en a fte r peo p le h a d c o m p la in e d to m o n k s th a t, m c u ttin g these d o w n , th e y w ere d e stro y in g life th a t w a s o n e-facu ltied . O th e r co m p la in ts m u st a lso h a v e te n d e d to redu ce ih e sla u g h ter o f an im als. R u g s or g a rm e n ts ( V I I I . 28. 2) m ad e o f b la c k a n te lo p e sk in w ere fo rb id d e n to m o n k s a n d also sh eets m a d e o f the hid e o f th e K a d a li d eer (V . 10. 4), a n d it becam e a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g to reclin e u p o n th e h id es o f lion s, tig e r s a n d le o p a rd s (V . 10. 6} o r o f sm a lle r a n im als. C o w h id es w e re fo rb id d en b ecau se sca n d a lise d m o n k s fo u n d th a t one o f th e ir n u m b e r h a d in cited a d e p ra v e d l a y fo llo w e r to k ill a c a lf fo r his b en efit, a n d t h e y rem em b ered t h a t G o ta m a had co n d em n ed " o n sla u g h t on c re a tu re s B u t , a t th e en d of S e c tio n V , an e x ce p tio n is m ade in fa v o u r o f th e b o rd er d istricts (V . 13. 13) w h ere, b ecau se o f th e h a rd sh ip s and d isco m fo rt, th e h id es o f sheep, g o a ts and d eer w ere a llo w ed to b e used as co verin g s. T h e la s t tw o S e ctio n s o f th e M a h a v a g g a p o in t to an O rd er th a t w a s in d u b ita b ly g ro w in g a n d th a t, in ord er to m eet th is exp a n sio n , h ad to b e c a re fu lly co n tro lled . S ectio n I X en gages o n a th o ro u g h d iscu ssio n o f w h a t it is th a t c o n stitu te s v a lid a s a g a in st in v a lid fo rm a l a c ts th a t a n O rd er c a n c a r r y o u t. In th e first p la ce a n O rd e r to c a rry o u t a le g a lly v a lid fo rm a l a c t m u s t b e co m p le te ; th o se m o n ks n o t a b le to b e p re se n t because o f illness m u st se n d th e ir le a v e fo r a b sen ce, an d th o se w h o are p resen t m u s t n o t p ro te st ag ain st the p roceed in gs. A " co m p lete O rd er " also refers, a s before, to th e one resid in g w ith in a d e term in e d b o u n d a ry . T h e a ctio n s a n d business o f e v e r y su ch O rd er m u st be tra n s a c te d on a u n ifo rm p a tte rn , a n d conform to one u n ifo rm sta n d a rd , so th a t e a ch O rd er tra n sa c ts its business in th e sam e w a y as e v e ry o th e r, all fo llo w in g th e sam e re g u la tio n s. T h is m u s t therefore b e d o n e, in th e second p lace, dham m ena, r ig h tly , p ro p e rly , b y ru le . T o c a r ry o u t a fo rm a l a c t dhammena, b y rule, m eans th a t if it is to be ca rrie d out b y a m o tio n a n d one resolution] Hattidutiya, the m o tion m u st be p u t a n d th e reso lu tio n proposed once o n ly . B u t if it is t o be c a rrie d o u t b y a m o tio n and a reso lu tio n p u t th re e tim es, naUicatuUha, th e n th is m u st b e d o n e, in a ll cases th e m otion

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b e in g p u t b efo re th e re so lu tio n is p ro cla im ed . T h e fo rm a l a c t w ill th e n be irre v e rsib le , fit to sta n d , a n d p ro te sts a g a in s t its v a lid ity o f no a v a il. Im m en se pain s are ta k e n to d istin g u ish a fo rm a l a c t ca rrie d o u t in a co m p le te a ss e m b ly a n d b y ru le from one c a rrie d o u t in a n in com p lete a ss e m b ly a n d e ith e r b y w h a t h as th e a p p e a ra n ce o f ru le or n o t b y rule. T h e fo r m a l a c ts u n d er th e ju risd ic tio n o f a n O rd er n u m b e r six te e n . T h e y co m p rise {IX . 4 . i ) : in v ita tio n , re h a b ilita tio n , o rd in a tio n , but o n ly a n O rd er co n sistin g o f tw e n ty m o n k s o r m ore c a n c a r ry o u t a ll o f these. T h e y a lso in clu d e v e r d ic ts o f in n o cen ce, o f p a st in sa n ity , sp ecific d e p r a v ity , fo rm a l a c ts o f suspen sion fo r not seein g a n offence, fo r n o t m a k in g a m e n d s fo r it , fo r n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w ; a n d o f b a n ish m en t, cen su re, p la c in g u n d er g u id a n c e , re co n cilia tio n , sending one w h o m erits p ro b a tio n b a c k to th e b e g in n in g , an d th e im p o sin g o f mdnatta (tw o fe a tu re s in th e p e n a lty fo r S a m g h M is e sa offences). W h en circu m sta n ces ju s tify , these fo rm a l a c ts m a y be re v o k e d b y th e O rder. F in a lly , th e te n th and la st S ectio n strik e s a d iffe re n t n o te a gain b y p ro m u lg a tin g reg u la tio n s an d a d v ice fo r a lla y in g schism s. T h ese m ig h t a rise th ro u g h g e n u in e d isa g re e m e n t u p on w h a t c o n stitu te d a n offence a n d w h a t d id n o t, o r upon the p a rtic u la r kin d o f offen ce in cu rred b y a p a rtic u la r a c tio n ; o r w h e n fa ctio n s form ed to su p p o rt a m o n k or m o n k s w h o h ad q u a rrelled w ith th e ir fe llo w s from o th e r cau ses, a m o n g w h ich m u s t b e in clu d ed th e p o s itiv e w ish to c re a te a sch ism , a w ish p u t in to p ra c tic e b y , fo r e x a m p le , su sp en d in g a m o n k fo r an offence he h ad n o t c o m m itte d a n d th a t he th e re fo re refu sed to see as a n o ffen ce o f his. O n one su c h an o cca sio n G o ta m a is re p u te d to h a v e trie d , u n su cce ssfu lly , to m a k e th e b ic k e rin g m o n k s co m p o se th eir d ifferen ces b y te llin g th em a J a t a k a s to r y illu s tra tin g th e co n q u est o f w ra th b y n o n -w ra th {X . 2). T h e M a h a v a g g a th erefo re c o n ta in s dhamma. o r d o ctrin e as w e ll as d iscip lin e. In d e ed th e la tte r w ou ld be n u g a to r y if it w ere n ot based on th e fo rm er a n d p ro m u lg a te d in c o n ju n c tio n w ith it. H o w g re a t is th e c o n tra s t betw een th e q u a rrelso m e m o n k s of K osarnbI w h o se b ra w ls a n d dissensions cau sed G o ta m a to seek so litu d e lik e th e g r e a t buH -elep han t w h o w a s b eset a n d a n n o y e d b y th e re st o f th e herd (X . 4-. 6), a n d th e p e a c e a b le m o n k s, A n u ru d d h a , N a n d iy a and K im b ila w h o liv e d h a rm o n io u sly

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to g e th e r a s m ilk a n d w a te r blen d , re ga rd in g on e a n o th e r w ith th e e y e o f a ffectio n , fu ll o f a m ity in g e stu re , sp eech a n d th o u g h t, su rren d erin g th e ir m in d s to each o th e r an d so , a lth o u g h h a v in g d iffere n t bodies, h a v in g o n ly one m in d (ndnd h i kho no kaya ekan ca p an a m anne cittam , X , 4 , 34). T h e M a h a v a g g a d eals w ith a tim e w h en , a t th e b eg in n in g o f G o ta m a s m in istry , th e n u m b er o f m o n k s an d n u n s too w a s fa s t in crea sin g , an d w h e n th e y , tra v e llin g to m ore d is ta n t p a rts o f In d ia , b o re th e n ew d o ctrin e w ith th em an d so sta rte d th e in flu x o f m em bers th a t has gone on u n til to -d a y . I f th e g e o g ra p h ic a l exp a n sio n o f the O rd e r ca n b e g a u g e d b y th e re la x a tio n s in th e ru les fo r the o u tly in g d is tric ts or border co u n trie s, m a d e n e c e s sa ry b y th e co n d itio n s p re v a ilin g th ere, h a rd e r th a n those o f th e M iddle C o u n tr y w h ere o th erw ise th e scene is la id p rin c ip a lly a t R a ja g a h a , also a t S a v a tth i, VesalT, K a p ila v a tth u a n d o th e r n eig h b o u rin g p la c e s its n u m erica l e xp a n sio n can e q u a lly w e ll be g a u g e d b y th e aw aren ess o f sch ism s arisin g to th e d a n g e r an d d e trim e n t o f th e O rd er, and w h ich c o u ld o n ly h a v e occurred som e tim e a fte r its fo rm a tio n . A lth o u g h th e b e g in n in g o f th e M a h a v a g g a g iv e s n o t o n ly an im p ressio n b u t an a c co u n t of a n O rd er e x p a n d in g a n d ta k in g shape im m e d ia te ly a fte r it s in cep tio n , th e rem ain d er appears to refer to a tim e w h en th e O rd er a lr e a d y h ad a con sid erable a m o u n t o f h isto ry beh in d it, and to a tim e th erefo re w h e n m a n y rules h ad been la id d o w n and w h en , in sp ite o f a tte m p te d schism s, a ce rta in a m o u n t o f s ta b ility h a d been a c h iev ed in th e m a tte r o f th e O rd e rs g o v e rn m e n t an d legislatio n . T h is m a y to som e e x te n t b e ju d g e d , fo r e x a m p le , b y the n u m b er of tim es, thirteen in all, th a t the p h r a s e yathddhammo kdretabbo, sh o u ld b e d ealt w ith a cco rd in g to th e rule, occurs. T h e rule referred to w ill in e a ch case be found co m p le te w ith th e p e n a lty in cu rre d fo r in frin g in g it , in the V ib h a n g a s. T h a t th e use o f th is p h ra se assu m es th e p rio r existen ce o f th e ru le is con firm ed , in a d d itio n , b y th e fa c t th a t the m a te ria l co n tain ed in the M a h a v a g g a is p la ced in th e p alm -leaf M SS. a fte r th e M aha{or B h ik k h u -) an d B h ik k h u n i-V ib h a n g a s. A lth o u g h th is seq u en ce is n o t foE ow ed b y O ld en berg in his ed itio n o f th e V inaya P ita k a m , it is t h a t T igh tiy a d o p te d in th e V in a y a T e x ts f fo r here th e V ib h a n g a fo r m onks, a lth o u g h d ra s tic a lly curtailed^ preced es th e M a h a v a g g a t h a t fo r nuns b ein g o m itted e n tire ly

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T h e q u e stio n th e n a rise s w h y . in th e m id d le o f th e V in a y a , a n a c c o u n t is in c o rp o ra te d o f th e v e r y first e v e n ts in th e h is to ry o f th e S a m g h a " ( V in . T exts i. 7 z . n .). R h y s D a v id s a n d O ldenberg; th in k i t n a tu ra l * to c o n n e c t " th e sto ries or le g en d s c o n cern in g th e o rd in a tio n o f b h ik k h u s w ith th ese e a r ly e v e n ts b e cau se, so t h e y a rg u e , *' i t w a s im p o ssib le to realise th e id e a o f a S a m g h a w ith o u t ru le s sh o w in g w h o w a s to b e re g a rd e d as a d u ly a d m itte d m e m b e r o f th e fr a te r n ity , an d who w as not I ag ree th a t th is p ro v id e s a g o o d reaso n fo r p re fa c in g th e reco rd o f th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e first a n d m o st v it a l ste p in a m o n k 's life b y a sh o rt h is to r y o f h o w th ere ca m e to be a life fo r m o n k s a t all. F ro m th e ir a d m issio n a n d o rd in a tio n , a ll th e re st fo llo w s- A t th e sa m e tim e m a n y sto ries are in tersp e rse d th ro u g h o u t th e w hole o f th e V in a ya , e x c e p tin g th e P a r iv a r a . N o t o n ly are there se v e ra l in th e M a h a v a g g a itse lf, fo r e x a m p le a b o u t A m b a p a li a n d th e L ic c h a v is , a b o u t J iv a k a K o m a r a b h a c c a , V is a k h a , M endaka,. D ig h a v u , a n d a b o u t P ilin d a v a c c h a , a n d a b o u t th e b o y U p a li {both to ld elsew h ere in th e V inaya), a n d co u n tle ss sh o rter ones, b u t e v e r y ru le in th e V ib h a n g a s 4s in tro d u ce d b y som e s to r y , lo n g o r s h o r t, a s th e case m a y be. T h is b e in g so, it seem s n o t o n ly n a tu r a l b u t lo g ic a l to in tro d u ce th e rules g o v e rn in g th e in itia l a n d m o st im p o rta n t ste p in a m o n k 's life b y a n a c c o u n t o f th e fir s t e v e n ts w h ic h o ccu rre d a fte r th e suprem e m o m e n t w h e n G o ta m a a tta in e d fu ll se lf-a w a k e n in g . Since th is w a s th e in itia l a n d m ost im p o rta n t ste p in a B u d d h a 's ca re e r, to re co u n t i t w a s th erefo re th e g re a te st o f a ll sto ries a B u d d h is t b o o k *' co u ld te ll. T h e M a h a v a g g a p o s s ib ly d erives its n a m e fro m t h a t o f its first S e c tio n , th e M a h a k h a n d h a k a , th e G re a t (or G re ate r) S ectio n b ecau se it d e a ls w ith grea t (or g rea te r) e v e n ts. T h e p la n o f n a m in g a D iv is io n a ft e r its first S e c tio n , o r a S e c tio n a fte r it s first c h a p te r, is o f fa ir ly c o m m o n o ccu rren ce in th e P ita k a s , a n d w a s p e rh a p s a d o p te d here. O n th e o th e r h a n d , it m ig h t b e co n ced e d t h a t th e M a h a v a g g a , in c lu d in g a s it does m a tte r co n c e rn e d w it h ad m ission a n d o rd in a tio n , w ith th e U p o s a th a , P a tim o k k h a , P avaran a. a n d K a t h in a cerem o n ies, th e cla rifica tio n o f w h a t a re v a lid fo rm a l a c ts , a n d th e w a y s o f d e a lin g w ith a sch ism , c o n ta in s su b je c ts e x c e e d in g in im p o rta n c e th o se c o n ta in e d in th e C u la v a g g a . I t is a g a in p o ssib le th a t

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th e C u la v a g g a w a s re g a rd e d a s th e ""L e ss * o r " L esse r o r th e S m a ll D iv is io n b e ca u se o f its tw o S e ctio n s o n th e C o u n cils o f R a j a g a h a a n d V e sa ll. A s th e first o f th ese p u rp o rts to h a v e been c o n v e n e d s h o r tly a fte r G o ta m a h a d d ied , a n d th e secon d a c e n tu r y la te r , th e C n la v a g g a ta k e s u s to a tim e w hen he, as th e liv in g fo u n t o f a u th o rity , w a s no lo n g e r p ro m u lg a tin g d iscip lin e, a n d w h en d iscip lin e w a s no lo n g e r g ro w in g . Y e t th e m ass o f th e rules a ttr ib u te d t o h im a n d h e ld to h a v e b e e n la id d ow n b y h im w h en h e w a s a liv e , m a n y large in th e ir scope, o th ers con cern ed w ith sm a ll d e tails, b u t h a v in g th eir o w n sign ifican ce non eth eless, to g e th e r y ie ld a fo rm id a b le b o d y o f th a t d iscip lin e, vinaya, w h ic h w ith d h am m a, w a s to be th e te a c h e r a fte r G o ta m a h a d p assed a w a y . T h e t e x t a t D tgha ii. 15 4 is I th in k su fficien tly clear in it s m eanin g, a lth o u g h i t h a s b e e n a ccu se d o f glo ss. I t read s yp vq A w m d a may a dhammo ca vinayo ca desito pannatto so vo m am accayena satthd. G o ta m a w a s sp e a k in g to A n a n d a , a m o n k ; he w o u ld n o t th erefo re h a v e o m itte d to sp e a k o f vinaya w h ic h , to g e th e r w ith d h a m m a , g iv e s a su rer b a sis fo r pro gress to w a rd s th e fin a l v isio n a n d u ltim a te b liss th a n d h a m m a alon e ca n g iv e . H a d th e sen ten ce ru n : y o vo m ayd dhammo ca desito vinayo ca panfiuttQ, it m ig h t h a v e b e en m ore a p p a re n t th a t th e referen ce o f th e fo llo w in g so w a s to b o th dhamma. a n d vinaya. D h a m m a is ta u g h t, desita, sh o w in g th e W a y z vinaya is la id d o w n , pailn aiia , fo r k e ep in g o n e s fo o tste p s on th e W a y b y stric t ad h eren ce to it. B o t h are satthu sasanam , th e T e a c h e r's in stru ctio n . D isc ip lin e , a s p ro m u lg a te d , is its e lf a n a u th o rity . A c c o rd in g t o th e e a r ly ed ito rs ( V i n , i, 99) th e te a c h in g w ill s ta n d firm so lo n g a s vinaya is n o t lo st e v e n if th e S u tta n ta (P itak a) and th e A b h id h a m m a b e forgotten . I t is m o reo v er ca p a b le o f a lm o st in d efin ite e xten sion and a p p lic a tio n , a n d can re g u la te ite m s o f b e h a v io u r th a t, in sp ite o f th e m u ltitu d e of rules, offen ces a n d " a llo w an ce s (anujdndm i) th a t w e re la id d ow n b y th e T e a c h e r, w ere n o t leg isla ted fo r in p a rtic u la r in h is life tim e . T h e m o n k m u st m a k e u p h is m in d a b o u t w h a t h as n o t been le g isla te d for, m e a su rin g a n y course o f a c tio n b y th e g en era l sta n d a rd of w h a t h e k n o w s to be d iscip lin e. H e m u st rem em ber th is a n d a p p ly it to h is problem . W h e n M a h a p a ja p a ti a sk e d t o b e ta u g h t d h a m m a in b rief (Vin. ii, 258) a g en era l sta n d a rd w a s g iv e n to h e r b y w h ich she m ig h t k n o w o f o th e r th in g s

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eso dhammo eso vinayo eiant satlhu sdsanatn (this is d h a m m a , th is is d iscip lin e, th is is th e T e a c h e r's in stru c tio n ). S im ila rly in th e M a h a v a g g a , w h e n som e m o n k s w ere d o u b tfu l o r h a d scru p les a b o u t w h a t h a d been a llo w e d , anunndta, a n d w h a t h a d n o t, t h e y w e re to ld t h a t a n y th in g n o t fittin g in w it h w h a t h a d b e e n a llo w ed , a n y th in g ta lly in g w it h w h a t h ad n o t b een allo w ed , w a s n o t a llo w a b le , na k ap pa ti , n o t su ita b le ; a n d th e c o n tra ry . I n th e M a h a v a g g a a lo n e th e re are a b o u t 2 So o cca sio n s w h en Gotam a., b y u tte rin g th e w o rd anu jd n d m i, I a llo w , I p e rm it, mad-e som e th in g o r so m e u sage p e rm issib le to m o n k s. T h e v a r ie ty o f cases c o v e r e d is so la rg e, ra n g in g as it d o es from a c ce p tin g a m o n a s te ry t o th e p re p a ra tio n o f a fo o t-s a lv e , from u sin g th re e ro b es to th e insertion, o f a p a tc h , fro m th e n o v ic e s tra in in g in te n ru le s to th e use of a tr o u g h fo r d y e , th a t a n y o n e a c q u a in te d w ith th e se w o u ld sta n d a g o o d ch a n c e of k n o w in g h o w to a c t in circ u m sta n c e s n o t s p e c ific a lly e ith e r a llo w e d or o b je c te d t o b y G o ta m a . O r th e y c o u ld e x te n d a n " a llo w a n c e to s u it c irc u m sta n c e s b e y o n d th o se le g is la te d for. G o ta m a him self, a s reco rd ed , o n ce g a v e a h in t in th is d ire c tio n w h en , a fte r m a k in g ten " a llo w a n c e s " fo r c u rin g a b o il a m o n k w a s su fferin g fro m , fin a lly sa id , '* I allow , m o n k s, a lin en b a n d a g e , a n d e v e r y tre a tm e n t fo r c u rin g a. sore *' (V I. 14, 4 -5 ). B e s id e s th e use o f a n ujdn dm i, th e B u d d h a is o fte n re p rese n ted a s s a y in g to m on ks, " y o u m a y o r " y o u sh o u ld n o t , a p ro h ib itio n a p t to b e fo llo w ed b y in tim a tin g th a t c o n tra v e n tio n resu lts in a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g . T h is k in d o f offen ce, w ith thullaccaya, g ra v e o ffen ces, m en tio n ed in fre q u e n tly in th is vo lu m e, a n d th re e o th e r ty p e s of o ffen ce, n o t m e n tio n e d h ere a t all, are re g a rd e d as a fa llin g a w a y fro m rig h t h a b its " {IV . 16. 12). W h e th e r G o ta m a h im self w a s resp o n sib le fo r a ll th e se a llo w a n ces a n d p ro h ib itio n s w e sh a ll p r o b a b ly n e v e r k n o w . In th e s to r y o f th e th ree m o n k s w h o h a d sp e n t th e rain s a t R a j a g a h a a n d w h o jo u rn e y e d to P a ta lip u tta to a s k eld ers re sid in g there to so lv e th e ir pro b lem th e re is a h in t th a t p o w er m ig h t b e d e leg a te d (V III. 24. 6). T h is s to r y m a y , h o w ev er, b e in c lu d e d in th e M a h a v a g g a fo r th e sim ple reaso n th a t it w a s reco rd in g e x ce p tio n a l e v e n ts. O r it m a y h a v e b e e n le ft in b e ca u se in fa c t th e p ra c tic e o f tu rn in g to others in ste a d o f to G o ta m a to

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interpret dham m a , a ru le , w as b e c o m in g m ore g e n e ra lly a d o p ted th a n is e v id e n t in th e r e s t o f th e M a h a v a g g a . I t is tr u e th a t th e re is n o t m u ch p h ilo s o p h y in th e V in a y a . I t ts b y n a tu re a s b y n a m e a b o o k or b a s k e t o f d iscip lin e. B u t a s it is r a th e r h o llo w to la y d ow n ru les fo r t r ain ing a n d for o u tw a r d b e h a v io u r w ith o u t g iv in g th e u n d e rly in g reaso n s w h y th e y sh o u ld b e o b se rv e d , it is n o t p o ssib le to e x clu d e p h ilo so p h ical c o n c e p ts c o m p le te ly fro m a " b o o k p rin c ip a lly c o n c e rn e d w ith d iscip lin e. I h a v e a lr e a d y m en tio n ed so m e of these p h ilo so p h ical co n cep ts (above, p . v iii). T h e M ahavagga, e sp e c ia lly a t it s b e g in n in g , is n o t in fa c t d e v o id o f som e o f th e n o tio n s w h ic h a re reco gn ised fe a tu re s in B u d d h is t p h ilo so p h y . I n th e first p la c e , to m e n tio n b u t a fe w e x a m p le s, th e g o a l is sp oken o f a n d is nam ed. I t is amata, d eath lessn ess, th e u n d y in g . I t s g a te s h ave b een o p en ed b y G o ta m a , th e W a y -fin d e r, so t h a t th o se who h e a r d h a m m a m a y a rriv e a t th e o b je c t o f th e ir q u e st. T h e n o tio n o f g a in in g th e g o a l b y t r a v e llin g o n a W a y b e tw e e n tw o o p p o site s is co m m o n to m a n y tra d itio n s a n d in P a li B u d d h ism fin d s exp ressio n in th e F irs t U tte ra n c e , b u t w h ic h is m e re ly o n e e x a m p le am o n g severa l th e P a li can o n c o n ta in s o f th e p h ilo so p h ica l righ tn ess o f a d o p tin g th e m ean b e tw e e n tw o o p p o sin g extrem es. T h e F ir s t S e rm o n also d efin es th e fo u r tru th s o f ill, o r th e u n satisfacto rin ess a n d su fferin g w h ic h possesses e v e r y co m p o u n d e d th in g . I t is b e c a u se th e se tru th s a re n o t u n d ersto o d or g ra sp ed th a t th e re is th is lo n g lo n g fa rin g -o n (in sam sara) " b o th fo r m e an d fo r y o u (V in . i. 330). I ll h a s to b e e ra d ic a te d b y c u ttin g off its ro o t, ig n o ra n t c ra v in g , b efo re re cu rre n t b irth , a gain -b eco m in g, punabbhava, ca n be sto p p ed , an d d eath lessn ess w on. T h en , th e y o u n g m e n are to ld , in a p assag e t h a t w ith th e p a ssin g o f tim e h a s b e co m e co n tro v e rsia l, th a t th e y sh ould seek , gaveseyydiha, th e self, atidnam (singular). A n y o n e a c q u a in te d w ith th e im p o rta n ce o f A tm a n , self, in th e U p a n ish a d s m ig h t b e in clin ed to th in k t h a t th is w a s th e g re a te st o f a ll p h ilo so p h ica l co n c e p ts in A n c ie n t In d ia. V a rio u s p assages in th e P a li ca n o n , in c lu d in g th e A t t a v a g g a o f th e Dhammapada-, sh o u ld n o t b e ign ored in e stim a tin g th e p o sitio n o f atta a s a p h ilo so p h ica l co n ce p t in E a r ly B u d d h is m . T h e S e co n d U tte r an ce, fo r e x a m p le , la y s th e idea o f se lf beside th a t o f n o t-self w h en it s a y s in its o p e n in g w ords ; rupatn bhihkhave anaiid,

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ritpaH ca h ' idam bhikkhave atia abhavissat " m a te ria l sh ap e (or b o d y ), m o n ks, is n o t self, for if, m o n k s, m a te ria l sh ap e h a d been se lf . . a n d s im ila rly o f th e fo u r o th e r kha-ndhas : if th e y h a d b een s e lf t h e y w o u ld n o t b e a s w e k n o w t h e m : im p e rm a n en t, su fferin g a n d lia b le to a lte ra tio n . E v e r y t h in g th a t is co m p o u n d e d o r c o n stru c te d is n o t-self. W h a t is co n stru c te d is to b e esca p e d from (U ddna, So) ; a n d t h e self is to b e so u g h t (V i a . i. 23), th a t self w h ic h th e re fo re b y in feren ce is n o t m a d e , is n o t co m p o u n d ed , a n d w h ic h is u n a ffe c te d b y kam m a, th e d eed s o r a c tio n s d on e in a series o f in d iv id u a l liv e s w h ile th e b e in g is b o u n d to sam sara, satto sathsdraift dpadi <s. i. 38). ' T h e m essage o f th e T h ir d U tte r a n c e is th a t if one tu rn s a w a y from fe e lin g s of p leasu re a n d p a in d e riv e d fro m th e im p in g em e n t o f th e s ix fo ld se n so ry d a ta o n th e ir a p p ro p ria te sen se-organ s, th e n o n e k n o w s th a t one is freed and co m p re h e n d s t h a t b irth (rebirth) is d e stro y e d , t h e w a lk to th e H ig h e st is b ro u g h t to a close, d o n e is w h a t w a s t o b e d one, a n d th e re is n o w n o m ore o f b e in g th is or th a t {V in . i. 3435). T h e c o n te n t o f th is D is q u is itio n on B u rn in g is p u r e ly p h ilo so p h ica l. N o r w ill th e v a rio u s allu sio n s to ca u se a n d d e p en d e n t o rig in a tio n b e m issed . T h e w h o le s y s te m w a s b a se d on ca u se : if th is c o m e s to b e th a t w ill com e to b e. D isc ip lin e th e re fo re w ill lea d to so m e th in g n o t y e t e x is tin g fo r th e m an w h o is e a rn e s tly training; in it a n d c u ltiv a tin g it. T h e B u d d h a w o u ld n o t h a v e sp e n t so m u ch tim e in la y in g d o w n ru le s a n d p re cep ts unless h e h a d th o u g h t t h e y w ou ld b e e ffe c tiv e in th e q u e st for th e g o al. A t th e to p o f e a c h rig h t h a n d p a g e th e c h a p te r n u m b er a n d p a ra g ra p h n u m b e r o f e a c h S e ctio n a re g iv en . T h e figu re s in h e a v y t y p e in sq u a re b ra c k e ts in th e b o d y o f th e t e x t re fer to th e p a g e n u m bers o f O ld e n b e rg s V in a y a P ita k a m , V o lu m e I, a n d are p la c e d so a s t o m a r k th e en d o f e a c h su c h p age. I g r a te fu lly a c k n o w le d g e th e ca re a n d a tte n tio n g iv e n b y th e B u rle ig h P ress to th e p ro d u c tio n o f th is v o lu m e .
I. B . H
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London, February t 1 9 5 1 .

C O N T E N T S T r a n s la to r s In tro d u c tio n v

M AHAVAGGA : 1. II. I ir . IV . V. V I. V IE . V III. IX . X. T h e G re a t S e c tio n O b se rv a n c e The R a in s I n v ita tio n O n H id e s O n M ed icin es O n K a th in a i - 130 183 208 336 - 269 - 351 379 446 483

O n K o b e -M a te ria l

O n (th e m o n k s a t) C am p a

O n (th e m o n k s of) K o sa m b i -

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S o m e P a li W o rd s d iscussed in th e N o te s A b b r e v ia tio n s used in the N o te s -

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(M A H A V A G G A )

P ra ise to the Lord, the Perfected One, the F u lly Self-A. wakened O ne. A t o n e tim e 1 th e a w a k e n e d one, th e T o rd , b e in g re c e n tly f u lly a w a k e n e d , w a s s ta y in g a t U r u v e la on th e b a n k o f th e r iv e r N e r a n ja r a a t th e fo o t o f the T ree o f A w a k e n in g .* T h e n th e Lord, s a t cro ss-leg g ed in o n e (p o stu re)3 fo r se v e n d a y s a t th e fo o t o f th e T re e o f A w a k e n in g 4 e x p e rie n c in g th e b liss o f fre ed o m .* || I || T h e n th e L o rd d u rin g th e first w a tc h o f th e n ig h t p a id a tte n tio n t o 0 c a u s a l u p risin g in d ire c t a n d re ve rse o rd er : c o n d itio n e d b y ig n o ra n c e 7 are th e h a b itu a l ten d en cies ; c o n d itio n e d b y th e h a b itu a l te n d en cie s is c o n s c io u s n e s s * ; c o n d itio n e d b y co n scio u sn ess is p s y c h o - p h y s ic a lity 10 ; co n d itio n e d b y p s y c h o - p h y s ic a lity are th e s ix (sense-) s p h e r e s ; c o n d itio n e d b y th e s ix (sense-) spheres is a w a re n e ss11 ; c o n d itio n e d b y a w a re n ess is fe e lin g ; c o n d itio n e d b y fe e lin g 12 is c ra v in g ; c o n d itio n e d b y c r a v in g is g ra s p in g ; c o n d itio n e d b y g ra sp in g is b e c o m in g ; c o n d itio n e d b y b e co m in g is b i r t h ; c o n d itio n e d b y b ir th , o ld age a n d d y in g , g rief, so rro w a n d la m e n ta tio n , su fferin g , d e je c tio n an d d e sp a ir co m e in to b ein g .
I F r o m h ere t o th e en d o l ( 18. 3 fl t f . Ud. p . 1 -3 . 1 la r g e ly fo llo w tr a n s la tio n a t V e t. U p lift, w h ic h also see for n otes. * bjdhirU':kha is t lie B o -tr e e , ficu s K lig io s a . V A . 03 s a y s '' bodki La k n o w le d g e o f t h e fo u r w a y s ; t h e lord a tta in e d t h a t a w a k en in g ' here, so th e tre acq uired tins n a m e o f t h e tr e e of a w a k e n in g ." C f. M A . ill. 3 * 6 a n d

54 * ska-Palla^ksna.

* bodhtrukkhafniiJe cf. bodMyd mitfe a t P fs . i. 1 74 s= N d . L 458 ; ftryl bodhim ille a t S n A . 32. 39 1. 6 viinuitisukha., manasdJidsi, w o r k e d w ith t h e m in d . 7 The ' c a u s a l ch a in " o cc u rs, w ith e x p la n a tio n s o f its term s, a t S . U. I ff. S e e a lso M rs. R h y s D a v id s , M a n u a l, p . 76 S . * Sankhara. * vinHana. S e e M rs. R h y s D a v id s , Manual^ p p . 7 7 , 1 g o ; I n d ia n R elig io n and Survival, p . 6 6 ; O rig in a l G ospel, pp. 6 3 . i n , 1 1 4 : D ia l. H. 2 n d edn. P r e fa c e , p . ix . fo r t h e v i e w t h a t v i t i n i f a h a s a m e a n in g o f " m a n a s s u r v i v i n g ." 10 namarUpa, n a m e a n d sh ap e. I I phassa, p e r h a p s c o n ta c t. I t is t h e k n o w n or re a lise d im p in g e m e n t o f a aen se -d atu m o n it s a p p r o p r ia te sense-organ . 11 F r o m h ere t o " d e je c tio n a n d d esp air co m e in to b e i n g " , cf. D . i. 45.

BO OK

OF

D I S C I P L I N E

S u ch is th e a risin g o f th is en tire m a ss o f ill. B u t from th e u tte r fa d in g a w a y a n d sto p p in g o f th is v e r y ign oran ce (comes) th e sto p p in g o f h a b itu a l ten d en cies ; from th e sto p p in g o f h a b itu a l ten d en cies th e sto p p in g o f consciousness ; from th e sto p p in g o f co n sciou sn ess1 th e sto p p in g o f p s y c h o -p h y sic a lity ; from th e sto p p in g o f p s y c h o -p h y s ic a lity th e sto p p in g o f th e s ix (sense-) sp heres ; fro m "the sto p p in g o f th e s ix (sense-) sp h eres th e sto p p in g o f aw areness ; fro m th e sto p p in g o f a w a re n ess th e sto p p in g o f feelin g ; fro m th e sto p p in g o f fe elin g th e sto p p in g o f c ra v in g ; from th e sto p p in g o f c r a v in g th e sto p p in g o f g ra sp in g ; fro m th e sto p p in g o f g ra sp in g th e sto p p in g o f b eco m in g ; from th e sto p p in g o f b eco m in g th e sto p p in g o f b ir th ; from th e sto p p in g o f b irth , o ld age a n d diring, g rief, so rro w a n d la m e n ta tio n , sufferin g, d ejectio n a n d d e sp a ir are sto p p e d . S u c h is th e sto p p in g o f th is en tire m ass o f ill. I I ^ II [1] T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g u n d ersto o d th is m a tte r, a t th a t tim e u tte re d th is (solem n) u tte ra n ce : " T r u ly , w h en th in g s3 g ro w p la in to th e ard en t m e d ita tin g b ra h m a n , H is d o u b ts a ll v a n ish in th a t h e co m p reh en d s th in g -w ith ca n se ." jj 3 || T h e n th e L o r d d u rin g th e m id dle w a tc h o f th e n ig h t p a id a tte n tio n t o cau sal u p risin g in d ire ct an d reverse o rd er : co n d itio n e d b y ig n o ra n ce are th e h a b itu a l ten d en cies ; co n d itio n ed b y th e h a b itu a l ten d en cies is consciousness. . . . S u ch is th e arisin g. . . . S u c h is the sto p p in g o f th is e n tire m ass o f ill. II 4 H , T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g u n d ersto o d th is m a tte r, a t th a t tim e u tte re d th is (solem n) u t t e r a n c e : " T r u ly , w h en th in g s g ro w p la in to th e a rd en t m e d ita tin g hra h m a.11, H is d o u b ts a ll va n ish in th a t he d iscern s d e stru ctio n o f c a u se . 1 1 5 II
1 F r o m here to th e en d o f t h e p ara gra p h cf. D . ii. 35. * dkam m d. A c c o r d in g t o V A - 954-5 th e (th irty -seven ) th in g s h elp fu l t o a w a k e n in g a n d t h e fo u r a r iy a n tr e e th in g s. T h e s e Last are n o t n ecessarily t h e fo u r tr u th s cJ ill. for see A * v . 56 <ttie fou r sta tio n s o i m indfulness) a n d M in . A n th . I , Tntr. p . Ii 2 . B u t see also P is . Conir., p. 1 1 8, a. I . T h is verse an d t h e t w o fo llo w in g o ccu r a t K v u , 1 S6-,

1.7 ~ 2 ,3 ]

M A H A V A G G A

T h e n th e L o rd d u rin g th e la st w a tc h o f th e n ig h t p a id a tte n tio n to ca u sa l u p risin g in d ire c t a n d re ve rse o rd e r r c o n d itio n e d b y ig n o ra n ce are th e h a b itu a l te n d en cie s ; c o n d itio n e d b y th e h a b itu a l te n d e n ce is is con sciou sn ess. . . . S u ch is th e a risin g . . . . S u ch is th e sto p p in g o f th is e n tire m ass o f ill. || 6 If T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g u n d ersto o d th is m a tte r , a t t h a t tim e u tte re d th is (solem n) u tte r a n c e : " T r u ly , w h e n th in g s g ro w p la in to th e a rd e n t m e d ita tin g b ra h m a n , R o u tin g th e h o st o f M a ra does h e sta n d L ik e a s th e sun w h en lig h tin g u p th e s k y . || 7 | | T o ld is th e T a lk o n A w a k e n in g .1 || 1 ||

T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g em erged from t h a t c o n te m p la tio n a t th e end o f seven d a y s , a p p ro a ch e d th e G o a th e rd s' Banyan fro m th e fo o t o f th e T re e o f A w a k e n in g ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h e s a t cro ss-leg g ed in one (posture) fo r se v e n d a y s a t th e fo o t o f th e G o a th e rd s B a n y a n e x p e rie n c in g th e b lis s o f freed o m . || 1 || T h e n a c e rta in b ra h m a n o f th e c la ss u tte r in g th e so u n d hum* a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h e e x c h a n g e d g re e tin g s w ith th e L o rd ; h a v in g e x c h a n g e d g re e tin g s o f frien d lin e ss a n d c o u r te s y , he sto o d a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n c e . A s he w a s sta n d in g a t a re sp e ctfu l d is ta n c e , th a t b ra h m a n [2] sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " T o w h a t e x te n t, g o o d G o ta m a , d oes one b eco m e a b ra h m a n ? A n d a g a in , w h a t a re th e th in g s w h ic h m a k e a b ra h m a n 4 ? f| z || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d th is m a tte r, a t t h a t tim e u tte re d th is (solem n) u tte ra n c e :
1 T h is is p r o b a b ly a n a b b r e v ia tio n ior ' T o ld o f AnraJcentng " : see t it le s o f 2 . 3 a n d is t h e T a lk a t t h e T r e e

* A lth o u gh U d A . 51 gives tw o more possib le exp lan ation s for th is nam e th a n V A . 957, both agree th a t goatherds used to com e and sit in t h e shade of this tree. * ktihtinkaj&iiko brS.hraiiO, See J P T S , 1^ 0 1, p . 42, and Ver. Uplift, p . 3, n. V A . 957 calls him. one w ho b elieves in. om ens th a t are seen, ditthriiMangalika, and who w alks a b o u t m akin g (the sound) hutp irc m arrogance and in anger. * brahm&na-harattd. Ud. 3 reads - hdrakd^

B O O K

OF

D I S C I P L I N E

*' T h a t b ra h m a n w h o b a rs out e v il th in gs, n o t u tte r in g th e so u n d hum 1, w it h no im p u r ity , cu rb ed -o f-self, M a ster o f Vedas, w h o liv e s th e B ra h m a -fa rin g th is is th e b ra h m a n w h o m a y r ig h tly s p e a k th e B rah m a-sp eech *, W h o h a s no b lem ish es4 an yw h e re m th e w o rld V ' ([3 )| T o ld is th e T a lk a t th e G o a th e rd s'.
|j 2 | J

T h e n th e L o rd , a t th e end o f se v e n d a y s , h a y in g em erged fro m th a t c o n te m p la tio n , ap p ro a ch ed th e M u ca lin d a (tree) fro m th e fo o t o f th e G o a th e rd s' B a n y a n ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h e sa t cro ss-leg g ed in o n e (posture) for se v e n d a y s a t th e fo o t o f th e M u c a lin d a e x p e rie n cin g th e b liss o f freed o m , j| 1 [| N o w a t th a t time a grea t sto rm arose o u t o f d u e season, fo r se v e n d a y s th e re w a s r a in y "weather, co ld w in d s a n d o v e rc a s t skies. T h e n M u ca lin d a , th e serp en t k in g , h a v in g co m e fo rth fro m h is o w n h a u n t, h a v in g e n c irc le d th e L o r d 's b o d y seven tim e s w ith his co ils, h a v in g spread a g re a t h o o d o v e r his h ead , sto o d s a y in g : " L e t n o cold (annoy) th e L o rd , le t no h eat (annoy) th e L o rd , le t n o t the to u ch o f flies, m o sq u ito es, w in d a n d h e a t or cree p in g th in g s (annoy) th e L o r d . || 2 jj T h e n M u ca lin d a , th e serpent k in g , a t th e end o f th o s e 7 se v e n d a y s, h a v in g k n o w n th a t th e sky w as d e a r a n d w ith o u t a c lo u d , h a v in g u n w o u n d h is co ils fro m th e L o r d 's b o d y , h a v in g g iv e n u p h is ow n fo rm a n d a ssu m ed a y o u th 's form , sto o d in fro n t o f th e L o rd h o n o u rin g th e L o r d w ith jo in e d p a lm s. || 3 |[ T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g u n d ersto o d th is m a tte r , a t th a t tim e u tte re d th is (solem n) u tte ra n ce :
1 nihuhurika. H e is to g iv e u p h a v in g co n fid en ce in b is su p e rs titio u s o m en s a n d form ulas, a n d t o b e lie v e in stead in t h e n ew te a c h in g . B r a h m a n " ca m e to m ean, in th is , t L e b est an d h ig h e st k in d o f m a n . a l 'gdaniaga, a s a t S n . 463, V A . 95 S sa y s th e r e ttas b e e n g o in g either to th e end b y m ean s o i t h e lo r e s {vedas), thos<s ca lle d t h e k n o w le d g e o f th e fo u r w a y s , or t o th e -end o f t h e three V e d a s. * dhnmmena so brahntafio brahtnavadatft vadeyya. V A . QJ-S = U d A . 55 t a k e th is t o m ea n he c a n r ig h t ly sa y " I am a b r a h m a n , M rs, R h y s D a v id s , M a m ta i, p . S3, tra n s la te s brahtitauXdtt b y 11 E r a h m a -fa itlx " , w it h a. n o te, p . -84, t h a t vada is e q u a lly t o b e rendered b y -c u lt o r -te a c h in g . 4 ttssdda, pro m in en ce, excresen ce ; c o n c e it, arrogan ce. V A . 958 U dA. 55 g iv e five : p a ssio n , h a tr e d , s tu p id ity , prid e, false v ie w . S n A , Ii. 521 g iv e s se ve n , en u m e ra te d a t S n A * ii, 425 as- t h e fiv e o f V A . a n d U d A . w ith t h e a d d itio n o f t h e o b s tr u c tio n s a n d w r o n g c o n d u c t. S e e m y E a r ly B u d d hist Theory 0} M a n Perfected, p_ 262 an d p . 265, n. s . _ _ * T h is ve r s e o ccu rs a t U d . p. 3, N etti . 150 . L a s t lin e Last lin e o i S n , J83, * U || t o U4I! = U d. I I . I , M u ca Jin d av ag g a ; verses q u o te d K v u . 2 i a r see P ts. C o n t*., 12 9 , n . 3. io r fu rth er references. T ta isa , o m itte d a t V itt. i. j , b u t fo u n d a t U d. io , dev a.

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m a h a v a g g a

" H a p p y h is so litu d e w h o g la d a t h e a r t H a th dham m a le a r n t a n d d o th th e v isio n see ! H a p p y is th a t b e n ig n ity to w a r d s T h e w o rld w h ic h o n n o c re a tu re w o rk e th h a rm . H a p p y th e a b sc n c e o f a ll lu s t, t h J a sc e n t P a s t a n d b e y o n d th e needs o f sense-desires. H e w h o d o th c ru sh th e g r e a t * I a m * co n ce it T h is , t r u ly th is, is h a p p in ess s u p r e m e ." || 4 J | T o ld is th e T a lk a t th e M u ca lin d a . j | 3 j| T h e n th e L o rd , a t th e en d o f s e v e n d a y s , h a v in g e m erg ed fro m t h a t c o n te m p la tio n , a p p ro a c h e d th e R a jH y a ta n a 1 fro m th e fo o t o f th e M u c a lin d a ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sa t cro ss le g g e d in one (posture) fo r se v e n d a y s a t th e fo o t o f th e R a j& y a ta n a e x p e rie n c in g th e b liss o f fre e d o m . || r || N o w [3] a t t h a t tim e* t h e m e rch a n ts T a p u ssa * a n d B h a llik a * w ere g o in g a lo n g th e h ig h -ro a d from TJkkala to t h a t d istric t.* T h e n a devata w h o w a s a b lo o d -re la tio n o f th e m e rc h a n ts T a p u ss a a n d B h a llib a sp o k e th u s t o t h e m e rc h a n ts T a p u s s a a n d B h a l l i k a : *' M y g o o d fello w s, th is L o rd , h a v in g ju s t (becom e) w h o lly a w a k e n e d , is s ta y in g a t th e fo o t o f th e R a j S y a ta n a , g o a n d se rv e th a t L o rd w ith , b a rle y -g ru e l* a n d h o n e y -b a lls, a n d th is w ill b e a blessin g a n d h a p p in e ss fo r y o u fo r a lo n g tim e ." || 2 |J T h e n th e m e rch a n ts T a p u s s a a n d B h a llik a , ta k in g b a r le y g m e l a n d h o n e y -b a lls, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , t h e y s to o d a t a re s p e c t fu l d ista n ce. A s t h e y w e re sta n d in g a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e m e rch a n ts T a p u s s a a n d B h a llik a sp o k e th u s t o th e L o r d : " L o rd , le t th e L o r d re c e iv e o u r b a r le y -g r u e l a n d h o n e y -b a lls, th a t th is m a y b e a b le ssin g an d h a p p in e s s fo r u s fo r a lo n g t im e ." || 3 || T h e n i t o ccu rre d t o th e L o rd : " T r u th -fin d e r s 0 d o n o t
1 N a m e o f a tree. C a lle d b y M rs. R h y s D a v id s , A fa n u a l, p . So, " K ia g s te a d t r e e ." S e e V itt. T&xts^ r. S i, i*. * C f. ]&., L So f. 1 O u e f o f t h e d is c ip le s w h o fir s t ca.me fo r refu ge; A . i . zG ; in c lu d e d in a list o f e m in e n t h o u seh o ld ers a n d updsakas A t A . iii. 4 5 0 -1. B htalliy(k ]a has a v e r s e a t T h a g , 7 . w h ile, T h a g A . 50 g iv e s in o u tlin e t h e s to r y o f th e ir m in isterin g t o t h e L o rd . * A c c o r d in g t o V A . 959, t b e M id d le D is tr ic t (or C o u n tr y ) w liere t h e L o r d w a s s ta y in g , * manlha, d efin ed a t V ia . iv . -So, see B.L>, ii, 324. _ F u r . D ia i. j. 1 18 > n . 4 . c la im s t h a t " t h e first use o f t h e t e r m T a t b S g a t a in t h e B u d d h a 's life -h is ta r y " o cc u rs a t Jlf. i. r<5S.

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re ce iv e w ith th e ir h a n d s. N o w w it h w h a t sh a ll I re ce iv e th e b a rle y -g ru e l a n d h o n e y -b a lls ? T h e n th e fo u r G re a t K in g s , k n o w in g w ith th e ir m inds th e reaso n in g in th e L o rd 's m in d , fr o m t h e fo u r q u a rte rs p re se n te d th e L o rd w ith fo u r b o w ls m a d e o f r o c k c r y s ta l, s a y in g : " L o rd , le t th e L o rd re ce iv e th e b a rle y -g ru e l a n d H oney-balls h e r e in ." T h e L o rd re c e iv e d th e b a rle y -g ru e l a n d th e h o n e y -b a lls in a n e w 1 b o w l m a d e o f r o c k c r y s ta l, a n d h a v in g re ce iv e d th em he p a rto o k o f th e m . 4 | } T h e n th e m e r c h a n t s T a p u ssa a n d B h a llik a , h a v in g fo u n d t h a t th e L o r d h a d re m o v e d h is h a n d fro m th e b o w l, h a v in g in clin ed th e ir h ead s to w a rd s th e L o r d s fe et, sp oke th u s to th e L o r d : " W e , L o r d , a re those g o in g to th e L o rd fo r re fu g e a n d to dham m a ; le t t h e L o rd a c c e p t u s a s Ia y-d iscip les gone fo r re fu g e fo r life from th is d a y fo r th . T h u s th e se c a m e to be th e first la y -d is c ip le s in th e w o r ld u sin g th e tw o -w o rd fo rm u la .* || 5 J j T o ld is th e T a lk a t th e R a j& y a ta n a . || 4 \ \

T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g em erg ed fro m th a t co n te m p la tio n a t th e e n d o f se v e n d a y s , ap p ro a ch ed th e G o a th e rd s' B a n y a n fro m th e fo o t o f th e R a j& y a t a n a ; h a v in g a p p ro ach ed , th e L o r d s t a y e d th e re a t th e fo o t of th e G o a th e rd s B a n y a n . j| 1 || T h e n a s th e L o r d w a s m e d ita tin g in seclusion a reaso n in g arose in h is m in d th u s :* " T h is dham m a, w o n to b y m e, is d eep, d iffic u lt to see, d iffic u lt to u n d e rsta n d , p e a cefu l, e x ce lle n t, b e y o n d d ia le c tic , su b tle , in te llig ib le 0 th e learn ed .* B u t th is is a c re a tio n d e lig h tin g in sen su a l p le a su re ,6 d e lig h te d b y sen su al p leasu re, re jo ic in g in sen su al p leasu re. S o th a t fo r a c re a tio n d e lig h tin g in sen su al p leasu re, d e lig h te d b y sensual p le a su re , re jo ic in g in sen sual p le a su re , tlu s w e re a m a tte r d iffic u lt t o see, [ 4] th a t is to s a y c a u s a l u p risin g b y w a y o f
1 paccagght. V A . 960 s a y s t h is u s u a lly m e a n s v e r y c o s t ly ; b u t i t ca n m ean, a s h ere, q u ite n ew a n d q u ite h o t {abbhujtha), p ro d u ced a t t h a t viery m o m e n t. * dvevidkd^ i.e. bhagaoa (a n d n o t, a s a t som e t im e b e c a m e u su al, truddha) an d dham m a, th e r e b ein g a t t h a t tim e d o samgha. * F o r th-e G r e a t H e s ita tio n , cf. S . i. 13 6 , D . ii. 36, M . i. 1 6 7 , a n d see K . S . L 1 7 1 , D ia l. IL 29 f. an d F u r . JHal. i. 1 1 8 for n o tes. S e e a lso M rs. R h y s D a v id s , M a n u a l, p . 7 3 tf. * -Q uoted a t B u d v A . 9. * alaya, w h a t is c lu n g to , " h a b i t / B u t V A . = h i A . ii. 17+ e x p la in b y the- fiv e s tr a n d s o i sense-pleasure.

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cause- T h is to o w ere a m a tte r v e r y d ifficu lt to see,1 th a t is t o s a y th e c a lm in g o f a ll th e h a b itu a l te n d en cie s, th e re n u n cia tio n o f a ll a tta c h m e n t, th e d e stru c tio n o f c ra v in g , d isp a ssio n , sto p p in g , n irv a n a . A n d so i f I w ere t o te a c h dham m a a n d o th ers w e re n o t to u n d e rs ta n d m e, th is w o u ld b e a w e a rin ess to m e, th is w o u ld b e a v e x a tio n to m e / || 2 |f A n d fu rth e r, th e se ve rse s n o t h e a rd b e fo re in th e p a s t o ccu rre d s p o n ta n e o u s ly to th e L o rd ^ T h is t h a t th r o u g h m a n y to ils I 'v e w o n E n o u g h ! W h y sh ould I m a k e it k n o w n ? B y fo lk w ith lu s t an d h a te co n su m ed T h is dhamma is n o t understood*2 L e a d in g o n a g a in s t th e stre a m 3, S u b tle , d eep, d ifficu lt to see, d e lic a te , U n seen tw ill b e b y p a ssio n s sla v e s C lo a k e d in th e m u rk o f ig n o r a n c e . 1 |[ 3 [] I n su c h w ise, a s th e L o rd p o n d ered , h is m in d in clin ed to lit t le effort a n d n o t t o te a c h in g dhaimna. T h e n it o ccu rred t o B r a h m a Saham pati, k n o w in g w ith h is m in d th e re a so n in g in th e L o r d 's m in d : " A l a s , 7 th e w o rld is lo s t ,9 a la s, th e w o rld i s d e stro y e d , in a sm u ch a s th e m in d o f th e T ru th -fin d e r, th e p e rfe cte d one, th e fu lly a w a k e n e d o n e, in clin es to little effort a n d n o t to te a c h in g dh am m a." || 4 fj T h e n a s a stro n g m a n m ig h t stre tc h fo rth h is b e n t a rm or m ig h t b e n d b a c k h is o u tstre tc h e d a rm , e v e n so d id B ra h m a S a h a m p a ti, va n ish in g fro m th e B ra h m a -w o rld , b eco m e m a n i fe st before th e Lord. |[ 5 |[ T h e n B r a h m a S a h a m p a ti, h a v in g a rra n g e d his u p p e r robe
1 sududdssa, a.3 a t & h . 36. * C f. S n . 764. 1 patisoiaga m in, a g a in s t t h e str e a m u p t o t h e so u rce (o ib b S n a ), n o t w ith t h e stream , fo r t h a t le a d s to d a n g e ro u s w h irlp o o ls a n d w a v e s in a p o o l (here in a n u n fa v o u r a b le sense) lo w e r d o w n . V A . 962 s a y s t li a t patisoia is c a lle d n ib b a n a A strea m c a n b e a R iv e r o f L ife or a R iv e r o f D e a th , a c co rd in g a& t o w h eth er one goes a g a in s t th e c u ire n t. s tr iv in g w ith h a n d s a n d feet, o r w ith th e cu rren t. Cf. L a m o tt e , v o l. I, p . 59 , n. 1. * T h is tran slatio n , follow s t h a t a t D iu l. ii. 30, w it h t h e im p o r ta n t e x c e p tio n t h a t palisotagdm in is n o t " a g a in s t t h e strea m o f co m m o n t h o u g h t . V e r se aJso fo u n d a t M . i. 168, L>. ii. 38, S . i. 13 6 ; M ah& vastu iii, 3 1 4 , JLalitatnstara, ed . L e im a n n , p . 3 9 7 . * appassukkalS, indifference., " r e s t q u i e t " { F u r . D ia l. i.r r S ), " t o b e a v e r s e from -exertion " (iif.S. i. 173}, " t o rem ain q u ie t " (V t . T exts, i.85). * A G r e a t Brahm S.. 1 vatu bho. * Q u o te d B u d v A . 10, * F o r th is p a r a g r a p h a n d t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e neatt, see A . ii. 3 1 .

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o v e r o n e sh o u ld er, h a v in g sto o p ed h is r ig h t k n ee to th e g ro u n d , h a v in g s a lu te d t h e L o rd w ith jo in e d p a lm s , sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " L o rd , le t th e L o rd te a c h dham m a , Jet th e W e lM a re r te a c h dham m a ; th e re a re bein gs w ith lit t le d u st in th e ir e y e s w h o , n o t h e a rin g dham m a, a re d e c a y in g , (b u t if) t h e y are le a rn ers o f dhamma, t h e y -will g ro w . *1 |[6f| T h u s sp o k e B r a h m a S a h a m p a t i; h a v in g sa id th is , he fu rth e r sp ok e th u s :* *r T h e re h a s a p p e a re d in M a g a d h a befo re thee A n u n c le a n dhamma b y im p u re m in d s d e v ise d . O p e n th is d o o r o f d eath lessn ess, le t3 th e m h e a r D ham m a a w a k e n e d to b y th e sta in le ss one. A s on a cra g on c re st of m o u n ta in sta n d in g A m a n m ig h t w a tc h th e p e o p le fa r b elo w , E 'e n so d o th o u , O W isd o m fa ir, ascen d in g, O S eer o f a ll, t h e te rra ce d h e ig h ts o f tru th ,* [ 5] L o o k d o w n , from g r ie f released, u p o n th e p eo p les S u n k e n in g rie f, oppressed w ith b ir th a n a a ge. A ris e , th o u hero 1 C o n qu ero r in th e b a ttle ! T h o u fre e d from d e b t ! M an o f th e c a ra v a n 1 W a lk th e w o rld o v e r , le t th e B le ssed O ne T e a c h dhamma. T h e y w h o le a rn w ill g ro w . 5 || 7 W h e n he h a d sp o k e n th u s , th e L o r d sp o k e th u s to B r a h m a S a h a m p a ti : " B r a h m a , it o ccu rred to m e : ' T h is dhamma p e n e tra te d b y m e is d e e p . . . th a t w o u ld be a v e x a tio n t o m e . * A n d fu rth e r, B ra h m a , th e se verses n o t h e a rd b e fo re in th e p a s t o ccu rre d s p o n ta n e o u s ly to m e : T h is th a t th ro u g h m a n y to ils I 'v e w o n . . . c lo a k e d in th e m u r k o f ig n o ra n c e .' In su ch w ise , B ra h m a , a s I pon d ered , m y m in d in clin ed t o little effo rt a n d n o t to te a c h in g dham m a. || 8 | J T h e n a seco n d tim e d id B ra h m a S a h a m p a ti sp e a k th u s to th e L o rd : L o rd , le t th e L o rd te a c h dham m a . . . if th e y are
1 Q u o te d B u d v A . 10. S e e M rs, R h y s D a v id s , D ia l. ii. 2 a d ed n , P r e fa c e , l i i . A ls o h e r H o t e t o Gotam a the M a n (added in 1938) w h ere sh e s a y s , " T h e o n ly r a tio n a l tr a n s la tio n (ol artnataro bhavissanli) ls t h a t 1 t h e y w ho Com e t o k n o w [i.e. t h e d h a m m a y o u should tea ch ), w ill co m e t o be., w ill b e c o m e ', t h a t 13 'will gro w . T h u s rend ered t h e la s t cla u se b a la n ce s t h e o p p o se d clau se , th a t m en are in a. d eclin e*" * A s a t Jlf. i, 168, S . i. 1 3 7 ; q u oted H udvA . to . F o r references t o p ara llel S a n s k r it, C h in ese a n d T ib e ta n T e x t s , see L a m o tte , T r a it i de la Grand# Vertn d f Sagcsse, v o l. I , p . 5 7 . n- 1, * T o e n d of th is v a s e - - S . 384 * dhammant aya p is S d a ; f/ , pajj&Sp&sa-da a t D h p , 28. * S e c o n d p a r t o f -verses t a k e n from M rs. R h y s D a v id s , M a n u a l, p . 84 . T h e D tg b a versio n o m its t h e first lo u r lines. L a s t fo u r lin e s a t S . i. 234,

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learn ers a i dhamma, t h e y w ill g r o w ." T h e n a seco n d tim e d id th e L a rd s p e a k th u s to B r a h m a S a h a m p a ti : B u t, B ra h m a , i t o ccu rre d to m e : . . . m y m ind in c lin e d t o lit t le e ffo rt a n d a n d n o t t o te a c h in g d h a m m a " || 9 || T h e n a th ir d tim e d id B ra h m a S a h a m p a ti sp e a k th u s to th e L o rd : L o rd , le t th e L o r d te a ch dhamma . . . i f t h e y are lea rn ers o f dham m a, t h e y w ill g ro w ." T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d B r a h m a 's e n t r e a t y a n d , o u t o f co m p assio n for beings, s u r v e y e d th e w o rld w ith th e e y e o f a n a w a k e n e d one. A s th e L o r d w a s s u r v e y in g th e w o rld w ith th e e y e o f an a w a k e n ed one, h e sa w b e in g s w ith little d u st in th e ir e ye s, w ith m u c h d u st in th e ir e ye s, w ith a c u te fa c u ltie s , w ith d u ll fa c u ltie s , of g o o d d isp o sitio n s, o f b a d d isp o sitio n s, d o cile, in d ocile, fe w se e in g fea r in sins a n d th e w o rld s b e y o n d .1 || 10 ]| E v e n a s in 3 a p o n d o f b lu e lo tu ses o r in a p o n d o f re d lo tu se s or in a p o n d o f w h ite lo tu s e s , a fe w b lu e o r red o r w h ite lo tu se s a re b o m in th e w a te r, g ro w in the w a te r, d o n o t rise a b o v e th e w a te r b u t th r iv e w h ile a lto g e th e r im m e rse d ; a fe w b lu e or re d o r w h ite lo tu s e s a re b o m in th e w a te r , g ro w in th e w a te r an d reach to th e su rfa ce o f th e w a te r ; a fe w b lu e or re d or w h ite lo tu s e s are b o m in th e w a te r, g ro w in th e w a te r , a n d s ta n d u p risin g out o f th e w a te r, un d efiled b y th e w a te r . 1 | 1 1 ]| E v e n so , d id th e L o rd , su rv e y in g th e w o rld w ith th e e y e o f an a w a k e n e d on e, see b ein g s w ith lit t le d u s t in th e ir e y e s , w ith m u c h d u st in th e ir e y e s, [6] w ith a c u te fa c u ltie s , w ith d u ll fa c u ltie s, o f g o o d d isp o sition s, o f b a d d isp o sition s, d o cile, in d o cile , fe w seein g fe a r in sin s and th e w o rld s b e y o n d . S e e in g B ra h m a S a h a m p a ti, h e ad d ressed h im w it h verses : ,l O p en fo r th o se w h o h e a r a re th e d o ors o f d e a th le ssn ess3 ; le t th e m ren o u n ce th e ir fa ith 4. T h in k in g o f useless fa tig u e , I h a v e n o t p re a ch e d , B ra h m a , th e su b lim e a n d e x c e lle n t dhamma to m e n 6. " |[ 12 j|
1 paratokavajfabhayadasiivino, V A . 963 sayin g t h a t who see b y fear (bhayaio) th e world.(5) beyond and mn. these are those

1 C f, n . L 7 5 , M . iii. 93, S . i. 138 . * V A . 963 ca lls t h is " t h e a o b le W a y " , oriyatnagga. T h e " q u e s t " in fo lk lo re a n d in th e g r e a t religio u s tr a d itio n s a lik e is fo r im m o r ta lity , th e u n d y in g . E a r ly B u d d h is m is in lin e w ith th e se tra d itio n s . * saddhA m u s t refer to th e ir (ow n , V A . 963) p r e s e n t w ro n g b eliefs. * V e r s e also a t -D. ii. 39, Jtf- i- 165. S. i-. 138 ; a n d cf. M a k a vast u iii. 3 1 9 ; LatitatHitnra. p . 400. S e e d iscu ssio n on s o m e o f t h e e xp ressio n s fo u n d in th e ve rse b y L a m o tte , v o l. I , p , 60, n, I .

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T h e n B r a h m a S a h a m p a ti; th in k in g : " T h e o p p o rtu n ity w a s m a d e b y m e' fo r th e L o rd to te a c h d h a m m a 1 g re e tin g th e L o rd , k e e p in g h is r ig h t sid e to w a rd s h im , va n ish e d th e n m id th ere.* || 13 || T o ld is th e T a lk on B r a h m a 's E n tr e a ty . || 5 ||

T h e n it o ccu rre d to th e L o r d : " N o w , to w h o m sh o u ld I first te a c h dhamma ? W h o w ill u n d e rsta n d th is dhamma q u ic k ly ? T h e n it o ccu rred to th e L o r d : In d e ed , th is A la r a th e K a la m a 3 is learned , e x p e rie n ced , w ise, an d fo r a lo n g tim e h as h a d lit t le d u st in h is e ye s. S u p p o se I w ere to te a c h dhamma. first to A la ra th e KJUamst ? H e w ill u n d e r sta n d th is dhamma q u ic k ly ." || x || B u t th e n an in v is ib le devata an n o u n ced to th e L o rd : L o rd , A la r a th e K a la m a p a sse d a w a y se v e n d a y s a g o ." A n d th e k n o w led g e aro se to th e L o rd th a t A la r a th e K a la m a h a d passed a w a y s e v e n d a y s ag o . T h e n it o ccu rre d t o th e L o rd : " A la r a th e K a la m a w a s o f gTeat in telligen ce. I f he h a d h e a rd th is dhamma, h e w o u ld h a v e u n d ersto o d it q u ic k ly . j| a || T h e n it o ccu rre d to t h e L o rd : '* N o w , to w h om sh o u ld I first te a ch dham m a ? W h o w ill u n d e rsta n d th is dhamma q u ic k ly ? " T h e n it o ccu rred to th e L o r d : 4 In d e ed , th is U ddaka., R a m a s so n ,4 is learn ed , e x p e rie n ced , w ise, and fo r a lo n g tim e h a s h a d little d u st in h is eyes. S u p p o se I w ere to te a c h dhamma first to U d d a k a , R a m a 's son ? H e w ill u n d ersta n d th is dhamma q u ic k ly ," |[ 3 j| B u t th e n an in v is ib le devata an n o u n ced to th e L o rd : " L o rd , U d d a k a , R a m a 's son, p assed a w a y la st n ig h t/ ' A n d th e k n o w le d g e aro se to th e L o rd th a t U d d a k a , R a m a s son, h a d p a ssed a w a y la s t n ig h t. T h e n i t o ccu rred t o th e L o r d : " U d d a k a , R a m a 's so n , w a s of g re a t intelligence* I f h e h a d
1 F r o m th e b e g in n in g o f th e verses t o here is q u u lc d a t Bu-tfvA _ lS . * taith * eva ca n m e a n " as b e fo r e *' ; ii i t d o c s so here, it w ould m e s a b y t b e sa.rn.cs m e th o d o f v a n is h in g from t h e B r a h m a -w o r ld a s in |l j |] a b o v e , * T h e tea ch er to w h o m , a c c o r d in g to th e b io g ra p h ica l record (also preserved in tiie A riy apariy ssan a Sutta, A/* S ta . i6>, G o ta m a first w e n t lo r instruction, a f t e r h e b a d g o n e fo r th (from hom e :uto horneleiwnessj. * A c c o r d in g t o t h e sam e acco u n t, the te a c h c r to w h o m G o ta m a w e n t n e x t w h e a b e b & d m a stered A li r a 's te a ch in g . See M rs. f i liy s D a v id s , M a tm a i. 5 7 ff. for som e rem ark s on b o th th e ie teach crs, an d E , j . T h o m a s , L ift o f B uddha, 184, M iin . * 3 6 s a y s th a t Alara. a n d U d d a k a w ere G o u m a 's fou rth an d fifth te ach e rs ; a n d T k ig A - 2 t h a t h e w e n t first t o Bha.ggav.a (n o t m en tio n e d a t M iln , 336}.

6.4-8}

m a h a

VAG GA

ir

h e a rd th is dhamma, h e -would h a v e u n d ersto o d it q u ic k ly ." I! 4 fl . T h e n i t occu rred to th e L o rd : N o w , t o w h o m sh o u ld I first te a c h dhamma ? W h o [7] w ill u n d e rs ta n d th is dham m a q u ic k iy ? " T h e n it o ccu rre d to th e L o r d : T h a t g ro u p o f five m o n k s1 w h o w a ite d o n m e w h e n I w a s se lf-re so lu te in s tr iv in g 2 w ere v e r y h e lp fu l. Suppose I w ere to te a c h dham m a first to th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n ks ? || 5 II T h e n it o ccu rre d to th e L o r d : *' B u t w h e re is tliis g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s s ta y in g a t p resen t ?3 T h e n th e L o rd w ith devavision , p u rified a n d su rp a ssin g th a t o f m en , s a w th e g r o u p o f five m o n k s s ta y in g n e a r B gn ares a t Is ip a ta n a in th e d eerp a rk . T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t U r u v e la fo r a s lo n g as h e fo u n d su itin g , se t o u t on to u r fo r B en ares* |[ 6 |[ U p a k a , a N a k e d A s c e tic ,* saw th e L o rd g o in g a lo n g th e h ig h ro a d b e tw e e n G a y a a n d th e {Tree of) A w a k e n in g ; se e in g h im , h e sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : Y o u r re v e re n ce , y o u r sen se-orgajis are q u ite p u re , y o u r c o m p le x io n v e r y b rig h t, v e r y clear. O n a c c o u n t o f w h o m h a v e y o u , y o u r re v e re n c e , g o n e fo rth , or w h o is y o u r tea ch er, o r w h o se dham m a d o y o u profess ? " || 7 || W h e n th is h a d been sa id , th a L o rd a d d re sse d U p a b a , th e N a k e d A s c e tic , in verses :a " V ic to rio u s o ve r a ll, o m n iscien t a m I , A m o n g a ll th in g s undeM ed, L e a v in g a ll, th ro u g h d e a th o f c r a v in g freed, B y k n o w in g fo r m y s e lf, w h om sh o u ld I fo llo w ?* F o r m e th ere is n o tea ch er, O n e like m e d oes n o t e x ist. I n th e w o rld w ith its dcvas N o one eq u als m e .1
1 A fifia-K tU K jafiiia, B h a d d iy a * V a p p a , M a h a n a m a , A s s a ji, as b e lo w 6, 31 S. S e e D P P N M rs. R h y s D a v id s , M a n u a l, 6 * i, ; a n d " U n k n o w n C o io n od era o f B u d d h is m " , J R A S . 1 9 2 7 . 1 padhinapakiiaitcan. * Q u o te d a t B u d v A . iS . 1 S jiviha, " m a n at t h e liv e lih o o d " , B u d . I n d ,t p . 14 3 . A t D iv y . 393 U p a k a a p p e a r s t o b e ca lle d U p a g a u e n s , * V e r se s a lso a t Af* L 1 7 1 ; q u o te d a t JZtru. 389 : T h ig A . a z o . * T h is v e rsa = n h . 353* r T h is v e r s e is q u o te d a t M iJn . 235. C f. also Mahaziastti iiL 3 2 6 .

IJf

B O O K

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D I S C I P L I N E

F o r I a m p e rfe c te d in th e w o rld , T h e te a c h e r su p re m e a m I ,1 I a lo n e a m a ll-a w a k en ed ,* B e c o m e co o l a m I , n irv a n a -a tta in e d . T o tu rn th e dham m a -w heel I g o t o K a s i's c it y , B e a tin g th e d ru m o f death lessness In a w o rld t h a t 's b lin d b e c o m e ." [| 8 || *' A c c o rd in g to w h a t y o u cla im , y o u r reveren ce, you. o u g h t to b e a v ic to r o f th e unendin g* " (U p a k a said). L ik e m e, t h e y a re v ic to rs in d ee d , W h o h a v e w o n t o d estru ctio n o i th e c a n k e rs ; V a n q u ish e d b y m e a re e v il th in g s, T h e re fo re a m I , U p a k a , a v i c t o r ." 6 W h e n th is h a d b een s a id , U p a k a , th e N a k e d A s c e tic , h a v in g said , " I t m a y b e (so),8 y o u r re v e re n c e ," h a v in g sh a k en his h e a d ,7 w e n t o ff ta k in g a d ifferen t ro ad , j] 9 || 4 C/1 Sn. 179.
* O r, * I a m u niq ue, t h e a U-a w akened..1' * ara.h' u si, a lso m e a n in g " y o u d eserve t o be, a re w o r th y or fit t o b e . T h e r e 13 also t b e r e a d in g araha asi, a s a t K v u . sSq, a n d see J*ss. Sisters, 1 t. * anatttajina. V A , 964 m e r e ly s a y s " Y o u are s e t on b eco m in g a v icto r o i t h e u n e n d in g / A n a n ia , th-e u n en d in g, m a y refer t o dham m a, a lso t o n ib b a n a . * T h is v e r s e an d U p a k a 's rem ark s are q u o te d a t K v u , -zSg, ftupeyya. M . i, 1 7 1 , S n A . 358, T h i g A . 220 re a d huveyya (w h ich is intercha.ngea.ble w it h hv-peyya,}. I t is \ d ia le c tic a l form of bhaveyya. A c c o r d in g to 33. M . B a r u a , T h e A jfm k a s , p . go, it is a n ex p ressio o fo u n d in th e " A jlvL k a l a n g u a g e " a n d " i s a c t a recogn ised P a li w o r d . H e tra n s la te s " p e r h a p s it m a y b e so,'* O ld e n b e r g " it m a y t e 50," C h a lm ers, p r e s e r v in g th e p a to is, " m ebbfl , E . I . T h o m a s . T h e L i f t o f B u d d h a , p . 8 3 , " w o u ld t h a t i t m ig h t b e so " , U P P N (under U p a k a ) it m a y b e s o : w h ile M rs. R h y s D a v id s , T o Becom e or n o t to B e co m e , p . 85, w o u ld p r e ic r " m a y h e beco m e , th e " h e 11 referrin g t o t h e m a o , c v e r y r c a n , t o w h o m G o ta m a w a s p rep a red to t e a c h b is m essage. S h e su g g e sts t h a t h e w ill h a v e rehearsed th is m essage t o U p a k a , a n d m a in ta in s t h a t w b a t h a s su rvived- a g la r in g ly im p e r fe ct m isre p rese n ta tio n ,r m a k es om ission a n d g lo ssin g a ll b u t certain . * I th in k t h a t a s Ih e t e x t stands, h a d U p a k a b e e n co n v in c e d or a v en in te r e ste d h e w o u ld n ot h a v e d e p a r te d b y a d iffe r e n t r o a d (umtttogga, aiso m ea n in g th e w r o n g road ). I t is perhaps od d t h a t th is episod e, if it show s d isa g r e e m e n t, is p resu m ed to h a v e occurred a t th e b eg in n in g o f G o ta n x a 's m in is tr y . B a t it m a y b e in clu d ed to e m p h a s iz e his d e te rm in a tio n t o p r e a c h first o f a ll t o t h e " fiv e ' in a cco rd a n ce w ith h is d ecisio n ; or t o s h o w t h a t U p a k a s p o k e s o m e w h a t a s a p r o p h e t in t h e " k e y " , b e lo w , p. 12 7 , h e fs ca lle d U p o h o i s i , U p a k a t h e seer. A c c o r d in g t o T h i g A . z z o it ., w h e n U p a k a w a s a s o ld m an, to rm e n te d b y hia w ife's g ib es; b e s o u g h t G o ta m a a n d w en t

6.10-12]

M A H A V A G G A

13

T h e n th e L o rd , w a lk in g on to u r, in due co u rse a p p ro a ch e d B e n a re s, th e d e er-p a rk o f I s ip a ta n a , th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s. T h e g ro u p o f five m o n k s s a w th e L o rd c o m in g in th e d is ta n c e j seein g h im , t h e y a g ree d a m o n g th e m s e lv e s, s a y in g : " Y o u r reveren ces, th is reclu se G o ta m a is c o m in g , h e liv e s in a b u n d a n c e , [8] he is w a v e rin g in his striv in g , h e h a s re v e rte d to a life o f a b u n d a n c e .1 l i e sh o u ld n e ith e r b e g re e te d , n o r sto o d u p fo r, n o r sh o u ld h is b o w l a n d ro b e be re c e iv e d ; a ll th e sa m e a se a t m a y b e p u t o u t, he c a n s it d ow n i f h e w a n ts t o . |[ 10 || B u t a s th e L o rd g r a d u a lly a p p ro a c h e d th is g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s, so th is g ro u p o f five m o n k s, n o t a d h e rin g to th e ir o w n a g ree m e n t; h a v in g g o n e to w a rd s th e L o rd , one re c e iv e d his b o w l a n d ro b e, one m a d e r e a d y a s e a t, one b ro u g h t w a te r fo r w a sh in g th e fe et, a fo o t-sto o l, a fo o t-s ta n d .a T h e L o rd sa t d o w n o n th e seat m a d e re a d y , a n d th e L o rd , w h ile h e w a s s ittin g d o w n , w a sh e d h is fe e t.3 F u r th e r , t h e y ad d ressed th e L o rd b y n a m e a n d w ith th e e p ith e t o f y o u r r e v e r e n c e . 4 W h e n th is h a d been s a id , th e L o rd s p o k e th u s to t h e g ro u p o f five m o n k s : " D o n o t, m o n ks, a d d re ss a T ru th fin d e r b y n a m e, a n d w ith th e e p ith e t f y o u r re v e ren ce A T ru th fin d e r, m o n ks, is a p e rfe c te d o n e, a fu lly a w a k e n e d one. G iv e ear, m o n ks, th e d e ath le ss h a s b een fo u n d ; I in s tru c t, I te a c h dhamma. G o in g a lo n g in a cco rd a n ce w ith w h a t h a s b e en e n jo in ed , h a v in g so o n re alised h ere a n d n o w b y y o u r o w n su p er-k n o w le d g e t h a t su p rem e g o a l o f th e B r a h m a - fa r in g 5 fo r th e sa k e o f w h ic h y o u n g m en o f fa m ily r ig h tly g o fo r th fro m h om e in to hom elessness, y o u w ill a b id e in i t . " || r2 |j
fo rth in to hom elesSness ; h e t h e n soon a t t a in e d t h e s ta g e o f n o n -r e tu r n in g a n d died. F r o m t h is a c c o u n t i t does n ot a p p e a r t h a t h e h a d h a d a n y g r e a t u rge earlier t o b e c o m e o n e o f G o t a m a 's d iscip les. I n th e tr a n s la tio n a b o v e I h a v e p u t a s lig h t b ia s on th ree w ord s, e a c h o f w h ich a d m it s o f m ore th a n on e rendering, so a s t o m a r t c o n s is te n tly iv h a t seem s to m e t o b e U p a k a '& a p p a r e n t failu re to b e c o n v in c e d : ( i) arahasi = (a) y o u o u g h t t o b e ( s lig h tly co n te m p tu o u s), (b) y o u are w o r th y to b e (resp ectfu l) ; (a) fiuveyya, d iscu ssed in preceding' n o t e ; (3) rtsa m okampetva, h a v in g Kh3,1cf n h is b e a d . O k am p eti m a y m ea n , A ccord in g "to F E D , b o th t o w a g a n d t o shaJ^e* In d ia n s sh a k e th eir h e a d s ir o m sid e t o sid e t o s h o w d i ^ g r ^ m ^ n t , b u t w a g th e m u p a n d d o w n t o sh o w agreem en t. 1 bakulla. A s M rs. R h y s D a v id s observes. M a n u a l, 6 gJ th is m ea n s lite r a lly " m u ch n e ss " , V A . 964 ta k in g it t o m ean a b u n d a n c e o f ro b es, e tc . * C/. V in . iv . 2 3 1 , 3 1 0 ; s e e B . D . itt. 19 1.
* A s a t M . I i. * 3 vusovdd&mi. 139.

I I** I

A t M . i. 1 9 7 , s o l , th is g o a l is said t o b e u n s h a k e e b le freed o m o1 m in d .

14

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D I S C I P L I N E

W h e n th is h a d b e e n sa id , th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s sp ok e th u s to th e L o rd : " B u t y o u , re v e re n d G o ta m a , d id n o t com e to a s ta te o f fu rth e r-m e n ,1 to th e em in en ce o f t r u l y a riy a n v isio n o f k n o w le d g e , b y th is co n d u ct, b y th is co u rse , b y th is p ra c tic e o f a u ste ritie s. S o how ca n y o u n o w co n ie to a s ta te o f fu rth e r-m e n , to th e em inence o f th e t r u ly a riy a n . v isio n o f k n o w led g e , w h en y o u liv e in a b u n d a n c e , are w a v e rin g in s tr iv in g , a n d h a v e r e v e r te d to a life o f a b u n d a n c e ? " J j 13 || W h e n th is h a d b een sa id , th e L o rd sp o k e thus to th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s : 4 4 A T ru th fin d e r, m o n k s, d oes n o t liv e in a b u n d a n ce, h e does n o t w a v e r in strivin g , he d oes n o t re v e r t to a life o f a b u n d a n c e . A T ru th fin d e r, m o n ks, is a p e rfe cte d one, a f u lly a w a k e n e d one. G iv e e ar, m o n ks, th e d e ath le ss h a s been fo u n d ; / in s tru c t, I te a c h dhamma. G o in g a lo n g in a cco rd a n ce w ith w h a t h a s b een e n jo in ed , h a v in g so o n realised h ere and n o w b y y o u r o w n su p er-k n o w le d g e t h a t su p rem e g o a l o f th e B ra h m a -fa rin g fo r th e sa k e o f w h ic h y o u n g m en o f fa m ily r ig h tly g o fo rth fro m h o m e in to h om elessn ess, y o u w ill ab id e in i t . " |j 14 || A n d a seco n d tim e d id th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s sp e a k th u s to th e L o rd . . - . A n d a second tim e d id th e L o rd sp e a k th u s to th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s. , . . A n d a th ir d tim e d id th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s s p e a k th u s to th e L o rd : [9] 1' B u t y o u , re v e ren d G o ta m a , d id n o t com e to a s ta te o f fu rth e r-m e n . . . b y th is p ra c tic e o f a u ste ritie s . . . to a life o f a b u n d a n c e ? " II1 5 1 1 W h e n th is h a d been sa id , th e L o rd sp o k e th u s 0 th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s : D o y o u a llo w , m o n k s, t h a t I h a v e n e v e r sp oken * t o y o u lik e th is b efo re ? Y o u h a v e n o t. L o r d . " A T ru th fin d e r, m o n k s , is a p e rfe c te d one, a f u lly a w a k e n e d on e. G iv e e a r * . . y o u w ill a b id e in i t . A n d th e L o rd w a s a b le t o co n v in c e th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s.3 T h e n th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s liste n e d to th e L o rd a g a in , g a v e e a r t o h im a n d a ro u se d th e ir m inds fo r p ro fo u n d k n o w led g e .* II16 H __________________________________________________________
1 C f. D e f e a t I V (an d see B J 3 . i. In tr. jcxiv). * bJidsitnffi* M . i. 1 7 s read s vabbh&ciZatft. V A . 9 *5 ^
b y

M A . ii. 1 9 1 e x p la in

vakyabhedatpt* F r o m here t h e M a jjk ita a v e r s io n d iv erges. 4 a&Hetcittarfi upatfhdpisutp. ; cf. D . i, 230, 23 r_

6.17. *8 ]

M A H A V A G G A

15

T h e n 1 th e L o r d ad d re sse d th e g r o u p o f fiv e m o n k s, s a y i n g : " These t w o (dead) e n d s,3 m o n k s, s h o u ld n o t b e fo llo w e d b y one w h o h a s go n e fo rth . W h ic h t w o ? T h a t w h ic h is, a m o n g sen se-p leasu res, a d d ic tio n to a t t r a c t iv e sen se-p leasu res, lo w , o f th e v illa g e r ,4 o f th e a v e ra g e man, im a riy a n , n o t c o n n e c te d w it h th e goal ; a n d th a t w h ic h is a d d ic tio n t o se lf to rm e n t, ill, u n a r iy a n , n o t co n n e cted w ith th e g o a l. N o w , m o n k s, w ith o u t a d o p tin g e ith e r o f th e s e t w o (dead) en d s, th e re is a m id d le cou rse, f u lly a w a k e n e d t o b y th e T ru th fin d e r, m a k in g fo r v is io n , 7 m a k in g fo r k n o w le d g e , w h ic h co n d u ces to calming, to su p e r-k n o w le d g e ,* t o a w a k e n in g ,10 t o n irv a n a . j| 1 7 || " A n d w h a t, m o n k s, is th is m id d le co u rse f u lly a w a k e n e d to b y th e T m th fin d e r , m a k in g fo r v isio n , m a k in g for k n o w le d g e , w h ic h co n d u ces to c a lm in g , to su p e r-k n o w le d g e , to a w a k e n in g , to n ir v a n a ? I t is th is a r iy a n e ig h tfo ld W a y itse lf, th a t is to s a y : r ig h t v ie w , rig h t th o u g h t, r ig h t sp eech , rig h t a c tio n , rig h t m o d e o f liv in g , r ig h t e n d e a v o u r, r ig h t m in d fu ln e ss, rig h t c o n c e n tra tio n .11 T h is, m o n k s , is th e m id d le c o u rse , fu lly a w a k e n e d to b y th e T ru th fin d e r, m a k in g fo r v isio n , m a k in g
1 C f. S . v . 4.S0. " * S e e M rs, R h y s D a v id s . M a n u a l, p . lo g io r a. lite r a l tr a n s la tio n o f t h e F ir s t U tte r a n c e , an d a. d iscu ssion o f m a n y o f its t e r m s ; a lso E . J . T h o m a s , L if e o f B u d d h a , p . 6 7. T h is U tt e r a n c e g i v e n a t S . i v . 330, v . 420, a n d t h e " m id d le c o u r s e " p a r t o f it a t M . i. r.5, t o w h o s e C orn y. (M A . t. 104 1.) V A . O65 refers. 1 ania is en d , th e n c o n tr a s t, e x tr e m e , o p p o s ite , side. S e e M a n u a l, p . n S , for d iscu ssio n of t h e m e a n in g . S A , iii. * 9 7 e x p la in s b y koith&sd. p a r ts , d iv isio n s. A 1 A . i. 104 s a y s *' t h e W a y d o e s n o t le a d t o , does n o t a p p r o a c h t h e s e sides, it is free d fro m th e s e sid es, th erefo re it is ca lle d t h e m id d le c o u r s e ." T h e " m ea n " b e tw e e n two- e x tr e m e s also fo u n d a t S . ii. 1 7 , 20, & r t iii. 13 5 . 4 gamma. A n o th e r d e b a ta b le term . I fo llo w S A . iii. 297 (cf. A A . iii. 360) w h o se e x p la n a tio n is gatna-vasiaatp santaiio, b e lo n g in g t o v i lla g e d w ell era ; m e a n in g I t h in k m ore * co m m o n " t.ha.n " p a g a n b y b o th of w h ic h i t h a s b e e n rendered. B o o r is h w o u ld b e b etter. I p ath u jja n ik o , o r d in a r y , o f t h e m a n y -fo lk , t h e " b lin d * a n d fools. * anattha^amhita, d efin ed a t M A . iii. n o a s na vu g g k in issita , n o t b e n t on g r o w th . 1 7 A c c o r d in g t o M A . i. 104 v is io n o f t h e k n o w le d g e o l t h e t r u th s . * O f passion, e tc,, M A . 1. 10 4 , A A . iii. 3-60 ; o f t h e co r r u p tio n s, -Sj-J'. iii. -197. * abh in ftS , o f t h e fo u r tr u th s , M A . a n d S A . 10 M A . L 104 s a y s t h a t a w a k e n in g is t h e W a y , sambodho ti tttagg0. I I A . K . C o o m a r is w a m y , H in d u is m and B u d d h is m , p . 6g u ses " c o m p o s u r e " fo r satttadhi, an d elsew here " & y n th e s is ." M A . i. i o j giv-es th e in te r p r e ta tio n s which, t h e A n c ie n ts , pora-^a, used t o p u t u p o n t h e e ig h t " fitn esses " o f t h e W ay : t h e w a y of in s ig h t is r ig h t v ie w , th e w a y o l tiio ro u g h furthering,, abhtttiropanitr is r ig h t t h o u g h t , t h e w a y of e q u a n im ity is r ig h t c o n c e n t r a tio n , T h e g a p s m a y b e filled u p fr o m w h a t follow s a t M A . i. 105.

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fo r k n o w le d g e , w h ic h con d u ces to ca lm in g , to su p er-k n o w led g e, to a w a k e n in g , to n irv a n a - |[ 18 || A n d th is, m o n k s, is th e a riy a n tr u th o f ill : b ir th is iU, a n d o ld age is ill a n d d isease is i ll a n d d y in g is ill, a sso cia tio n with, w h a t is n o t d ear is ill, se p a ra tio n from, w h a t is d e a r is ill, n ot g e ttin g w h a t one w a n ts is ill in sh o rt th e five g ro u p s of g ra sp in g a re ill. || 19 J [ " A n d th is, m o n k s, is th e a riy a n tr u th o f th e u p risin g o f ill :* th a t w h ic h is c r a v in g co n n ected w ith a g ain -b e co m in g , a c co m p a n ie d b y d e lig h t a n d passio n , fin d in g d e lig h t in th is a n d th a t, th a t is to s a y : c r a v in g fo r sense-pleasures, c r a v in g fo r b e c o m in g, c r a v in g fo r de-becoming, j| 20 || " A n d th is, m o n ks, is th e a riy a n tr u th o f th e sto p p in g o f ill : th e u t t e r a n d p assio n less sto p p in g o f th a t v e r y c ra v in g , it s re n u n c ia tio n , su rren d er, release, th e la c k o f p le a su re in it-3 II2 1 || " A n d th is, m o n k s, is th e a riy a n tr u th o f th e course le a d in g t o th e sto p p in g o f i ll4 : th is a r y a n e ig h tfo ld W a y itse lf, th a t is to s a y : rig h t v ie w . . . rig h t c o n c e n tra tio n . | J 22 II [10] O n th in k in g , ' T h is is th e a r iy a n tr u th o f ill a m o n g th in g s n o t h e a rd b efo re b y m e , m o n ks, visio n aro se, k n o w led g e* aro se, wisdom a ro se, h igh er k n o w le d g e 7 arose, lig h t arose. O n th in k in g , ' N o w th a t w h ic h is th e a r iy a n tr u th o f ill m u st b e c o m p le te ly k n o w n . , . - N o w th a t w h ic h is th e a riy a n tr u th o f ill is c o m p le te ly know n a m o n g th in g s n o t h ea rd b efo re b y m e , m o n k s, v isio n aro se, k n o w le d g e a ro se , w isd om aro se, h ig h e r k n o w le d g e arose, lig h t arose, [j 23 || " O n th in k in g , ' T h is is the a r iy a n tr u th o f th e u p risin g o f ill . . - lig h t arose. O n th in k in g , ' N o w t h a t w h ich is th is
* T h is p a r a g r a p h is d e b a te d a t Jfuw. 488-489. * vi-bAavar m ea n in g s a s c rib e d : (]) w e a lth , p r o p e r ty , p r o s p e r ity ; (2) non* becom ing., ce a s in g ^ a lth o u g h th e r e ia t h e w ord B -bin ra) ; [3) m o r e b eco m in g , m ore b irth s. F u r . D ia i. i. 1 1 4 " a n n ih ila tio n . See a lso D ia l. ii. 340, a . I t h in k i t m ean s, w ith tanka, c r a v in g o r th ir s t, t h e lo n g in g lo r sen sation s t o c o m e a n d go, rise a n d fail, E t . L a m o tte , L e T r a iti de la Grand* Vertu de Sagessa, v o L I , p . 3, a . 4, tra n s la te s th ese th re e c r a v in g s (ianhd) as- cr a v in g s for p la isir, existence, im perm anence. * twiUaya. O n alaya, p le a su r e (clingin g, a b o d e , h abit) see a b o v e , p . 6. F u r * D ia l. i. 2 14 * e je c tio n , iii. jicjS " a v e rsio n fr o m ." iii. 1 1 2 defines i t in co n n e c tio n w it h kdma. * T h e " fo u r tr u th s o f ill a re c ite d a t K v u . *9 0 . * r tafM .

* panHa,

* v ijjd . W e h a v e n o th in g P a li w o rd s fo r k n o w le d g e ."

in

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a r iy a n tr u th o f th e u p risin g o f i ll m u st b e g iv e n u p l , . . f . . . is g iv e n u p * . . . tig h t arose. )(24 |[ " O n th in k in g , ' T h is is th e a riy a n t r u t h o f th e s to p p in g o f ill ' . . . Light arose. O n th in k in g , ' N o w t h a t w h ic h is th is a r iy a n tr u th o f th e s to p p in g o f ill m u s t b e re a lis e d ' . . . ' . . . is re a lis e d J . . . lig h t arose. || 25 jj " O n th in k in g , T h is is th e a r iy a n t r u t h o f th e c o u rse g o in g to th e s to p p in g o f i ll . . . lig h t aro se. O n th in k in g , ' N o w t h a t w h ic h is th is a r iy a n t r u t h o f th e co u rse le a d in g t o th e s to p p in g o f ill m u s t be m a d e to b ecom e is m a d e to b e co m e . . , lig h t aro se, || 2 6 J j " A n d so lo n g , m o n k s, th e v isio n o f k n o w le d g e o f th e s e fo u r a r iy a n tr u th s , w ith th e th re e se ctio n s a n d t w e lv e m od es* as t h e y r e a lly a re , w a s n o t w e ll p u rified b y m e , so lo n g w a s I , m o n k s, n o t th o r o u g h ly a w a k e n e d w it h th e su p rem e fu ll a w a k e n in g a s to th e w o r ld w it h its devas, w it h it s M a ra s, w ith it s B r a h m a s , w ith its re clu se s a n d b ra h m a n s, it s c re a tu re s w it h devas a n d m en . T h is I kn ew , || 2 7 || " B u t w h en , m o n k s, th e v isio n o f k n o w le d g e o f th e s e fo u r a r iy a n tru th s , w ith th e th re e section s a n d tw e lv e m o d e s as t h e y r e a lly are, w a s w e ll p u rified b y m e , th e n w a s I , m o n k s, th o r o u g h ly a w a k e n e d w it h th e su p rem e fu ll a w a k e n in g as t o th e w o rld . , . w ith it s reclu ses a n d b ra h m a n s, it s c re a tu re s w ith devas a n d m en . T h is I k n e w . || 28 j| " M o reo ver, th e v isio n o f k n o w led g e a ro se in m e : ' F re e d o m o f m in d is fo r m e u n sh a k e a b le , th is th e la s t b irth , th e r e is n o t n o w a g a in -b e c o m in g .'3 " T h u s sp o k e th e L o r d ; d e lig h te d , th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s re jo ice d in th e L o r d 's u tte r a n c e . M o reo ver, w h ile th is d isco u rse 4 w a s b e in g u tte re d , dhamrna.v is io n , d u stless, sta in le ss, aro se to th e v e n e ra b le K o n cja fin a t h a t w h a te v e r is o f t h e n a tu re t o u p rise, a il t h a t is o f th e n a tu re to s t o p ." {j 29 [| A n d w h e n th e L o rd h a d ro lled th e dham m a- w h e e l, th e e a r th devas m a d e th is so u n d heard : [11] T h e su p re m e dham m aw h e el ro lle d th u s b y th e L o rd a t B e n a re s in th e d e er-p a rk a t
1 th e c r a v in g -or t h ir s t {ianha) -which, le a d s t o th.fi u p r is in g o f ill m u s t b e g iv e n u p . * E a c h o f t h e four tr u th s is tr e a te d a s (r) a t r u t h -which (2) m u s t b e in som e w a y resp o n d e d to , iliicI w h ic h (3) h a s been, in t h a t w a y re sp o n d e d to . * O n e o f t h e f o n n u lE o f araliivnship1 veyydharajia. ca lle d a t D A . 130 a sutta (discourse) w it h o u t verses. C f . V in . iii, 1 8 - 1 9 { B .D , i. 33 ).

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I s ip a ta n a c a n n o t b e ro lle d b a c k b y a, reclu se o r b ra h m in o r deva o r b y M a ra o r b y B ra h m a o r b y a n y o n e in th e w o rld /* H a v in g h e a rd th e so u n d o l th e e a rth devas, th e devas o f th e F o u r G re a t K in g s 1- m a d e th is so u n d h ea rd . . . th e T h ir t y devas . . , Y a in a 's devas . . th e H a p p y devas . . . th e devas w h o d e lig h t in c rea tio n . . . th e devas w h o d e lig h t in th e creatio n o f o th e rs . . . th e devas o f B r a h m a s re tin u e m a d e th is sound h e a rd : " T h e su p rem e dhamma -w h ee l ro lle d th u s b y th e L o rd a t B e n a re s in th e d e e r-p a rk a t Is ip a ta n a c a n n o t b e r o lle d b a c k b y a reclu se or b ra h m in or deva o r b y M ara o r b y B ra h m a o r b y a n y o n e in th e w o r ld , || 30 jj In th is w ise in t h a t m o m en t, in t h a t seco n d , in t h a t in s ta n t, th e so u n d re a c h e d a s fa r as th e B ra h m a -w o rld , a n d th e te n th o u sa n d fo ld world-system tre m b le d , q u a k e d , sh o ok v io le n tly a n d a ra d ia n ce , sp le n d id , m easureless, su rp assin g th e devas o w n g lo r y ,3 Tvas m a n ife st in th e w o rld . T h e n th e L o rd u tte re d th is solem n u tte r a n c e : " In d eed , K o n d a n n a h a s u n d e rsto o d , ind eed , K o n d a iin a h a s u n d e rsto o d ." T h u s it w a s th a t A il fiat a K o n d a n n a * b e c a m e the v e n e ra b le K o n d a iin a 's n a m e .6 1131 ii ' ' T h e n th e v e n e ra b le A fin a ta K o n d a iin a , h a v in g seen dhamma * a tta in e d dham m a k n o w n dham m a,6 p lu n g e d into dhamma, h a v in g crossed o v e r d o u b t, h a v in g p u t a w a y u n c e rta in ty , h a v in g a tta in e d w ith o u t a n o th e r s h elp to fu ll co n fid en ce in th e te a c h e r s in s tr u c tio n ,7 sp o k e th u s t o th e L o r d : " M a y I, L o rd , re ce iv e th e g o in g fo r th 8 in th e L o r d 's presence, m a y I re ce iv e o rd in a tio n ? 4 1 C o m e, m o n k 10, '1 th e L o rd sa id , " w e ll ta u g h t is dhamma
1 l.& . t h e R e g e n ts o f t h e lo u r quarters* A lo n g er lis t o f d/rtfas is t o be found, a t i. 2S9. * C f A . i. devartatfi dev&nttbhavatpt, cf. J>. ii. 12, Jlf. iii. 120. * anndta m e a n in g " w h o hi!3 u n d erstood H e is o ften called. A f in a K o n d a fin a . A t A . L * 3 h e is ca lle d '' fo re m o st o f th e d iscip le s of lon g s ta n d in g ." V erse s AX. Tkag. 6 73-88 , F o r v ie w t h a t A n n a -was nis person a l n am e, see M rs. R h y s D a v id s , Gotan m the M a n , p . a 02, G .S . i. n, 2, V e r s a of U p lift (S , B , B , V I I I ) , p . ^ 3 , n. r. See t o o U-dA. 3 7 1 , P ss. B rtth , p . 284 . * Sa m y u tln a c c o u n t D r e a k i off liere. * Q u o te d P u d v A . 1 3 , th e la s t I v o in reverse order, C f. D . i. n o , C48; A . -sr. j S ; AT. i- 234. 5 i * pabbajya, * npascimpada. 10 T h e first tim e t h a t th is , th o u g h t to b e t h e o ld est formula, for le a v e t o b e co m e a d is c ip le o f G o t a m a s, is ii9 l in t h e FiM ayo. T h e O rder w as n ot a3 y e t in e x is te n c e , a n d t h e ord in ation reg u latio n s w ere n eith er a p p o in te d nor w as o rd in a tio n s e p a r a te d b y a period o f p ro b a tio n fro m th e t im e o f a d is c ip le s " g o in g f o r th " , pabbajja, irom h om e, o r th e h ou seh old life, in to hom elessness.

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fa re th e B r a h m a -fa r in g fo r m a k in g a n u t t e r e n d o f ill* " S o th is c a m e to b e th is v e n e r a b le one*s o rd in a tio n . || 33 j| T h e n th e L o rd e x h o rte d , in s tru c te d th o s e re m a in in g m o n k s w it h dham m a-talk. T h e n w h ile t h e y w ere b e in g e x h o rte d , in s tru c te d b y th e L o rd w it h dham ?na-talkr dham m a-v ision , d listle ss, sta in le ss, aro se t o th e v e n e ra b le V a p p a 1 a n d t o th e v e n e ra b le B h a d d iy a / t h a t " w h a te v e r is o f th e n a tu r e to u p rise , a ll th a t is o f th e n a tu r e to s t o p ." |{ 3 3 || T h e se , h a v in g seen dhamma, a tta in e d dhamma-, k n o w n dham m a . . . h a v in g a tta in e d w ith o u t a n o th e r s h e lp to fu ll co n fid e n ce in th e te a c h e r s in stru c tio n , sp o k e th u s t o t h e L o rd : '* M a y w e, L o rd , re c e iv e th e g o in g fo rth in th e L o r d 's p re se n c e , m a y w e r e c e iv e o rd in a tio n ? " C o m e ,m o n k s / 't h e L o rd sa id , w e ll t a u g h t is dham nui, fa re [ 13] th e B ra h m a -fa r in g fo r m a k in g a n u t t e r en d o f i l l / S o th is ca m e to b e th e se v e n e ra b le o n e s o rd in a tio n , || 3 4 f| T h e n t h e L o rd , e a t in g th e fo o d b ro u g h t b a c k b y th ese,* e x h o rte d , in s tru c te d th o se re m a in in g m o n k s w ith dh am m a-talk, s a y in g : " L e t th e g r o u p o f six * li v e o n w h a te v e r th e th re e m on ks* b rin g w h e n t h e y h a v e w a lk e d fo r a lm s fo o d . j| 35 |[ T h e n w h ile t h e y w e re b e in g e x h o rte d , in s tr u c te d b y th e L o r d w ith dham m a- t a lk , dham m a-vision, d u stless, sta in le ss, arose to th e v e n e ra b le M a h a n a m a 6 an d to th e v e n e ra b le A s s a ji,* t h a t " w h a te v e r is o f th e n a tu re t o u p rise , a ll th a t is o f th e n a tu re to s t o p ." j| 36 || T h e se , h a v in g seen dhamma, a tta in e d dhamma . . h a v in g a tta in e d w ith o u t a n o th e r 's h elp to fu ll c o n fid e n ce in th e te a c h e r s in stru c tio n , sp o k e th u s t o th e L o r d : " M a y w e , L o rd , re ce iv e th e g o in g fo r th in t h e L o r d s p re se n c e , m a y w e r e c e iv e o rd in a tio n ? " C o m e , m o n k s , th e L o r d said, " w e ll t a u g h t Is dham m a, fa re th e B ra h m a -fa r in g fo r m a k in g a n u t t e r e n d o f i l l . S o
1 V e r se s a t T k a g . S i, see a ls o T h a g A . 15 0 , V A . 9 6 5 , M A . ii. 19 2 , A A . i. 147., J a . i. S i t ; M rs. R h y s D a v id s , M a n u a l, p . 63. * N o v e r s e s ascrib ed t o h im . S e e V A . 9 65 , M A , tu 19 2 , A A , i. 1 4 7 , J& , i. 82. O m itte d fr o m D .-P .F .iV . * K o n d a n n a , V a p p a a n d B h a d d iy a . * I.e . G o tam a. a n d t h e g ro u p o f five. * R e fe r e n c e s && u n d er n. -z a b o v e . S e e a lso D h A . Ii. 74. In clu d ed , in

D.P.P.N.

* T h e d is c ip le th r o u g h wiLom S a r ip u tta a n d so M o g g a ll& n a b e c a m e follow ers oi G o ta m a , see V i* 1. 3<> ff. (b elo w , p. 51) ; a lso M . 1. 2 * 7 (Cu fasaccaka S u t f a)' S . iii. 12 4 ff., M A . ii. 2 70 , 2 7 1 , an d p . 52. n , 3 b e lo w .

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th is ca m e to b e th e se v en era b le ones* o rd in a tio n . || 3 7 |j T h e n th e L o r d a d d re sse d th e g r o u p o f five m o n k s, s a y in g : B o d y , m o n ks, is n o t self*1 N o w w ere th is b o d y se lf, m on ks, th is b o d y w o u ld n o t te n d to sick n ess, a n d one m ig h t g e t th e ch an ce o f s a y in g in . re g a rd to b o d y , ' L e t b o d y b e co m e th u s fo r m e , le t b o d y n o t b ecom e th u s fo r m e J. B u t in a sm u ch , m o n ks, a s b o d y is n o t se lf, th erefo re b o d y ten d s to sickn ess, a n d o n e d oes n o t g e t t h e ch an ce o f s a y in g in re g a rd to b o d y , L e t b o d y b eco m e th u s fo r m e, le t b o d y n o t b e co m e th u s for m e * . I] 38 || F e e lin g is n o t s e lf . . . a n d on e d o es n o t g e t th e c h a n c e o f s a y in g in re g a rd to fe elin g , 'L e t fe e lin g b e co m e th u s fo r m e, le t fe e lin g n o t b eco m e th u s for m e [| 39 |[ " P e rce p tio n * is n o t s e lf. . . . T h e h a b itu a l te n d en cie s are n o t s e lf . . . one d oes n o t g e t th e ch a n ce o f s a y in g in re g a rd to th e . h a b itu a l ten d en cies, * L e t th e h a b itu a l ten d en cies b e co m e th u s fo r m e , le t th e h a b itu a l ten d en cies n o t b ecom e th u s fo r m e

II.40 I I
" C on scio u sn ess is n o t s e lf . . . [ 13] . . . In a sm u ch , m o n k s, as co n scio u sn ess is n o t se lf, th erefo re con sciousn ess ten d s to sic k n e ss, a n d one d oes not get th e ch a n c e to s a y in re g a rd to con sciou sn ess, * L e t consciousness b ecom e su c h fo r m e, let co n scio u sn ess n o t b e co m e th u s fo r m e .' [| 4 1 | J W h a t do y o u th in k a b o u t th is, m o n k s ? I s b o d y p e rm a n e n t or im p e rm a n e n t ? " Im p e rm a n e n t, L o r d ." " B u t is th a t w h ic h is im p erm an en t p a in fu l o r p lea su ra b le* ? " " P a in fu l, L o r d ." " B u t is i t fit to co n sid er th a t w h ic h is im p e rm a n en t, p a in fu l, o f a n a tu r e to c h a n g e , a s ' T h is is m in e, th is a m I, th is is m y s e lf ' ? " " I t is n o t L o r d . H42 |[ " I s fe e lin g . . . p e rcep tio n . . . a re th e h a b itu a l ten d en cies . . . is co n sciou sn ess p e rm a n e n t or im p e rm a n en t ? "
1 T h is ia m o u s S e c o n d U tt e r a n c e g iv e n also a t S . iii. 66, w h e r e ca lled " T h e F i v e " , d o u b tless r e fe r r in g t-s t h e fiv e d iscip le s w h o h e a rd it . a n d t o t h e fiv e topics^ b o d y . . con sciousn ess (or m ind) w h ich it co v e r e d ; cf. M. iii. 19 . T r a n s la te d a t K . S . iii. 59 , F u r . D ia l, ii, 165 f,, M rs. R h y s D a v id s , M a n u a l, p , 150,. E . J . T h o m a s, L if e o f B u d d h a , p . 88. * suhha. dubkha. h a p p in ess, m e n ta l a n d p h y s ic a l ease; u sed in o p p o s itio n to

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" Im p e rm a n e n t , L o rd * " B u t is th a t w h ic h is im p e rm a n en t p a in fu l o r p le a s u ra b le ? " " P a in fu l, L o r d . 4 B u t is it fit to co n sid er th a t w h ich is im p e rm a n e n t, p a in m l, o f a n a tu re to c h a n g e , a s * T h is is m in e, th is a m I , th is is m y s e lf ' ? ,J " I t is n o t so, L o r d ." ||43 || W h e re fo re , m o n k s, w h a te v e r is b o d y , p a s t, fu tu re , p re se n t, o r in tern a l o r e x te rn a l, o r g ro ss or s u b tle , o r lo w o r e x c e lle n t, w h e th e r it is fa r o r n e a r a ll b o d y sh o u ld , b y m ea n s o f rig h t w isd o m , b e seen, a s it r e a lly is, th u s : T in s is n o t m in e, th is a m X n o t, th is is n o t m y se lf. H44 || '* W h a te v e r is fe elin g . . . w h a te v e r is p e rc e p tio n . , , w h a te v e r are th e h a b itu a l te n d en cie s . . . w h a te v e r is co n sciou sn ess, p a st, fu tu re , p r e s e n t o r in te rn a l or e x te rn a l, or g ro ss o r su b tle , o r lo w o r e x c e lle n t, w h e th e r fa r o r n e a r a ll co n scio u sn ess sh o u ld , b y m ean s o f rig h t w isd o m , b e seen a s it r e a lly is, th u s : T h is is n o t m in e, th is a m I n o t, th is is n o t m y self. || 45 [1 " S e e in g in th is w a y , m o n k s, th e in s tr u c te d 1 d isc ip le o f th e a riy a n s d is re g a rd s2 b o d y a n d he d isreg a rd s fe elin g a n d he d isreg a rd s p e rc e p tio n a n d h e d isreg a rd s th e h a b itu a l te n d e n cie s a n d h e d isre g a rd s co n scio u sn e ss ; d is re g a rd in g h e is d isp a ssio n a te ; th ro u g h d isp a ssio n h e is fre ed ; in fre ed o m th e k n o w le d g e com es to b e : I am fre e d and he k n o w s :D e s tr o y e d is b irth , liv e d is th e B ra h m a -fa rin g , d o n e is w h a t w a s to be d o n e, th e re is n o m o re o f b e in g su ch o r s u c h ." |[ 4 6 |[ T h u s sp o k e th e L o rd ; dcLighted, th e g ro u p o f five m o n k s re jo ic e d in w h a t th e L o r d h a d said . M o re o v e r w h ile th is d is cou rse w a s b e in g u tte re d , th e m in d s o f th e g ro u p o f fiv e m o n k s w ere fre e d fro m th e c a n k e rs w ith o u t grasping* A t t h a t tim e th ere w ere s ix p e rfe c te d ones in th e w o rld . [] 4 7 j| 6 [j T h e F ir s t P o rtio n fo r R e c ita l. [ 14]

A t th a t tim e in B e n a re s th e re w a s a y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , th e so n o f a {great) m e rch a n t*, d e lic a te ly re a re d , c a lle d Y a s a B .


1 sutavatU. o n e w h o h a s h e a r d , hen ce le a r n t (th e o ra l te a c h in g ). 1 ntbbindati, tu r n s a w a y fr o m , is d is g u ste d b y . H e " d isreg a rd s " c a u s e h e re fu ses t o k n o w . * S e e B .Z 5. i. 1 0 a n d its a . ? , 3, * S e e B.>, ii. In tr .. x l v j i a n d p . 43, n- 4 * V e r s e s a t T ha g . 1 1 ? . b e

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H e h a d th re e m an sio n s, o n e fo r th e co ld w e a th e r, o n e fo r th e h o t w e a th e r, one fo r th e rain s. B e in g 1 m in istered t o b y b a n d s o f fe m a le m u sicia n s1 fo r fo u r m o n th s in th e m a n sio n fo r th e rain s, h e d id not co m e d o w n from th a t m a n sio n 3. T h e n w h ile Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , w a s p ossessed o f and p ro v id ed w ith th e fiv e k in d s o f sen se-p leasu res3, a n d w a s b e in g m in istered to , he fe ll a sle e p first a n d his s u ite fell asleep a fte r h im , an d an o il la m p w a s b u rn in g a ll th ro u g h th e n ig h t. |( I |[ T h e n Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , h a v in g a w o k e n first, saw his o w n s u ite sleep in g , one w ith a lu te in th e h o llo w o f h er arm , o n e w ith a t a b o r a t h er n eck , o n e w ith a d ru m in th e h o llo w o f h e r a rm , on e w ith d ish e ve lle d h a ir, one w ith saJiva d rip p in g from h e r m o u th , m u tte r in g in th e ir sleep, lik e a c e m e te ry b efo re h is v e r y e y e s ,4 S eein g th is, its p eril g rew p la in , a n d his m in d w a s se t on d isre g a rd in g i t . * T h e n Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , u tte re d a so lem n u tte ra n ce : W h a t d istress ind eed , w h a t a fflictio n in d e e d ." | |2 [ | T h e n Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , h a v in g p u t on his g o ld en sa n d a ls, a p p ro a c h e d th e d o o r o f th e d w ellin g . N o n h u m an bein gs o p en ed th e door, th in k in g : L e t th e re b e no o b sta cle fo r th e g o in g fo rth from h o m e in to hom elessness o f Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily . T h e n Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , a p p ro a c h e d th e c ity -d o o r. N o n -h u m a n b ein g s opened th e d o or, th in k in g : " L e t th e re b e no o b sta c le for th e g o in g fo rth from h o m e in to hom elessness o f Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f f a m ily ." T h e n Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , a p p ro a c h e d th e d e er-p a rk a t Is ip a ta n a . || 3 || A t th a t tim e , th e L o rd h a v in g risen in th e n ig h t to w a rd s d a w n , w a s p a cin g u p a n d d o w n in th e open a ir. T h e L o rd sa w Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m iiy , co m in g in th e d ista n ce : seein g him , h a v in g com e d o w n from {the place) w h ere he w a s p a c in g u p a n d d o w n , h e s a t d o w n on a n a p p o in te d sea t. T h e n Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , w h en h e w a s near, u tte re d th is solem n u tte ra n c e to th e L o rd : W h a t d istress ind eed , w h a t afflictio n
1 n tp p u riseh i turiyek 1 see n . a t D ia l ii. 18 ; a ls o F u r , D i a l i. 356, 1 E t a d in ^ hcttha pa,s&d5.. A ii. n , A I. i. 504 read h etihapasidani, ' t o th e lo w er (p a r ts o f th e) m a n s io n /' O n pdsada, see B .L ), ii. 16, n. 5, 6. C f. V itt . iii 72, D . i. 36, 6o, and I> A . 1 2 1 . * h a iih a p a tS a m s u s d fia tft m a n n e , lit. on e w o u ld t h in k o n e s b a n d h a d re ach ed a c e m e te r y , H atlhappatia, w h a t o n e c a n p u t o n c 'i b a n d o n , a n d so w h a t is b e fo re o n e 's ey es. * -a ib b id d y a ciiiayrt s a & f& a s i.

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in d e e d .1' T h e n th e L o rd sp o k e th u s t o Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f f a m i ly : T h is , Y asa,, is n o t d istre ss, th is, Y a s a , is n o t a fflictio n . C o m e, sit d o w n , Y a s a , I w ill te a c h y o u dham m a." T h e n Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , th in k in g : " I t is sa id th a t th is is n o t d istre ss, th a t th is is n o t a fflic tio n " , e x u lta n t a n d u p lifte d , h a v in g ta k e n o ff his g o ld en sa n d a ls, a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , h e s a t d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l d is ta n c e . A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e L o r d ta lk e d a p ro g re ssiv e t a lk 1 t o Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , th a t is to s a y , t a lk o n g iv in g , t a lk on m o ra l h a b it, t a lk o n h e a v e n , h e e x p la in e d t h e p e ril, th e v a n it y , th e d e p r a v it y o f p le a s u re s o f th e senses, th e a d v a n ta g e in re n o u n c in g them . || 5 J | W h e n th e L o rd 15] k n e w t h a t th e m in d o f Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , w a s r e a d y , m a lle a b le , d e v o id o f h in d ra n c e s, u p lifte d , p le a se d 2, th e n h e e x p la in e d to h im th e te a c h in g on dhamma w h ic h th e a w a k e n e d ones h a v e th e m s e lv e s d is c o v e re d : ill, u p risin g , sto p p in g , th e W a y 3. A n d ju s t a s a cle a n d o t h w ith o u t b la c k sp e c k s w ill ta k e a d y e e a s ily , e v e n so (as h e w a s sittin g ) on t h a t v e r y se a t, dham m a- v isio n , d u stless, sta in le ss, aro se to Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , th a t w h a t e v e r is o f a n a tu re to u p rise , a ll th a t is o f a n a tu re t o s t o p . T h e n th e m o th e r o f Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , h a v in g m o u n te d u p t o th e m a n sio n , n o t se e in g Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , a p p ro a c h e d th e (great) m e rc h a n t, th e h o u se h o ld e r; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d she sp o k e th u s to th e (great) m e rc h a n t, th e h o u s e h o ld e r : H o u se h o ld e r, y o u r so n , Y a s a , is n o t to be se e n . T h e n th e (great) m e rc h a n t, th e h o u seh o ld er, h a v in g d is p a tc h e d m essen gers o n h o rse -b a c k t o th e fo u r q u a rte rs, h im se lf a p p ro a c h e d th e d eer-p a rk a t Is ip a ta n a . T h e (great) m e rc h a n t, th e h o u seh o ld er, s a w th e p r in ts o f g o ld e n sa n d a ls, a n d seein g th e m he fo llo w e d them a lo n g , j| 7 J j T h e L o rd sa w th e (great) m e rc h a n t, th e h o u seh o ld er, c o m in g
cf, Vin
1 * th e not le ft 1 T h is p a s s a g e is f r e q u e n tly fo u n d n c o Q n e c tio a
ii. 1 5 .G , i< js , U . i. n o , 1 4 .8 , ii4 1 ,

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i v ,

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1 8 6 , 2 0 9 ,

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3 7 9 ,

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4 9 .

I n sen se o i with. L*hC t e a c h id g , p rep ared t o fo llo w it. N o t e t h a t p a fip a d a (of t h e fo u r th tr u th ) , t h e co u rse w h ic h le a d s t o ce a s in g o f 01, is h ere r ep resen ted b y t h e o n e w o rd magga. T h is m a y b e a s u b s titu tio n io r t a e " fo u r th t r u t h b u t t h e o r ig in a l notion,, in.

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in th e d ista n ce ; seein g him , it occurred to th e L o rd : " Sup p o se T w ere to p erfo rm su ch a p s y c h ic w o n d er th a t th e (great) m erch an t, th e househ old er, s ittin g here, sh o u ld n o t see Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , s ittin g here ? T h e n th e L o rd p erfo rm ed su ch a p s y c h ic w o n d er. J | 8 || T h en th e (great) m erch an t, th e h ouseh old er, a p p ro a ch e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d he sp oke th u s to th e L o rd ; < r L o rd , has th e L o rd n o t seen Y a s a , th e yo u n g m an o f fa m ily ? " " W e ll, househ old er, sit dow n. P e rh a p s, sittin g here, y o u m a y see Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n o f fa m ily , s ittin g h e r e / T h e n th e (great) m erch a n t, the householder, th in k in g : '* I t is sa id th a t I, s ittin g here, w ill see Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , s ittin g here a n d e x u lta n t, u p lifte d , h a v in g g ree te d th e L o rd , he sa t dow n a t a re sp e ctfu l d istance. ]| 9 || A s th e (great) m erch a n t, th e househ old er w as s ittin g dow n a t a re sp e ctfu l d istance! th e L o rd ta lk e d a pro gressive ta lk . a tta in e d w ith o u t th e h e lp o f a n o th er to fu ll confidence in th e te a ch e r's in stru ction , sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : ** E x ce lle n t, L o rd ! E x c e lle n t, L o rd ! J u s t as one m ig h t set u p rig h t w hat h a s been up set, or m ig h t u n co ver w h a t w a s co n cealed , or m ig h t sh ow th e w a y to one w h o is a s tra y , or m ig h t b rin g an oil la m p in to th e d arkn ess, th in k in g , * T h o se w ith eyes m a y see sh apes % e ve n so is dhamma exp la in ed in m a n y a figure b y th e L o rd . I m y s e lf go to th e L o rd as refu ge, to dhamma, an d to th e O rd er o m onks. L e t th e L o rd accep t m e as a la y -d isc ip le gone for refu ge from th is d a y fo rth fo r as lo n g as life la s ts / ' T h u s be ca m e to be th e first la y-d fscip le in th e w o rld [16] usin g th e th ree-w ord form ula*1 || 10 j| T h e n w h ile th e fa th e r o f Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , w as b ein g ta u g h t dhamma, as h e2 w a s re v ie w in g h is sta g e (of kn ow led ge) a s it w a s seen, as it w a s know n, his m ind w a s freed from th e can k ers w ith o u t graspin g. T h en it o ccu rred to th e L o rd : W h ile th e fa th e r o f Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , w a s b ein g ta u g h t dhamma, a s he w a s re v ie w in g his stage (of kn ow led ge) as i t w as seen, as it w a s kn o w n , h is m ind w as freed fro m th e ca n k ers w ith o u t grasping. N o w Y a s a , th e
1 tevsicika. In stea d of t h e dvevdcika o f I-- 4 5* fo t h e te th e bhikkhus&yjtgha is in clu d e d in th e refu ge-forrau la, W e m u s t th erefore assu m e th a t w hen th e gro u p o f fiv ? m o n k s b e c a m e d iscip les of a. saifigha. w as form ed * 1 Y a sa*

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y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , ca n n o t b eco m e one, h a v in g tu rn e d b a c k to th e lo w life , to e n jo y pleasures o f th e senses a s he d id fo rm e rly w h en le a d in g a h o u seh o ld life. S u p p o se I w ere to a n n u l th a t p y sc h ic w o n d er ? T h e n th e L o rd a n n u lled th a t p sych ic wonder* || n |f T h e n th e (great) m e rch a n t, th e househ old er, saw Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily s ittin g d o w n ; seein g h im , he sp o k e th u s to Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily : " D e a r Y a s a , y o u r m o th er is fu ll of la m e n ta tio n an d grief, g iv e y o u r m o th er li f e / 1 \ \ 12 [ | T h e n Y a s a , th e y o u n g m a n of fa m ily , lo o k ed to w a rd s th e L o rd . T h en th e L o rd sp o k e th u s to th e (great) m erch an t, th e h o u seh o ld er : W h a t d o y o u th in k a b o u t th is, h o u se h older, th a t dhamma w a s seen b y Y a s a w ith a le a rn e r's k n o w led g e, w ith a le a rn erJs in sig h t, even as b y y o u ? A s he w a s re v ie w in g h is sta g e (of kn o w led g e), a s it w as seen, as it w as kn o w n , h is m in d w a s freed from th e cankers w ith o u t grasp in g. N o w can Y a s a , householder* h a v in g tu rn e d b a c k to th e lo w life, becom e one to e n jo y pleasures o f th e senses, a s he d id fo rm e rly w h en le a d in g a hou seh old life ? " " N o , L o rd /1 " D ham m a w as seen b y Y asa* th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , householder, w ith a learn er's kn o w led g e, w ith a le a rn er's insight, eve n as b y yo u . A s h e w a s re v ie w in g his sta g e (of know ledge), as it w as seen, as it w a s kn ow n , h is m in d w as freed from th e can kers w ith o u t g ra sp in g . N o w Y a s a , the yo u n g m an o f fa m ily , h ouseh old er, ca n n o t becom e o n e, h a v in g tu rn ed b a c k to th e lo w life, to e n jo y p leasu res o f th e senses, as he d id fo rm e rly w h en le a d in g a h o u seh o ld life . |] 13 ]| " L o rd , it is a g ain fo r Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , L o rd , it is w e ll g o tte n for Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , in asm u ch as th e m in d o f Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , is freed fro m th e ca n k e rs w ith o u t g ra sp in g . L o rd , m a y th e L o rd consent to a m eal w ith m e on th e m o rro w w ith Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , as his a tte n d a n t ? T h e LoTd co n sen ted b y becom in g silent* T h en th e (great) m erch a n t, the h ouseh old er, k n o w in g th a t th e L o rd h a d co n sen ted , risin g from his seat, h a v in g g reeted th e L o rd , d e p a rted k e ep in g his rig h t side to w a rd s h im , |[ 14 \ \ T h en Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , soon a fte r th e (great)

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m erch an t, th e househ old er, h a d d ep arted , sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : ** L o rd , m a y I receive th e g o in g fo rth m th e L o rd 's presence, m a y I receive o rd in a tio n ? *' " C om e, m o n k / 1 th e L o rd sa id , " w e ll p reach ed is dhammat le a d th e B ra h m a -fa rin g fo r m a k in g an u tte r end of i l l / 1 So th is [17] ca m e to be th a t ven era b le o n es o rd in atio n . A t th a t tim e th e re w ere seven p e rfe cte d ones in th e w o rld . || 15 || T o ld is th e G o in g F o r th o f Y a s a . | | 7 j|

T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g dressed in th e m orning, ta k in g his b ow l an d ro b e t a p p ro a ch e d th e d w e llin g o f th e (great) m erch an t, th e househ old er, w ith th e ven era b le Y a s a as a tte n d a n t ; h a v in g ap p ro ach ed , he sa t d o w n on a n a p p o in ted seat. T h e n th e m o th e r a n d th e fo rm e r w ife o f th e ven era b le Y a s a ap p ro ach ed the L o rd ; having- a p p ro a ch ed , h a v in g greeted th e L o rd r th e y sa t d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l d ista n ce. || 1 [[ T h e L o rd ta lk e d a p ro gressive t a lk to th ese, th a t 15 to sa y , ta lk on g iv in g , ta lk on m o ra l h a b it, t a lk on h e a v e n - . * dha mrna -v isio n , dustless, stainless, arose to th e m th a t, " w h a t e v e r is o f a n a tu re to u p rise, a ll th a t is o f a n a tu re to s t o p / 1 |[ 2 ]| T h ese, ha-^ing seen d/uitttma, a tta in e d dhantma- - . * sp oke th u s to th e L o rd : E x c e lle n t L o rd I . . . w e ourselves, L o rd , go to th e L o rd a s re fu g e, to dhamma a n d to th e O rd er o f m onks. L e t th e L o rd a cce p t us as w om en la y-d iscip le s, gon e for refuge from th is d a y fo rth fo r as lo n g as life lasts/* T h u s th ese w ere th e first w om en la y -d isc ip le s in th e w o rld using th e th ree-w ord form ula- || 3 J | T h e n th e v e n e ra b le Y a s a s m o th e r a n d fa th e r and fo rm er w ife , h a v in g w ith th e ir ow n handfs) se rv e d th e L o rd a n d th e v e n e ra b le Y a s a and h a v in g offered th em su m p tu o u s foods, solid and so ft, sat dow n w h en th e L o rd h a d finished h is m eal and h ad rem o ved his han d from th e b o w l. T h e n th e L ord , h a v in g g lad d en ed , roused, rejo iced , d e lig h ted th e ven erab le Y a s a s m o th er a n d fa th e r a n d form er w ife w ith ta lk on dhamma , risin g from h is se a t d e p a rted . j| 4 | ] 3 f! F o u r h ouseh older friends o f th e ven era b le Y a s a , yo u n g m en o f fam ilies o f (great) m erch a n ts a n d lesser (great) m erch a n ts1
1 selthdnuset}ki. S ee ] & v . 384 for seithi -(but w itb v , 1.

and aitus*$tM :

also V in r Texts i. i q a n. 3.

9 .1 - 4 ]

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27

in B en ares, V im a la ,[ 18] S u b a h u , P u n n a ji, G a v a m p a ti* , h e a rd : " T h e y s a y th a t Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , h a v in g c u t o ff his h a ir a n d b eard , h a v in g p u t on y e llo w robes, has gone fo rth fro m hom e in to h o m elessn ess.*' H a v in g h e a rd th is, it occu rred to th e m : " N o w th is can b e n o o rd in a ry dhamma a n d d iscip lin e, n o r ca n th is b e an o rd in a ry g o in g fo rth , in th a t Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , h a v in g c u t o ff h is h a ir a n d b eard , h a v in g p u t on th e y e llo w robes, h a s gone fo rth fro m hom e in to hom elessness/'1 (| 1 || T h ese fou r p eo p le a p p ro a ch e d th e ve n e ra b le Y a s a ; h a v in g a p p ro ach ed , h a v in g g ree te d th e v e n e ra b le Y a s a , th e y sto o d a t a resp ectfu l d istan ce. T h e n th e v e n e ra b le Y asa* ta k in g th ese fo u r h o u seh o ld er frien d s, a p p ro a ch ed th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch ed , h a v in g g ree te d th e L o rd , h e sa t dow n a t a re sp e ct fu l d istan ce. A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a. re sp e ctfu l d ista n c e , th e ven erab le Y a s a sp ok e th u s to th e L o rd : " T h ese fo u r h o u seh o ld er frien d s o f m in e, L o rd , y o u n g men o f fa m ilies of (great) m e rch a n ts an d lesser (great) m e rch a n ts in B en are s, V im a la , S u b a h u , P u n n a ji, G a v a m p a ti, m a y th e L o rd e xh o rt, m a y he in stru c t th ese fo u r / ' || 2 || T h e L o rd ta lk e d a p ro g re s siv e ta lk t o th ese, th a t is to s a y , ta lk on g iv in g , t a lk on m o ra l h a b it, t a lk on h e a v e n * * . d!Afffmfl-visiont d u stless, sta in le ss, a ro se t o th em th a t " w h a t e v e r is o f th e n a tu re to u p rise, a ll t h a t is o f th e n a tu re to s t o p ."
113 II ^

T h ese, h a v in g seen dhammat a tta in e d dhamma * . , sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : " L o r d , m a y w e re c e iv e th e g o in g fo r th in th e L o rd 's presence* m a y w e re c e iv e o rd in a tio n ? J' *e C om e, m o n k s ," th e L o rd sa id , " w e ll p re a ch e d is dhammat fare th e B ra h m a -fa rin g fo r m a k in g an u tte r en d o f i l l ." So th is cam e to b e th ese v e n e ra b le ones' o rd in atio n . T h e n th e L o rd exh o rted , in stru cte d th ese m o n k s w ith dhamma ta lk . W h ile th e y w ere b ein g e x h o rte d , in stru c te d b y th e L o rd w ith dhamma ta lk , th e ir m in d s w ere freed fro m th e ca n k ers w ith o u t grasp in g . A t th a t tim e th ere w ere e le ve n p e rfe cte d ones in th e w o rld . |j 4 |] T o ld is th e G o in g F o rth o f the. fo u r H o u seh o ld ers. |[ 9 || [19]

1 V e r se s a ttrib u ted , o n ly t o G a v a m p a ti, Tkag* 38, a n d h e a p p e a r s t o h e th e o n ly o n e m en tio n ed elsew here m t h e ca n o n , e .g . Z>+ ii. 356, S - v . 436.

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F if t y h o u seh o ld er frien d s o f th e ven era b le Y a s a , y o u n g m en o f th e first fam ilies a n d o f those n e x t to th e first1 in th e d istric t h ea rd : M T h e y s a y th a t Y a s a , th e y o u n g m an o f fa m ily , . . (as in 9 , r - 4 down to ;} W h ile t h e y w ere b ein g ex h o rte d , in stru cte d b y th e L o rd w ith dhamma t a lk , th e ir m in d s w ere fre e d fro m th e ca n k e rs w ith o u t grasp in g . A t th a t tim e th e re w ere s ix ty -o n e p e rfe cte d ones in th e w o rld . j| 4 || 10 H T h e n th e L o rd ad d ressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g 2 : " I , m onks, a m freed fro m a ll sn ares, b o th th o se o f ifevas* a n d th o se of m en. A n d y o u , [20] m o n ks, a re freed fro m a ll snares, b o th th o se o f devas an d th o se o f m en, W a lk , m o n ks, on to u r fo r th e b lessin g o f th e m a n y fo lk , fo r th e happiness o f th e m a n y fo lk o u t o f com passion fo r th e w o rld , fo r th e w elfare, th e blessing, th e h ap p in ess o f devas a n d m en. L e t n ot tw o (of yo u ) go b y one (w a y .)1 M on ks, te a c h dhamma w h ich is lo v e ly a t the begin n in g, lo v e ly in th e m id d le, lo v e ly a t th e e n d in g .6 E x p la in w ith th e sp irit a n d th e le tte r th e B ra h m a -fa rin g c o m p le te ly fu lfilled , w h o lly pure. T here are beings w ith little d u st in th e ir eye s, w h o , n o t h ea rin g dham m at are d e ca y in g , (but) i f th e y are le a rn ers o f dhamma, th e y w ill gro w . A n d I, m onks, w ill g o a lo n g to U ru v e la , to th e C am p to w n sh ip ,6 in order to te a c h dhamma/* || 1 |( T h e n M ara, th e E v i l O ne, a p p ro a ch ed th e L o rd ; h a v in g ap p ro a ch ed , he ad dressed th e L o rd w ith verses : " B o u n d a rt th o u b y a ll th e snares, B o th th o se o f devas and o f m en, In g rea t b o n d a g e a r t th o u bound . R eclu se, th o u I t n o t b e freed from m e / '7
1 p u b h & n u p u a , E x p la in e d b y th e o ld e st In regard, t o lin ea ge. V A . 9&6 as th e o ld e s t an d n e x t to

* S,

i,

105-6*

* dibba- ; n eith er " d i v i n e ' * ( W n . T exts L ir s } nor " c e l e s t i a l ( K .S . I. 13 1) is e x a c t ly r ig h t fo r t h is d ifficu lt a d je c t iv e w h ich means. p e r ta in in g t o dev-ast * ekena ca n a ls o m ean to g e th e r, b u t a b o v e is in te r p re ta tio n g iv e n a t V A . 966, an d cf* S A . L 17 2 . * S A . 1, 1 7 3 g iv e s d ifferin g b u t re la te d arra n g em en ts o f s u b je c ts in c lu d e d u n d er " begin n in g, m id d le a n d en d p *+

* Senanigam a here acid a t AT. i. 6 6 ; ior th e variant spelling used a t e,*. 1 . io<jr J a . i . 63, see Vtn~ Texts I, 1 1 3 , n+ i, K , S , L n. 5 ; D . P * P ~ N - ; . J. Thom as, L t/ o f B u d d h a , p. 2 3 0 . There was a tradition th at in old tim es it had been a n arm y's cam ping pEace. M A . ii. 1 7 3 , S A * L 1 7 2 , also the town where SenScii, S u j 3.t 5 *s father lived. * These four lines w ith th e n e x t lour also a t S. i. 106,

1 1 .2 1 2 ,3 ]

M A H A V A G G A

39

" F re e d a m I from a ll th e snares. B o th those o f devas a n d o f m en , F ro m g rea t b o n d age am I freed , H u m b led a r t th o u , O E n d -m a k e r."1 T h e ta le o f m m d -im pression s is a snare T h a t w e a v e s its ta llie s to an d fro in air. W ith th ese w ill I h a v e w h e re w ith to fe tte r th e e , R eclu se, th o u w ilt n o t b e freed from m e . 1 " S ig h ts, sounds, scen ts, tastes, a n d th in g s to to u ch . B rin g in g d elig h ts to m in d o f m a n for such A ll w ish , a ll w ill, fo r m e is p a st an d gone. H u m b le d a r t th o u , O E n d -m a k e r/ ' T h en M ara, th e E v il O ne, th in k in g , " T h e L o rd k n o w s m e, th e w e ll-fa re r kn o w s m e / ' p a in ed , a fflicted , va n ish ed th e n an d th e re , |[ 2 |) T o ld is th e T a lk on M ara. || 1 1 J |

A t th a t tim e m o n ks b ro u g h t (to th e L o rd ) fro m va rio u s q u a rters, from va rio u s d is tric ts th o se w ish in g fo r th e g o in g fo rth , those w ish in g fo r o rd in atio n , th in k in g : T h e L o rd w ill le t th ese g o fo rth , he w ill ordain th e m / T h e r e b y b o th th e m onks a s w e ll a s th o se w ish in g fo r th e g o in g fo rth a n d th ose w ish in g fo r o rd in a tio n w ere tired . T h e n a reaso n in g arose in th e L o rd 's m in d as he w as m e d ita tin g in seclusion, th u s : " A t presen t m o n ks are b rin g in g (to me) from v a rio u s q u a rters , . . and those w ish in g fo r o rd in a tio n are tired . S u p p o se I w ere to a llo w i t t o m on ks, s a y i n g : * Y o u , m o n ks, m a y n o w y o u rs e lv e s le t go fo rth , m a y o rd ain in an y* q u a rte r, in a n y d is tric t ' ? || j || T h e n th e L o rd , em ergin g from seclusion to w a rd s even in g, on th is occasion, in th is co n n ectio n , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , a d dressed th e m onks, s a y in g : '* W h ile I w a s m e d ita t ing in seclusion, m o n ks, a reaso n in g arose in m y m in d , th u s :

[2 1]

1 A n ta k a , exp]* a t V A _ as a n inferior* lo w bein g1 ; a n a m e of Mra C f. T h fg . 59, 6a, 1 9 5 ; a lso D hp . 4&r w b ero n o t used in th is w a y,

* These four lines and the n e x t io u r occur also a t S . i. m .


* T h e V in . versio n p u ts scen ts b efo re ta s te s in th e u su a l w a y . S. i. i n reverses th e o r d e r ; see K .S . i. 140, n, 3* C f. M V . V , 1 . 2 7 ; Sn* 3&7* 7 5 9 * Thag. 455* 643* 4 tasu. tasu, Taijt tam m ea n s w h a te v e r, each , t h is a n d t h a t .

30

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- A t present m o n k s are b rin g in g * * . in a n y q u arter, in a n y d is tric t ' ? | ]2 | | " I alloWj m o n ks th a t y o u y o u rselv e s m a y n o w le t go fo rth , m a y ord ain in a n y q u a rter, in a n y d istrict. A n d thus, m o n ks, sh o u ld one le t go fo rth , sh o u ld one o r d a in : F irs t, h a v in g m ad e h im h a v e h is h a ir an d b eard c u t off, h a v in g m ad e him p u t on y e llo w robes, h a v in g m ad e h im arran ge an u p p er robe o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g m ad e h im ho n o u r th e m onks* feet, h a v in g m a d e him s it dow n on h is h au n ch es, h a v in g m ade him sa lu te w ith jo in e d p a lm s, he sh o u ld be to ld ; * S p e a k th u s, || 3 || " I go to th e a w a k e n e d one fo r re fu g e, I go to dhamma for re fu g e, I go to th e O rd e r for refuge* A n d a second tim e I g o , , , A n d a th ird tim e I go to . _ _ th e O rd er fo r refu ge J' I a llo w , m o n ks, th e g o in g fo rth and th e o rd in atio n b y these th ree go in gs fo r re fu g e.1" || 4 | | T o ld is th e T a lk on O rd in atio n b y th e three G oings fo r R efuge* || 1 2 | | T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g k e p t th e rain s, addressed th e monkSj s a y in g : *r M onks, b y pro p er a tte n tio n , b y p ro p er righ t effo rt w a s sup rem e freed om a tta in e d b y m e, suprem e freedom * realised . Y o u , too, m on ks, b y pro p er a tte n tio n , b y proper rig h t effort m a y a tta in sup rem e freed om , m a y realise suprem e freedom /* H1 || T h e n M ara, th e E v i l One* a p p ro ach ed th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro ach ed , he ad dressed th e L o rd w ith verses ; ,f B o u n d a rt th o u b y M a ra s snares, B o th th o se o f devas a n d o f m en. I n g re a t b on d age a rt thou bound. R eclu se, thou w ilt n o t be freed from m e / 1* F ree d am I fro m M a ra 's snares, B o th those o f devas a n d o f men, F ro m g re a t b o n d age am I freed, H u m b le d a r t th o u , O End-m aker_Ji
1 A pp aren tly this was the second stage in ad m ittin g disciples to the religious life* the first being b y the form ula spoken b y th e Lord, 1 come, monk R esponsibility is now being delegated to his followers themselves* .Note th a t bhagavantaip (the lord) has given w a y to buddharp {the awakened one) Id th e first sentence oi th e formula. 1 C/_ iii- 21S.
1 T h e s e fo u r lin es occu r a t S. i. 105, b u t th e r e th e th ir d line o f each verse reads, *' I n (F rom ) M a ra 'a b o n d a g e . . / '

13.2 14.2]

m a h a v a g g a

31

T h e n Mara* th e E v i l O n e, th in k in g , " T h e L o rd kn o w s m e, th e w ell-farer kn o w s m e / ' pained,, a fflicted , v a n ish e d th en an d th ere. || a || 13 || [23] T h en th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t B en ares fo r as lo n g as he found su itin g , set o u t on to u r fo r U ru v e la . T h en th e Lord* tu rn in g o ff from th e road, a p p ro a ch e d a c e rta in w o o d lan d g ro v e 1 ; h a v in g ap p ro a ch ed , h a v in g p lu n g ed in to th a t w o o d la n d g ro v e , he sa t dow n a t th e ro o t o f a c e rta in tree. A t th a t tim e a g ro u p o f as m a n y as t h ir t y frien d s o f h ig h sta n d in g ,2 w ith th e ir w iv e s, w ere am u sin g th e m selve s in th a t sa m e w o o d la n d gro ve. O ne h a d no w ife, (so) a w o m a n o f lo w sta n d in g 1 w as b ro u g h t a lo n g fo r h im . T h en w h ile th e y w ere h eed lessly a m u sin g th em selves th a t w o m an of low sta n d in g , ta k in g (their) b elon gin gs, ran a w a y . J j 1 || T h en these friends, doing th e ir frien d a se rvice a n d seek in g fo r th a t w o m an , ro am in g a b o u t th a t w o o d la n d g ro v e , saw th e L o rd s ittin g a t th e ro o t of a c e rta in tree ; seein g h im , th e y ap p ro ach ed th e L o rd , h a v in g a p p ro a ch ed , th e y sp o k e tbu s to th e L o rd : " L o rd , h a s th e L o rd n o t seen a w o m an ? f' B u t w h a t h a v e y o u , y o u n g m en, to do w ith a w o m a n ? " " W e , L o rd j a g ro u p o f as m a n y as th ir ty frien d s o f h ig h sta n d in g , w ith o u r w iv e s, w ere am u sin g ou rseives in this w o o d lan d g ro v e ; one h a d no w ife , {50} a w o m an o f lo w sta n d in g w as bro u gh t a lo n g for h im . T h e n , L o rd , as w e w ere h eed lessly a m u sin g o urselves, th a t w o m an o f lo w sta n d in g , ta k in g our b elongin gs, ran a w a y . C o n se q u e n tly , L o rd , w e frien d s, d o in g o u r frien d a service a n d seek in g fo r th a t w o m a n , are ro am in g a b o u t th is w o o d la n d g ro v e /" | | 2 j|
1 A t J&. 1. 82 th is is called K app& siya woodland fjrove. * tifps&matta bknddavaggiyi s ahay aka. V A . 9 7 1 says ,c sons of r&ja$, of high, repute (bhaddaka, honoured, of good qu ality), bound into a group (vagga, party) b y their bodies and minds, were wandering a b o u t * '; and V A . s 106 aays. because th ey were brothers b y one father of th e K in g o Kosala, a synonym fo-r these elders is the group who are of high standing ,p* F or both here and at H h A r ii. 3/z th e y are identified with the th ir ty m onks of P i v a (see Vin . 1. 253, S. ii. 187). T h e bhaddavaggiya = kumara are referred to a t i* Sz i. 87, S>hA. L 37 as am ong t h e / ' co n verts"' who* because converted first., should, so som e monks thought, have been given precedence over the G reat Pair ; a t D M * i. 100, as h avin g heard th e TuridiLovada [cf. V A . 1106 and Ja. No. 3.S8). x x x , 79 mentions their conversion as a subject to be represented ia th e rclic shrine of th e M a h l Thupa. * vast can also mean a prostitute,, b u t here p ro b ab ly used in opposition to bhadda, high standing.

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f' W h a t do y o u th in k o f th is, y o u n g m en ? W h ic h is b e tter for y o u , th a t y o u sh ou ld se e k for a w o m a n or th a t y o u sh ou ld se e k for th e se lf1 ? " T r u ly th is w e re b e tte r for us, L o rd , th a t w e should seek fo r th e s e lf/ ' " W e ll then, y o u n g m en, y o u sit d o w n , T w ill te a c h yo u dhamma/* S a y in g , " Y e s , L o r d / ' this g ro u p o f friends o f h igh sta n d in g , h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , sat d o w n a t a resp ectfu l d ista n ce. | | 3 || T h e L o rd ta lk e d a p rogressive t a lk to these, th a t is to sa y, t a lk on g iv in g , ta jk on mora] h a b it, ta lk on h e a v e n , . .th a t w h a te v e r is o f th e n a tu re to uprise, a ll th a t is o f th e n a tu re t o stop.'** II 4 f] T h ese, h a v in g seen dhamma , a tta in e d dhamma > know n dhamma, p lu n ged in to dham m a* [23] * . * sp o k e th u s to the L o rd : *4M a y w e, L o rd , receive th e g o in g fo rth in th e L o rd 's presence, m a y w e re ce iv e o rd in a tio n ? " " Come^ m o n k s / th e L o rd said , " w e l l ta u g h t is dhamma, fa re th e B ra h m a -fa rin g for m a k in g an u tte r end o f il l / 1 So th is ca m e to be these ve n e ra b le ones" ord in atio n . || 5 jj T o ld is th e C ase o f th e G ro u p o f F rie n d s o f H ig h S ta n d in g . If 14 [ ] T h e Secon d P o rtio n fo r R epeatin g* T h e n th e L o rd , w a lk in g on tour, in. due course a rriv e d a t U ru v e la , Now* a t th a t tim e th re e m a tte d h a ir a scetics, K a ss a p a o f U r u v e la / K a ss a p a o f th e R iv e r ,5 K a ss a p a o f G a y a ,6 w ere liv in g a t U ru v e ia . O f th ese, th e m a tte d h air a sce tic K a ss a p a o f U ru v e la w as lead er, gu id e, h ig h est, ch ief, h e a d o f
* attanam gav&seyy&tha. CfL>hp, 146 andhahdr^na vnqddha padipam
na gaves&atha, t h a t y e in th e b o n d s o f darkn ess sh ou ld n o t h u n t for a la m p : -and t h e co m p o u n d aiiadipa- o f > + ii., * w axid S n . 501. * A s in I . 7 * 5^6. ' 1 As. in I, 6. 32* * Verses a t T ha g 375-3E0, A t A . i. 25 he is called chief of th o se disciples

who have large followingsTk&gA* i, 7 1 recounts th a t one of this Kas&apa'a followers, B ejatthaslsa, was tam ed w ith him (see below, 20- 18, 19) and afterwards became A n a c d a 's preceptor. These three Kas?tapas were brothers* T h e y had a. sister whose son,. SenaJca* was coavextcd b y th e Lord, see Ps$i Br&ihtt p. 1So. O n the three brothers, see Mrs. R h y s ^Davids,
j v 206 .ff* / .f, o i t h e riv er N e ra n ja ra . H is verses a t Thag* 34^-344TkagA* on TJruvelalcassarpa s a y s t h a t K a s s a p a o f th e R aver w as so c a lle d b oca use he w en t fo rth a t a b e n d m a g r * a t r iv e r ; an d t h a t Ka^&apa o f G a y a w a s s o c a lle d becau se h e w en t fo r th a t G a y S s ls a , * V erse s a t Thag, 345-349*

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fiv e h u n d re d m a tte d h air a sce tics ; th e m a tte d h air a scetic K a ss a p a o f th e R iv e r w a s lea d er * . _ h ead o f th re e hu n d red m a tte d h a ir a scetics ; th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic K a s s a p a o f G a y a w a s le a d e r . * . h e a d o f tw o h u n d re d m a tte d h a ir ascetics. \ \ i j] T h e n th e L o rd a p p ro a ch ed th e h e rm ita g e 1 o f th e m a tte d h air a sc e tic K a ss a p a o f U r u v e la ; h a v in g ap p ro a ch ed , he sp o k e th u s to th e m a tte d h air a sce tic K a s s a p a o f U ru v e la : I f it is n o t in co n ve n ie n t to y o u , K a ss a p a , le t m e s t a y fo r one n ig h t in th e fire-ro o m /J " I t is n o t in co n ven ien t to m e, g re a t recluse, (but) th e re is a fierce serp en t k in g o f p sy c h ic p o w e r th e re ; he is a te r r ib ly ven em o u s sn ak e. D o n o t le t him h a rm y o u ." A n d a second tame th e L o rd sp ok e th u s to th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic K a s s a p a o f U r u v e la : " I f it is n o t in co n ve n ie n t to y o u . , # " A n d a th ird tim e th e L o rd sp o k e th u s to th e m a tte d h air a sce tic K a ss a p a o f U r u v e la : " I f it is not in co n v e n ie n t to yo u , K a ssa p a , le t me s t a y fo r one n ig h t in th e fire-ro o m /1 " I t is n o t in co n ven ien t to m e, g re a t recluse, (but) th e re is a fierce serp en t k in g o f p sy c h ic p o w er t h e r e ; he is a te r r ib ly ven em ous snake* D o n o t le t him harm y o u . " I t fe n ot lik e ly th a t he can harm m e. P le a se do y o u , K a ssa p a , a llo w (me th e use of) th e fire-ro o m / S ta y , g rea t reclu se, as y o u w ish i t . j| 2 || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g en tered th e fire-room , h a v in g la id dow n a grass m a t, sa t dow n cross-legged, k e ep in g h is b a c k erect, h a v in g caused m in d fu ln ess to b e present in fro n t o f him . T h en th a t serp en t sa w th a t th e L o rd h a d en tered , a n d seein g this* p a in ed , a fflicted , he b le w fo rth smoke* T h e n it o ccu rred to th e L o rd : " W h a t n o w if J t w ith o u t d e stro y in g this s e rp e n t's [24] skin a n d h id e a n d flesh a n d lig a m e n ts an d b o n es and th e m a rro w o f th e bones, w ere to m a ste r (his) h e a t b y h e a t ? | ] 3 || T h en th e L o rd , h a v in g w o rk ed a w o rk o f p s y c h ic pow er, b le w fo rth sm oke. T h e n th a t serp en t, n o t co n q u erin g an ger, b la zed up. T h e L o rd , h a v in g a tta in e d th e co n d itio n o f h ea t, also b lazed up. W h en b o th w ere in flam es, th e fire-room b ecam e as th o u g h b u rn in g , ablaze, in flam es. T h e n th e m a tte d h a ir ascetics, h a v in g surro u n d ed th e fire-room , sp o k e t h u s ;
1 C f. sv, 10 7 {& .D . i i lo r m a n y sim ila rities w ith th is p i s sage.

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" B e a u tifu l in d ee d is th e g re a t recluse, (but) he w ill be harm ed b y th e s e r p e n t/ '1 { \ 4 |j T h en th e L o rd a t th e end o f th a t n igh t, w ith o u t h a v in g d e stro y e d th a t se rp e n t's sk in a n d h id e a n d flesh a n d ligam en ts a n d bones an d th e m a rro w o f th e bones, h a v in g m a ste re d (his) h eat b y h e a t, h a v in g p la c e d h im in his b o w l, sh ow ed h im t o th e m a tte d h a ir ascetic, U ru v e la k a ssa p a , sa y in g : T h is, K a s s a p a , is y o u r serp en t, his h eat w as m astered b y h e a t/ ' T h en it o ccu rred to th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a s sa p a : ** T r u ly th e g rea t recluse is o f g rea t p s y c h ic p ow er, o f g rea t m a je s ty , in th a t he can m a ste r b y h e a t th e h e a t o f th e fierce serpen t k in g w h o h as p s y c h ic p o w er and is a te r r ib ly ven em o u s sn ak e ; but y e t he is n o t a p e rfe cte d one as I am /* |] 5 j| N e a r th e N e ra fija ra ,3 th e L o td sp oke th u s to th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U r u v e la k a s s a p a : I f it is n o t in con ven ien t t o y o u , K a ssa p a , le t m e s t a y th is d a y (on ly)3 in th e fireh a lh 4J* I t is n o t in co n ven ien t to m e, g rea t reciuse, (but) as I am a n x io u s fo r y o u r co m fo rt I w a rn y o u th a t there is a fierce serp en t k in g there, o f p s y c h ic power* a te r r ib ly venem ous sn ak e. D o not le t h im h a rm y o u / J " I t is n ot lik e ly th a t he ca n h a rm m e. P le a se do y o u , K a ss a p a , a llo w {me th e use of) th e fire-room ,*" " I t is g iv e n " ; h a v in g u n d erstood th is, th e fearless one entered* fear overpassed. H a v in g seen th a t th e h o ly m an* h a d en tered , th e c h ie f o f s n a k e s 7, afflicted , b le w fo rth sm oke. T h e ch ief o f m en , jo y fu l, u n p ertu rb ed , b le w fo rth sm oke th ere
1 T e x t read s n&ge na vihefhissaiik b u t should be corrected, as V i n . Texts i. 120, n. 3 indicates, b y paralLcl passage a t Vin. ii. 295 : -niigent* vihe$ftiyis$atit which I fallow. C i n g . edru reads nagena vi&ethiyati, is harmed b y th e serpent, which also m a k e s sense \S th e ascetics, seeing G otam a in flames, thought be v/as already brou ght t o harm. * F o r n o te on t h is rep etitio n o i th e s to r y (in th is a n d th e n e x t par.) in a m ore p o p u ia r s ty le , see Vi-n* T exts u I20j n. 4* ajjupho ; see B .D . ii+ 64, n* 1. V A . 9 7 1 also e x p la in s b y a jja ekadivasam , * Teret r e a d s aggisalam hi ; C in g, ed n . aggisaram&tn&i ; v j * a t Vin, L 365

aggis&fdyatji.
* &gydg<*r&* as throughout., e x c e p t for ca se ju s t referred to, * jjt = rfit. seer, sage. * H ere, in s te a d o f bein g ca lled n&gardjd,. k in g o f serpents* he is ca lled akindga a n d here naga is p r o b a b ly n o t t o be ta k e n a s serpen t " b u t a s b a la n c in g t h e *tda in ntanu-ssan&ga, fMc h ie f of m en /* ju s t b elo w , an d th erefore as m ea n in g ch ief, s tr o o g e s t, forem ost (som eth in g a w e -in s p ir in g : co b ra, e le p h a n t, sain t). C f, maAdndgat used o f (chief) disciples, a t R f, L 3^, r j i ; an d d efin itio n o f ndga a t M . L . 14 5 a s s y n o n y m for t h a t m o n k in w h o m the- ca n k e r s a re d e s tr o y e d , a n d (f+ a ls o M A - i- T53.

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to o . B u t th e c h ie f o f sn ak es, n ot co n q u erin g an g er, blamed u p lik e a fire. T h e c h ie f o f m en , h ig h ly pro ficien t in th e c o n d itio n o f h e a t, b la z e d u p th e re too_ W h e n b o th w ere in flam es, th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tics, as t h e y w ere lo o k in g a t th e fire-room , s a i d : B e a u tifu l in d eed is th e g re a t reclu se, (but) he w ill b e h a rm e d b y th e se rp e n t* "1 || 6 |[ T h e n a t th e end o f th a t n ig h t th e se rp e n t's flam es b e cam e extin g u ish ed , b u t th e m u ltic o lo u re d flam es o f him o f p s y c h ic po w er rem ained , a n d m u ltic o lo u re d flam es, d a rk green, th e n red, crim son, y e llo w an d c ry sta l-c o lo u re d w ere on A n g ir a s a s* b o d y . H a v in g p u t th e c h ie f o f sn ak es in to h is b o w l, h e sh o w ed h im t o th e b ra h m in ,3 s a y in g : " T h is, K a ss a p a , is y o u r serp en t, his h e a t w a s m a ste re d b y h eat/* T h e n th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a ssa p a , th o ro u g h ly b e lie v in g in th is w o n d er o f p sy c h ic p o w er o f th e L o rd , sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : " S t a y ju st here, g rea t reclu se, I (can o ffer you) a c o n sta n t s u p p ly o f fo o d ." 4 It 7 II T h e F ir s t W o n d er. || 15 || [25] T h e n th e L o rd s ta y e d in a ce rta in w o o d la n d g ro v e n e a r th e h erm itage o f th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a ssa p a . T h e n th e fo u r G reat K in gs, h a v in g illu m in e d th e en tire w o o d la n d g ro v e on a glo rio u s n ig h t w ith glo rio u s co lo u r, a p p ro a ch e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g ap p ro a ch ed , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , th e y sto o d at th e fo u r q u a rters lik e huge fires. |[ i \ \ T h e n th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a s s a p a a p p ro a ch e d th e L o rd a t th e e n d o f th a t n ig h t, a n d h a v in g ap p ro ach ed he sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : 4' I t is tim e* g re a t reclu se, th e m e a l is read y- B u t n o w , w h o w ere th e se , g re a t recluse, w h o, h a v in g illu m in ed th e en tire w o o d la n d g ro v e d u rin g th e glorious n ig h t w ith glo rio u s co lo u r, a p p ro a c h e d y o u a n d h a v in g ap p ro a ch cd , h a v in g g ree te d y o u , sto o d a t th e fo u r q u arters lik e h u ge fires ? J J
1 S e e a b o v e , p , 3+, n. i. * N am e applied to G o t a m a a o w and again in th e P ita k a s ; JE X iii. iqG ( nam e of th e son of the Sakyan s 5 . t 19& = T kag* r5-*J A . iii. 239* Thag* 53G, i. 1 1 6 . See J & .P .P .N * and O . S . iii, 175 , n. i. V A 9 7 1 says.

aftgato raipsiyo satpsaranii,. flames streamed from his b od y (Limb).


* N o te t h a t t h e jalHo. is here referred t o a s a brahtnin.

* This, in v ita tio n seems t o c a n c e l th e L o r d 's req u est t o s t a y for " o n e


d a y (o n ly ),1' a n d t o a c c o u n t for t h e f a c t t h a t h e s ta y e d on in t h e w o o d la n d g r o v e fo r s e v e ia l d a y s.

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ri K a ss a p a , th ese w ere th e fou r G re a t K in g s w h o a p p ro a ch ed m e in o rd er to hear dhamma T h e n it o ccu rred to th e m a tte d h air a sce tic U ru v e la k a s sa p a ; Jf T r u ly th e g re a t recluse is o f g re a t p s y c h ic p ow er, o f great m igh t, in th a t th e fo u r G re a t K in g s also a p p ro a ch h im in order to h ea r dhamma \ b u t y e t h e is n o t a p e rfe cte d one as I am /* T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g eaten th e m e a l (offered b y ) th e m a tte d h air a sc e tic U ru v ela k a ssa p a j s ta y e d in th a t sam e w o o d la n d gro ve . || 2 || T h e Secon d W onder* || 16 ||

T h e n S a k k a , lo rd o f th e devas, h a v in g illu m in ed th e entire w o o d lan d g ro v e on a glorious n ig h t w ith glo rio u s colour, a p p ro a ch e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g ap p ro ach ed , h a v in g g reeted th e L o rd j h e sto o d a t a re sp e ctfu l d istan ce, lik e a h u g e fire, m ore glo rio u s an d m ore su p erb th a n th e fo rm er sp len d ou rs of co lo u r.1 [ |i [ J T h en th e m a tte d h a ir a scetic U ru v e la k a s sa p a a p p ro ach ed th e L o rd a t th e end o f th a t n ig h t . , . {as in 2 16, 3) [26] * . s ta y e d in th a t sam e w o o d la n d gro ve. |] a [ | T h e T h ird W o n d er. | ] 17|| T h en B rah m S S a h a m p a ti . , (as in 17.) . , . s ta y e d in th a t sam e w o o d la n d grove* || r, 2 || T h e F o u r th W onder. || 18 ||

N o w a t th a t tim e a g re a t sacrifice (m ade b y) th e m a tte d h air a sce tic U ru v e la k a ssa p a w a s g o in g fo rw a rd ,3 an d th e en tire (population of) A n g a and lla g a d h a , ta k in g a b u n d a n t solid food an d so ft food , w a n te d to go {to it).4 T h en it occu rred to th e m a tte d h a ir a sc c tic U ru v e la k a ssa p a r A t present m y grea t sacrifice i? g o in g fo rw a rd , a n d th e e n tire (population of) A n g a and M agad ha, ta k in g a b u n d a n t so lid fo o d a n d so ft food, w ill com e. I f th e g re a t recluse d o cs a w on d er o f p sy c h ic
1 L e . th e fo u r G r e a t K in gS j so V A . 9 7*. 9 R e a d in g " S a k k a , lord o f devas *p in stead o f " t h e fcrar G r e a t K in g s *" * paccupafphito hoti . I t w as a sacrifice perform ed b y hiru.. * CJ. th e p eo p le's annuaJ fe s tiv a ls m e n tio n e d a t P ss* Brzth* r 3 i a t o n * o f w h ich t h e L o r d co n v e r te d K a s s a p a of U m v e lA 's nephew .

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p o w er before th e p o p u lace t th e g re a t re clu se 's g ain s a n d honour w ill m u ch in crease, m y g a in s a n d h o n o u r w ill d eclin e. N o w th e g re a t recluse sh all c e rta in ly n o t co m e to -m o rro w / ]| i | J T h e n th e L o rd , [37] k n o w in g b y m in d th e reason in g in th e m ind o f th e m a tte d h air a sc e tic U ru v e la k a s sa p a , h a v in g g o n e to U tta r a k u r u ,1 h a v in g fe tch e d a lm sfo o d from th ere, h a v in g e a ten it b y th e A n o ta tta la k e ,2 to o k h is m id d a y rest there. T h e n a t th e en d o f th a t n ig h t th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a ssa p a a p p ro a ch e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch ed , he sp o k e th u s t o th e L o rd : 4 1 I t is tim e , g re a t recluse, th e m eal is re ad y . B u t w h y d id yo u n o t co m e y e s te rd a y , g re a t recluse ? W e th o u g h t o f y o u h o w ever, s a y in g c H o w is it th a t th e great recluse does not com e ? ' A p o rtio n o f so lid fo o d a n d soft food w as p u t aside for y o u . |j 2 || " N o w did it n o t o ccu r to you* K a s s a p a , r A t p resen t m y g rea t sacrifice is go in g forw ard- * . N o w th e g re a t recluse sh a ll c e rta in ly n ot com e to -m o rro w 1 ? fl 3 f[ S o T, K a ss a p a , k n o w in g b y m in d th e reaso n in g in y o u r m in d , h a v in g gon e to U tta r a k u r u , h a v in g fe tch e d alm sfo o d fro m th ere, h a v in g eaten it b y th e A n o ta tta la k e , to o k m y m id -d a y rest th ere . ** T h en It o ccu rred to th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic U r u v e la kassap a, " T r u ly th e g re a t reclu se is o f g re a t p sych ic p o w er, o f g re a t m igh t, in th a t h e a lso k n o w s m in d b y m ind ; b u t y e t h e is n o t a p e rfe cte d one as I a m ." T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g eaten th e m eal (offered b y ) th e m a tte d h air a sc e tic U ru v e la k assapa, sta g e d in th a t sam e w o o d la n d gro ve, j] 4 j| T h e F ift h W o n d er. || 19 |f

N o w a t th a t tim e a rag-ro be a c cru e d to th e L o rd . T h e n it o ccu rred to th e L o rd : < N o w w h ere can I w a sh th e rag -ro b e ? " T h e n S a k k a , lo rd o f th e devasr k n o w in g b y m in d th e reasonin g in th e L o rd 's m in d , h a v in g d u g a ta n k w ith h is h a n d , sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : " L o rd , th e L o rd m a y w a sh th e rag -ro b e h e re ." T h e n it o ccu rred to th e L o r d : N o w on w h a t can I k n e a d th e ra g-ro b e ? T h e n S a k k a , ]ord o f th e devas, k n o w in g b y m ind th e reaso n in g in th e L o rd 's m in d , h a v in g
1 Mentioned a t F t* . iEL 7 ( J 3 . Z X i . 1 4 ) . See esp-ectally t o x its being considered & m a rk of g r e a t psychic power to be able t o go here a som ewhat m ythical region * O n e of the seven great lajtes of the H im alayas. See D.P.P.&T*
E

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p u t dow n a la rg e sto n e n ea r h im , said : L o rd , th e L o rd m a y k n e a d th e rag-ro be h e re ." \ ] i |f T h e n it o ccu rred to th e L o rd : " N o w holding: on to w h a t can I co m e u p fro m (the w ater) ? " T h e n a devatd in habitin g' a kakudha {tree}1, know ing' b y m in d th e reaso n in g in th e L o rd 's m in d , b en t d o w n a b o u gh , s a y in g : " L o rd , th e L o rd [28] m a y com e u p from (the w ater) h o ld in g on here/* T h e n it occurred to th e L o rd : " N o w on w h a t can I stre tc h o u t3 th e ra g-ro b e ? ,J T h en S a k k a , lo rd o f th e devas, k n o w in g b y m in d th e reason in g in th e L o rd 's m in d , h a v in g p u t d o w n a la rg e sto n e near him , s a id : L o rd , th e L o rd m a y stre tc h o u t th e rag-robe h e r e / ' E|2|| T h e n th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a s s a p a a p p ro a ch ed th e L o rd a t th e end o f th a t n ig h t ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , he sp ok e th u s tg th e L o rd : " I t is tim e, g rea t recluse, th e m eal is ready* B u t h o w is it, g re a t reclu se, th a t th is ta n k w a s n ot here befo re, a n d n o w th is ta n k is here ? N o r w a s th is sto n e p u t d o w n before. B y w h o m w a s th is stone p u t dow n ? N o r w as a b o u gh o f th is kakudha (tree) ben t d o w n before, a n d n o w th is b o u g h is ben t d o w n / [[3 | | K a ss a p a , a rag -ro b e a ccru e d to m e here, an d this occurred to m e, K a ss a p a , * N o w w h ere ca n I w a sh th e rag-robe ? ' T h e n , K a s s a p a , S a k k a , lord o f th e devas, k n o w in g b y m ind th e reason in g in m y m in d , h a v in g d u g a ta n k w ith his han d , sp oke th u s to m e ; * L o rd , th e L o rd m a y w ash th e rag-robe h ere/ S o th is ta n k w a s d u g b y th e h a n d o f a non-hum an b e in g .3 T h e n th is occu rred to m e, K a s s a p a , 1 Now' on w h a t can I kn ead the rag-ro be ? r . . So th is sto n e w as p u t 4 b y a non-hum an being, || 4 ]| _ T h e n th is occurred to m e, K a ss a p a , * N o w ho ld in g on to w h a t c a n I com c u p out of (the w ater) ? ' T h e n , K a ss a p a , a devoid . * * sa id : r L o rd , th e L o rd m a y co m e u p from (the w ater) h o ld in g on h e re / So th is kakudfia (tree) w a s a hold fo r m y h an d .* T h e n this o ccu rred to m e, K a ssa p a , ' N o w on w h a t
1 T e r m in a lia A r ju n a acco rd , to P+E*I>* C f v i. 518-9, DhA~ tv. 153A jju n a a t Su dv* v iii. 23 an d i. to 5 is th e tree o i t h e B u d d h a A n o m ad a ssin V A . 9 72 ca lls it tijjunaruAAha, w h itti ta ils P e n ta p tc r a A rju n a* vissajjiy y am t e x p L a t V A * 972 a s $i*kkhapa?tatkaya pasareiva thapeyyatp {where) c a n I p u t it, s trctch in g it o u t t o 4 ry ?
*

Cf. Vin.

a ii.

85

(an d

Z . >.

47r

Q- 3 ) ,

* nikkhiltd, in stead of* as p r e v io u sly , upanikhhi 1 a k a ra -h a tlh a .

20.5-ioJ

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ca n I s tre tc h out th e ra g-ro b e ? T h e n 1 S a k k a , lo rd o f th e devas . . * So th is sto n e w a s p u t b y a n o n -h u m an bein g/* 115II , T h e n i t o ccu rred to th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a s s a p a : T r u ly th e g r e a t reclu se is o f g re a t p s y c h ic p o w er, o f g re a t m ig h t, in th a t S a k k a , lo rd o f th e devas, does h im a s e r v ic e ; b u t y e t he is n o t a p e rfe c te d one as I a m / ' T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g e a te n th e m e a l (offered b y ) th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a ssa p a , s ta y e d iii t h a t sam e w o o d la n d g ro v e . ]] 6 \ \ T h e n th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic U ru v e la k a s s a p a a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd a t th e e n d o f t h a t n i g h t ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , 29] he a n n o u n ced th e tim e t o th e L o rd / s a y in g : I t is tim e , g re a t reclu se, th e m e a l is r e a d y / ' " Y o u g o on, K a ss a p a , I a m c o m in g a lo n g / ' an d h a v in g dism issed th e m a tte d h a ir a s c e tic U ru v ela k a ssa p a * h a v in g p lu c k e d a fru it from a ro se -a p p le tre e , a fte r w h ic h th is L a n d o f th e R ose-apples* is n a m e d , h e s a t d o w n in th e fire-room , h a v in g a rriv e d first- || 7 || T h e m a tte d h a ir a s c e tic U ru v e la k a s s a p a sa w th e L o r d sittin g in th e fir e - r o o m ; se e in g h im h e sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : M B y w h a t w a y h a v e y o u co m e, g r e a t recluse ? I set o u t b efo re y o u , b u t y o u are s ittin g in th e fire-room , h a v in g a rriv e d first. | | 8 || 4* N o w I , K a s s a p a , h a v in g d ism issed y o u , h a v in g p lu c k e d a fru it from a ro se-ap p le tre e , a fte r w h ic h th is L a n d o f th e R o se-a p p les is n am ed , a m s ittin g in th e fire-room , h a v in g a rriv e d first- T r u ly , K a s s a p a , th is ro se-ap p le fr u it is fu ll o f colou r, fu ll o f sce n t j fu ll o f fla v o u r ; if y o u lik e , d o e a t i t / ' " N o , g r e a t reclu se, y o u a lo n e a re w o r th y o f it, y o u alone e a t i t / ' T h e n it o ccu rre d to th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a s sa p a : " T r u ly th e g re a t reclu se is o f g re a t p s y c h ic p o w er, o f g re a t m ig h t, in th a t h a v in g d ism issed m e first , . . he sa t d o w n in th e fire-room , h a v in g a rriv e d f i r s t ; b u t y e t he is n o t a p e rfe cte d one a s I a m ," T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g e aten th e m e a l (offered b y ) th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic U ru v e la k a s sa p a , s ta y e d in t h a t sa m e w o o d la n d g ro v e , |] 9 |f T h e n th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic U ru v e la k a s s a p a a p p ro a ch e d th e L o rd a t th e en d o f th a t n ig h t ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d h e
1 T h e n a m e K a s s a p a 9 o m itte d here* * J a m b u d lp a , u s u a lly m e a n in g India.,

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an n ou n ced th e tim e to th e L o rd , s a y in g : 4 4 I t is tim e, g re a t recluse, th e m e a l is r e a d y / ' 1 4 Y o u go on, K a s s a p a , I am com in g a lo n g / ' an d h a v in g d ism issed th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a ssa p a , a n d h a v in g p lu c k e d a m an go fru it n ot far from th e rose-ap ple tree,, a fte r w h ic h th is L a n d o f th e R o se-a p p les is nam ed . * , h a v in g p lu ck e d a fru it o f e m b lic m y ro b a la n 1 n ot fa r from th e m a n g o tre e * . . h a v in g p lu c k e d a fru it o f y e llo w m y ro b a la n 3 not far from th e em b lic m y ro b a la n , h a v in g g o n e to th e T h ir t y ,3 h a v in g p lu ck e d a flo w er from th e C oral T re e ,4 h e sa t d o w n in th e fire-room , h a v in g a rriv e d first. T h e m a tte d h a ir ascetic U ru v e la k a ssa p a sa w th e L o rd s ittin g in th e fire-room , and seein g him he sp oke th u s t o th e L o rd ; * * B y w hat w a y h a v e y o u com e, g rea t recluse P I s e t o u t b efore y o u , b u t y o u are s ittin g in th e fire-room , h a v in g a rriv e d first/* \\TO\[ . . . . " N o w I, K a ss a p a , h a v in g dism issed y o u , h a v in g gone to th e T h ir ty , h a v in g p lu ck e d a flow er from th e C oral T ree , am s ittin g in th e fire-room , h a v in g a rriv ed first. T r u ly , K a ss a p a , th is flow er o f th e C o ra l T re e is fu ll o f colour, fu ll of s c e n t ; i f y o u lik e , do ta k e i t / ' " N o r g re a t recluse, yo u alone are w o rth y of it, y o u alone [30] ta k e i t / ' T h e n it o ccu rred to th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic U ru v e la k a s sa p a r T r u ly th e g rea t recluse is of g re a t p s y c h ic pow er, o f g re a t m igh t, in th a t h a v in g dism issed m e first, h a v in g gone t o th e T h ir ty , h a v in g p lu ck e d a flow er fro m th e C oral T ree, he is s ittin g in th e fire-room , h a v in g a rriv e d first ; b u t y e t h e is not a p e rfe cte d one as I am /* jj i i ff N o w a t th a t tim e these m a tte d h a ir ascetics, w a n tin g to te n d th e (sacred) firesr w ere un able to ch o p stick s. T h e n it o ccu rred to th ese m a tte d h air a scetics : " D o u b tle ss i t is
1 aMalafti (here and a t M . 1, 4 5 6 ; elsewhere dmalaM'O),. phy]lanthus emblLca. T h e fruit allowed to m onks as a medicine, Yin. i. 201. Cf. Vin,
l

H7S. * haritafti.

F r u it atari a llo w e d

as a

m e d icin e a t

V'in, i* 201*

CJWM *

iiL 127.
1 L e - to th e r e a lm o f t h e T h ir t y (or T h ir ty -th r e e ) D eva s* tdvatitpsa.

4 p&?icchaiiaha, " shading a]J round/* E ryth rin a Indica. A (m ythical) tree growing in th& T a v a tiq isa realm. A t A . iv. 1 1 7 the tUvas' rejoicings a t each &tage in th& deveEopmerrt of shoot and bloom arc set out. See iv. 78 ff. for notes* missing th e above Vin, Telereace, asserts th a t the flowers are never plucked. n th a t case th is is a notew orthy exception*

20-13-15]

m a h

A V

a g g a

41

(ow in g to} th e p s y c h ic m ig h t o f th e g re a t reclu se th a t w e are u n ab le to ch o p s t ic k s ." T h e n th e L o rd sp o k e th u s to th e m a tte d h a ir a s c e tic U ru v e la k a s s a p a : " K a s s a p a , le t stic k s be chopped.'* L e t th e m b e ch o p p ed , g re a t re c lu se ." F iv e h u n d re d s tic k s w e re ch o p p ed sim u lta n e o u s ly .1 T h e n it o ccu rre d t o th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic U ru v e la k a s s a p a : T r u ly th e g re a t recluse is o f g rea t p s y c h ic p o w e r, o f g r e a t m ig h t, in t h a t a lso stic k s a re ch o p p ed ; b u t y e t h e is n o t a p e rfe c te d one as I a m ." D13 H N o w a t th a t tim e th ese m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic s , w a n tin g t o te n d th e (sacred) fires, w ere u n a b le to k in d le th e fires. T h e n it o ccu rred to th ese m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic s : c D o u b tle ss . . . u n a b le to k in d le th e fire s ." T h e n th e L o rd sp o k e th u s t o th e m a tte d h a ir a s c e tic U r u v e la k a s s a p a : K a s s a p a , le t th e fires be k in d le d ." " L e t th e m b e k in d le d , g re a t r e c lu s e ." F iv e h u n d re d fires w ere k in d le d sim u lta n e o u sly . . . . . * in th a t a lso th e fires a re k in d le d ; b u t y e t he is n o t a p e rfe c te d one as I a m ." 1 J 13 || N o w a t th a t tim e th ese m a tte d h a ir a sce tics, h a v in g te n d e d th e fires, w ere u n a b le to e x tin g u is h th e fires. . . . T h e fiv e h u n d re d fires w ere e x tin g u ish e d sim u lta n e o u sly in th a t a lso th e fires a re e x tin g u ish e d ; b u t y e t he is n o t a p e r fe c te d one as I a m ." j| 14 || N o w a t th a t tim e on th e co ld w in te r n ig h ts b e tw e e n th e e ig h ts 3 in a tim e o f sn o w fa ll th e se m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic s w ere p lu n g in g in to th e riv e r N e ra n ja ra , th e n e m e rg in g a n d re
1 sah}<i eva, ju a t o n ce, onCe o n ly . T h e r e w as d o u b tle s s o n e s t i c k fo r e a c h o f t h e fiv e h u n d r e d ja fila s o v e r w h o m K a s s a p a w a s c h ie f Ji [ V in . T exts

i, E29, n.).

* C le a r th e refo re t h a t th e fires, w ere n o t k e p t b u r n in g p e r p e tu a lly . * antorafphakasxtp th e atihakd d a y s w h ich * a c c o r d in g t o V A . 1123 * are t h e e ig h t (d a ys) b e tw e e n M & g h a a n d F h a g g n n a {n am es o f lu n ar m a n sions). Cf. M A . it. 48 (on M . i 79) " fo u r at" t h e e n d of t h e m o n th o f M figh a, fo u r a t t h e b e g in n in g o f th e m o n th of P h a g g u n a , th u s b e tw e e n t h e t w o th e re are e ig h t n ig h t s / * C f. A A . ii. 2 25 {an A . ii 13 6 ), " t h e tim e e x t e n d s for e ig h t d a y s in th e in te r v a l b e tw e e n M & g h a a n d P h a g g u p a . F o r th e re are fo u r d a y s a t th e en d o f M & g h a a n d fo u r a t th e b e g in n in g o f P h a g g u ^ a , t h is is c a lle d 'o c c u r r in g b e tw e e n t h e e ig h t s * " {antaratphaka). S e e V in . i, 288,. U d . t + g f U d A . 74* T r a n s]d . a t S . B . D . v iii, p* 7 as be tw e e n th e e ig h th s " : a t G.S+ i 1 1 9 , J a r * D ia L i. 5 5 as in t h e d a r k h a lf o f th e m on th (s) ; a t F*h T *x ts i. 130* ii, a i t a s b e tw e e n t h e A s h t a k i fe s tiv a ls .-' .gives r p o cc u rr in g b e tw e e n th e e i g h t s / ' T h e tr a n s la tio n ** eighths. * is. ju s tifie d b y t h e m e a n in g o f ashtak (fem .) as th e 4t e ig h th d a y a fte r fnK m oon (M onier W illia m s). B u t e i g h t s " seem p referred b y th e Gom ys. S e e n o te s a t v iii, p . 7* G .S . i* 119 * T a x is L 130.

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p e a te d ly p lu n g in g in and o u t.1 T h e n th e L o rd crea te d as m a n y as five h u n d red ftre-vessels* ju s t w h ere th ese m a tte d h a ir ascetics, h a v in g com e u p fro m (the river), w a rm ed th e m se lv es.3 [31] T h en it occu rred to th ese m a tte d h a ir a scetics : " D o u b tle ss i t is (owing to) th e p sych ic m ig h t of th e g rea t recluse th a t th ese fire-vessels are c re a te d , T h en i t occu rred to th e m a tte d h a ir a scetic U ru v e la k a s sa p a : T r u ly th e g re a t recluse is o f g re a t p sy ch ic p ow er, o f g rea t m ig h t, in th a t he c a n cre a te th ese fire-vessels ; b u t y e t h e is n o t a p e rfe cte d one as I a m ." || 1 5 ]| N o w a t t h a t tim e a g rea t ra in fe ll out o f th e pro p er season, a n d a g re a t flood resulted-* T h e L o rd w a s s ta y in g in a place w h ich b e ca m e in u n d a te d b y water* T h e n i t o ccu rred to th e L o r d : " N o w sup p o se th a t I , h a v in g m ad e th e w a te r recede a ll ro u n d , should p ace u p a n d d o w n in th e m id d le on d u stco ve red g ro u n d ? " T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g m ad e th e w a te r recede a ll ro u n d , p a c e d up a n d d a w n in th e m id d le on dustco ve red grou n d . T h e n th e m a tte d h air a sce tic U ru v ela k a ssa p a , th in k in g ; ** I h o p e t h a t th e g rea t recluse h a s n o t been ca rrie d a w a y 5 b y th e w a te r ," w e n t to g eth e r w ith a b o a t a n d m a n y m a tte d h a ir a sce tics t o th a t p la ce w h ere th e L o rd w a s sta y in g . T h e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic U ru v e la k a s sa p a sa w th e L o rd w h o , h a v in g m a d e th e w a te r reced e a ll roun d , w a s p a cin g u p an d dow n in th e m id d le on d u st-co v e red gro u n d , a n d seein g h im he sp ok e thus to th e L o r d : I s it in d eed y o u w h o are here, g re a t recluse ? " I t is I , a K a s s a p a , and th e L o rd h a v in g risen u p ab o ve th e g ro u n d , p la ce d h im self in th e b o a t. T h en i t o ccu rred to th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic U ru v e la k a ssa p a : f< T r u ly th e g re ? t recluse is o f g rea t p sy ch ic pow er, o f g rea t m ig h t, in th a t also th e w a te r does n o t c a r ry him a w a y ; b u t y e t he is not a per fe c te d one as 1 a m / ' || 16 j| T h en it occu rred to th e L o rd : " N o w , fo r a lo n g tim e it w ill o ccu r to th is foolish m an , ' T r u ly th e g rea t recluse is of
1 C / t U d . 6 fo r p a r a lle l passage* I t w ou ld a p p e a r t h a t ja fiia s p r a c tis e d p u r ifica tio n b y fire a n d w a te r ; c f ce r e m o n ia l b a th in g a t G a y a m e n tio n e d b y K a s s a p a o f G a y 5 , Thag. 345. 1 * *nawddt*tukAi+ V A . 9 7 it ca lls th ese aggibhajdni. * S a m e w o rd , visibbeti, as u s e d in P i c . L .V I j see B*.D, it- 398, n. 3* * saHj&yi, lit* w a s born , w a s p ro d u ced . * C f. sam e exp ression a t V in . iii. 2 13 ii* 4-8)* * E m p h a tic ; ayatn ahw a sm ir

20. 17 - 19 ]

m a h a v a g g a

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g re a t p sy c h ic power* o f g re a t m i g h t ; b u t y e t he is n o t a p e r fe cted one a s I a m / N o w , su p p o se I sh ou ld d e e p ly s tir 1 th is m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic ? " T h e n th e L o rd sp oke th u s t o th e m a tte d h a ir a sc e tic K a s s a p a o f U ru v e la : cl N eith er are y o u , K a ss a p a , a p e rfe cte d one n or h a v e y o u e n tered on th e w a y to p e rfe ctio n , a n d th a t course is n o t for y o u b y w h ic h y o u eith er co u ld b e a p e rfe cte d one or co u ld h a v e e n tered on th e w a y to p e rfe ctio n . T h e n th e m a tte d h a ir a sce tic K a s s a p a o f U r u v e li, h a v in g in clin ed h is h e a d to th e L o rd 's fe e t, spoke th u s t o th e L o rd ; " L o rd , m a y I re ce iv e th e g o in g fo r th in the L o rd 's presence, m a y I receive o rd in a tio n ? " || 1 7 || I t is y o u , K a s s a p a , w h o are le a d e r, g u id e , h ig h est, ch ief, h ead o f five h u n d red m a tte d h air a s c e t ic s ; do co n su lt th ese so th a t th e y can d o w h a t th e y th in k (rig h t)/ 1 T h e n th e m a tte d h air a sc e tic K a s s a p a o f U r u v e la a p p ro a ch e d th ese m a tte d h a ir a scetics ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h e sp o k e th u s to th ese m a tte d h a ir a sce tics : I w a n t, [32] good sirs,2 to fare th e Brahm a-* iring u n d er th e g r e a t re clu se ; le t th e re v e re d sirs3 do w h a t th ey th in k (rig h t)/ 1 " F o r a lon^f tim e w e, good sir,2 h a v e b e en m u ch p le a se d 4 b y th e g re a t reclu se ; if, re v e re d sir** y o u w ill fare th e B ra h m a fa rin g u n d er th e g re a t reclu se, a ll o f u s w ill fa re th e B ra h m a fa rin g u n d er th e g re a t r e c lu s e ," j| i8 || T h e n these m a tte d h a ir a sce tics, h a v in g le t th e ir h a ir, th e ir braid s, th e ir b u n d les on th e ca rry in g -p o les,* th e ir im p le m e n ts fo r fire-w orship b e c a rrie d a w a y 7 a ll m ix e d up in th e w a te r, a p p ro a ch ed th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g in clin ed th e ir head s to th e L o rd 's fe e t, t h e y sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : " L o rd , m a y w e receive th e g o in g fo rth in th e L o rd 's presence, m a y w e receive o rd in a tio n ? "
1 saiftvejeyyaijt. C f th is w o rd , a s u se d a b o v e , w it h o th e r e x a m p le s o i it g iv e n b y A * K , C o o m a r a s w a m y , Satpvega, A esthetic S h o c k * m H .J ^ A rS ., v o l. 7 , no. 3 , F e b -, 1943* * * bhavanio. * I tl t h e setose o f b e lie v in g in b is te a c h in g . bhavaift* * hhatihajAr w h ic h V A - 9 7 s e x p la in s as kh&ri-bh&ra, , K h a r i is a th r e e b u sh e l m easu re, hdja ( ttividka, ufrarfAa) is t h e sh o u ld e r -p o le on w h ic h so m e a s c e tic s a n d w an d erers ca rried th e ir p r o p e r ty , th e ir hh&ri. D A . 269 ca lls hh$ri t h e r e q u is ite s o f a d a s c e tic : k in d lin g w o o d , w a te r p o t F n eed le a n d so on. C f. kh&wi-vividha a t U d 6 5 = i+ 7S, a n d -D+ i, lor* 7 pccvdhttviE. f*av&heti is t o c a u s e t o b e ca rrie d a w a y , a n d h e n c e t o clean se, t o w a sh a w a y (evil). P e r h a p s a d u a l referen ce is in te n d e d here. C f . T hag. 346 ( K a s s a p a o f G a y i ' s verses).

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C om e, m o n k s/' th e L o rd said* w ell ta u g h t is dhammaf fa re th e B rahm a-faring; fo r m a k in g an u tte r end o f i l l , So th is ca m e to be these ven erab le ones' o rd in a tio n , || i g || T h e m a tte d h air a sc e tic K a ss a p a o f th e R iv e r sa w th e hair, th e braid s, th e bun d les on th e ca rry in g-poies* th e im p lem en ts for fire-w orship b ein g carried a w a y a ll m ixed u p in th e w a te r ; seein g th is, it occurred to him : " I hope m y b ro th er is not in d a n g e r/ ' a n d he d isp a tch e d m a tte d h air a scetics s a y in g : " G o a n d find out a b o u t m y b rother/*an d he h im self w ith his th re e hu n d red m a tte d h air a sce tics a p p ro a ch ed th e ven e ra b le K a ss a p a o f U ru v e la ; h a v in g a p p ro ach ed he sp ok e th u s to the ven era b le K a ss a p a o f U ru v e la : " Is th is b e tte r, K a ssa p a ? *J Y e s , frien d , th is is b etter* ||20 | ] T h en these m a tte d h a ir ascetics , . S o th is cam e t o be these ven erab le ones' o rd in a tio n . \ \2i \ \ T h e m a tte d h air a scetic K a s s a p a of G a y a sa w th e hair> th e braids, th e bun d les on th e carryin g-p oles, th e im plem ents for fire-w orship b ein g carried a w a y a ll m ix ed up in th e w a t e r ; seein g th is, it o ccu rred to him : I hope m y b ro th ers are not in d a n g e r," a n d he d isp a tch e d m a tte d h air ascetics, s a y i n g : 11 G o an d find o u t a b o u t m y b roth ers,"' and h e h im self w ith his tw o h un dred m a tte d h air a scetics ap p ro ach ed th e venerable K a ssa p a o f U ru v e la l h a v in g a p p ro ach ed , he sp o k e th u s to th e ven erab le K a ss a p a o f U r u v e la : " I s this b e tte r, K a ssa p a ? Y e s , frien d , th is is b e tte r / ' || 22 | | T h en th ese m a tte d hair ascetics, h a v in g let th e ir h a ir, th e ir braids, th eir bundles on th e carrying-poleSj th eir im plem ents for fire-w orship be ca rrie d a w a y all m ix ed up in th e w ater, a p p ro ach ed th e L o rd ; h a v in g approached* [34] h a v in g in clin ed their h ead s to th e L o rd 's feet, th e y sp ok e th u s to the L o r d ; " L o rd , m a y w e receive th e g o in g fo rth in th e L o rd 's presence, m a y w e receive o rd in a tio n ? " C om e, m on ks/" th e L o rd said, " w ell ta u g h t is dkammtt, fare th e B ra h m a -fa rin g for m a k in g an u tte r end o f i l l / So th is cam e to be these ven e ra b le ones" ordination. ]| 23 [ | T h ro u g h th e L o rd 's p sych ic resolution * five h un dred iirestic k s could n ot be ch o p p ed , (and) were ch op p ed ; fires cou ld n o t be kind led (and) w ere kind led \ co u ld not be extin g u ish ed
1 R e p e a tin g ( J 19 \\ fo r th e fo llo w ers oi K a s s a p a of t h e K iv e r .

20. 24 21-4]

M A H A V A G G A

45

(and} w ere e x tin g u ish e d ; fiv e h u n d re d Jire-vessels w ere created* I n th is w a y th e re c a m e to be three th o u san d five h u n d red m a rvels, J | 24 (| 20 |j T h e n th e L o rd f h a v in g s ta y e d a t U ru v e la fo r as lo n g as he fo u n d su itin g , set o u t on to u r for G a y a H e a d to g eth e r w ith a large O rd er o f m o n k s, w ith a il those sam e th o u san d m on ks w h o had fo rm e rly b e en m a tte d h a ir ascetics. T h e n th e L o rd s ta y e d n e a r G a y a a t G a y a H e a d to g e th e r w ith th e th o u sa n d m on ks. |[ X [| A n d th ere th e L o rd ad dressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g ; " M onks, e v e ry th in g is b u rn in g .1 A n d w h a t, m o n ks, is e v e ry th in g th a t is bu rn in g ? T h e e y e , m o n k s, 15 b u rn in g , m a te ria l sh ap es are b u rn in g, consciousness th ro u g h th e e y e 3 is b u rn in g, im p in g e m e n t on th e e y e 3 is b u rn in g , in o th e r w ord s th e fe e lin g w h ich arises from im p in g em en t on the eye , be it p leasan t o r p a in fu l o r n e ith e r p a in fu l n or p le a sa n t, th a t too is burning. W ith What is it bu rn in g ? I s a y it is b u rn in g w ith th e fire o f passion,* w ith th e fire o f h a tre d , w ith th e fire o f s tu p id ity ; it is b u rn in g because o f b irth , agein g, d y in g , b ecause o f g rie f, sorrow , suffering, la m e n ta tio n a n d d esp air. || 2 I I *r T h e e a r is b u rn in g, sound s are b u rn in g , . - th e nose is b u rn in g, odours are b u rn in g . , . th e to n g u e is bu rn in g, ta ste s are bu rn in g * . . th e b o d y is b u rn in g , ta n g ib le o b je c ts are burning . . . th e m ind is burning* m e n ta l sta te s are bu rning, consciousncss th ro u g h th e m ind* is b u rn in g, im p in g em e n t on th e m ind is burning, in o th e r w o rd s th e feelin g w h ich raises th ro u g h im p in gem en t on th e m in d , be i t p le a sa n t o r p a in fu l o r n e ith e r p a in fu l n or p le a sa n t, th a t to o is bu rn in g. W ith w h a t is it b u rn in g ? I sa y it is b u rn in g w ith th e fire o f passion, w ith th e Jire o f h a tre d , w ith th e fire o f s tu p id ity ; it is burning because o f b irth , a g ein g , d y in g , because of grief, sorrow , suffering, la m e n ta tio n and d espair. || 3 | | " Seein g th is, m o n ks, th e in stru c te d d iscip le o f th e a riy a n s d isregard s th e eye and h e d isreg ard s m a te ria l shapes a n d he
1 Q u o te d a t K t u . 209, * CdiAAAMtrjiiw^-Mrt, ar . c o ^ n i s io ^ t y t h e eye, visioTiO r Seeing, S e e ift t d , P sy ch , E thics, 2nd ed n ., p. 1 6 1 . n. j ; D ia l, iu 340, iii- 230 : an d cf. M . i. i * t f1 cakkhusamphorssa, or im p ressio n on, or c o n ta c t w ith , th e eye, 1 Q u o te d a t 3^. * m an& tinnaK a. i.e . co g n is in g b y t h e m in d , 1 a p p ie tie n d in g J.

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d isreg a rd s consciousness th ro u g h th e e y e a n d h e d isregard s im p in g em en t on th e e y e , in o th e r w o rd s th e feeling* w h ich arises from im p in gem en t on th e eye , b e it p lea sa n t o r p a in fu l o r n eith er pain fu l n o r p le a sa n t, th a t to o he d isregard s. A n d h e d isregard s th e e a r a n d he d isreg ard s sounds, a n d he d isregard s th e nose [34] a n d he d isreg a rd s od ou rs, an d he d isreg ard s th e to n gu e and h e d isregard s ta ste s, a n d he d isreg ard s th e b o d y a n d h e d isregard s ta n g ib le o b je c ts, and he d isregard s th e m in d a n d h e d isregard s m e n ta l s ta te s an d he d isregard s consciousness th ro u g h th e m in d a n d he d isregard s im p in g em e n t on th e m in d , in o th e r w ord s th e feelin g th a t arises from im pin gem en t on th e m in d , be it p le a sa n t o r p a in fu l o r n e ith e r p ain fu l n or pleasant^ th a t to o he d isregard s ; d isreg a rd in g , he is d is p a s s io n a te ; th ro u g h dispassion h e is freed ; in freedom th e kn o w led ge com es to b e, c I am freed a n d he c o m p re h e n d s : D e stro y e d is b irth , liv e d is th e B ra h m a -fa rin g , done is w h a t w a s to be done* th e re is no m ore o f b e in g such o r su ch .1" A n d w h ile th is d iscou rse w a s b ein g u tte re d , th e m in d s o f these th o u sa n d m o n k s w ere freed from th e ca n k e rs w ith o u t graspin g. 1 ! 4 [| T o ld is th e D is q u is itio n 3 on B u rn in g , || 21 } | T o ld is th e T h ir d P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g : th e W onder(s) a t U ru v e la . T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t G a y a H ead fo r a s lo n g a s h e fo u n d su itin g, set o u t on to u r fo r R a ja g a h a to g e th e r w ith th e large O rd er o f m onks, w ith a ll those sam e th o u san d m onks w h o h a d fo rm e rly b een m a tte d h a ir ascetics. T h en th e L o rd , w a lk in g on to u r, in due co u rse a rriv e d a t R a ja g a h a . T h e L o rd s ta y e d th e re a t R a ja g a h a in th e P a lm G ro v e pleasu re g ro u n d 5 in th e S u p a titth a sh rin e.4 || r f| T h en K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M ag ad h a h eard : " V e rily , th e recluse G o ta m a , th e son o f th e S a k y a n s, w h o h as gone fo rth from th e S a k y a n clan , has reach ed R a ja g a h a a n d is
1 A a a b o v e , p . 21* 1

pariy& ya*

L a t t b i v * n u y y n a ( j|t. p le a sa n c e , p le a su r e g ro u n d or p a rk o l t h e g r o v e o f s p r o u ts (or c a n e s or s tic k s ). V A . 972 e x p la in s b y tdtnyyd* ia , th e p a lm y r a , o r talipot-ps^lm p le a sa n c c. O f. J d . i. 68. S4 ; an<l * VA+ 9 7 2 t a i ls tn is a ro u n d t r e e + S e e E-. J - T h o m a s, L ife 0/ Buddka* p . a jo .

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M A H A V A G G A

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s ta y in g a t R a ja g a h a in th e P a lm G ro v e p le a su re g ro u n d in th e S u p a titth a sh rin e, A lo v e ly re p u ta tio n h a s g o n e Jorth co n cern in g th e L o rd G o ta m a , t h u s : H e is in d ee d L o rd , p e rfe cte d one, fu lly a w a k e n e d one, e n d o w e d w ith k n o w led g e a n d co n d u c t, w ell-fa rer, k n o w er o f th e w o rld s, u n riv a lle d ch a rio te e r o f m en t o b e ta m e d , tc a c h e r o f dcvas a n d m a n k in d , a w a k e n e d one, Lord* H a v in g re alised th e m b y h is o w n su p er-kn o w led ge, he m a k e s k n o w n th is w o rld w ith its devas, w ith its M aras, w ith its B ra h m a s, c re a tu re s w ith devas an d m en, w ith recluses a n d b ra h m a n s. H e te a ch es dham m a F lo v e ly a t th e b e g in n in g , lo v e ly in th e m id d le , lo v e ly a t th e ending. H e e x p la in s w ith th e s p ir it a n d th e le tte r th e B ra h m a fa rin g co m p le te ly fu lfilled a n d w h o lly p ure. G o o d in d eed it w ere to see p e rfe cte d ones lik e t h is ." || z || T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a A su rro u n d ed b y tw e lv e m y r ia d 1 b ra h m a n s a n d h o u seh o ld ers2 o f M a g a d h a , ap p ro ach ed th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h a v in g g ree te d th e L o rd , he sa t d o w n a t a re sp ectfu l d is ta n c e . T h e n som e o f th ese tw e lv e m y r ia d [35] b ra h m a n s a n d ho u seh o ld ers o f M ag ad h a h a v in g g re e te d th e L o r d , sa t d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l d ista n ce ; som e e x ch a n g e d g re e tin g s w ith th e L o rd , an d h a v in g e x ch a n g e d g ree tin g s o f frien d lin ess an d c o u rte s y , th e y s a t d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l d ista n ce ; so m e h a v in g sa lu te d th e L o rd w ith join ed palms* sa t dow n a t a re sp e ctfu l d is ta n c e ; som e h a v in g sh o u ted o u t th e ir n am e a n d c la n b efo re th e L o rd , s a t d o w n a t a re sp e cttu l d ista n c e ; so m e h a v in g b ecom e sile n t, s a t dow n a t a re sp e ctfu l d istan ce. \ \ 3 [f T h e n it o ccu rred to th ose tw e lv e m y ria d b ra h m a n s an d ho u seh o ld ers o f M a g a d h a ; " N o w ,3 does th e g re a t recluse fare th e B ra h m a -fa rin g u n d er K a s s a p a o f U ru v ela * or does K a s s a p a o f U ru v e la fa re th e B ra h m a -fa rin g u n d e r th e g rea t recluse ? ,J T h e n th e L o rd , k n o w in g w ith h is m in d th e reaso n in g in th e m in d s o f th o se tw e lv e m y ria d b ra h m a n s an d h ouseh old ers o f M a g a d h a , a d d ressed K a s s a p a o f U ru v e la w ith th e verses :
1 naftuii. O f * 5 , 6 7 7 . E x a c t m e a n in g uoknow ttj, b u t son ic h ig h n u m b er. V A . 72 s a y s u here on e nahuta is te n th o u s a n d ." * brahmanagahapat^ka, n o t " b r a h m a n h o u seh o ld ers a s a t B u r lin g a m e , B u d , Lffgends i. 1 9 7 , b u t as a t F itt. T e x ts i, 1 3 7 (w h ere See n.) a n d a b o v e . F o r see d e fin itio n o f h o u seh o ld er J* a t K itt. ill. 322, s e ttin g 'aside t i n g * * - a n d brahma.ti, h e w h o rem a in s is c a lle d 1 h o u s e h o ld e r '." * C f. J d . v L 220 ; T o e n d o f secon d v e r s o q u o ted a t D u d v A . 20.

4 8

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W h a t h a s t th o u seen, O d w eller in U m v e la , T h a t th o u , kn o w n a s e m a cia te 1, h ast aban d on ed (sacred) fixe ? I a s k th ee a b o u t th is m a tte r, K a ss a p a : H a st th o u a b a n d o n e d t h y fire-im piem ents ? " ,r T h e sacrifices sp ea k o f form s and sounds, A ls o o f tastes, pleasures a n d women* K n o w in g th a t J T h is is d r o s s ' a m o n g affections T h erefo re I d elig h ted n o t in sacrifice, in o ffe rin g / '

th e

|]4 |j

a 4 B u t if y o u r m ind d elig h ts n o t th ere, K a s s a p a / ' th e L o rd said, ** A m o n g form s, sound s an d also ta ste s, T h en in th e w o rld o f devas an d m en w h a t does y o u r m ind d e lig h t in ? K a s s a p a , te ll m e t h a t / ' *r W h en I h a d seen th e p a th , p ea cefu l, w ith o u t substrate*, Stain less*, n o t a tta c h e d to sen satio n s' becom in g, N o t b eco m in g o th e rw ise 5, w h ere one can n o t b e le d b y o th e rs6 * In consequence, I d e lig h te d n o t in sacrifice, in o ffe rin g ." |J 5 | J T h e n th e ve n e ra b le K a s s a p a o f U ru v e la , risin g from his se a t, h a v in g arran ged his u p p er robe o ver one sh oulder, h a v in g in clin ed h is h ead to w a rd s th e L o rd 's feet, sp oke th u s t o th e L o rd : " L o rd , th e L o rd is m y te a ch er, I am a d is c ip le 7 ; L o rd , th e L ord is m y te a ch er, I am a d is c ip le / ' T h en it occurred to those tw e lv e m y ria d b rah m an s and househ old ers o f M a g a d h a : K a ss a p a o f U ru v e la fa res th e B ra h m a -fa rin g under th e g re a t re c lu s e / r |j 6 |j T h en th e L o rd , kn o w in g b y m in d th e reaso n in g in th e m inds o f these tw e lv e m y ria d brahm ans a n d h o u seh o ld ers o f M agad ha,
* Misako vaddnQ ; see n o te V*n. T exts irt. t. * rupa ea sadde ca atho rasa * cf. 97+* 1 onupadklka, i.e. w ith o u t s u b s tr a te for or a tta c h m e n t t o reb irth . * {iftt'rifrxnam aj.atf.riwi> also a t S n * 17 6 , 1059* i o g i . Akican.a c a n also m e a n " h i v i n g n o th in g " , " c a llin g n o th in g one's o w n ' F , se e V in , T exts i. *39, n. L V A * 9 73 s a y s o It t h a t i t m eans w ith o u t t h e s ta in o f

passion.

1 anatiriathdbhdviili, i.e. th e m is no b eco m in g (for th e p a th ) a s t o birth, d e cr e p itu d e , d y in g [according to . 973}, C f- 5 + iiu 2 2 5 . iv * 23, 6. * tktneyydm.. V A . 973 s a y s th a t one should oneself, b y m a k in g th e W a y b ec o m e, co m e t o t h e p a t h a n d should n o t b e b ro u g h t t o it b y a n y o n e else. C /, 5 . 35, 3113* 3^41 J& . vi* 2 10 , B u d v A . 2O1

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[36] ta lk e d a progressive t a lk . . . sto p p in g, th e W a y ,1 ]| 7 { ] A n d as a clean clo th w ith o u t b la c k sp ecks w ill e a s ily ta k e a d y e , even so a s th e tw e lv e m y ria d b rah m an s a n d house hold ers o f M ag ad h a w ith B im b isa ra a t th e ir h ead w ere (sitting) in th ose v e r y se a ts, dham m a-v ision , d u stiess, stain less, arose to th e m , th a t fl W h a te v e r is o f th e n a tu re to u p rise, all t h a t is o f th e n a tu re to s to p / 3 a n d one m y ria d d e cla re d th e m selv e s to b e la y-fo llo w ers. | | 8 |j T h e n K in g B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a , h a v in g seen dkam m a , a tta in e d dhammcty know n dhamitta, p lu n g ed in to dhaftottta, h a v in g crossed o ver d o u b t, p u t a w a y u n c e rta in ty , h a v in g a tta in e d w ith o u t a n o th e r's h e lp to fu ll confidence in th e tea ch er's in stru ctio n , sp ok e th u s to th e L o r d : " F o r m e r ly , L o rd , w hen I w a s a yo u n g m an I h a d five a m b itio n s,2 T h e se are now realised 3 b y m e. F o rm e rly , L o rd , w h e n I w a s a y o u n g m an it o ccu rred to m e : * M igh t I b e a n o in ted in to k in g sh ip .' T h is w a s m y first a m b itio n . L o rd , I t h a s now been realised b y m e. A n d 1 M igh t th e p erfected one, th e fu lly a w ak en ed one com e into m y re a lm / T h is , L o rd , w a s m y second am bition , I t has n ow been realised b y me- |] g || " T h a t I m ig h t p a y h o m age to th is L o r d .1 T h is, L o rd , w a s m y th ird am b itio n . I t h a s n o w been realised b y me* A n d 1 M a y th a t L o rd tea ch m e dham m a/ T h is, L o rd , w as m y fo u rth a m b itio n . I t h a s now been realised b y m e. A n d 1 M ight I u n d erstan d th a t L o rd 's d k a m m a T h is, L o rd j w a s m y fifth am bition* It has n o w been realised b y me* F o rm eriyj L o rd , w h en I w as a yo u n g m an I h a d these five am bition s. T h e y are now realised b y m e + j| 10 | | " E x c e lle n t, L o rd 1 E x c e lle n t, L o rd L E v e n , L o rd , as one m igh t se t u p rig h t w h a t has been u p se t4 * . , e ve n so is dkamma e x p la in ed in m a n y a figu re b y th e L o rd . So I, L o rd , go to th e L o r d 5 as refu ge a n d to dkamma an d to th e O rd er o f m onks. L o rd , m a y th e L o r d a c ce p t m e as a la y-d iscip le gone for refuge from th is d a y fo rth for as lo n g a s life la sts. A n d , L o rd , m a y th e L o rd consent [37] to a m e a l w ith m e to -m o rro w to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er o f m o n k s . T h e L o rd con sen ted b y becom ing silent. || 11 | |
1 A s ab o ve , I, 7 . 5-6. * samiddha, w e ll effected .

* assdsaka.
* A s a b o v e , I. 7 . i o T

B O OK

OF

D I S C I P L I N E

T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o l M ag ad h a, h a v in g u n d ersto o d th e L o rd 's consent, risin g fro m h is se a t, h a v in g g reeted th e L o rd , d e p a rted k eep in g his rig h t side to w a rd s h im . T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a , h a v in g h a d su m p tu o u s fo o d , solid a n d so ft, p rep ared , a t th e end o f th a t n igh t h ad th e tim e an n ou n ced to th e Lord* sa y in g : ** L o rd , it tim e, th e m eal is r e a d y / ' T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g dressed in th e m o rn in g, ta k in g h is b o w l a n d robe, e n te red R a ja g a h a to g eth e r w ith th e la rg e O rd er o f m o n ks, w ith a ll those sam e th o u san d m o n ks w h o h a d fo rm e rly been m a tte d -h a ir ascetics, j| r2 || N o w a t th a t tim e S a k k a , lo rd o f th e devas, h a v in g assum ed th e form o l a b rah m an y o u th , w a lk e d in fro n t o f th e O rder o f m o n ks w ith th e L o rd a t its h ead , sin g in g th ese verses : " T h e ta m e d w ith th e ta m ed , w ith th e form er m a tte d -h a ir ascetics, th e w ell fre e d 1 w ith th e w ell freed* T h e L o rd , b e a u tifu lly . colou red lik e a go ld en ornam ent,* en tered R a ja g a h a . T h e freed 1 w ith th e freed , w ith th e form er m a tte d -h a ir ascetics, th e w ell freed w ith th e w ell freed, T h e L o rd . - , . T h e crossed o ver w ith th e crossed over, w ith th e form er m a tte d -h a ir ascetics, th e w e ll freed w ith th e w ell freed , T h e L o rd * . * H e o f th e ten s t a t e s / o f th e te n pow ers, * versed in the ten th in g s ,0 a n d fu rn ish ed w ith th e te n ,7 H e, th e Lord* su rroun d ed b y ten h u n d red , en tered Rajagaha. |[ 13 H P e o p le h a v in g seen S a k k a , lo rd o f th e *Uva$t sp o k e th u s : In d eed th is b ra h m a n y o u th is lo v e ly , in d eed th is brah m an y o u th is good to lo o k upon , in d eed this b rah m an y o u th is
1 vippcMtvtta.

* s i-n g in ik k h a sw a -p p a . ta lity .
4 mutta.

Cf* S , ii. 234.

G o ld is th e c o lo u r fa r im m or

* dasavasa. T e n ariyu-vasa g iv e n -at D . iii, 269, A . v . 29. * dasabata b e c a m e an e p ith e t o f t h is a n d th e p r e v io u s B u d d h a s . * A c c o r d in g t o V A . 9 7 3 t h e te n p a th s o f a c tio n . + A c c o r d in g t o V A . 9 73 t h e ten fa c to r s of an a d e p t, aftgehi wpeto, C f. th e a d e p t 's t e n q u alities, dhatnm&, a t A * v . 222, a n d h is te n p ow er a* fro/afti, a t .Pis, ii- 1 7 3 : b o t h co n sist o f th e e ig h t " fitn e s s e s '- o f th e e i g h t fo ld W a y w ith t h e a d d itio n o f f ig h t k n o w le d g e a n d r ig h t freed om .

* Q u o te d a t / 3 . i. S4.

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charm ing* W h ose, n ow , is th is b ra h m a n y o u th ? W h en th e y h a d sp ok en th u s , S a k k a , lo r d o f th e deva $9 ad dressed th ese people w ith a v erse 1 " H e w h o is s te a d fa st, ta m e d in e v e r y w a y , aw a k e n e d , p eerless a m o n g m en, P e rfecte d , w ell-fa rer, I am h is a tte n d a n t in th e w o rld / -1 II *4 II T h e n th e L o rd a p p ro a c h e d th e d w e llin g o f K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M ag ad h a ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d he sa t d o w n on th e a p p o in te d seat to g e th e r w ith th e O rd er o f m onks. T h en K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a , w ith h is ow n han d h a v in g offered, h a v in g satisfied th e O rd er o f m onk? w ith th e a w a k e n e d one a t its h ea d w ith su m p tu o u s food , solid and soft, w hen th e L o rd h ad e aten a n d h a d w ith d ra w n h is h ajid from th e b o w l, sa t dow n a t a re sp e ctfu l d ista n c e , | | 13 | | [3S] A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l d ista n c e it occu rred to K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M agad h a : " N o w , w h ere cou ld th e L o rd s ta y th a t w o u ld b e n e ith e r to o fa r from a v illa g e nor to o near, su ita b le for co m in g and go in g , accessible for p eople w h e n ev er th e y w a n t 2, n o t c ro w d e d b y d a y , h a v in g little noise a t n igh t, little sound, w ith o u t fo lk 's b re a th , h a u n ts o f p r iv a c y , su ita b le for seclusion ? | ] 16 j| T h e n it o ccu rred to K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a : " N o w , th is B a m b o o G ro ve o f ours, a pleasure p a r k ,1 is n e ith e r too fa r from a villa g e . - - su ita b le for seclusion* Sup p o se I w ere to g iv e th e B a m b o o G ro ve , a pleasu re p a rk , to the O rd er o f th e m o n k s w ith th e a w a k e n e d one a t its head ? J' It *7 !1 T h en K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M ag ad h a, h a v in g ta k e n a cerem on ial vessel m ade o f gold , d ed ica ted it to th e L o rd , sa y in g : M a y I, L o rd , g iv e th is B a m b o o G ro v e , a p leasure p a rk , to th e O rd er o f m onks w ith th e a w a k e n e d one a t its h e a d ? " T h e L o rd a cce p te d th e p a r k .4 T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g g la d d en e d , rejoiced , roused , d e lig h te d K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M agad h a w ith t a lk on dkam m aw h a v in g risen
1 i. 84. * atthikanafii-atthibaiiam j e x p la in e d a t V A * 974 as a w a k e n e d one a n d h e a tin g dhamma* * T h is is sto c k , Vitt. ii, 15 s , >- iii- 38, AT- ii. i i S , iii 13* * ; see d efin itio n a t V in . iv- 29S., {B .D . iii. 335). g o in g up to th e

iv . 88^ F&A. 334.

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from h is se a t, d e p a rted . T h en th e L o rd , on th is occasion, h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , addressed th e m on ks, s a y i n g ; " M onks, I a llo w a p a r k .1" || 18 j] 32 j[ A t th a t tim e th e w an d erer S a n ja y a * w as resid in g in R a ja g a h a to g eth er w ith a g rea t c o m p a n y of w an d erers, w ith tw o h un dred and fifty w anderers. N o w a t th a t tim e S a rip u tta an d M o ggallan a fa re d the B ra h m a -fa rin g und er th e w and erer Sanjaya* and a n agreem en t cam e to be form ed b y th ese : " W h o ever a tta in s th e d eath less first, le t h im a n n o u n ce i t ." || i |j T h e n th e ven erab le A ssaji*3 h a v in g dressed in th e m orn in g, ta k in g his b o w l an d robe, en tered R a ja g a h a for alm sfood. H e w a s pleasing w h eth er he w as ap p ro ach in g or d ep artin g, w h eth er he w as lo o kin g in fron t or lo o kin g behind, w h eth er he w as d raw in g in or stre tc h in g o u t (his arm ), his eyes were ca st dow n, he w a s possessed o f p le a sa n t b e h a iv o u r.4 T he w an d erer S a rip u tta sa w th e ven erable A s sa ji w a lk in g fo r alm sfood in R a ja g a h a p lea sin g w h eth er he w as a p p ro ach in g . . * possessed o f p lea sa n t b e h a v io u r and seeing h im , it occurred to h im : T h is is one of th o se m o n k s w h o are in d eed perfected ones, in th e w o rld or w h o h a v e en tered on th e w a y to perfection . W h a t [39J now if I, h a v in g ap p ro ach ed this m o n k , sh ou ld ask him : * O n a cco u n t of w h om are y o u , y o u r reverence, gone fo rth , or w h o is y o u r teach er, or w hose dkam m a d o y o u profess >?&,> 1 |2 H T h en it occurred to the w anderer S a rip u tta : " B u t it is n o t th e righ t tim e to question this m onk, he h a s gone in am o n g th e houses, he is w a lk in g for alm sfood* W h a t n o w if I should fo llo w close a fte r th is m o n k w h o h a s le a m t a w a y fo r th ose w h o need i t 6 ? T h e n th e ven erable A ssa ji, h a v in g w a lk e d
1 Arama* a park, and then a m onastery. 1 iL p . io o o id en tifies him w ith Saiij& ya~ B ela.tth ]pu tta, o n * o l th e sbc fa m o u s h e r e tic a l te a c h e rs oi G o ta m a 's d a y s , p o d w h ose d o ctrin es are g iv e n A t D , i- 58. S e e also Airs. R h y s D a v id s , SoAyd. p. *23* 1 T h is A s s a ji w as o n e o f " th e g ro u p o f f i v e " frien d s t o w h om G o ta tn a add ressed hLs first a n d secon d U tte r a n ce s . See Mrs. R h y s D a v id s , Sakyat p. 123 if* fo r v ie w t h a t th e IJ s u b je c t oi ca u sa tio n . + is d u e d ir e c tly to A s s a ji/ * an d her G qIhhui the jl fa n , p . 76 i . t 108, 242, Afattuai, p 2 15 , * S to c k . C f. e.p. M . iLi, 35, go, D . i. 79, A . ii. 104, 106, a i o # V ift. iii. 180. 1 C f - a b o v e I. 6 7, + * atthiftehi upa&fiatarn tnaggiiiyt. V A . 975 s a y s th is m eans e ith e r a w a y th a t is k n o w n an d p ractised ; 01 > there w ill be deathlessness for u s w ho need a t; a n d th u s wpanrtaUf m ean s n irva n a , and $0 th e m ea n in g here is : tra c k in g (or w a y fa r in g after,, maggtinio)a seekin g this*

23 3-5]

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for alm sfao d in R a ja g a h a , ta k in g his alm sb o w l, retu rn ed . T h en th e w an d erer S a rip u tta a p p ro a ch e d th e v e n e ra b le A s s a j i ; h a v in g a p p ro ach ed , he e x ch a n g e d g reetin g s w ith th e ven erab le A s s a j i ; h a v in g e x ch a n g e d co u rteo u s a n d frie n d ly greetin gs, he stood a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n ce. A s h e w a s sta n d in g a,t a re sp ectfu l d istan ce, th e w a n d erer S a rip u tta sp oke th u s to th e ven erab le A s s a j i : " Y o u r reve ren ce , y o u r fa c u ltie s are quite pure, y o u r co m p le x io n v e r y b rig h t, v e r y clear. O n a cco u n t o f w hom , y o u r reveren ce, h a v e y o u gon e fo rth , or w h o is y o u r tea ch er, o r w h ose dhamma d o y o u p ro fess1 ? " 11 3 Ii . " T h ere is, frien d , a g re a t recluse, a son o f th e S a k y a n s , gon e fo rth from a S a k y a n fa m ily . I h a v e g o n e fo rth on a cco u n t o f th is L o rd a n d th is L o rd is m y te a ch er a n d I profess th is L o rd 's dhamma " B u t w h a t is th e d octrin e o f y o u r re v e ren ce 's tea ch er, w h a t does he po in t o u t ? " t4 N o w , I, frien d , am new ,* n o t lo n g gone fo rth , fresh to th is dhamma a n d d iscip lin e. I a m n ot a b le to te a ch y o u dhamma in fu ll, b u t I can te ll y o u its purport* b r ie fly / ' T h en th e w an d erer S a rip u tta sp o k e th u s t o th e v e n e ra b le A s s a ji : 11 So b e it, y o u r reveren ce, te ll m e little or te ll m e m uch, (but) in a n y case e x p la in to m e its p u rp o rt ; I w a n t ju s t its p u rp o rt. W h y sh o u ld y o u m a k e a g re a t elab o ratio n * ? II 4 I E ^ ^ ^ T h en th e ven era b le A s s a ji u tte re d th is terse expression* o f dhamma to th e w a n d e re r S a r i p u t t a ;
1 A s a t M V , I, 6, 7* * nova* I f o ccu rrin g w ith bhikkhu m ea n s a r e c e n tly o rd a in ed m o n k . B u t n o t so co m b in ed here. I t ca n also- m ean y o u n g , b u t o th e r e v id e n c e is la c k in g t o sh o w t h a t A s s a ji, t h e la s t o i th e g ro u p o f five t o a t t a in dham nm visio n (I* 6. 36 ab o ve) w as y o u n g i n y e a r s. H e w as h o w e v e r y o u n g in sta n d in g as a fo llo w er oi G o ta m a * n e w ly ord ain ed . 1 attha. T h is w h o le p assag e is co n tro v ersia l. M rs. R h y s X>avi<3s ta k e s olth& here a s th e w ell, th e g o o d / 1 Sahya, p . 134 i. ; C o o m a r a a w a m y . S o m e 1*011 W o rd s H . J . A *S.F v o t 4 ^ u p. ^ J u ly i^ 39- P< * 7 * f. a s " p u r p o r t " . O n th e w h o le I a m in clin ed t o ag ree w it h h is in te r p r e ta tio n o f th e p a s s a g e . S ee a ls o E * J . T h o m a s, L-ife o f B u d d h a , *tct> p* 93 1, * vya-Hjanti+ S ec C 00raara sw a m y * op, cit.9 p . 1 7 1 ff. E . J. T h o m a s, I~ife o f B u d d ha as L#g$nd and H i story , p , 94, n. i , s a y s t h a t t h is is & ve r s e Jf in &ry m e tr e . . . even i f n o w co r r u p te d , a n d h e p r in ts i t as v e rse as d oes N o rm an a t . 1. 92.

* p a riy& ya , fo rm u la , p a ra p h ra se , tircp m lo cT itio n , see C o o m a ra sw a m y , op* c it *j p* 1 7 2 , n* 1* P e rh a p s '* e p ito m e C f . A . iv . 6 3, w h e re dh a tn m a p a r iy a y a a lso a p p e a rs to r e fe r t o ve rse s.

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T h o se th in g s w h ich p ro ceed fro m a ca u se, o f th ese th e T ru th -fin d er h a s to ld th e cau se, A n d th a t w h ich is th e ir sto p p in g th e g re a t recluse h as such a d o c trin e / '1 W h en th e w a n d erer S a r ip u tta h a d h eard this terse expression o f dkofnma, th ere arose dh&mma-Yisiont dustless, stainless, th a t W h a te v e r is o f th e n a tu re to uprise a ll th a t is o f th e nature to s to p / ' H e said : I f th is is in d eed dkamma , y o u have p e n e tra te d as fa r as th e sorrow less p a th , u n seen > n eglected for m a n y m y ria d s o f aeons."2 || 5 |f T h e n th e w a n d erer S a r ip u tta a p p ro ach ed th e w an d erer M oggallana- T h e n th e w a n d erer M o g g a lla n a saw th e w an d erer S a r ip u tta com in g in th e d ista n ce, a n d seeing {40] th e w a n d erer S a rip u tta , he sp o k e t h u s : f| F rie n d , y o u r fa cu lties are qu ite p u re, y o u r co m p lexion v e r y b rig h t, v e r y cle a n C an i t be th a t y o u , friend , h a v e a tta in e d th e d eath less ? " Y e s , frien d , I h a v e a tta in e d th e d e a th le ss." B u t how d id y o u , frien d , a tta in th e d eath less ? || 6 || " N o w , I, friend, saw th e ven era b le A s s a ji w a lk in g fo r a lm sfoo d in R a ja g a h a pleasing1 w h eth er he w a s a p p ro ach in g or d ep a rtin g P * * (as at L 23. 2} . . . [ |7 [ | *f T h en , friend , it o ccu rred to m e : r B u t it is n o t th e rig h t tim e to question this m o n k . . . at I* 23* 3, 4) . . . j| 8, 9 \ \ i f T h e n , frien d , th e ven era b le A ssa ji u tte re d th is terse expression o f dhamma : * T h o se th in g s w h ich p ro ceed from a cause, o f th ese th e T ru th fin d er h a s to ld th e cau se, A n d th a t w h ich is th e ir sto p p in g th e g re a t recluse h as such a d o ctrin e / W h en th e w an d erer expression o f dhamma II10 II 23 |[ M o ggallan a h a d h ea rd this terse [41] . . - (as at I* 23* 5) * . -

1 R efe rred t o a t J d , i. 85. 1 = Ap+ i. ver* 149 . S e e MrSr R h y s D a v id s , Sakya, p . 1 3 5 . VA* 976 ta k e s th e p h ra se t o m ean M t h is sorrowleas p a th , u nseen b y u s for m a n y m y r ia d s o f 220ns is n e glected M (or p assed b y , abbhaiitam). O r, ta k in g R&bh&tiiatn t o to ea a " in th e past., w h a t is p assed a n d o ver th is p a ssa g e co u ld b e tra n s la te d : M unseen b y u s for m a n y m y r ia d s -of x o n s in t lic p a s t/*

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T h en th e w a n d erer M o g g a lla n a sp o k e th u s to th e w a n d e re r S a rip u tta : L e t us g o , frien d , to th e L o rd , (for) th is L o rd is th e te a ch er for u s ." , F rie n d , th ese tw o h u n d red an d f i f t y w an d erers are s ta y in g here b ecause o f us, lo o k in g to u s ; d o le t us co n su lt th e m so th a t t h e y m a y d o w h a t t h e y th in k (ligh t)* T h e n S a r ip u tta and M oggallan a a p p ro a ch e d th e se w a n d erers ; h a v in g ap p ro ach ed , t h e y sp o k e th u s t o these w a n d e re rs : 1 4 W e are go in g, frien d s, to th e Lord* (for) th is L o rd is th e tea ch er fo r u s ." ** W e , v e n e ra b le ones,' are s ta y in g h ere b ecau se o f y o u , lo o kin g to y o u . I f th e v e n e ra b le ones w ill fare th e B ra h m a fa rin g under th e g re a t recluse a ll o f u s w ill fare th e B ra h m a -fa rin g under th e g rea t recluse.*? \ \ i ]| T h e n S a r ip u tta and M o g g a lla n a a p p ro a ch e d th e w a n d e re r S a n ja y a ; h a v in g a p p ro ach ed th e y sp o k e th u s to th e w an d erer S a n j a y a : S ir, w e a re g o in g to th e L o r d , (for) th is L o rd is th e te a ch e r for u s ." M N o , friends, do n o t go ; w e th re e w ill one a n d a ll look a fte r th is g ro u p / ' A n d a second tim e * , . A n d a th ir d tim e , . -f _ * . w ill lo o k a fte r th is g ro u p ." |[ 2 || T h en S a r ip u tta and M o g g a lla n a , ta k in g th o se tw o h u n d red a n d fifty w an d erers, a p p ro a ch ed th e B a m b o o G ro v e ; b u t on th a t self-sam e sp o t h o t b lo o d issued from th e m o u th o f S a n ja y a th e w an d erer.1 T h e L ord sa w S a r ip u tta an d M o g g a lla n a com in g in th e d istan ce ; seein g th em , he ad dressed th e m o n k s s a y i n g : " M onks, th ese tw o frien d s, I to lita an d U p a tis s a ,2 are co m in g. T h is p a ir o f d iscip les w ill be m y ch ief, m y em in en t p air,* " W h en , in th e d eep sp here o f know ledge* th e y h ad a tta in e d th e m a tch less freed om in w h ich th e re is d e stru ctio n o f a tta ch m e n ts,* th en th e te a c h e r e x p la in e d a b o u t th e m in th e B a m b o o G ro v e : " T h e se tw o frien d s, K o lit a a n d U p a tissa , a re com in g. T h is p a ir o f d iscip les w ill b e m y ch ief, m y e m in en t p a ir*" \\3 \ \
1 S ee V in . T exts i. 149 , n_ 1. * M o g g a ilS n a w as n am ed K o lita , p r o b a b ly a fte r h is v illa g e , w h ere h e w a s b o rn ; U p a tis s a w a s S & ripu tta/s n a m e , as h e is- re co rd e d t o s a y a t M+ L 150. b u t ray fe llo w B rahm a-fa.rers k n o w m e as S i r i p u t t a '* a n a m e d erived fr o m h ij m o th er's, Riipas&rf. * Qn a te d a t D h A . L 93.

* See V in Texts i. 149, nH 3* for n o te on 4 4 extraordinary gram m atical construction oi this passage.

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T h e n S sirip u tta an d M o ggallan a ap p ro a ch ed th e L o r d ; [42] h a v in g a p p ro ach ed , h a v in g in clin ed th e ir heads to th e L o rd 's fe e t, th e y sp ok e th u s to th e L o r d : 4i L o rd , m a y w e re ce ive th e g o in g fo rth in th e L o rd 's p resen ce, m a y w e receive o rd in a tio n ? '* " Come,, m o n k s ," th e L o rd said , w ell ta u g h t is dhamma , fa re th e B ra h m a -fa rin g fo r m a k in g an u tte r end o f ill. So this w a s th ese ven era b le o n es o rd in a tio n . \ \ 4 || N o w a t th a t tim e v e r y d istin g u ish ed y o u n g m en belongin g to re sp e cta b le fam ilies o f M agad h a w ere fa rin g th e B ra h m a fa rin g u n d er th e L o rd . P e o p le lo o k e d d o w n upon, criticise d , sp rea d it a b o u t, sa y in g : T h e recluse G o ta m a g e ts a lo n g b y m a k in g (us) ch ild less, th e recluse G o ta m a g e ts a lo n g b y m a k in g {us} w id o w s, th e recluse G o ta m a g e ts alo n g b y break in g u p fam ilies. A th o u san d m a tte d h a ir a scetics h a v e now been a llo w ed to go fo rth b y h im , and th ese tw o h u n d red a n d fifty w an d erers o f S a n ja y a h a v e b een a llo w e d to go fo rth , and these v e r y d istin g u ish ed y o u n g m en b e lo n g in g to resp ectab le fam ilies o f M a g a d h a are fa rin g th e B ra h m a -fa rin g u n d er th e recluse G o ta m a / ' M o reo ver, h a v in g seen th e m onks, th e y rep ro ved th e m in th is verse : f< T h e g re a t recluse h a s com e to G irib b a ja 1 o f th e M agadhese L e a d in g a ll S a flja y a 's (follow ers). W h o w ill now b e led b y h im ? \ \$ U M onks h ea rd th ese w h o * . * sp read i t a b o u t. T h en these m o n ks to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord- H e s a id : M onks, th is noise wlII n o t la st for long, it w ill la st o n ly fo r seven d a ys, a fte r seven d a y s it w ill cease* T h erefo re, m onks, if t h e y re p ro ve y o u in th is verse : ' T h e g re a t recluse h a s com e to G ir ib b a ja o f th e M agadhese L e a d in g a ll S a n ja y a s (follow ers). W h o w ill now b e led b y him ? * y o u shouJd re p ro v e th em in re p ly in th is verse : f V e r ily g re a t heroes, T ru th fin d ers, lead b y w h a t is tru e dkamma. W h o w o u ld be jea io u s o f th e w ise, le a d in g b y dkamma ? * " I! fi I I
3 A n am e fo r R S ja g a h a , cf. S*t. 408, L it e r a lly " c o w -p e n s a y s G iribb aja. w as a. to w n in th e c o u n tr y o f t h e M agad h esc, V A . 9 76

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e p eo p le, h a v in g seen th e m o n k s, re p ro v e d th e m in th is v e rse : " T h e g rea t recluse h a s com e to G ir ib b a ja o f th e M agad h ese L e a d in g all S a n ja y a *s (followers)* W h o w ill n ow b e led b y h im ? Ji T h e m o n k s re p ro v e d these p eo p le in re p ly in th is v e rse : " V e r ily g re a t heroes, T ru th fin d e rs, lead b y w h a t is tru e dhamma* W h o w o u ld b e je a lo u s o f th e wise* le a d in g b y dhamma ? fJ [43] W ith the p eo p le s a y i n g ; I t is said t h a t th e reclu ses, sons of th e S a k y a n s , le a d b y dham m a, n o t b y w h a t is nG t-dham m a/r th a t noise la ste d e x a c tly seven d a y s, a fte r seven d a y s it ceased- |[ 7 H T o ld is th e G o in g F o r th o f S a r ip u tta and M o g g a lla n a . T o ld is th e F o u rth P o rtio n for R ep eatin g* N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks, b e in g w ith o u t p re cep to rs, n o t bein g e x h o rte d , n o t b ein g in stru cte d , w a lk e d fo r a lm sfo o d w ro n g ly dressed, w r o n g ly c lo th e d , n o t b e fittin g ly a ttir e d ,1 W h ile people w e re e a tin g , th e y h e ld th e ir a lm sb ow ls close a b o v e th e s o ft food for th e r e m a i n s a n d th e y h e ld th e ir ahnsbowJs close a b o v e th e solid food fo r th e rem ain s, an d th e y h e ld th e ir a lm sb ow ls close a b o v e th e s a v o u r y fo o d fo r th e rem ains, and th e y h eld th e ir a lm sb o w ls close ab o ve th e b e v e ra g e s3 for th e rem ain s, an d h a v in g th e m selv e s a sk e d fo r c u rry and bo iled r ic e / th e y a te it, a n d th e y rem ain ed in th e re fe c to ry m a k in g a lo u d noise, a g re a t n o ise .6 || r || P eop le . . _ sp rea d i t a b o u t, s a y i n g : * * H o w can these recluses, sons of th e S a k y a n s, w a lk for alm sfoo d , w ro n g ly dressed, wTong]y clo th ed , r o t b e fittin g ly a ttir e d ? W h ile people are eating* th e y h o ld th e ir a lm sb o w ls close a b o v e th e
1 S e e S e k h iy a s 1-4 , 23, 24, a n d Zf.-D. iL 36 9 for references* I t h in k i t is m ea n t t h a t th e y w ere n o t w earin g th e ir robes in th e re g u la tio n w a y s. a ultiftbar-pitttii, KjJ. 977* a s n oted in Vivt* Texts i. [52, g iv e s tw o e x p la n a tio n s o f th is phrase, t h e o n e c o n n e c tin g i t w it h ucchittha* le f t o v e r , r e je c te d ; th e o th er w itb utthakati,, t o rise, * C f. V in . iii. 7^ (B . D . u 124) /or th e s e fo u r item s* 4 -otitittA, one o i t h e liv e soft fo o d s ( Viit. iv . S 3 ) . * C f. Sctc.hiyas 1 1 - 1 4 .

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soft food . , . a n d t h e y rem ain in the re fecto ry m a k in g a lo u d no ise, a g rea t noise, lik e brah m an s a t th e m eal-tim e o f b ra h m a n s / ' \\&]\ M onks h eard these p e o p le w h o * . - sp rea d i t a b o u t. T h o se w h o w ere m o d est m o n k s, contented* con scien tio u s, scrupulous, d esirous o f tra in in g . - , sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w can these m o n k s w a lk for a lm sfoo d w ro n g ly dressed , . - a n d rem ain in th e r e fc c to ry m a k in g a lo u d noise, a g rea t noise ? " |] 3 |j T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* T h e n the L o rd , on th is occasion, in this con n ectio n , h a v in g h a d th e O rder o f m o n k s co n ven ed , q u estio n ed th e m o n ks, s a y i n g : " Is it tru e, a s is sa id , m o n k s, th a t m o n ks w a lk fo r alm sfood w ro n g ly d ressed * . * [44] . . * a n d rem a in in th e re fe c to ry m a k in g a great n oise, a lo u d noise ? " I t is tru e , L o r d / J || 4 || T h e a w a k e n e d one, t h e L o rd reb u ked th e m , sa y in g : " I t is n o t fittin g , m o n ks, in these foolish m en, i t is n ot becom in g, i t is n o t pro p er, it is u n w o rth y o f a recluse, it is not allo w ab le, it is n o t to be done. H o w , m onks, can these foolish m en w a lk for a lm sfo o d , * a n d rem ain in th e re fe c to ry m a k in g a lo u d noise, a g rea t noise ? It is n ot, m o n ks, fo r p leasin g those w h o are n o t (yet) pleased, nor for in creasin g (the num ber of) th o se w h o are pleased , but i t is, m onks, fo r d ispleasing those w h o a re n o t (yet) pleased a s w ell as those w h o are pleased, a n d for cau sin g w a v e rin g in so m e / ' ]] 5 ]| T h e n th e L o r d ,1 h a v in g re b u k ed th ese m o n ks, h a v in g in m a n y a figu re spoken in d ispraise o f d ifficu lty in su p p o rtin g a n d m a in ta in in g oneself, o f g re a t desires, o f la c k o f co n te n tm e n t, o f clin g in g (to th e o b stru ctio n s), o f indolence ; h a v in g in m a n y a figure spoken in p raise o f ease in su p p o rtin g a n d m a in ta in in g oneself, o f d esirin g little , o f co n ten tm en t, o f e x p u n g in g (evil), o f p u n ctilio u sn ess, o f g racio u sn css, o f d ecreasin g (the o b stru c tions), o f p u ttin g fo rth e n e rg y , h a v in g g iv en reasoned ta lk on w h a t is fittin g , on w h a t is becom in g, ad dressed th e m o n ks, sa y in g : " M onks, I a llo w a p re c e p to r.3 T h e precep tor, m o n ks, sh o u ld arouse in th e one w h o sh ares his c e ll1 th e a ttitu d e o f a
A C /. th is p a ssa g e w ith Vtw* iii, 2 1 L 57). * u pajjhaya ; S k r t. upadhyya, a tu tor* * saddhivihdrika, lit. o n e w h o s ta y s, resides, co -residcn t, a-nd so a pupU in t h e sa m e vihara. liv e s w ith (another), a

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so n 1 ; th e one w h o sh ares h is c e ll sh ou ld arouse in t h e p re c e p to r th e a ttit u d e o f a fa th e r.3 T h u s th e se , liv in g w ith reverence* w ith d eferen ce, w it h c o u r te s y to w a rd s one a n o th e r, w ill co m e to g ro w th , to in crease, t o m a tu r ity in th is dhamma a n d d iscip lin e. } |6 U *' A n d th u s, m o n ks, sh o u ld a p re c e p to r b e ch o sen 3 ; h a v in g arran ged th e u p p er ro b e o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u red h is fe e t, h a v in g sa t d o w n on th e haun ch es, h a v in g sa lu ted w ith jo in e d palm s, he should sp e a k to h im th u s : H o n o u red sir, be m y p re cep to r ; h o n o u re d sir, b e m y p re cep to r ; h o n o u re d sir, b e m y p re c e p to r/ I f h e 4 s a y s : f V e r y w e l l J or ' C e rta in ly ' o r f A ll r i g h t ' o r 4 I t is pro p er * o r ' M an age it a m ia b ly \ an d m a k e s th is u n d ersto o d b y g e stu re , m a k e s th is u n d ersto o d b y speech, m a k e s th is u n d e rsto o d b y g e stu re a n d b y sp eech , th e p recep to r h a s b e en ch osen ; i t h e does n o t m a k e th is u n d e rsto o d b y g e stu re , if he does n o t m a k e th is u n d ersto o d b y speech* [4* 5] if he d o es n o t m a k e th is u n d ersto o d b y g estu re a n d b y sp eech , th e p re cep to r h a s n o t b een chosen- || 7 j| " T h e one w h o shares a c e ll,5 m o n ks, sh ou ld c o n d u c t h im se lf p ro p e rly to w a rd s th e p recep tor- T h is is th e p ro p e r c o n d u c t in th is respect : h a v in g g o t u p e a r ly , h a v in g ta k e n o ff his san d als, * h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p er robe o v e r one sh o u ld er, he sh o u ld g iv e to o th -w o o d ,7 h e sh o u ld g iv e w a te r fo r rin sin g th e m o u th , h e sh o u ld m a k e r e a d y a s e a t. I f th e re is c o n je y j h a v in g w a sh ed a b o w l, th e c o n je y sh o u ld be p la c e d n e a r (the precep tor). W h e n he h a s d ru n k th e c o n je y , h a v in g g iv e n h im w a te r, h a v in g re ce iv e d th e b o w l, h a v in g lo w ered i t , fl h a v in g w a sh e d it p ro p e rly w ith o u t ru b b in g it, it sh o u ld b e p u t a w a y ,
putted ila, a son's mind- C f. S iv. 110 f., mdtuciHa bhaginisitta dhflucitta, the m ind of a mother* sister* daughter*
* p ilu citta , a fa th e r 's m ia d .

* gaJietabbo, lit* should be taken. B u t words for -l choosing 9 1 were alm ost lackin g, and gay-hilti w as often m ade t o do d u ty for them . 4 I.e. th e preceptor* see V A . 9 7 7 * Prom here to p* 67 below^ = Ki-n* ii. 223-227. 1 V A * 977 says he Plight h a v e worn these for pacing up and dow n or lor keeping his ie e t clean if he had g o t tip early* * dtmiaha$tfui, a s used b y Ind ian s t o - d a y , a piece o f wood. A llow ed a t Vin* il. i j S . V A . 477 sa y a t h a t th e sttddkivtharika* th e one w h o shares a cell, having- brou ght a large, a m iddle-sized and a small one w hatever he {the preceptor) takes of these is for three d a ys, and th e n on th e fou rth d a y he should be given th e m tti^ again, nicatn katv&. So a s n o t t o le t drops of -water from insitde th e bow l spoil his robes when one is washing i t ; in th e case of an earthon bow l it m igh t break if dropped from a height-

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W h en th e p re cep to r h a s g o t u p f th e se a t sh ould be rem o ved . Tf th a t p lace is so iled , th a t p la ce sh ould b e sw ep t. || 8 |f " I f th e p recep to r w ish es to en ter a v illa g e , his inner clo th in g 1 sh o u ld be g iv en (to him ), th e in n er clo th in g (th a t h e is w earing) sh o u ld b e received (from him ) in re tu rn ,2 th e gird le should be g iv e n (to h im ) ; h a v in g fo ld ed th e m 3 (into tw o or four folds), the o u te r robes are to b e g iv e n 4 (to him ) ; h a v in g w ashed it , a b o w l w ith w a te r 5 is to b e g iv e n (to him ). I f th e p recep to r desires a n a tte n d a n t, (the latter) h a v in g p u t on his in n er robe a ll ro u n d so as to c o v e r th e th re e c irc le s ,4 h a v in g bo u n d on the gird le, h a v in g fo ld ed th e m and h a v in g dressed in th e outer robes, h a v in g fa ste n e d th e ties, h a v in g w ash ed , h a v in g ta k e n a b o w l, sh o u ld b e th e p re cep to r's a tte n d a n t. H e sh ou ld not w a lk to o far a w a y (from h im ), h e sh o u ld n ot w a lk too close. H e sh ould receive th e bow l and its c o n te n ts.7 jj 9 jj *f H e sh ould n o t in terru p t th e p recep to r w hen he is sp eakin g. (B u t) if th e p re cep to r is bord erin g on a n offence, th en sp ea k in g him self, he sh o u ld w 'am h im . W h en he* is retu rn in g,* he10 sh o u ld m a k e a se a t re a d y , h a v in g com e b a c k f i r s t m , he sh ou ld set o u t w a te r for w a sh in g th e fe e t, a fo a t-sto o l, a foot^stand11 ;
1 niv&sana ; p o s s ib ly a n o th e r w ord fo r ant&ratia$aka3 th e p u ttin g on o-f w h ich is d e n o te d b y nivds#tit cf. B+D, u. j , w. 2, 32, w* 2, 3. a pafiwiv&sanattt patiggahetabba^t. V A . 78 is silent. V in . T exts i. I5 5 su gg ests ,T hou se-dress ? T h is w o u ld m ean som e -kind o f r o b e in ad d itio n t o the. th ree r e g u la tio n ones, B tih tlin g k a n d T tcth , a n d M o n ie r-W illia m s also b o th g iv e a k in d of g a rm en t, for B u d d h is t s " * I t w o u ld lo o k as if a m on k m ig h t, a n d indeed m u st( en ter a v illa g e in a nivasdna, taut n o t in a p atiniva sa na . T d o u b t t h e sep ara te e x is te n ce o f such a garm en t- I su gg est it is a 7tivaf(zna t h a t is s im p ly changed, for an o th er w h en a m onk sets o u t o-b t h e b e g g in g rou nd. I f h e h-a^ a c h a n g e of nivAsana h e co u ld n o t b e a tectvarika. M o n k s in C e y lo n o ften c h a n g e th eir robes b efore t h e y g o out. * sagu^tam katvd. A s a t C V . V I H , 4 , 3. V A . 78 9 s a y s h a v in g m a d e tw o robes oi one " ( i.e .h a v in g p u ttw o r o b e s to .g e th e r } .," tw o o u te r c lo a k s (iattghdfiyc) are t o be g iv e n . E v e r y r o b e is caLIed a sanghdti if it is p u t to geth er* sanghdtitattd I t t h u s seem s t h a t sa-tigh&fi here s ta n d s b o th fo r th e outer c lo a k a n d fo r t h e u p p er robe, uUardsanga ; n o t lo r th e inner robe, h o w e v e r j sin ce th is , u nder t h e n am e *iivsaiui, h a d p r o b a b ly b e c c g iv e n t o t h e p recep to r a lrea d y. U s u a lly th ere is o n ly one ro b e ca lled sanghati, sangbdtiyo, lit, o u te r clo ak s. S e e a b o v e note* ^ 6 sm d a k o m e a n s w ith th e drops o w a te r r em a in in g in t h e bow l a fte r rinsing it, n o t d r y in g it. 1 Cf* S e k h iy a s i P 2 ( B . D . iii. 12 1). * paliaparty&pam ta, V A . 9 7S s a y s t h a t if th e bow l is w arm o r h e a v y w ith th e c o a je y or r ic e received* th e one w ho shares a c e ll sh ou ld t a k e th e p r e ce p to r 's b o w l a n d g iv e h im h is ow n. P r e s u m a b ly th e p recep to r. * T o th e m o n a s te ry frorn t h e alm s-rou n d . I B P r e s u m a b ly th e o n e w h o shares a cellII C f. i. 9 ; iv . -231, 3 1 0 {B .D . iii. 191)-

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h a v in g gone to m eet h im , he sh o u ld re ce iv e h is b o w l a n d robe, he should g ive b a c k th e in n er c lo th in g (given) in re tu rn , he should receive his inner clothing* I f a robe is d a m p w ith persp iration , he sh ou ld d r y i t fo r a short tu n e in th e su n 's w a rm th , b u t a robe sh ou ld n o t be la id asid e in th e w a rm th . H e sh o u ld fo ld u p th e ro b e. W h en fo ld in g up the ro b e, h a v in g m ad e th e co m ers tu rn b a c k fo u r fin ger-b read th s, he sh o u ld fold u p th e robe th in k in g : f M in d th ere is no crea se 1 in th e m iddle*' T h e g ird le sh ou ld b e p la c e d in a fo ld (of th e ro b e),E I f th e re co m es to b e alm sfoo d and th e p re cep to r w ish es to e a t ,3 h a v in g g iv e n him w a te r, a lm sfo o d sh o u ld be p la c e d n e a r fhim ), H10 I! _ " H e should offer th e p re c e p to r d rin k in g -w a te r. W h en he h a s e a ten , h a v in g g iv e n h im w a te r, h a v in g re ce ive d th e b o w l, h a v in g low ered i t ,1 h a v in g w ash ed it p ro p e rly w ith o u t ru b b in g it, h a v in g em p tied out th e w a te r, he sh ou ld d r y i t fo r a sh o rt tim e in th e su n Js w a rm th , b u t a bow l sh o u ld n o t b e la id asid e in th e w a rm th . H e should la y asid e th e b o w l a n d robes. W h en la y in g asid e th e b o w l, h a v in g ta k e n th e b o w l in one h a n d , h a v in g fe lt w ith th e o th e r h a n d u n d er th e co u ch or [46] und er th e ch air, th e b ow l sh ou ld b e la id asid e, b u t th e b o w l sh o u ld n o t b e la id asid e on th e b are g ro u n d .4 W h en la y in g asid e a robe, h a v in g ta k e n th e robe in one h a n d , h a v in g stro k e d th e o th e r h a n d a lo n g th e b a m b o o fo r robes or th e c o rd fo r ro b e s , h a v in g g o t th e ed ges a w a y from h im a n d th e fo ld to w a rd s h im , th e robe should be la id a sid e .5 W h en th e p re cep to r h a s g o t u p , th e seat should be re m o v e d , th e w a te r to r w a sh in g th e fe e t, th e foot-stool, th e fo o t-sta n d sh ou ld b e p u t a w a y . I f th a t p la ce com es to be soiled, th a t place sh ou ld b e sw e p t, |[ 1 1 |j " I f th e p re c e p to r w ish es to b a th e , he sh o u ld p rep a re a b a th . I f he w a n ts a c o ld (bath ), he sh o u ld p re p a re a c o ld one ; if h e
1 bhang at b rea k in g , s p littin g , d isso lu tio n , d e s tr u c tio n . V A 9 7 9 in d ic a te s th a t tf t h e r o b e w ere fold ed u p in t h e sam e cr e a se e v e r y tim e , i t w o u ld w ea r th in alo n g t h a t crease. 1 obho$a> V A , 9 73 s a y s " h a v in g fo ld ed u p t h e g ir d le , it sh ou ld toe laid asid e h a r in g a rran ged at in a fo ld (bftoga) o f t h e ro b e # VA. 5 79 s a y s th a t t h is w o u ld o n ly be if h e h a d fa ile d t o o b ta in alm sfo o d 111 th e v illa g e ; in t h is ca se th e one w h o shares h is ce il sh o u ld b r io g h im th e alm sio o d w h ich h e h im self h a d ob tain ed * 1 S o as n o t t o g e t d u s ty , V A . 979. * V A . 9So, he is n o t to la y it a s id e b y t a k in g h old o i t h e ed ges a n d th r o w in g th e ro b e o ve r b a m b o o or cord, or t h e fo ld m ig h t b e d a tn a g e d b y c o im o g in to c o n t a c t w ith a w all.

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w a n ts a h o t (bath), he sh o u ld p rep a re a h o t one* I f the p recep to r w ish es to e n te r a b a th ro o m 1, he sh o u ld k n e a d chiinam , sh ou ld m o isten cla y* ; ta k in g a c h a ir fo r th e bath ro o m ,* h a v in g gone close b e h in d th e p re cep to r, h a v in g g iv e n him th e ch a ir fo r t h e b a th ro o m , h a v in g re ce ive d his robe, he should la y it to one sid e. H e sh o u ld g iv e h im th e ch u n a m , he sh o u ld g iv e h im th e c la y . I f h e is ab le to do so,4 he sh ou ld en ter th e b ath ro o m . W h e n h e is e n terin g th e b a th ro o m , h a v in g sm eared h is fa ce w ith c la y , h a v in g c o v e re d h im se lf fro n t a n d b a c k , he sh o u ld e n te r t h e bathroom * || 12 || " H e should n o t sit d o w n so as to encroach u p o n {the sp ace in ten d ed for) m o n ks w h o are e ld e rs.* H e sh o u ld n o t k eep n e w ly o rd ain ed m o n ks fro m a se a t. H e sh o u ld m a k e p re p a ra tio n for th e p re cep to r in th e bath room . W h e n he is le a v in g th e b a th ro o m , ta k in g th e c h a ir fo r th e bathroom , h a v in g c o v e red h im self fro n t an d b a c k , he sh o u ld le a v e th e b a th room - H e sh o u ld a lso m a k e p rep aratio n fo r th e precep tor in th e w a te r. W h e n h e is bathing* h a v in g com e o u t {of th e w ater) first, h a v in g d rie d h is o w n body* h a v in g p u t on his in n er robe, he sh ou ld w ip e o ff th e w a te r fro m th e p recep to r's limbs* h e sh o u ld g iv e h im h is in n er clo th in g, he sh o u ld g iv e h im his o u te r cloak ; ta k in g th e c h a ir fo r th e bath ro o m , h a v in g com e b a ck first, h e sh o u ld m a k e r e a d y a s e a t, he sh ou ld p u t o u t w a te r fo r w a sh in g th e fe e t, a fo o tsto o l, a fo o tsta n d . H e sh o u ld o ffer th e p re cep to r d rin king-w ater* ]| 13 || " I f he w ish es to m ake h im re cite ,7 he sh ou ld m a k e h im recite. I f he w ish es to in te rro g a te ,6 he sh o u ld b e in terro g a te d . In
1 jantdghara, see V zn + T e x ts 5 . 15 7 * 1*. 2; iiL 10 3 , JHcnazfiistn* p. 18 3 , caJls jant&ghara J ,a co m m o n b a th J\ I> u ttj E a rly jantdgharasaiii,

bath-room s
* C la y for use on t h e fa c e in t h e b a th -ro o m allo w ed a t V in . ii. 12a-

* A llow ed a t

ii. rao,

4 V A . 9^0, if h e is n o t U]. T h e b a th ro o m m u s t h a v e b e e n fu ll o f h o t s te a m , a.nd ju n io r s a s m u ch as seniors h a d to- b e c a r e fu l t o p r o t e c t th e ir faces w ith a sm ea rin g o f c la v . * C f t V in . iv* 4 *, w h ere m o n k s m u s t n o t lie d o w n in th e space- m ea n t for elders, a n d see B . D . ii* 247., n. 3, T h is exp ressio n a n d t h e n e x t a ls o occu r a t C F - v iii. 1 2* * sarhghdti, p erh ap s h ere m e a n in g th e u p p e r rob e a_s w e ll as t h e ou ter c l o a t , a lth o u g h th e n th e p lu r a l m ig h t h a v e b e e n e x p o rted S e e a b o v e , p. 60,

n,

7 N o d o u b t m ea n in g , i f t h e p recep to r w ish es t o m a k e th e o n e w h o shares t h e c e ll r e cite t h e P a tim o k k h a. o r g i v e an ex p o s itio n o f t h e e ig h t ch ief ru les ; c f B.JD. ii. 3 7 1 * n. 1. * C /. JB.D, ii. 2 7 1 , n - 2,

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w h a te v e r d w e llin g -p la ce th e p re cep to r is sta y in g , i f th a t d w ellin g -p la ce is so iled , i t sh o u ld b e c le a n e d i f h e1 is able (to d o so). W h en h e is c le a n in g th e d w e llin g -p la ce , h a v in g first ta k e n o u t th e b o w l an d robes, h e sh o u ld la y th e m to one side. H a v in g ta k e n o u t th e p iece o f c lo th t o s it upon a n d th e s h e e t,3 he sh o u ld la y th e m to one side* H a v in g ta k e n o u t th e m a ttr e s s 3 a n d th e s q u a ttin g - m a t/ he sh ould l a y th e m to one sid e. |i 14 || H a v in g lo w ere d th e co u ch , h a v in g ta k e n it o u t p ro p e rly w ith o u t ru b b in g it,* w ith o u t k n o c k in g it a g a tn st th e d o or or th e posts, he sh ould l a y i t to one sid e . H a v in g lo w ered th e ch a ir, [47] h a v in g ta k e n i t o u t p ro p e rly w ith o u t ru b b in g it, w ith o u t k n o c k in g it a g a in s t th e d o o r or th e posts, h e sh ou ld l a y it to one side. H a v in g ta k e n o u t th e su p p o rts fo r th e c o u c h / he sh o u ld la y th em to one side* H a v in g ta k e n o u t th e s p itto o n ,5 he sh o u ld la y i t to one side. H a v in g ta k e n o u t th e re clin in g -b o a rd ,9 h e sh o u ld l a y i t to o n e side. H a v in g ta k e n o u t th e groun d -coverin g*1 5 h a v in g o b served h o w it w as la id d o w n ,11 he sh o u ld la y it to one side. I f there com e to b e co b w e b s in th e d w e llin g -p la ce , he sh o u ld first rem o ve them from th e (floor-) co v e rin g 13 ; h e sh ou ld w ip e th e c o m e r s 15 o f
1 I.e . th e o a e w h o sh ares a. cel). * nisidanapaccattharapA. C f* B.H+ ii. 34, iu t , 46* si. 3, 244, n. 6.

* Cf, B .D , ii. 47, a. j ,

* C f r B . D . ii* 73* d. 6*

a V A , 980, w ith o u t r u b b in g it o n t h e g r o u n d , . 4 h a v d ta p itik a . V A * 980 e x p la in s -as n o t to u c h in g th e d o o r (k a v d }a ) and th e door*post$ < F (p iith a s a trtg h d ia ). O n kavizta a n d ffiilh v s a n z g h a ta see B . D . ii. 258, n. 3, p a n d A . K . C o o m a r a s w a m y , I n d ia n A r c h it e c t u r a l T e rm s , J - A rO .S . V o l. 48, .No. 3. p H2 5 6 (under d ia r a ) . K a v& ta a llo w e d a t V in . ii, 143, a n d kau& l& pilthas& m gh& t* a t V i* t. ii. 153,. 154 . I A couch, a a d a ch air m ig h t h a v e r e m o v a b le le g s ; cf. B.D + ii. 340. See p+ 64. n, 4. a A llo w e d a t Yin* ii* 175. * apass&naphala.ka, a bo a rd for r e s tin g t h e h ea d , arm s or e lb o w s upon* A l l o v i d a t Viii* ii. 175 - S o m e m a d e of S to n e , c a n b e fo u n d a t t h e e n tra n ce to d w e llin g -p la ce s a m o n g t h e a n c ie n t rem ain s a t A n u ra d h a p u ra . ** bhumntalthawa^ta ; cf. B . D , iL ij6, n. 4* II paftfkttta ; sam e w ord as is used for la y in g d o w n ' F a r u le o f tra in in g , see B . D . ii. 4, n. 1. 11 patham&m oharetabbam. N o t* T th in k , h e sh ou ld r em o ve th e m as soon as h e sees t h e m *\ as a t Ftw. T#xt$ i. 159 a n d a s fa v o u re d b y P.E+D+ F o r uttoha o ccu rs a t V in . ji. 1 5 1 a s m e a n in g a cloth, or c o v e r in g for a cou ch or cbafrj a n d w a s s o m e th in g t h a t c o u ld be spread , saMtharati. T h u s it p r o b a b ly has a te ch n ic a l m o o i n g , a a d is on e o i t h e n um erou s k in d s of " clo th s B u . on V in . ii. i $ i e x p la in s i t a s cilij>iika ; a n d th is h e e x p la in s a t V A * 7 75 a s s o m e th in g m a d e lo r p r e s e r v in g t h e te x tu r e o f earth w h ich is p rep ared w ith p la ster. ** V A . gSQp o f th e room . B u t i t 3eem s m ore p r o b a b le t h a t th e corn ers o f th e w in d o w -h oles are in ten d ed .

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th e w indow -holes*1 I f a w a ll th a t w as co lo u red red 3 becom es sta in ed , he sh o u ld w ip e it, h a v in g m oistened a ra g , h a v in g w ru n g i t out. I f grou n d th a t w a s b la c k e d 5 becom es stain ed , he should w ip e it, h a v in g m oisten ed a ra g , h a v in g w ru n g i t out. I f th e g ro u n d d id n o t co m e to be tre ate d , h e should sw eep it, h a v in g sp rin k led it a ll o v e r w ith w a te r, t h in k in g : ' T a k e care le st th e d w ellin g -p la ce is su llied w ith d u st.J H a v in g lo o ked fo r (any) ru b b ish , he sh ould rem o ve i t to one side, 111511 H a v in g d ried th e g ro u n d -co verin g in th e sun, h a v in g clea n ed it, h a v in g sh aken it, h a v in g b ro u g h t it b a c k , h e sh ould la y it dow n a s i t w a s la id dow n before. H a v in g d ried th e su p p o rts fo r th e couch* in th e s u n ,h a v in g w ip ed th em , h a v in g b ro u g h t th em b a c k , h e sh ou ld p lace them w h ere th e y w ere before. H a v in g dried th e co u ch in th e sun * . . th e c h a ir in th e sun, h a v in g clean ed it, h a v in g sh aken it , h a v in g low ered it, h a v in g b ro u g h t i t b a c k p ro p e rly w ith o u t ru b b in g it, w ith o u t k n o ck in g it again st th e door or th e posts, he sh ould la y it d o w n as it w as la id dow n before. H a v in g dried the m a ttre ss a n d th e sq u a ttin g -m a t in th e sun, h a v in g cleaned th em , h a v in g sh aken them , h a v in g b ro u g h t them b a ck , he sh ould la y th em d o w n a s th e y w ere la id dow n before* H a v in g d ried th e p iece o f clo th to sit upon an d th e sh eet in th e sun, h a v in g clean ed th e m , h a v in g sh aken th e m , .h a v in g b ro u g h t th em b a c k , h e should la y them dow n a s t h e y w ere laid dow n before- H a v in g dried th e sp itto o n in th e su n , h a v in g w iped it, h a v in g b ro u g h t it b a c k , h e sh ou ld place it w h ere i t w as before* H a v in g d ried th e reclin in g-b o ard in th e sun, h a v in g w ip e d it, h a v in g b ro u g h t it b a c k , h e should place it w h ere it w a s before, J J 16 ||
1 diokasandhi. C f. B .H . ii. 358 a n d n. 3 ; 259 a n d t l 1* * g tT iik a p a r ih a m r n a k a lz i. G e r u k a is y e llo w och re or red ch a lk . C f . B ,D * i l 359 a n d d. 3, * C f. B .D , iL 259. Setavtrpipa, w h itew a sh -or plaster* th e th ir d colou rin g (w ith red an d black) a llo w ed fo r u se in vihdras {V in . ii, 150) is n o t in clu d ed above* 4 A llo w e d a t Vin. Ii. r50. I t seem s t h a t th ese su p p o rts w ere d e ta ch a b le fro m th e cou ches, fo r fits t t h e y w ere t o be ta k e n o u t a n d p u t in t h e sun., an d th e n th e cou ch w as t o b e ta k en out. F in * T exts iii, 278, n. 3, s a y s t h a t t h e co u ch *J w a s su pported on m o v a b le tressels t h e p^ipddaJta hut A . K + C o o m a ra sw a m y , Ind. Architectural Term s, J+ A .O .S*, V o l. 48, N o . 3, p. 265, sec$ " no reason w h y th e patip&dakd of a m anca shou ld not be foxed legs O n th e oth er hand , dhtjccnpddnka {of cou ches a n d ch airs) seems to m ean r e m o v a b le legsP i c . x i v , a n d V in . ii. 149*

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H e sh ou ld la y asid e th e b o w l an d robes. W h en la y in g asid e th e b o w i . . . (as in || n H ) . . . th e fo ld to w a rd s h im , th e ro b e sh ould b e la id asid e. || 1 7 [ | " I f d u s ty w in d s blow fro m th e east, he sh o u ld close th e eastern w in d o w s.1 I f d u s ty w in d s b lo w from th e w e s t, he sh o u ld close th e w estern w in d o w s. I f d u s ty w in d s b lo w from th e n o rth , he sh o u ld close th e n o rth ern w in d o w s. I f d u s ty w inds b lo w fro m th e so u th , [48] he sh ould clo se th e so u th ern w in d o w s. I f th e w e a th e r is co ol, he sh o u ld open th e w in d o w s b y d a y , h e sh o u ld close th em a t n ig h t. I f th e w e a th e r is w a rm , he should clo se th e w in d o w s b y d a y , h e sh o u ld open th em a t n ig h t. I] 18 || " I f a cell is soiled, th e c e ll sh ould b e sw ep t, I f a p o rch 2 . . . I f a ii a tte n d a n ce -h a ll3 . . . I f a fire-hall4 . . . I f a p r iv y com es to b e soiled, th e p r iv y sh ou ld b e sw e p t. I f there does not co m e to b e d rin k in g -w ate r, d rin k in g -w a te r sh o u ld be p ro vid ed . Tf there does n o t com e to b e w a te r fo r w a sh in g , w a te r for w a sh in g sh o u ld b e p ro vid ed . I f th ere does n o t com e to be w a te r in th e p itch e r o f w a te r fo r rin sin g ,6 w a te r sh o u ld be tip p ed into the p itch e r o f w a te r for rin sin g. ]| 19 [f I f d issa tisfa ctio n 6 h a s arisen in th e p re cep to r, th e one w h o shares his ce ll sh ou ld a lla y 7 it o r sh o u ld g e t (another) to a lla y * it, or he should g iv e h im a t a lk on dhamma. I f rem o rse h a s arisen in th e precep tor, th e one w h o sh ares th e cell sh ould d ispel it o r sh o u ld g e t (another) to dispel it, or he sh o u ld g iv e him a ta lk on d h a m m a I f w ro n g v ie w s h a v e arisen in th e precep tor, th e one w h o sh ares h is cell sh ou ld d issu a d e him (from them ) o r sh o u ld g e t an o th er to d issu a d e h im (from them), or he should g iv e him a ta lk on dham m a .10 |[ 20 [| " I f th e p recep tor has c o m m itte d an offence a g a in st an
* vdtapdna, see B.D + iL 259, n. i.. T h ree k in d s a llo w ed a t Vitt. ii. 148* * kofthaha., or g ate-h o u se, or store-room , allow ed a t ii- 142, 153 * upatthdnasdld;, allow ed a t Vin~ iL *53- S e e B,L>. 11. 194, xu 4, * allo w ed F t n , ii. 154. * dcamanakutnbht, a llo w ed a t V in . ii. 142. * anabhxratit see B .D . i. 1 1 4 , n. 1 ; a n d V in . L 144. 1 V A . 98] s a y s t h a t h e should, t a k e h im elsewhere* * &&ftaklsdpttaf}bii> A n o th e r m o n k shou ld b e to ld : r h a v in g t a k e n th e elder, g o elsew here % V A . Qfli. C f. K itf. L 14 2 ( = b elo w , p, ig o ) + * C f r V in - i. 1 4 5 ( i* b elo w , p, 190), lf> F o r a b o v e p a s s a g e cf. A .v , 7 2 , w h ere c o m p e te n ce in th e s e m a tte r s is one o i t h e q u alificatio n s a m o n k m u st possess id order t o co n fer th e vpasampada ord in ation .

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im p o rta n t ru le 1 and d eserves pro batio n ,* th e one w h o sh ares h is c e ll sh o u ld m a k e an effort, th in k in g : 1 H o w th en could th e O rd er g r a n t th e p re cep to r p ro b a tio n ? J I f th e p recep to r d eserves to b e sen t b a c k to th e b e g in n in g ,3 th e one w h o shares his cell should m a k e a n effo rt, th in k in g : ' H o w th en cou ld th e O rd er send th e p re cep to r b a ck to th e beginning ? ' I f th e p re cep to r d eserves mdnatta (discipline), th e one w h o sh ares h is cell sh o u ld m a k e a n effo rt, th in k in g : ' H o w th e n co u ld th e O rder in flict mdnalta (discipline) on th e p re cep to r ? ' I f th e p re cep to r d eserves re h a b ilita tio n ,4 th e one w h o shares his cell sh ould m a k e an effort, th in k in g : f H o w then co u ld th e O rd er re h a b ilita te th e p re cep to r ? p ]| 2 1 f| " I f th e O rd er d esires to c a r ry o u t a (form al) a c t a g ain st th e p recep tor one o f cen su re5 o r one o f gu id an ce* or one o f b an ish m e n t7 o r one o f reconciliation o r one o f suspension* -the one w h o shares h is cell sh o u ld m a k e an effo rt, th in k in g : ' H o w th en co u ld th e O rd er n o t c a r ry o u t a (formal) a c t again st th e p recep to r o r chan ge it to a lig h te r one ?10 ' Y e t if a (form al) a c t one of cen sure , . , one o f suspension is carried out b y th e O rd er a g a in s t h im , th e on e w h o sh ares h is c e ll sh o u ld m ake a n effo rt, t h in k in g : * H o w th e n co u ld th e p recep to r co n d u ct h im self p ro p e rly ,11 b e subd u ed , m e n d h is w a y s, {so th a t) th e O rd er co u ld revo k e t h a t (form al) a c t ? * || 22 [ | " I f th e p re c e p to r's ro b e should be w a sh ed , th e one w h o sh ares his ce ll sh ou ld w a sh it or he sh o u ld m ake a n effort* [49]
1 A t 7 t. iv. 51, one of th e qualities a monk must possess m order to exhort tb e nuns is th a t of not h avin g offended against an im portant role garvdhattL+nL There w ere eigh t '* im portant r a le s " to b e kept b y nuns ; see B .D . ii- 266, n, 11 And p* 267* But* a b o v t, the im portant rules seem to refer to S^ftghAdisesa, for w h at follows 1 probation,, etc,, are am ong the penalties for breaking Saugh. rulest * parivdsa, cf. & -D , i- 196, n. 3, and Vin. t, 143, ii* 31 ff. !Not th e sam e pariv&sa a s th a t granted to mem bers of other on their washing t o enter th e Order, see below* p r 85. * C f. B .D . i. 1Q&, n. 4, and for m&natta B .D . i, 196* n_ 5, and Vin. i 143* * abhKana, cf. B .D . i. 196 n- 6 ; B . D . iii. *8, n, 4* * tajjaniya. Cf. Vin. i* 143, ii. 2. if* See Vin. L 315, A , i. 99 and Ehitt,. Early Buddhist Monachisrn, p, 170, for this and the four following format a c ts. * nifjityaj tutelage- Cf. C V . I* 9 . 1 tf* 7 fiabbajaniya. Cf* CV* I. 13+ 1 fF +
patis&raniya, C f , C V . I. 18 - t E ,

ukkhttpantya. C f. CV. I* 25. 1 ff, 30 VA * 981 indicates th a t the one who sharea the cell should do his best t o plead w ith th e monks to cancel the formal act. B u t if th e y insist, he should b eg th e preceptor to conduct himself properly. 11 CJ. B .D , L 333 and its a. zr 3 for these expressions >

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th in k in g : H o w th en co u ld th e p re c e p to r's ro b e foe w ash ed ? * I f th e p re cep to r's ro b e-m a te ria l sh ou ld b e m ad e up, th e one w h o sh ares h is ce ll sh o u ld m a k e it u p o r he sh o u ld m a k e $xi effo rt, t h in k in g : ' H o w th e n c o u ld th e p re c e p to r's robem a te ria l be m ade up ? * Tf d y e sh ou ld be b o iled for th e p re c e p to r * . * I f the p re cep to r's ro b e sh ou ld be d y e d co u ld th e p recep to r's robe b e d y e d ? * W h en h e is d y e in g th e ro be, he sh o u ld d y e it p ro p erly, tu rn in g it a g ain a n d a g ain , nor should he go a w a y if th e d rip s h a v e n o t ce a se d .1 || 23 || " W ith o u t a sk in g th e p re cep to r (for perm ission), he sh ould n o t g iv e an alm sbow l to a n y o n e n or sh ou ld he receive an alm sb ow l from a n yo n e ; he sh o u ld n o t g iv e a robe to a n yo n e n o r should he receive a robe from a n y o n e ; he should n o t g iv e a req u isite to a n y o n e n or sh o u ld he receive a re q u isite from a n y o n e ; h e should n o t c u t o ff a n y o n e 's h a ir n or sh ou ld he h a v e his h a ir cu t o ff b y an yo n e m 3 he sh o u ld n o t ren d er a service to an yo n e n or sh o u ld he cau se a service to foe ren d ered b y a n y o n e ; he sh o u ld n ot e x e c u te a com m ission fo r an yo n e n o r should he cause a com m ission to be e x e c u te d b y a n yo n e ; he should n o t becom e an a tte n d a n t on a n y o n e n or sh ould he ta k e a n yo n e as an a tte n d a n t ; he sh ou ld n o t b rin g b a c k alm sfood fo r an yo n e n or sh o u ld he h a v e alm sfood b ro u g h t b a c k b y an yo n e. W ith o u t a sk in g th e p re c e p to r (for perm ission}, he should n o t en ter a v illa g e , h e should n o t go t o a c e m e te ry , he sh o u ld n ot le a ve th e d is tric t-3 I f th e p re cep to r b eco m es ill, he sh o u ld ten d him for a s lo n g as life la sts ; h e sh o u ld w a it (w ith bim ) u n til he recovers*3 \ \ 24 1 1 T o ld is w h a t is d u e to a P recep to r. || 25 ]|

" T h e p re cep to r,4 m o n ks, sh o u ld c o n d u ct h im self p ro p e rly to w a rd s th e one w ho shares h is cell. T h is is th e proper co n d u ct in th is r e s p e c t; th e one w h o shares th e cell sh o u ld be furthered, he sh o u ld be helped b y th e p re cep to r in rega rd to re cita tio n ,
1 atchinne theve* V A . 9S1 s a y s " h e s h o u ld n o t d e p a r t il e ven a little d y e i$ fa llin g d o w n / ' P ro p er m eth o d s fo r d y e in g rob-c-m atcrial g iv e n a t Viit* i, * d is d p& kh& m it& bbH . O f. M V . I I . l. e w h ere ig n o r a n t m o n k s tr a v e llin g t o d is ta n t p arts. disainga?nihaw d o n o t a s k teach ers an d p r e ce p to r s fo r permission* 3 ttutthannssa^ u n til h e g e ts u p fr o m feis illness. V A . gSa, C f. F i> w . 9 4 1 F r o m here t o p . b elo w = V ia . ii. ^27-230, 1 satjigaJicfah&o^ used w ith t h e n e x t w ord, a n u g g a h e ta b b o , below , p . t 57 -

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in terro g a tio n , exh o rtatio n * in stru c tio n .1 I f th e re is a b o w l for th e p recep tor b u t no b o w l fo r th e one w h o sh ares his cell, a b o w l sh o u ld b e g iv e n b y th e p recep to r to th e one w h o shares his c e ll, or h e sh o u ld m a k e an effort, th in k in g H o w th e n co u ld a b o w l be p ro cu red fo r th e one w h o sh ares rn y c e ll ? * I f th ere is a robe fo r th e p re cep to r . . . I f th ere is (another) req u isite fo r th e p re c e p to r , . [50] * H o w th en c o u ld (another) re q u isite be p ro cu red fo r th e one w h o sh ares m y cell ? * || r || I f th e one w h o sh ares th e cell b ecom es ill, h a v in g g o t up e a rly h e sh ou ld g iv e to o th -w o o d , he sh ou ld g iv e w a te r fo r rin sin g th e m o u th , he sh o u ld m a k e re a d y a seat* I f th e re is con jey* . . . t h a t p la ce sh o u ld b e sw e p t. || 2 | J *f I f th e one w h o shares a ce ll w ish es to en ter a villa g e* . . . h a v in g w ash ed , a b o w l w ith w a te r is to b e g iv e n t o h im . T h in k in g , * H e w ill b e re tu rn in g a b o u t n o w h e sh o u ld 4 m ake re a d y a s e a t, he sh o u ld set o u t w a te r fo r w a sh in g th e fe e t, a fo o t-sto o lj a fo o t-sta n d . . , [51] - - . H e sh o u ld offer d rin k in g w a te r to th e one w h o shares his cell. 1)3-6 || " I n w h a te v e r d w ellin g-p lace one w h o shares a cell is sta y in g , if th a t d w ellin g -p la ce is soiled, it sh ou ld be clean ed i f he is ab le to do so , . T [52] * , , so th a t th e O rd er co u ld revo k e th a t (form al) a c t / || 7 ^ xo || " I f th e robe o f one w h o sh ares a cell sh o u ld be w ashed, th e p recep to r should explain* s a y in g : f T h u s should y o u w ash it \ o r he sh o u ld m a k e an effo rt, th in k in g : * H o w th e n co u ld the robe o f th e one w h o shares m y cell b e w ashed ? ' I f th e robem a te ria l o f one w h o sh ares a cell sh o u ld b e m ad e up, th e p re cep to r sh o u ld e x p la in , sa y in g : ' T h u s should y o u m a k e it u p \ o r . * . * H o w th e n co u ld th e ro b e-m a teria l o f th e one w h o sh ares a cell , - . * T h u s sh o u ld y o u bo il i t \ or . * - * H o w th e n co u ld d y e b e boiled fo r th e one w h o shares m y cell ? * I f th e robe o f th e one w h o shares a ceil sh o u ld be d y e d * . . * T h u s should y o u d y e it ^ or , * , ' H o w th en co u ld th e robe o f th e one w h o shares m y cell be d y e d ? ' W h en he is d y e in g
1 These four words are used m definition of " should (neither) help J a t Vin. iv . 325 iii. 376) ; and B .D . ii, * 7 1 , n. 2. 1 As a t M V . I* 3 5 . reading *4 preceptor Jl Jor None who shares a c e U " and vice versa.
A s a t M V . I. 25 . g (first half).

4 F io m h e r e to th e en d o t || 6 ||p a s a t M V , I . 35 . ia -13 * o m ittin g t h e first tw o sen ten ces o f I. 25. 10. 4 A s a t M V . I. 25. 14-22.

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th e ro be, he sh ou ld d y e it p ro p e rly , tu rn in g it again a n d a g ain , n o r sh o u ld b e go a w a y if th e d rip s h a v e n o t ceased. I f th e one w h o shares a cell becom es III, he sh ou ld te n d h im as lo n g a s life la sts ; he sh o u ld w a it u n til he r e c o v e rs / ' |Jri || s T o ld is w h a t is d u e to one w h o sh ares a cell. || 36 ||

N o w a t th a t tim e those w h o sh ared cells d id not co n d u ct th e m selve s p ro p e rly to w a rd s th e ir precep tors. T h o se w ho w ere m odest m onks lo o k ed d o w n upon, criticised, sp rea d it a b o u t, sa y in g : H o w can th o se w h o share ce lls n o t co n d u ct th e m selve s p ro p e rly to w a rd s th e ir p recep to rs ? T h en these m onks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : " Is i t tru e , a s is saidj, m onks, th a t th o se w h o sh are cells do n o t co n d u ct th e m selve s p ro p e rly to w a rd s th e ir p re cep to rs ? " I t is tr a e , L o r d / ' T h e en ligh ten ed one, th e L o rd re b u k ed th e m , sa y in g : " H o w , m o n k s, can those w h o sh are cells n o t co n d u ct th e m selves p ro p e rly to w a rd s th e ir precep tors ? " H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , th e L o rd ad dressed th e m o n ks, sa y in g : MM on ks, [53] th o se w h o share cells sh o u ld n ot n o t co n d u ct th e m se lv e s p ro p e rly to w a rd s th e ir p re cep to rs. W h o e v e r sh o u ld n o t co n d u ct h im se lf | p ro p e rly , there is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' \]i [ E v e n so, th e y d id not co n d u ct th e m selv e s p ro p erly. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord- H e said : " T a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to dism iss1 one w h o does not co n d u ct h im self p ro p erly. A n d th u s, m o n ks, sh ou ld he b e d ism issed ; I f he, s a y i n g : * I dism iss yo u ' o r * D o n o t co m e b a c k here ' or ' B r in g b a c k y o u r b o w l a n d robe ' o r f I am n ot to b e w a ite d u p o n b y y o u \ m akes th is u n d ersto o d b y g estu re, if he m a k e s this un d erstood b y voice, if he m a k e s th is u n d ersto o d b y gestu re and b y v o ice, th e one w h o shares th e c e ll com es to be dismissed* I f he does n o t m ake th is u n d erstood b y gestu re, if he does n ot m a k e th is understood b y vo ice, if he does n ot m a k e th is un d erstood b y g estu re a n d b y vo ice, th e one w h o shares th e cell does n o t com e to b e dism issed. || 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e those w h o sh ared a cell a n d w h o w ere dism issed did n o t apologise. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e 1 papatnrfttjpt.
G

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Lord* H e sa id : ^ I a llo w (them ), m onks, to a p o lo g ise/ ' E v e n so, th e y did n o t ap o lo gise. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd . H e said : " M onks, one w h o is dism issed is n o t not to apologise- W h o e v e r sh ou ld n o t apologise* there is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / 1 [f3 j| N o w a t th a t tim e precep tors, on b ein g apologised to , d id n o t fo rg iv e. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e said : *41 a llo w yo u , m onks, to fo rg iv e / ' E v e n so, th e y d id n ot fo rg iv e. A n d th o se w h o sh a red a cell d ep arted a n d th e y le ft th e O rd e r a n d th e y w en t o v e r to (other) sects* T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e Lord* H e sa id ; " M onks, w hen yo u are b ein g ap o lo gised to y o u sh ou ld n ot n ot fo rg iv e. W h o e v e r should n o t forgive, there is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' I! 4 II , . . N o w a t th a t tim e precep tors dism issed those w h o w ere co n d u ctin g th e m selve s1 p ro p erly, th e y d id n o t dism iss those w h o w e re n o t co n d u ctin g th em selves properly* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : " M on ks, one w h o is co n d u ctin g h im self p ro p e rly is n o t to b e dism issed. W h o e v e r sh ou ld d ism iss him , th ere is an offence o f w rong-d oing. And* m o n ks, one w h o is n ot co n d u ctin g h im self p ro p e rly is not not to b e dism issed . W h o e ve r sh ould n o t dism iss him , th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g. ]| 5 || MM onks, if one w h o shares a cell is possessed o f five q u alities he m a y be d ism isse d : if th e re does n o t com e to b e m u ch affection fo r his precep tor, if th e re does n ot com e to be m uch fa ith (in him ), if there does n o t com e to b e m uch sense o f sham e (tow ards him ), if there d o es n o t com e to be m u ch resp ect (for h im ), if th ere does n o t com e to b e m u ch d e ve lo p m e n t1 (under him ). M onks, if one w h o shares a cell is possessed o f these five q u a lities he m a y be dism issed. M onks, if one w h o shares a cell is possessed o f five q u alities he should n o t be d is m issed : if there com es to b e m uch a ffe ctio n for h is precep tor . . . * if th ere com es to be m uch d evelo p m en t. M onks, if one w h o sh ares a cell is possessed o f these five q u a litie s he should n o t be dism issed. ||6|[ " M onks, if one w ho shares a cell is possessed o f fiv e q u alities
1 For use of singular, where wc should use th e plural, c f B .D . iii. 3G4, 3^7' 369* Here the meaning is th * t -each of several preceptors dismissed the particular monk who shared bis cell. 1 bhavana* V A . 9S2. explains b y metUtbhavandt developm ent of am ity.

27*7 38, l ]

m a h

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a g g a

7*

it is su ita b le 1 to d ism iss him : [54] if th ere does n o t com e t o be m u ch affectio n for his p re cep to r * * , if th ere does n o t co m e to be m u ch d e v e lo p m e n t. M o n k s, if one w h o sh ares a c e ll is possessed o f these five q u a litie s, it is su ita b le to d ism iss him . M onks, if one w h o sh ares a cell is possessed o f fiv e q u a litie s it is n o t su ita b le to d ism iss h im : if th ere com es to b e m u ch a ffe ctio n fo r h is p recep to r . . * if th ere com es to b e m u ch d e ve lo p m e n t. M on ks, i f one w h o sh ares a c e ll is possessed of these fiv e q u a litie s it is n o t su ita b le to d ism iss h im , || 7 |j M onks, i f one w h o shares a c e ll is possessed o f fiv e q u a litie s, a p re cep to r, in n o t d ism issin g h im , b eco m es one w h o has gone to o fa r ; in d ism issin g h im t h e d o es n o t becom e o n e w h o h as gon e to o far : if th ere does n o t com e to be m u ch affectio n fo r his preceptor- , * if th e re does n ot com e to be m u ch d e v e lo p m en t, M on ks, if one w h o sh ares a cell is possessed o f th ese fiv e q u alities, a p re cep to r, in n o t d ism issin g h im , becom es one w h o has gon e to o fa r ; in d ism issin g h im he d o es n o t b eco m e one w ho has gone too far- M on ks, if on e w h o sh ares a ce ll is possessed o f five q u a litie s, th e p re cep to r, in d ism issin g him , becom es one w h o h a s g o n e to o far ; in n o t d ism issin g him , he d o es n o t b ecom e one w h o h a s gon e to o fa r : if th e re co m es to be m u ch affectio n for th e p re cep to r . . . i f th e re com es to b e m u ch d evelo p m en t. M onks, i f one w h o shares a cell is possessed o f th ese liv e q u alities, a p recep to r, in d ism issin g him , becom es one w h o h a s gone to o far ; in not d ism issin g h im , he does n ot becom e one w h o has gone too fa r . || S |] 27 [[ N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in b ra h m a n , h a v in g ap p ro ach ed (some) m on ks, a sked fo r th e g o in g fo rth . T h e m o n ks d id n ot w a n t to le t h im go fo rth , and b ecause he co u ld n o t o b ta in th e g o in g fo rth a m o n g th e m onks, he b ecam e lean, w re tch e d , o f a bad colour, v e r y y e llo w , his v e in s sta n d in g o u t a ll o v e r his b o d y .2 T h e L o rd saw th is b ra h m a n , lean . , . a ll o ve r his b o d y , an d seein g h im , he addressed th e m onks, s a y in g : H o w is it, m onks, th a t th is b ra h m a n is lean , a ll o v e r his b o d y ? Ji JfL o rd , th is b ra h m a n a sk e d th e m o n k s fo r th e go in g fo rth . T h e m onks d id n o t w a n t to le t him go fo rth , an d b ecause he could n o t o b ta in th e go in g fo rth am on g th e m on ks, he is lean . , . a ll o v e r h is b o d y / ' || x [t 1 alavfiw enough* 1 S to c k , cj. iii. 3$ {!?.>* i- 153-4)*

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T h e n th e L o rd addressed th e m o n ks, ra y in g : " N o w , m o n ks, w h o rem em bers a se rv ice 1 done b y this b rah m an ? " W h en he h a d sp ok en th u s th e ven era b le S a rip u tta sp oke th u s to th e L o rd : I , L o rd , rem em b er a service d one b y th is b ra h m a n .'' N o w , w h a t h e lp (given) b y th is b ra h m a n , S a rip u tta , d o y o u rem em ber ? L o rd , as I w a s w a lk in g for alm sfood here in R a ja g a h a this b ra h m a n had spoon-alms b esto w ed upon m e. T h is, L o rd , is th e se rvice done b y this b ra h m a n [55] w h ich I rem em b er." II 2 i; " G o o d , S a rip u tta , it is good. In d eed those w h o a re tr u ly m e n ,3 S a rip u tta , are th a n k fu l a n d g ra tefu l-4 B e c a u se o f th is do yo u , S a rip u tta , le t th is brah m an g o fo rth (and) ordain h im / ' " H o w , lo rd , do I le t this brah m an go fo rth , h o w do I ord ain h im ? T h e n th e L o rd , on th is occasion, h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , addressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g ; F ro m th is d a y fo rth , m onks, I abolish th a t ord ination b y go in g to th e th ree re fu g es w h ich I allow ed . I a llo w yo n , m onks, to ord ain b y a {form al) a c t con sistin g o f a m o tio n and a resolution p u t th ree tim e s .5 || 3 || ** A n d th us, m on ks, sh o u ld one ordain : T h e O rd er should be in fo rm ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k , sa y in g : ' H on oured sirs* le t the O rd er h e a r m e. T h is (person) so an d so w ish es for o rd in ation from th e ven e ra b le so and so. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y ord ain so and so, th ro u g h th e p re cep to r so an d 5 0 . T h is is th e m otion , |[ 4 || ** * H on ou red sirs, le t th e O rd er hear me* T h is person so and so . , . m a y ord ain so and so. T h e O rd er is o rd ain in g so and so th ro u g h th e p re cep to r so a n d so. I f the o rd in atio n o f so and so th ro u g h th e p recep to r so an d so is pleasing to th e ven e ra b le ones le t them b e silent ; he to w h om it is not p leasin g sh o u ld speak* A n d a second tim e I sp eak fo rth this m a tte r . . . sh o u ld sp ea k , || 5 ||
1 a d h i& d r a .

* kaiacchubkibbha, alms given with a ladle to a mode (cf. Thag, 934, M iin. 9) ; contrasted w ith ticket-food and the g ifts of robes, etc*, a t D hA. i. 37*?, and with a great g i f t " , ntahad&Ka, given, to a. body of monks a t Pv. II.

9. 56-58, P- * 5-

a sflpfrurisa.

Cf. Vift. iii. 7*

* Hotticatottha.

* Cf, S . ii. 272. S ee M V - I X . 3 , 4-9* a n d I> u ttF Early B u d ,

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ff ' A n d a th ird tim e I sp e a k fo rth th is m a tte r -. . sh ou ld sp ea k . S o an d so is o rd ain ed b y th e O rd er th ro u g h th e p re c e p to r so and so* I t is p leasin g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re th e y are silent* T h u s do I u n d ersta n d th is / " | 1 6 {[ 28 || N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in m o n k im m e d ia te ly a fte r h e w a s o rd ain ed in d u lg ed in b a d habits* M on ks sp ok e th u s : Do n o t, y o u r re v e ren ce , d o th a t, i t is n ot a llo w e d / 11 H e sp oke th u s ' fr B u t in d eed , I d id n o t a s k th e ven erab le ones sa y in g , ' O rd ain m e \ W h y d id y o u o rd ain m e w ith o u t b e in g asked (to d o so) ? " T h e y to ld th is jn a tte r to th e L o rd . [56] H e said : M onks, y o u sh o u ld n o t o rd ain w ith o u t b e in g a sked (to d o so). W h o e v e r sh o u ld {so} o rd ain , th e re is an o ffen ce o f w rong-doing* I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to o rd ain w h en y o u h a v e b een a sk ed (to do so). || I j| " A n d th u s, m onks, sh ou ld one a s k (for it) : T h a t o n e w h o w ishes fo r o rd in atio n , h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d th e O rd er, h a v in g arran ged his u p p er robe o ve r on e sh o u ld er, h a v in g h o n o u red th e m o n k s' fe e t, h a v in g sa t d o w n on his haun ch es, h a v in g sa lu ted w ith jo in e d p alm s, sh o u ld sp ea k th u s t o it : * H o n o u red sirs, I a s k th e O rd er fo r o rd in a tio n ; h o n o u red sirs, m a y the O rder raise m e u p ,a o u t o f co m p a ssio n / A n d a secon d tim e sh ou ld he a s k , . . A n d a th ird tim e sh o u ld he a sk * * . i i ^ ii T h e O rd er should be in fo rm ed b y an ex p e rie n ced , c o m p e ten t m o n k , sa y in g : ' H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er h ear m e. T h is (person) so an d so w ishes fo r o rd in atio n fro m th e v e n e ra b le so a n d so. So a n d so asks th e O rd er for o rd in a tio n th ro u g h th e p re cep to r so and so. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er th e O rd er m a y o rd ain so an d so th ro u g h th e p re cep to r so a n d so. T h is is th e m otion . J j 3 [j 4 4 ' H on oured sirs,* le t th e O rd er hear m e. T h is (person) so and so w ish es for o rd in atio n from th e v e n e ra b le so and so. So and so a sk s th e O rd er fo r o rd in atio n th ro u g h th e p re cep to r so and so . I f th e ord in atio n c f so an d so th ro u g h th e p recep to r so
1 C fr B .D . i. 309, Ii. 230, 393. * uilumpatu, tce&ning according to V A . 964 h a vin g made me arise from w hat is bad m ay th ey establish me in w h at is good ; or, having* raised roe licxa the status of a novice m ay thc^y establish m e in the statu s of a m onk p \ Cf. beioWj p . i i i , and VA+ lt>33* See also A . K* Coomara.swa.my, P a li Words, H .J . A . S ., Vod. 4, N o. z, p , 145-G, where lie takes ullumpatu as m eaning '* e xtract " (me from all evil).

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and so is p le a sin g to th e ven era b le ones, le t th em b e silen t ; he to w h om i t is not p lea sin g sh ou ld sp eak. A n d a secon d tim e I sp ea k fo rth th is m a tte r. . ^ T A n d a th ird tim e I sp ea k fo rth th is m a tte r . . . So an d so is o rd ain ed b y th e O rd er th ro u g h th e p re cep to r so an d so. I t is p lea sin g to th e O rd er, therefore th e y a re sile n t. T h u s do X u n d e rsta n d th is / " j| 4 \ \ 29 |j N o w a t th a t tim e in R a ja g a h a a succession o f m e a ls o f su m p tu o u s food s carne to b e a rran ge d .1 T h e n i t occu rred * N o w , these recluses, sons o f th e to a c e rta in b ra h m a n r S a k y a n s, are p leasan t in c h a ra cter, p le a sa n t in co n d u ct ; h a v in g e a ten g o o d m eals th e y lie d o w n on b ed s sh eltered from th e w ind.* W h a t n o w if I sh o u ld go fo rth a m o n g these recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s ? J' T h e n th a t b ra h m a n , h a v in g approach ed (some) m o n ks, a sk e d fo r th e go in g fo rth . T h e m on ks a llo w ed him to go fo rth (and) th e y ord ain ed h im , |[ 1 |[ T h e succession o f m eals d w in d led a w a y 5 a fte r he h a d gone fo rth . M onks sp ok e th u s : " C om e a lo n g n ow , y o u r reveren ce, w e w ill w a lk fo r a lm sfo o d / ' H e sp oke th u s : " Y o u r reveren ces, I d id n o t go fo rth fo r th is th a t I should w a lk for almsfood* I f y o u w ill g iv e to m e, I w ill e a t, b u t if y o u w ill n o t g iv e to m e, I w ill le a v e th e O rd e r/ 4 " B u t, d id y o u , y o u r reveren ce, go fo rth for y o u r b e lly 's sa k e ? " [57] " Y e s , y o u r re v e ren ce s/ ' || 2 \ \ T h o se w h o w e re m o d est m onks lo o ked d o w n u p o n , criticise d , sp read it a b o u t, sa y in g : " How' can th is m o n k g o fo rth in th is dhamma a n d d iscip lin e w h ich are w e ll ta u g h t for his b e lly 's sa k e ? " T h e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd , H e sa id : Is it tru e , as is said , th a t y o u , m o n k , w e n t fo rth fo r y o u r b e lly s sake ? M I t is tru e , L o rd / ' T h e en ligh ten ed one* th e L o rd re b u k ed h im , s a y in g : H o w c a n y o u , foolish m an , go fo rth in th is dhamma a n d discip lin e w h ich a re w ell ta u g h t fo r y o u r b e lly 's sake ? I t is not foolish m an , fo r p lea sin g those w h o are not (yet) pleased ,
1 C/* V in , 1* 248, iv . 7 5 ii' 3 15 ).

1 C f. Vin. i. 72, iv. 129 {B*D. iii. * AAtyiaA.a * c/m khlyanti a t ii. 236, n, t , 2.

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n or for increasing: (the n u m ber of) th ose w h o are p le a se d / ' H aving; re b u k ed h im , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , he ad dressed the m o n k s, sa y in g : || 3 |[ I a llo w y o u , m onks, w h en y o u are ord aining, to e x p la in four resou rces1 : th a t go in g fo rth is on a cco u n t o f m e a ls o f scraps ; in th is respect efio rt is to b e m a d e b y y o u fo r life. (These are) e x tr a a cq u isitio n s : a m eal fo r an O rd er, a m eal for a special person, an in v ita tio n , tic k e t-fo o d , (food g iven ) on a d a y o f th e w a x in g o r w a n in g o f th e moon* on an O b serva n ce d a y , on th e d a y a fte r an O b serva n ce d a y .2 T h a t g o in g fo rth is on a cco u n t o f rag-robes ; in th is re sp e ct effort is to b e m ad e b y y o u for life . (These are) e x tr a a cq u isitio n s : (robes m ad e of) linen, c o tto n , silk, w ool, coarse h em p , c a n v a s .3 T h a t g o in g fo rth is on a cco u n t o f a lo d gin g a t th e ro o t o f a tree ; in th is respect e fio rt is to b e m ad e b y y o u for life* (These are) e x tr a a cq u sitio n s : a d w ellin g-p lace, a c u r v e d h o u se,4 3 long house,* a m ansion,* a c a v e .7 T h a t go in g fo rth is on a cco u n t o f am m o n ia a* a m ed icin e ; in th is respect effo rt is to b e m ad e b y y o u fo r life. (These are) e x tr a a cq u isitio n s : g h ee, fresh b u tte r, oil, h o n ey, m o la sse s.8 '* ]l 4 \ \ 30 || T o ld is th e F if t h P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g : on w h a t is d u e to a P re ce p to r. N o w a t th a t tim e a certa in b ra h m a n y o u th , h a v in g ap p ro ach ed
1 nissaya, cf. V in . i. 96. Ni$$aya is something which yo u depend upon, which supplies you, a source oi supply, N o t t o be confused with, the formal a c t called nissaya , referred to a t Vtn. i, 49 (p. 66, above), which is an a ct placing someone under guidance,, givin g him help. * F o r last four* cf, B .D * ii* 3 1 3 -3 14 and notes. * See B .D . ii, 7, 143,. and Dotes, * a44hayog&. C&tnysr speak of Lt as supannavahkageha (see aa garujasa&lhanapasdda (see C .P .D ), and as suvannavangagtiha (see Vin. "Texts *73f O* It is possible th a t the curve refers only to th e roof, curved upwards perhaps a t the ends, like some forma oi dom estic architecture in present-day India, and th is is the reason for th e a4 dha, half : ttiat in some respect th e building is half and not entirely curved. A t Vin* jjH172 it is said th at repairs m ay be made to a n during a period of seven or eight years.

* pdsddat see ii. i6 r n* 5, * A-ffltnmiya, See B .D . ii. J6. 6. * guha. These five are th e five iendtti, abodes, allowed a t Vitt* 1 L 14 6 ; allowed a t V in . i* 107, as the site (or an upasatha h all ; a t V in , i, 2.39 as the site for kaf>piyabh&*nit a place for w hat is allowable, an ou th o u se; a t Vin* i. 1164 as the site for a store-room in the last three cases the sites are to be agreed upon b y the Order* * C f, B .D . i. 133, i t 34Z* A t B ,D . ii* 131 theae five medicines m a y b e used b y ill moDka.

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(some) m onks, a sk e d fo r th e g o in g fo rth . T h e m o n k s exp la in ed th e resources to h im beforeh an d. H e sp ok e t h u s : " If, honoured sirs, y o u h a d exp la in ed th e resources to me a fte r I had gone fo rth , I sh o u ld h a v e been satisfied, b u t n ow , honoured sirs, I w ill n o t go fo rth ; th e resources are d isg u stin g an d lo a th so m e to m e/* T h e m o n ks to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e said : " M onks, th e resources sh ou ld n o t be e x p la in e d beforehan d. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (thus) e x p la in them , th e re is a n offence o f w rong-doing. I a llo w y o u , m onks, to exp la in th e resources soon a fte r o rd ain in g (a p erso n }/' \ \ i || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks o rd ain ed th ro u g h a gro u p o f tw o a n d a g ro u p o f th ree (m onks). T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : MM onks, y o u sh o u ld n ot o rd ain th ro u g h a g ro u p o f less th a n te n (m onks).1 W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) ordain, th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g. I allow y o u , monks* to o rd ain th ro u g h a gro u p o f te n o r m ore th a n te n (m onks)/* | ] 2 |j [58] N o w a t th a t tim e m on ks o f one y e a r 's sta n d in g a n d o f tw o y e a r s 1 sta n d in g (severally) o rd ain ed th e one w h o shared his cell* A n d w h en he w as o f one y e a r's sta n d in g ,2 th e ven erab le U p asen a, V a n g a n ta 's son,3 o rd ain ed th e one w h o shared his cell. W h e n h e w a s o f tw o years" stan d in g, h a v in g k e p t th e rains-residence, ta k in g th e one w h o shared his cell and w ho w as of one y e a r's sta n d in g , he a p p ro ach ed th e L o rd . H a v in g ap p ro ach ed , h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , he sa t dow n a t a respect fu l d istan ce. N o w , it is th e cu sto m fo r aw a k en ed ones, fo r L o rd s to exch a n g e frie n d ly greetin gs w ith in -co m in g m onks. II 3 I I T h en th e L o rd sp oke th u s to th e venerable U p asen a, V a n g a n ta 's son : " I h o p e, m on k, th a t th in g s go w e ll w*ith y o u , I hope y o u are keepin g go in g, I hope yo u cam e here w ith b u t little fa tig u e on th e jo u rn ey/" " T h in g s d o g o w ell w ith m e. L o rd , I am keep in g g o in g ,
1 See Vi-n. i. 315. A group is usually in the Vinaya regarded as consisting of from tw o to four m onks (or nuns), b u t here it is equivalent to an Order, a samgha. * See J d - ii* 449* VA+ 194, U d A . 266, A A t 1. 271 for this same episode, U dA - states th a t U pasena was of tw o years* standing1 as a preceptor. B u t it is more likely th a t A A * is right in saying that tw o years' standing a s a monk is meant, i.e. since his ow n ordination. * See iL 83.

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L ord , I cam e. L o rd , w ith b u t little fa tig u e on th e jo u r n e y / 1 N o w , T ru th fin d ers (som etim es) a sk k n o w in g / a n d k n o w in g (sometimes) do n ot a sk ; t h e y a s k , k n o w in g th e rig h t tim e (to a sk )v an d th e y d o n o t a sk , k n o w in g th e rig h t tim e (when n o t to ask). T ru th fin d ers a sk a b o u t w h a t belo n gs t o th e goal, n o t a b o u t w h a t does n o t b elo n g to th e goal. T h e re is bridgeb reak in g - for T ru th fin d ers in w h a te v e r does n o t b elo n g to th e goal. A w a k e n e d ones. L o rd s, q u estio n m o n k s con cern in g tw o m a tte r s : " S h all w e te a c h dhamma ? o r 4* S h all w e la y d o w n a ru le o f tra in in g for d iscip les ? '* j| 4 |[ T h e n th e L o rd spoke th u s to th e ve n e ra b le U p asen a, V a n g a n ta 's son : * * O f h o w m a n y y e a rs' sta n d in g are y o u , m onk ? " " 1, L o rd , am o f tw o y e a rs ' s ta n d in g / ' 4f A n d o f how m a n y years" sta n d in g is th is m onk ? " H e is o f one y e a r's sta n d in g . L o r d / ' W h o is this m onk a s regard s y o u ? " " H e is th e one w h o shares m y cell, L o r d / ' T h e a w aken ed one, th e L o rd reb u k ed (him), sa y in g : * * Tt is not fittin g , foolish m an , it is not becom ing, it is n ot proper, it is u n w o rth y o f a recluse* it is n ot a llo w ab le, it should n o t be d one. H o w can y o u , fo o lish m an , w h en y o u sh o u ld be exh o rted an d in stru cted b y o th ers, th in k to e x h o rt a n d in stru ct a n o th er (monk) ? T o o q u ick ly h a v e y o u , foolish m a n , tu rn ed to ab u n d a n ce,3 th a t is to s a y to a cq u irin g a gro u p . I t is n ot, foolish m an , for p lea sin g those w h o are n o t (yet) p lea sed , nor for increasing (the n um ber of) th o se w h o are p le a se d . H a v in g reb u ked h im , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , he ad dressed th e m onks, sa y in g : " M onks, one w h o is o f less th a n te n y e a rs' sta n d in g should n o t o rd ain .1 W h o e v e r (such) sh o u ld (so) o rd ain , th e re is an offence o f wrong-doing* I a llo w y o u , m onks* t o ordain th ro u g h one w h o is o f ten y e a rs ' sta n d in g o r th ro u g h on e w ho is o f m ore th a n te n y e a rs' sta n d in g / ' || 5 [ J
* See also P ' i w . L 350, iii* 6, SS-89 for t h i s passage ; a n d B*L>+ i . 13* notes I and. 2. 1 See D , L . Coomar&s'wairiY, The Bridge o f W dfaret H J A S t V o l. 8, No. 2, A ugust, 194 4, for a discussion of the Bridge m ainly from In d ian sources. * Cf, Vin. 1. 287. 4 Cf. N uns P ic . bcxiv, where a nun. of less tliaji tw e lve yearsJ standing should not ordain.

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N o w a t th a t tim e ig n o ra n t, in exp erien ced m o n k s ordained, th in k in g : " W e are o f ten years* sta n d in g , w e are o f ten y e a rs' s ta n d in g / ' (C onsequently) th ere w ere to b e fo u n d ign o ra n t p recep to rs, w ise (m onks) w h o sh ared th e ir ce lls ; in exp erien ced p recep tors, exp erien ced (monks) w h o shared th e ir cells ] p recep tors w h o h a d h eard little , (m onks) w h o sh ared th e ir cells w h o h a d heard m u c h ; p recep tors o f p o o r intelligence, [59] in te llig e n t (m onks) w h o sh ared th e ir cells ; a n d a ce rta in fo rm er m em b er o f a n o th e r se ct, w h en he w a s b ein g sp o k en to b y h is p re cep to r regard in g a rule, h a v in g refu ted the pTeceptor, w e n t o v e r to th e fo ld o f th a t sam e se c t1 (as before). 11611 . . T h o se w h o w ere m o d e st m o n k s . . - sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w can th ese ig n o ra n t, in exp erien ced m onks ord ain, th in k in g : * W e are o f te n y e a rs ' standing* w e are o f te n yea rs' sta n d in g 1 ? (So th a t) th e re a re to b e fo u n d . , - in tellig e n t (m onks) w h o share th e ir c e lls / ' T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said : Is it tru e, as is said , m onks, th a t ign o ra n t, in exp erien ced m o n k s o rd ain ed , t h in k in g ; - * - there are to b e found * . in tellig e n t (m onks) w h o sh are th eir cells?** *f I t is tru e . L o r d ." ||7 | ] T h e n a w a k e n e d o n e, th e L o rd reb u k ed them , sa y in g : H ow , m o n ks, ca n th ese foolish m en , ig n o ra n t, in e x p e ri en ced , ord ain, t h in k in g : W e are o f te n y e a rs sta n d in g , w e are o f ten y e a rs' s ta n d in g ' ? . . - in te llig e n t (m onks) w h o share th eir cells. I t is n o t, m o n ks, for p lea sin g those w ho are n o t (yet) pleased * . / ' A n d h a v in g reb u k ed th em , h a v in g g iv en reasoned ta lk , he addressed th e m onks, s a y in g : ** M onks, one w h o is ign oran t, in exp erien ced sh o u ld n o t o r d a in . W h o e v e r (such) sh o u ld ord ain, th e re is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g. I a llo w y o u , m onks, to ord ain th ro u gh an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k w ho is o f te n y e a rs' sta n d in g or m ore th a n ten y e a rs' s ta n d in g / ' |[ 8 [ J 31 | | N o w a t th a t tim e m onks, w hen th e ir p recep to rs h a d gone a w a y a n d h a d le ft th e O rder a n d h a d died a n d had gone o v e r to an o th er side (of th e O rd er),3 b e in g w ith o u t
1 titthdyatanain sanxkami.

* C/,

BM ,

C f * V in , iv , 2 1 7

iii. 16 7).

i i i / 190/

32.1 33 .i]

M A H A V A G G A

79

tea ch ers,1 n o t b ein g exh o rted , n o t b e in g in stru cte d , w a lk e d for alm sfood w ro n g ly d ressed , w ro n g ly clothed* not b e fittin g ly a ttire d . W h ile p eo p le w ere e a tin g , , , ( = = I . 25. T 4 ) . . * I t is true, L o r d . H a v in g reb u k ed th em , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned t a lk , h e addressed th e m on ks, s a y i n g : *4M on ks, I a llo w a teacher* T h e tea ch er, m o n ks, should arouse in h is p u p il2 th e a ttitu d e o f a s o n ; th e p u p il sh o u ld a ro u se in h is te a ch e r th e a ttitu d e o f a fath er. T h u s th ese, liv in g w ith reve ren ce , w it h deference, w ith c o u rte s y to w a rd s on e another* w ill com e to g ro w th , increase, m a tu r ity in th is dhamma a n d d iscip lin e. I a llo w y o u , m onks* t o liv e te n y e a r s in dependence,* a n d w h en one is o f ten y e a rs ' sta n d in g to g iv e gu id an ce.* \ \ I [[ " A n d th u s, m onks, sh o u ld a te a ch e r b e chosen : h a v in g a rra n g e d th e u p p er robe o v e r on e sh ould er, h a v in g h on ou red h is fe e t, h a v in g sa t d o w n on th e haun ch es, h a v in g sa lu ted w ith jo in e d p alm s, he sh ould sp e a k to h im th u s : ' H o n o u red sir, be m y tea ch er, I w ill liv e in depen dence on th e v e n e ra b le o n e ; honoured sir, b e m y tc a c h e r, I w ill Live in d ep en d en ce on th e ven erab le one ; h on ou red sir, b e m y tea ch er, [60] I w ill liv e in d ep en d en ce o n th e v e n e ra b le o n e / I f he &ays : f V e r y w ell po r ' C e rta in ly * or " A ll rig h t ' or * I t is p ro p e r po r ' M an age it a m ia b ly \ a n d m a k e s th is u n d ersto o d b y g estu re . . . {= I . 25. 7 2 4 , reading te a ch e r and p u p il for p re cep to r and one w h o sh ares a cell) * * . I f th e te a ch e r b ecom es ill, he should te n d h im as long as life la s ts ; he sh o u ld w a it u n til he re c o v e rs / 1 \ \3 \ \ T o ld is w h a t is d u e to a T e a c h e r. \[ 32 |j

" T h e tea ch er, m o n ks, sh o u ld c o n d u c t h im self p ro p e rly to w a rd s his pupil- T h is is th e p ro p er c o r d u c t in th is re sp e ct : th e p u p il sh o u ld b e fu rth e re d , he sh o u ld b e h elp ed b y th e
1 acuriyu. S e e V in . T exls i< *7 8 , n, 2 fo r n o te c o m p a r in g th is w ith prec-eptor, Vi&*n. 9+ s a y s t h a t in a d w e llin g -p la c e arc teach ers* p r e c e p to r s P those w h o share a ce ll, pupils., tho&e h a v in g t h e sam e p recep to rs, th o se h a v in g t h e sam e teach ers. I t m en tio n s te a c h e rs lo r t h e g o in g forth* teach ers for o r d in a tio n , pupLEs o rd ain ed a n d allo w ed t o g o fo r th h a v in g t h e sam e p r e ce p to r ; te a ch e rs in gu id an ce, in th e e x p o s itio n (or re c ita tio n , of th e iP atim okkh a), p u p ils in t h e sa m e h a v in g th e sam e tea ch er, ft anievasika. . 9 ni&saycim vatihutn*

* nissayam dafwp.* There is also the formal act of nissaya, of placing under guidance, as in I. 35- w * The word translated above. I* 80. 4* as " resource iJ is also n is s a y ^ but it is there combined with the verb adkkhitttijt.

So

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te a ch er , . . ( = 1 . 26* i - i i , reading te a ch er and p u p il for p recep tor and one w h o shares a cell) , * - I f th e p u p il becom es iU, he sh o u ld ten d h im as lo n g as life la sts ; h e sh ould w a it u n til he re co v e rs / ' || i || W h a t is d u e to a P u p il. || 33 || T h e S ix th P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g . N o w a t th a t tim e p u p ils d id n o t co n d u ct th em selves p ro p erly to w a rd s th e ir teach ers * * _ ( = L 27- x^8, reading te a ch er and p u p il as above) . , * in n o t dism issing him he does n o t becom e one w h o h a s gone to o fa r / 1 ]| i \ \ 34 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e ig n o ra n t, in exp erien ced m onks, g a v e g u id a n ce, t h in k in g : W e are o f te n y e a rs ' stan d in g, w e are o f ten y e a rs ' stan d in g/* (So th a t) th ere w ere to be found ign o ran t te a ch ers, w ise p u p ils ; in exp erien ced teach ers, e x perienced p u p i ls ; te a ch ers w h o had h eard little , p u p ils w ho h a d h eard m u ch ; te a ch ers o f poor in telligen ce, in tellige n t p u p ils. T h o se w h o w ere m od est m o n ks [61] * * - sp rea d it a b o u t, sa y in g : H o w ca n th ese ign oran t in exp erien ced m onks g iv e g u id a n ce, th in k in g : * W e are o f ten y e a rsJ sta n d in g , w e are o f ten y e a rs ' sta n d in g ' ? (So th a t) there are to be found ign oran t te a ch ers , , . in tellig e n t p u p ils ." || i || T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld this m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a i d ; ** Is i t true, as is said , m onks, th a t ig n o ra n t, in exp erien ced (m onks)1 are g iv in g g u id an ce, th in k in g : ' W e are o f te n y e a rs' stan d in g , w e a re o f te n years' sta n d in g * ? ri " Is it true* L o r d / ' T h e en lig h ten ed one, th e L o rd reb u ked th em ; h a v in g reb u k ed th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , he addressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g : ** M onks, one w h o is ign oran t, in exp erien ced , sh o u ld n o t g iv e guidance- W h o e v e r (such) should g iv e it, th ere is an offence o f wrong-doing* 1 a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to g iv e g u id an ce th ro u g h an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k w h o is o f te n y e a rs ' sta n d in g o r o f m ore th a n te n y e a rs' sta n d in g /'* |[ 2 \ [ 35 j| N o w a t th a t tim e m on ks, w h en th e ir te a ch ers an d precep tors had gone a w a y a n d h a d left th e O rd er and had d ied and h ad
1 O m itte d in Oldenberg's t e x t o f Vin, *

Cf.

a b o v e , I . * 1. 6-8.

36,i -4]

M A H A V A G G A

Si

gone o v e r to a n o th e r side (of th e O rd er),1 d id n ot k n o w a b o u t n u llificatio n s o f guidance* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* He s a id : ** M onks, th ere are th ese fiv e n u llifica tio n s o f g u id an ce fro m a p re cep to r : w h en a p re cep to r h a s gon e a w a y or le ft th e O rd er o r died o r gone o v e r to a n o th e r side (of th e O rd er), a n d com * m au d is th e fifth .4 The^e, m o n ks, are th e five n u llificatio n s o f g u id a n ce from a preceptor* M onks, th ere are th ese s ix n ullificatio n s o f g u id an ce from a t e a c h e r : w hen a te a ch e r h a s gone a w a y or le ft th e O rd er or died or g o n e o v e r to a n o th e r side (of th e O rd er), an d co m m an d is th e fifth , o r if h e 3 has co m e to be con n ected w ith a p recep to r.* T h ese, m o n ks, a r e th e s ix n u llificatio n s o f g u id an ce from a teacher* || I H " M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f fiv e q u a litie s 6 he sh o u ld n o t ord ain, he sh o u ld n o t g iv e g u id a n ce , a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d him : if he is n o t possessed o f an a d e p t's b o d y o f m oral h a b it , . * b o d y o f co n cen tratio n . , . b o d y o f w isd om * + * b o d y o f freed om . . , b o d y o f vision a n d k n o w led ge o f freedom . M onks, if a m o n k is n o t possessed o f these fiv e q u a litie s he sh o u ld n o t ord ain , he sh ould n o t g iv e g u id a n ce , a n o vice sh ou ld n o t a tte n d him . || 2 |[ M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five q u a litie s he m a y ord ain, he m a y g iv e g u id a n ce , a n o v ic e m a y a tte n d h im : if he is possessed o f an a d e p t's b o d y o f m ora] h a b it . . . b o d y o f v isio n and k n o w led g e o f freedom . M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f these fiv e q u a lities [62] he m a y ord ain, h e m a y gtve g u id a n ce , a n o v ic e m a y a tte n d him . ]| 3 |j A n d , m onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five fu rth e r q u a litie s he sh o u ld n ot ord ain, h e sh o u ld n o t g iv e g u id a n c e , a n o v ice should n o t a tte n d him : if he is neith er h im self possessed o f an a d e p t's b o d y o f m o ra l h a b it n or en cou rages a n o th er a s to an a d e p t's b o d y o f m o ral h a b it , . , if he is n e ith e r h im self possessed
1 A s in I*. 3 2 - i, * V A , 986 s a y s t h a t t h e to a ch cr dism isses t h e p u p il from g u id a n c e In th e w o rd s oi T. 31 . 1 , * M ea n in g t h e p u p il, ii w e fo llo w V d * 988 ; b u t D u t t , Karty B u d d h ist M & nathism , p. iS x , ta k e s it t o m ean t h e te a ch e r, * V A . g8S says th a t if o n e w h o shares a cell, liv in g in d e p en d en ce or* a teacher, sees a p re ce p to r w a lk in g Cor a lm s in t h e sam e v illa g e err w o rsh ip p in g a t t h e sam e shrine, or if h e h ears h im te a c h in g dham m a in a d w e tlin g -p la ce or a m o n g h ou ses (th e teach er's) g u id a n c e lapses. T h is w o u ld s u g g e s t t h a t th e p recep to r o ccu p ie s a h igh er p o s itio n th a n th e teach er, * Cf* >, iii* s j g ; S . i. 99 ; A - L 1 6 2 , iii. 2 7 1 , v* iG.

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o f an a d e p t's b o d y o f vision a n d know led ge o f freedom nor encou rages a n o th er a s to an a d e p t's b o d y o f visio n a n d k n o w ledge o f freed om . M onks, i f a m o n k is p o ssessed o f th ese five q u a litie s he sh o u ld n o t ordain* he sh o u ld n o t g iv e g u id an ce, a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d him* || 4 || " M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five q u alities * * . a n o v ic e m a y a tte n d him ; if h e is h im se lf possessed o f an a d e p t's b o d y o f m o ra l h a b it and encou rages a n o th er a s to an a d e p t's b o d y o f m oral h a b it . . . if he is h im self possessed o f an a d ep t's b o d y o f visio n an d kn o w led g e o f freed om a n d en cou rages an o th er as to an a d e p t's b o d y o f v isio n a n d kn o w led g e o f freedom * M onks, if a n o v ice is possessed o f th ese five q u alities he m a y o rd ain . . . a n o v ice m a y a tte n d him . ]| 5 j| " A n d , m o n ks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five fu rth e r q u a litie s h e sh ou ld n o t o rd ain * - - a n o v ic e sh ou ld n o t a tte n d him : if h e com es to b e la c k in g in fa ith ,1 if h e com es to b e w ith o u t sham e, if h e co m es to be reck less, if he com es to b e la z y , if he com es to b e o f m u d d led m ind fulness.3 M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f th ese five q u a lities he should n o t o rd ain * , , a n o vice should n ot a tte n d h im . ]| 6 || " M onks, if a m o n k is possessed of five q u a lities he m a y ordain * , , a n o v ic e m a y a tte n d him : i f he com es to h a v e fa ith , if he com es to feel sh am e, if he com es to be cau tio u s, if he com es to b e o f stirred u p en ergy, i f he com es to be o f r e a d y m indfulness*. M onks, i f a m o n k is possessed o f th ese fiv e q u alities he m a y ord ain * * a n o v ice m a y a tte n d h im , || 7 | | 4 4 A n d , m onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five fu rth e r q u a litie s he sh o u ld n o t ord ain . T . a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d him : if, in regard to m o ral h ab it*4 he com es to h a v e fa llen a w a y from m o ra l h a b it ; if, in regard to good h a b its,5 he com es to
1 O n th e fo llo w La^ q u in te t, c f. D , iii, 3 j 2 r 2 8 2 : M * i 4 3 ; iiz iS ;

ii. 159* also A * iii. 4 2 1 . iv 145 an d s ee M A . L 190.


* m u f ih a s s a ii. y S e e d e fin it io n (o r a t i. se e 1 1 5 . O n th is a n d u p a lp h tta s a iit p .

** . r e a d
s & ti

m in d fu ln e s s * " a t T h u g * $

r e c o lle c t io n },

M o rris *

JPTS+

52*

C f*

3 upatthitasati ; c f . also A f. i< 356* 4 adhtsiie. V in . L 172 s a y s th a t t h e fo u r P i r i js k a s a n d th e th ir te e n S an gh ^ d isesas a r c M ta ilin g a w a y from m o ral h a b it " , as d oes VA +989, T h u s adhislla is Also the- 1 4 h igh er m o r a lity 1 ajjhdedra, Kiw. 1, 172 n am es th e f&Uitig a w a y from t h is a s g r a v e offences, offences o f e x p ia tio n , th o se w hich o u g h t *0 b e confessed, th o s e o f w r o n g -d o in g , th o se o f -wrong- speech. V A . 9 S 9 c a l l s th e m " th e fiv e other classes o f offence ,p (i.e. e x c h id ia g th e F r a jik a a n d San^h&dlsesa), Ajjhd&dra cart also m ean " transgression " +

tn u fth a

9 9 ,

36.8-12]

MA HA V A G G A

S3

h a v e fallen a w a y from good h a b its ; if, in regard to (right) v ie w ,1 he com es to h a v e fallen a w a y fro m (right) v ie w ; if he com es to h a v e h ea rd little , i f he com es to be o f p o o r in telligen ce. M on ks, i f a m o n k is possessed o f th ese five q u a litie s he sh o u ld n o t ord ain - * . H8|| " M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f fiv e q u a litie s he m a y ord ain [63] * * . a n o v ice m a y a tte n d h im : if, in regard to m o ra l h a b it, he does n o t com e to h a v e fa llen a w a y from m oral h a b it ; if, in regard to good h a b its, he does n o t co m e to h a v e fallen a w a y from g o o d h a b its ; if, in regard to (right) vie w , he does n ot co m e to h a v e fallen a w a y from (n gh t) v ie w ; if he com es to h a v e h eard m u ch ; if he co m es to b e in tellig e n t. M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f th ese fiv e q u a litie s he m a y o rd ain . . . a n o v icc m a y a tte n d h im . [| g |[ -f A n d t m onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five fu rth er q u a litie s he should not ord ain . - - a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d him : i f he is not co m p eten t to te n d or to g e t (another) to te n d a p u p il or one w h o shares a cell a n d w h o is ill, to a lla y or g e t (another) to a lla y d issatisfactio n th a t h a s a r is e n to d isp el or g e t (another) to dispel, b y m eans o f d h a m m a rem orse th a t has arisen , if he does n o t k n o w w h a t is an offence, if he does n o t k n o w thtt re m o v a l3 o f an offence. M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f these five q u a lities . , * a n o v ic e sh o u ld n ot a tte n d h im , 1 1 ii M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five q u a litie s - . . a n o v ic e m a y a tte n d him . || i i ]j " A n d m on ks, if a m o n k is p o ssessed o f five fu rth er q u a litie s he sh ou ld n o t ordain . . * a n o vice sh o u ld n o t a tte n d h im : if he is n o t co m p eten t to m a k e a p u p il or one w h o sh ares a cell tra in in th e tra in in g re ga rd in g th e fu n d a m en ta ls o f co n d u ct,4 to lead him in th e tra in in g regarding; th e fu n d a m e n ta ls o f the B r a h m a fk r in g / to le a d him in w h a t p erta in s to
1 a t id itfh i. V in . L i 72 says th a t " iaSHng a w a y fr om right v ie w means wrong view " ( views of An extrem e nature I while V A , 989 says th a t ge ttin g rid of right view, he is possessed o f wrong view of an extrem e nature. * Of. a b o v e r. 35* 20. * vwttha-na, the arising from. C f. below, p, i3 4 ( apatH vtcffhita, an offence th a t is removed, and p. 197. ganto vutthdsi, th e village (was) removed. * abht&imacarika. V A . equates these w ith th e duties (laid down) in the Khatidhakas* * adibrahmacdriyikd ; see Vin - Texts i. 185, d . 1. V/t* 990 speaks oi th is as sakhapaililatti' which m ight m ean ideas, concepts, notions suitable to a sekha, a learner.

BO O K OF D I S C I P L I N E 84 dham m a,1 to lead h im in w h a t p ertain s to disciplin e,* to discuss or g e t (another) to discuss, b y m eans o f dhammft* a false v ie w th a t h a s arisen* M onks, i f a m o n k is possessed o f these five q u a litie s . , . a n o vice sh ou ld n o t a tte n d h im . |j 12 || M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five q u alities . - , . T. a n o vice m a y a tte n d him , [ | 13 \ \ " A n d m o n ks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five fu rth e r qu alities . * a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d him : if he d o es n o t kn o w w h a t is an offence,3 if he does not k n o w w h a t is n ot a n offence, if he d oes n o t know w h a t is a slig h t offence, if he does n ot k n o w w h a t is a serious offence, if the tw o P a tim o k k h a s4 in full are n o t p ro p e rly h anded d o w n to h im , n o t'p ro p e rly classified, n ot p ro p e rly in to n ed , n ot p ro p e rly d iv id e d b y rule and in respect o f th e e x p la n a tio n .6 M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f these five q u a lities * - . a n o vice sh o u ld not a tte n d him . |[ 1:4 || r<M onks, i f a m o n k is possessed o f five q u a lities * . * a no vice m a y a tte n d him . j| 15 j| M A n d r m on ks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five fu rth e r q u a litie s h e should n ot ordain, h e sh ould n o t g iv e g u id an ce, a n o v ic e sh o u ld n o t a tte n d him : if h e does n o t kn o w w h a t is an offence, if be docs n o t k n o w w h a t is not an offence, if he does n o t k n o w w h a t is a sligh t offence, if he does n o t kn o w w h a t is a serious offence, i f he is o f less than ten y e a rs' standing. M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f these five qu alities he should not ordain* h e should n o t g iv e gu id an ce, a n o vice sh ould not a tte n d him . 1 1 *6 ii . " M onks, if a m onk is possessed o f five q u alities he m a y ordain, he m a y g iv e g u id an ce, a n o vice m a y a tte n d h im : if h e kn ow s w h a t is an offence, if he know s w h a t is not an offence, if he know s w h a t is a slig h t offence* if he kn o w s w h a t is a serious

[ 6 4 ]

1 abhidhamma* VA. Q *H > ta k e s t h is a s a. d iv isio n b y n am e and form ; ata.d cle a r ly h a s t h e A b b id h a m n ia p ita k a ld m in d . B u t. for th is p a ssa g e p r e d a t in g t h e ex is te n ce o f th e A b h ld h a m m a p ita k a , see O ld en b erg, V }n - *In tr- p -xiL also B~L>. iii. Jntr. x ff*, an d m y a r t. : Abhidhatttmtt Abhivinaya 1 H Q . V o], x r r p N o. 3. S e p t * 1941_ + 1 Q.b&iuin4y&r ta k e n b y V A . 990 to m ean t h e w hole of th e Vtnayapita_tEW* 1 C j, V in , ii. 249 ; A . iv* 140. v + 7 1 . 8o, 201. 4 T h a t for the- monks an d t h a t for th e rums. O n P a tim o k k h a see below , p . 1 3 1 , n* 2. F o r th is p a r t at th e pa^^age see also V in . iv_ 51 ii* 266). I n g en era l B u ., a t V A . 790 an d 990* g iv es diHerent ex p la n a tio n s o f th e term s. T h is a cco u n ts for th e d ifferen t tra n sla tio n s here an d a t B .D . it, 266. O r, m e a n in g anuvyanjanaso. V A . QQO ap p ears to e x p la in th is b y vibha&gatQ, a s to th e V ib h a n g a , th e e x p la n a to r y materiaL su rrounding each r u le ; a n d suitato, " b y ru le , b y mAtikatOj b y th e " sum m aries t h e head in gs of, or k e y to* each set of rules (in V iit. iii and iv).

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offence, if he is o f ten y e a r s ' sta n d in g or o f m ore th a n te n y e a r s ' sta n d in g / ' |j 1 7 j| T o ld is th e P o rtio n o f six te e n tim e s fiv e (cases) w hen one m a y ord ain, H36 || " M onks, i f a m onk is possessed o f s ix q u a litie s * . * [66, 67] he sh o u ld not ordain, he sh o u ld n ot g iv e g u id a n ce , a n o v ic e sh o u ld not a tte n d him*1 j| 1 - 1 4 || T o ld is th e P o rtio n o f six te e n tim e s2 s ix (cases) w h en one m a y ordain. [| 37 \[ [68] N o w a t th a t tim e th e one w h o h a d fo rm e rly been a m em b er o f a n o th e r .sect3 w hen he w a s b e in g sp ok en to b y h is p rccep to r regard in g a ru le t h a v in g re fu ted th e p rccep to r, w e n t o ve r to th e fold o f th a t sam e sect (as before), b u t h a v in g com e b a c k a g ain , he a sk e d the m onks fo r o rd in a tio n .4 T h e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd . H e said : " M onks, he w h o w as fo rm e rly a m e m b e r o f a n o th er sect . . . h a v in g re fu ted th e p re cep to r an d g o in g o v e r to th e fo ld of th a t sam e sect (as before)* on co m in g b a c k sh o u ld n o t be ordained, E u tj m on ks, w h o ev er else w as fo rm e rly a m em ber o f a n o th er scct a n d desires th e g o in g fo rth in this dhamnta a n d disciplin e and d esires ordination* to him y o u sh o u ld g ra n t p ro b a tio n 3 fo r fou r months, || j [ ] 1 V in t T exts i. 1B6, i\> 1 p oin ts ou t th at 37 is " identical w ith 86* z-i5> blit for the- sixth case which, throughout chap. 37, is added each tim e a t th e end of the five eases given in chap, 30 " 1 if he is of less than ten years* standing: " and " ii he is of ten years* standing or more th a n ten years' standing *' respectively* 1 Vift. T&xU i. iS-Sp n. 2P points c u t th a t this should be Fourteen tirnes pi* for where th e fitrst faur items in 15 and 2 7 arc the sam e as one another and only th e last in each is different, thus ttjgether m aking a to tal of six items* in S7 h 13, 14 there is no repetition and these six items form one group and no more.
* S ee a b o v e I, 51, 6* * Cf. 7 i , ii, 279, ip. regard to nuns.

* T h is is probation before ordination into th e Order took place. I t Is n o t the probation which forms port of th e p e n a lty for breaking a sanghddisesa ruleV A , 990 says th a t it is called probation, parivasa, for members of other sects and also probation for the unconcealed. appaiitth-annapa.riv&sa, and can be given to naked wanderers, naked ascetics, dfivahas, and t o unclothed ascetic^ ac&la, b u t not to anyone who has a cloak or a b la n k e t made of the skin of wild animaJs, Cf, appaticchannap&rivUsa a t V in , v r 126. If B n 's explanation is ri^ht, the " unconcealed probation ** o l is erroneous, * C f . this sentence with p. ro-2, Z>* I* 1 76,

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4 4 A n d thus, m onks, sh o u ld i t b e g r a n t e d : first, h a v in g m ade h im h a v e his h air a n d b e a rd c u t off, h a v in g g o t (someone) to p resen t1 h im w ith y e llo w robes, h a v in g m ad e him arran ge his u p p er ro b es o ve r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g m ad e h im honour th e m o n k s' fe e t, h a v in g m ad e bi m sit d o w n on h is haunch es, h a v in g m ad e him salute w ith jo in e d palm s, he sh o u ld b e to ld ; ' S p e a k 'th u s : " I go to th e en lig h ten ed one fo r refu ge, I go t o dkamma fo r refu ge, I go to th e O rd er fo r refuge. A n d a second tim e I go * . . A n d a third tim e I go . . . t o the O rd er fo r r e fu g e / ' ' a | ] 2 || " H o n ks, i f he w h o w a s fo rm e rly a m em ber o f an o th er se ct has a p p ro a ch ed th e O rd er . . , h a s sa lu ted w ith jo in ed p alm s, h e sh o u ld sp ea k th u s to it : * I, honoured sirs, so a n d so, fo rm e rly a m em ber o f a n o th er sect, desire o rd in ation in this dhamma a n d discip lin e. T herefore do I , honoured sirs, ask th e O rd er for p ro b a tio n for fo u r m o n th s/ 3 A n d a secon d tim e h e sh o u ld a sk . A n d a th ird tim e he sh o u ld a sk . T h e O rder sh ould be in fo rm ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k, s a y in g : * H on oured sirs, let th e O rder listen to m e. T h is one, so and so, fo rm e rly a m em b er o f an other sect, desires ord ination in th is dhamma a n d discipline. H e a sk s th e O rd er fo r p ro b a tio n for four m onth s. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y g ra n t probation to so and s o r fo rm erly a m em ber of an o th er sect, for fo u r m onth s. T h is is th e m otion , H3 } | ,f ' H on oured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. T his one, so a n d so* fo rm e rly a m em b er o f an o th er sect, desires ord in atio n in th is dhamma a n d discipline. H e asks th e O rd er for p ro b a tio n for four months* T h e O rd er is g ra n tin g p ro b a tio n for four m onths t o so and so, fo rm erly a m em b er o f an o th er sect* I f th e g ra n tin g o f pro batio n for fo u r m onths to so a n d so, fo rm e rly a m em b er o f another sect, is p leasin g to th e ven erable ones, th e y should be s i le n t ; he to w h om it is n ot pleasin g sh o u ld sp ea k . P ro b a tio n for four m onths is g ra n ted b y the O rder to so and so, fo rm erly a m em b er o f an o th er sect. [69] I t is p lea sin g to the O rd er ; therefore it is silent. T h u s do I u n d erstan d th is/ j| 4 || " M onks, a form er m em ber o f an o th er se ct becom es one w h o
1 See B . D . iL 53* 55, etc.

* Same method used a t M V , I. 54 . j fo r le ttin g n o vices g o forth .


* Q u o te d a & A - i i 362.

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succeeds th us, one w h o fa ils thus* A n d how , m o n ks, does a form er m em b er o f an other sect becom e one w h o fa ils ? H erein , m on ks, a form er m em b er o f a n o th e r se ct enters a v illa g e a t too e a rly a tim e ,1 he retu rn s to o la te in th e d a y .* T h u s, m onks, d oes a form er m em ber o f a n o th e r se ct becom e one w h o fails. A n d again , m o n ks, a form er m em b er o f an o th er se ct com es to b e one w h ose reso rt3 (for alm s) is a m o n g p r o s titu te s / o r he com es to b e one w h ose resort {for alm s) is amongr w id o w s,* or he com es to b e one w h o se resort {for alms) is a m o n g g ro w n g ir ls / or he com es to b e one w hose resort (for alm s) is am o n g eunuchs, or he com es to be one w h o se reso rt (for alm s) is a m o n g n u n s / T h u s, to o , m onks, does a fo rm er m em b er of an o th er sect becom e one w h o fails* \ \ 5 jj '* A n d again , m o n ks, a fo rm e r m em b er o f a n o th er se ct in regard to th o se v a rio u s th in g s w h ich h a v e to be d one b y h is fellow s in th e B ra h m a -fa rin g / co m es to be not d e x tero u s therein , n o t vig o ro u s, n o t possessed o f co n sid eratio n fo r th ose kin d s o f th in g s / n o t able to a c t h im self, n o t ab le to d ire ct (others)* T h u s to o , m onks, d o es a fo rm er m em b er o f an o th er se ct becom e one w ho fa ils. A n d a g ain , m on ks, a fo rm er m em b er o f a n o th e r sect com es to b e one w h o is not o f keen
1 V A , 991 says th a t he enters a. village when he ought to b e doing services ior th e monks. 1 V A . 991 says th a t he comes back w hen the monks are m ed itatin g or havin g th e exposition and interrogation, an d does n o t d o w hat is d u e to a preceptor or teache*4 . a gocara, amm&ls* feed in g grou n d , pasture,, th e n a p p lie d t o p la c e s w here

monks accep t alms-lood. * vesiyd. also m eaning a tow-class woman. V A . 991 calls them women who fall easily into transgression on account of their beauty* O n vesiyagocava see also VbKA^ 339, A A , iii. 27S. T he are referred to below, p. 417. Also at A* iii. ia 8 > where it is said th a t if a- m onk rocs to thexn he is th ough t of as a depraved m onk and is m istrusted even ii he is kuppadhamma (v.L akufipa-), bound for th e im m ovable (see G<5 . iii 9S, n. i). A t VbJt. 246 (quoted Vism. 17) a sixth gocara. is added : licjuor-shopT and the sbc axe called agocara. These are referred to a t L>hA * iii* 275* * V A . 990, 33Q define widows as women whose husbands ate dead or absent* * th -t4iaktffrtriyv, Cf, below, p . 198. VA* 9 9 r says these atfe girls who have attained their yo uth or who are p a s t i t ; V th A . 339, A A , iii. 27S say th a t th ey are i,e. grown-up girls. K.>A/f+ ad din g th a t th e y are " not placed i.e. unmarried {of same expression in regard to kut&kumariya at A A +iv. I2}i See j d . iv_ 219 where thufiakumarika does not mean " coarse " b u t ** grown-up ,r# o i full age* vayappatta ; unmarried is implied b y the context. On hutndribhiUd as maiden, -unmarried girl, see B .D . iii. I n t r p. x lix . 7 N o t necessarily visiting the nuns' quarters,, for see story of U d ayin asking- UppalavangS. for one of her- xc/bes when she visited the m onks' dwelling-place, Vin. iii* 20& * Sam e expression occurs a t "Vin. iv. 311*

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d esire1 a s to th e recita tio n , a s to th e in terro g a tio n , a s to th e higher m o ra lity , th e higher th o u g h t, th e h igh er w isd om . T h u s too* m onks, does a form er m em b er o f an o th er se ct becom e one w h o fails. || 6 || A n d again , m on ks, a form er m em ber o f a n o th er s e c t becom es a n g ry , displeased, d issatisfied if d ispraise is b e in g spoken o f th e teach er, th e view s, th e a p p ro val, the persuasion, th e creed* o f th a t fold o f a sect from w h ic h he h a s co m e o v e r ; he becom es pleased , ela ted , satisfied if dispraise is b ein g spoken o f the aw ak en ed one or o f dhamma or o f the O rd er ; o r else he becom es pleased, ela ted , satisfied if praise is b ein g spoken o f th e teach er, th e view s, the a p p ro v a l, th e persuasion, th e creed o f th a t fo ld o f a se ct from w h ich he has co m e o v e r ; he becom es a n g ry, d isp leased , d issatisfied if praise is b e in g sp o k en o f the a w a k e n e d one o r o f dhamma or o f th e O rder. T h is, m onks, is th e k n ittin g to g eth e r3 in regard to w h a t m a y be th e fa ilu re 4 o f a fo rm e r m em b er o f a n o th er sect. It is thus, m on ks, th a t a fo rm er m em b er o f an o th er se ct b ecom es one w h o fails. T h e re fo re , m on ks, if th ere co m e a fo rm er m em b er o f an o th er se c t w h o h a s failed , he sh o u ld n o t be ordained, |] 7 || " A n d h o w , m on ks, d o es a form er m em b er o f a n o th er sect becom e one w h o succeeds ? H erein, m onks, a form er m em ber o f an o th er sect does n o t e n te r a v illa g e a t tq o e a rly a tim e, h e does n o t retu rn too la te in th e d a y . T hus, m onks, does a fo rm e r m em b er o f an o th er sect becom e one w ho succeeds. A n d agairij m on ks . . . [point by p oint the contrary o f I. 38. 5r 6. 7) [70] * . . T h is, m onks, is th e k n ittin g to g eth e r in regard to w h a t m a y b e th e success o f a form er m em b er o f a n o th er se ct. I t te thus, m onks, th a t a form er m em b er o f an o th er sect becom es one w h o succeeds. T h erefo re, m onks, i f th ere com e a form er m em ber o f a n o th er se ct w ho has succeed ed , he m a y be ord ained , || 8 -10 H " If, m o n ks, a fo rm er m em ber o f a n o th e r sect com es n aked ,
1 tibbacthanda; cf* I>* iii* 253, 3S3 far seven oth er matters, far w h ich a m on k sh ou ld L a v e txbbiiccKanda. 1 dddya, here used as a. n ou n . * sa?tghdaHikamt th e u n ify in g . T h e w ord also occurs a t *W- i- 322, A . iii. 10 :n. t h e sim ile o f th e house w ith th e p ea k ed r o o i. T h e r e is no ju stificatio n for t h e " d e cis iv e m o m en t " o f V in . T& xit i. 190. T h e senten ce com es a s a co n clu sio n to t h e w a y s , a lr e a d y m entioned* in w h ich failu re (and b elo w , success) m a y b e m an ifested .

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a robe b elon gin g to a p re c e p to r1 sh o u ld be lo o k e d a b o u t for* I f he com es w ith o u t th e h air o f his h ead cu t off, th e O rd er should be a sk ed fo r perm ission fo r s h a v in g it close, M onks, if those co m e w h o a rc fire-w orsh ippin g m a tte d h a ir a scetics th e y m a y be o rd ained , p ro b a tio n sh o u ld n o t be g iv e n t o these* W h a t is th e reason for th is ? T h e se , m o n ks, affirm d eeds, th e y affirm w h a t o u g h t to be d o n e,3 I f, m o n ks, th ere com e a form er m em b er o f a n o th e r sect w h o is a S a k y a n b y b irth , he m a y be o rd ain ed , p ro b a tio n sh ou ld n o t b e g iv e n to h im . I , m o n k s, w ill g iv e th is sp ecia l p riv ile g e to (m y) re la tio n s ." || n || T h e T a lk on F o rm e r M em bers o f A n o th e r Sect* T h e S e v e n th P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g . N o w a t th a t tim e five diseases w ere p re v a le n t a m o n g the p eople o f M a g a d h a : le p ro sy , b o ils, eczem a* con sum p tion , e p ilep sy .4 People, a fflicted w ith th e five diseases, h a v in g a p p ro ach ed J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a c c a ,5 sp oke th u s : " I t w ere good , te a ch er, if y o u w o u ld a tte n d us*a*J " B u t I , m asters, am v e r y b u sy , th ere is m u ch to be done, and K in g [71] S e n iya B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a is to be looked a fte r b y m e, also th e w o m e n 's q u a rters a n d th e O rd er o f m onks w ith th e a w a k e n e d one a t its h ea d . I am n o t a b le to a tte n d you/' 4i A ll th is p ro p e r ty sh all becom e you rs, tea ch er, and w e w ill be y o u r sla v e s.7 It w ere good, teach er, if y o u w ou ld a tte n d u s ." < c B u t I t m asters, am v e r y b u s y . , . I am n o t a b le to a tte n d y o u / J !] 1 || T h e n it occurred to these people : " The^e recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, are o f p le a sa n t ch aracter, o f p le a sa n t c o n d u c t; h a v in g eaten good m eals, t h e y lie dow n on bed s sh eltered
1 up&jjhay&ntuiaha. cl vara, Accord Lag to V A . havin g made a. preceptor his master, issara, he has &ome claim on him a.s to bowl and robes. A t Vin. iii. 204* there is the expression mMetdvara. See AIV* I, 2 &, 1 where ii one who shares a. cell has no robe his preceptor should try to g e t one for him. * bhap$ukatn*na, Cf, below* end of I, 4, 2. * AfirnfKavaJiHO Jtiriyavddiiu?. Cf. D . i. 53, 115* A - L 6a* V in . L . 233, iii* 2. See also A* K . Coom araswam y, S e n P a li W ords H . f . A . S , , V o l. 4, INo. a,
p . 1 19 fL * A s a t I . 7 6 . 1 b e lo w . Cf* Viw, iv . S {B+D. ii. ifio , w h ere see a - 4 fcr fa r th e r references)* M en tio n ed a lso w ith m a n y other diseases, a t A . v . 110 .

|| 38 \ \

See M V . V I I I . i .
tikicchstii* t o tr e a t m c d ic a lly , t o cu re.

T Cf. Vin . i+ 274.

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fro m th e w in d . Suppose w e w ere to go fo rth am o n g th e recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s ? In th a t case m o n k s w ould lo o k a fte r us a n d m o re o v e r J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a c c a w ould a tte n d u s / ' T h e n th ese p eo p le, h a v in g a p p ro ach ed (some) m on ks, a sk ed fo r th e g o in g fo rth . T h e m o n k s le t them go fo rth , th e y o rd ain ed th e m . T h ese m o n k s lo o ked a fte r th em and m oreover J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a a tte n d e d th e m , _ . N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks, lo o kin g a fte r m a n y ill m o n ks, liv e d in te n t on asking, in te n t on h in tin g , s a y i n g : " G iv e food for th e sick , g ive food for th o se w h o lo o k a fte r th e sic k , g iv e m ed icin es for th e s ic k / '1 A n d J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a , a tte n d in g m a n y ill m o n k s ,.o m itte d som e o f his d u ties to w a rd s th e king- II 3 !! A ce rta in m an , a fflicted w ith th e five diseases* h a v in g ap p ro a ch ed J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a , spoke t h u s : I t w ere good, teach er, i f y o u w o u ld a tte n d m e . B u t I, m a ste r, am v e r y b u s y * * I am n o t a b le to a tte n d y o u ." MA ll th is p ro p e rty sh a ll be you rs, te a d ie r , a n d I w ill be y o u r slave- I t w ere good , te a ch e r, i f yo u w o u ld a tte n d m e ." " B u t I, m a s te r am v e r y b u s y * , . I am n o t able to a tte n d you" I! 4 II * T h e n it occurred to th a t m an : " N o w these recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s are o f p le a sa n t c h a ra c te r . . * Sup pose I w ere to go fo rth a m o n g the recluses, sons of th e S a k y a n s ? I n th a t case m on ks w o u ld lo o k a fte r m e a n d m o reover J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a w o u ld a tte n d m e ; and w h en I am w ell I w ill le a v e th e O rder/" T h e n th a t, m an , h a v in g ap p ro ach ed (some) m on ks, asked for th e g o in g fo rth . T h e se m onks le t him go forth , th e y o rd ain ed him . T h ese m o n ks lo o ked a fte r h im a n d m oreover J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a a tte n d e d him . W h en he w as w ell he le ft th e O rd er. J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a saw [72] th a t m an w h o h a d le ft th e O r d e r ; seein g h im , he sp o k e th u s to th a t m a n : " H a d n o t y o u , m aster, gone fo rth am ong th e m o n ks ? M t *4 Y e s , te a ch e r." ** T h en w h y h a v e y o u , m aster, acted in this w a y ? T h en th is m an to ld this m a tte r to J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a . || g ||
1 T h r e e o f th e b e n e fits t h a t V i s i l t l i i w as a llo w ed t o ccrnfcr on t h e Order*

ii * ii

3 9 .6 *0 .2 ]

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J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a c c a lo o k e d d o w n upon, criticised , sp read it a b o u t, sa y in g : H o w ca n these h on ou red sirs le t one a fflicted w ith th e five diseases go fo rth ? " T h en J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a a p p ro a ch ed th e L o r d ; h a v in g ap p ro a ch e d , h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , he sa t dow n a t a re sp e ctfu l d istan ce. A s he w as sittin g d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l d ista n ce, J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a sp ok e th u s to th e L o rd : *f I t w ere w ell, L ord , if th e m asters did not le t one afflicted w ith (an y one o f)1 th e five diseases go fo r th / ' \ \ 6 || T h e L o rd th en glad d en ed , rejo iced , roused, d e lig h te d J iv a k a K o m a ra b h a cc a w ith t a lk on dhamma. Then J iv a k a K o m arabh acca,, gla d d en ed , . * d elig h ted b y th e L o rd w ith ta lk on dhamma, rising from his seat, h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , d ep arted keep in g his rig h t sid e to w a rd s him . T h e n th e L o rd , on this occasion, in th is con n ection , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , addressed th e m o n ks, sa y in g ; " M onks, one afflicted w ith (an y one of) th e fiv e diseases should not be le t go fo rth . W h o e v e r sh o u ld let (one such) go fo rth , there is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' H7 [139 [I N o w a t th a t tim e there cam e to be a d istu rb a n ce on th e b o rd erlan d s o f K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M agadha. T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a co m m an d ed th e generals, th e ch ief m inisters, sa y in g : G o , good sirs, search 2 th e b ord er lan d s/' V e r y w ell, s ir e / ' th e gen erals, th e ch ief m in isters answ ered K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a in assent, \ \ X [j T h en it occurred to (some) v e r y d istin g u ish ed w arrio rs ; B ec a u se w e d elig h t in b a ttle,* w e do e v il an d w e en gen d er m u ch dem erit- N o w b y w h a t m eans co u ld w e refrain from e v il and d o w h a t is good ? " T h en it occurred to these w arrio rs : " T h ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s are dhatnmtifarers, even -farers, B rah m a-farers, th e y are tru th -sp ca k ers, o m oral habit, o f g o o d character^4 N o w , if w e w ere to go fo rth a m o n g these recluses, sons o f the S a k y a n s, th u s m ig h t w e refrain from e v il a n d do w h a t is g o o d / J T h en these w arriors, h a v in g 1 Taken separately at VA * 995f in relation to going forth.
* VA. 996 s a y s t h a t th ie v e s w ere g iv in g tro u b le , b u t becau se B im bis& ra w a s a str& am -w inner h e d id fia t co m m a n d 1 1 1 S tr ik e th e m , k ill th em ./'

* Cf. Vtw* iv* 104 4 Cf. L ?or 1*5, loo, 223.

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ap p ro ach ed (some) m onks, asked fo r th e go in g forth* T he m o n ks le t th em go fo rth , th e y o rd ain ed th em . || 2 |] T h e generals, th e ch ie f m in isters, a sked those In th e K in g 's se rv ice 1 : *H o w [73] is it, good sirs, th a t th e w arriors, so and so a n d so a n d so, are n o t t o be seen ? " M Sirs,* th e w arriors, so a n d so an d so and so, h a v e gone fo rth am o n g th e m onks/" T h e generals, th e ch ief m in isters . * . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H ow can th ese recluses, sons o f the S a k y a n s, le t one w h o is in th e k in g 's se rvice go fo rth ? " T h e generals, th e ch ief m in isters to ld th is m a tte r to K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M agad ha. T h en K in g S e n iya B im b isa ra o f M agad h a a sk ed th e ch ie f m in isters o f ju s tic e : " G o o d sirs, w h a t does he w h o le ts one go fo rth w h o is in a king^s service en gen der3 (for him self) ? " " S ire , a p recep to r's h e a d sh o u ld b e cu t off, th e ton gu e sh ould b e to m from th e announcer o f a p ro cla m a tio n ,4 h a lf th e ribs o f a (m em ber o f a) g ro u p sh o u ld b e b ro k e n / ' j| 3 j| T h en K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M ag ad h a approached the L o r d ; h a v in g approached , h a v in g greeted the l o r d , he sat d o w n a t a resp ectfu l d istan ce. A s he w as sittin g dow n a t a resp ectfu l d istan ce. K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra r>i M agad ha sp oke th u s to th e L o rd : " T h ere are, L o rd , kin gs w h o are o f no fa ith , n o t b e lie v in g ; th ese m ig h t harm m o n k s even for a triflin g m atter* I t w ere w ell, L o rd , i f th e m a sters d id n o t let one in a k in g 's service go fo r th / ' T h en th e L ord glad d en ed * * * d eligh ted K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a w ith ta lk on dham m a , T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M agadha, glad d ened * * * d e lig h ted b y th e L o rd w ith ta lk on dhamma, rising from his seat, h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , d e p a rte d keep in g his righ t side to w a rd s him . T h e n th e L o rd on th is occasion, in this connection, h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , addressed the m onks, sa y in g : " M onks, one in a k in g 's service should n o t be le t go fo rth . W h o e v e r sh o u ld le t (one such) go fo rth , th ere is an offence o f w ro n g *d o in g /r || 4 || 40 |[ 1 rajabhata. 1 Jamt, lords, masters,
J fiasavaii, sam e w ord a s used a b o v e m " en gen d er m u ch d e m e r it > p . * aftussdvaka, V A . 996 tak es t h is as dcarxya, teach er* w hich w ou ld be m ore in line w ith " p re cep to r a n d '* g r o u p " , b o th o f w h ich m igh t l e t a person g o forth . The. an n oun cer o i a p ro cla m a tio n h a d n o t, a s such, th is pow er,

42_z]

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93

N o w a t th a t tim e a th ie f (wearing) a g a rla n d o f fingers1 cam e to h a v e gone forth a m o n g th e m on ks. P eo p le, h a v in g seen (him), w ere p e rtu rb e d , then alarm ed , th en th e y ran a w a y , th en th e y w e n t b y a d ifferen t route, th en th e y tu rn e d in a n o th e r d irectio n , th en th e y closed the door*2 P eo p le . . . sp rea d it about* s a y in g : H o w can th e reclu ses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s let a th ie f w ea rin g an emblem go fo rth ? M onks heard these p eo p le w h o . . . sp read it a b o u t. T h e n th ese m on ks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h e L o rd ad dressed th e m onks s a y in g : r* M onks, a th ie f w h o w e a rs an em blem sh ou ld not be le t g o fo rth . W h o e v e r sh o u ld le t (one sucb) go fo rth , th ere is an offence o f w rong-doing.*J |j i || 41 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e it [74] w a s decreed b y K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a : " T h e re is n o th in g to do a g ain st th o se w h o go fo rth am on g th e recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s. W e ll p reach ed is dhamma, let th em fa re th e B ra h m a -fa rin g fo r m a k in g a n u tte r end o f ill/*4 N o w at th a t tim e a certain m an, h a v in g co m m itted a th e ft, w a s im prisoned in a ja il ; he, h a v in g broken o u t o f ja il, h a v in g ru n a w a y , w e n t fo rth am ong the m onks. |[ i |] People h a v in g seen (hirn) sp ok e th u s ; " T h is is th e v e r y 6 th ie f w h o h a s broken o u t o f ja il. Com e a lo n g , le t us bring him (b a c k } .* ,J Som e sp oke t h u s : " D o n o t, m a sters, sp e a k thuSj fo r it is decreed b y K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M agad h a : x T h ere is n o th in g to do a g a in st th o se * . . u tte r end o f ill/ '* P eop le - * . sp rea d it a b o u t, sa y in g : " T hese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s are safe a n d secu re7 ;
* i. a n g u lim $ k i+ a n d N o t th e w e ll-k n o w n it ), fo r in b a n d it -t b ie f a b s e n c e c a lle d o f o i th is n a m e o r it n o (a s V i n . T e x t s n a m e 19 6 D - P . P . N . T h e T h a g . ta k e th e to b e tt& m a p ro p e r

is . d e n o t e d * to fo r h im th e a t

r o b b e r

w h e

c a n ic

A n g u lim a la . h a s b e is s h o w n a s

v e rs e s

a s c r ib e d th e L o r d a s

8 6 6 *8 9 1 . fo rt h , th e

A t

T h a g . a s

8 6 9 -8 7 0 s a y in g *

a s k in g , a n d a n d

g o in g h is

L o r d

C o m e * H is to

m o n k

tb is .

c o n s titu tin g a r e a ls o g iv e n

m o n k ^ s ta tu s , A f* s to ry S u tt a o f S 6 r

b k ik k h u b h d v a * I t is d iffic u lt ^ o in g

s to ry ,

th e

v e rse s* V ir ta y a

a t

re c o n c ile fo r

th e

a b o v e

n ilt n ^

w it h

th e

A n g u l i m a l a 's h a r d ly to b e

fo rth * in

th e

L o r d ru n

re c o g n is e d o l t h ie v e s .

h is u n u s u a l

p o t e n t ia lit ie s ,

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th e c o m m o n

1 Cf+ V in , iii. J44 L ^46)* * dh&jab&ddha. * C f. V in . iv . zzG (fi.ZX iii. 182*3) w h ere sim ila r w ord s are a ttr ib u te d
to K in g P a s e n a d i.

* ay&m -sc ? , em phatic.


* a s in M V t I. 4 6 ^ i , 47 , 1. * abftayfivara. T h is is th e w ord ^h ich g iv e s t h e title t o t h is p o r tio n for " re p e a tin g " .

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th ere is n o th in g to do a g a in st them . B u t h o w can th e y le t a th ie f g o fo rth w h o h a s broken o u t o f ja il ? " T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : M onks, a th ie f w h o h a s broken out o f ja il sh o u ld n o t be le t go forth- W h o e v e r sh o u ld let (one such) go forth, there is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' \ \ 2 || 42 || N o w a t th a t tim e a. c e rta in m an , h a v in g com m itted a th e ft, h a v in g run aw ay* w en t fo rth am ong th e m onks. A n d in the ro y a l palace, th is w a s w ritte n :x W h erever he m a y be seen, th ere he sh ou ld be k ille d . P eop le, h a v in g seen (him ), spoke th u s : " T h is is th e v e r y th ie f w h o w as w ritte n a b o u t. Com e along, le t us k ill h im / ' Som e sp o k e th u s : D o n o t, m asters, sp ea k th u s . . . u tte r en d o f ill/ " P e o p le * * , sp read it a b o u t, s a y in g : " T h ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s a re sa fe an d secure ; there is n o th in g to do a g ain st them . B u t how can th e y le t a th ie f go fo rth w h o has been w ritte n a b o u t ? J' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said : *r M o n k sJ a th ie f w h o has been w ritte n a b o u t sh ou ld not be le t go fo rth . W h o e ve r sh ou ld le t (one such) go fo rth , there is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g ." || r [| 43 j|
1 Ln a n E d d * V tn + T e x t s i. th e lu t x . x x x u ta k e o i th e th is a r t a o f a p a s s a g e a t 99 S s h o w in g th e tim e in d is p u t a b le V in a y a m a n n e r e x is te n c e in to ca a th e ir n a m le a f w rit in g p\ V A , v a

w h e n to th e

th e

te x ts b y b e

w e r e p v t s a y in g w ritt e n * \

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v ie w it to in it

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+ . * Iik n a p e ttt c a n w a s a ls o th e n

b o o k .

p Q tth a k a w ritin g

m e a n

m o d e lle d w h a t

c la y n o w .

w e

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a n d

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t a b le t s , a n d

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L i b h

Ln P a l i c a n

d ra w ,

c a rv e ,

4*.x47.i]

MAHAVAGGA

95

N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in m a n w h o h a d b een sco u rg ed as p u n ish m en t1 c a m e to h a v e gone fo r th a m o n g th e m on ks. People . . . sp read it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w can these reclu scs, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, le t one w h o h a s b een scourged a s p u n ish m e n t go fo rth ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " M onks, one w h o has b een sco u rg ed as p u n ish m en t sh ould n o t b e le t go fo rth . W h o e v e r sh ou ld le t (one such) go fo rth , th ere is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / J || i || 44 ]| [75] N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m a n w h o h a d been b ra n d ed as punishment * , * [as in jj 44 |[ to the end). |{ r |j 45 J j N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m a n , a d e b to r, h a v in g run a w a y , cam e to h a v e gone fo rth am ong th e m o n ks. T h e cred itors, h a v in g seen (him ), sp oke t h u s : T h is is our v e r y d e b to r. Com e along, le t us b rin g him (b a ck ).3 Som e sp o k e th u s : * * D o not, m a s te r y sp eak thus, fo r i t is d ecreed b y K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M agad h a : ' T h ere is n o th in g to do a g a in st those w h o go fo rth a m o n g th e recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s , W e ll p rcach cd is dhamma, lot th em fa re th e B r a h m a fa rin g fo r m a k in g a n u tte r end o f ill * ** P e o p le * * * sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " T h ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s 3re sa fe an d secure ; th ere is n o th in g to d o again st th em . B u t h o w can th e y le t a d e b to r go fo rth ? T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M onks, a d e b to r sh o u ld n o t be le t go fo rth . W h o e v e r should le t (one such) go fo rth , th e re is an offence o f w ro n g doing/* 1 | r ]| 46 || N o w a t th a t tim e a certa in sla v e , h a v in g ru n a w a y , cam e to h a v e gone forth a m o n g th e m o n ks. T h e m istresses,4 h a v in g seen (him), sp ok e th u s : T h is is o u r v e r y slav e. C o m e along,, le t us b rin g h im (back)** . (as in I* 4 } ** ** M onks, a s la v e sh o u ld n o t be le t g o forth- W h o e v e r 1 kasdhata katad&titfaktttnfna.
* la k k h a n d k a t a h a ta d a n g a h a m m a -* * nem at as in I . 42 . 2, 47 Hi . * a y y ih d . A t V in + r 3 7 r h v, 3. s d m
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sh o u ld le t (one such) g o fo rth , th ere is an offen ce o f w ron g d o in g If x II47 n N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in bald -h ead ed m e ta l-s m ith ,1 h a v in g q u a rrelled w ith his p a re n ts, h a v in g gon e to a m onastery* w e n t fo rth am o n g th e m o n ks. T h en th e p a re n ts o f th a t b a ld h ea d ed m e ta l-sm ith , sea rch in g fo r th a t b ald -h ead ed m e ta lsm ith , h a v in g gone to th e m o n a ste ry , a sked th e m o n ks, s a y in g : " H on ou red sirs, h a v e y o u seen a y o u th lik e th a t ? J* T h e m onks, n o t kn o w in g (him ), m e rely sa id : r* W e do n ot k n o w (h im } ; n o t seein g (him ), m e re ly s a id : W e do not see (h im )/' |[ x [ | T h e n th e p aren ts o f th a t b a ld -h e a d e d m eta l-sm ith , searching for th a t b ald -h ead ed m e ta l-sm ith [76], h a v in g seen him gone fo rth a m o n g th e m o n k s . . - sp rea d i t a b o u t, s a y in g : T h ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s are sham eless, o f bad cond uct, lia rs ; k n o w in g , th e y m e re ly sa y , - W e do n ot kn o w ' ; seeing, th e y m e rely s a y , ' W e d o n o t see \ a n d this y o u th is gone fo rth a m o n g th e m o n k s / ' M onks heard th e p a re n ts o f th is b a ld h ead ed m e ta l-sm ith w h o * * * sp rea d i t a b o u t. T h en these m o n ks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " 'I a llo w y o u , monks* to ask th e O rd er for perm ission fo r sh a v in g (the h air o f th e head) close*2 " J | 2 || 48 j| N o w a t t h a t tim e in R a ja g a h a a g ro u p o f seven teen b o y s w ere frien d s3 ; o f these the y o u th U p a li w as th e chief. T h en it occurred to U p a li's p a ren ts : B y w h a t m eans could Upali* a fte r o u r dem ise, liv e a t ease a n d n o t be in w a n t ? T h e n it o ccu rred to U p a li's p a ren ts : " I f U p a li sh o u ld learn w ritin g, so w o u ld U p a li, a fte r our dem ise, liv e a t ease and n o t b e in w a n t/ ' T h e n it occurred to U pali"s p a ren ts : " B u t if U p ali
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learns w ritin g his fingers w ill b ecom e painful* Tf U paJi w ere to le a m c a lcu la tio n , so w o u ld U p a li, a lte r o u r d em ise, liv e a t ease a n d n o t b e in w a n t/ J [I i || T h e n it o ccu rred to U p a li's p a re n ts ; "f B u t if U p a li lea rn s c a lcu la tio n , h is b re a st w ill b eco m e painful* I f U p ali w ere to learn m o n ey-ch an gin g, so w o u ld U p a li, a fte r o u r dem ise, liv e a t ease a n d n o t be in w an t/* T h en it occurred to U p a li's p a r e n t s : " B u t if U p ali le a rn s m o n e y-ch a n g in g h is e ye s w ill becom e p ain fu l. N o w there are th ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, p leasan t in h a b it, p lea sa n t in co n d u ct ; h a v in g eaten g o o d m eals, t h e y lie d o w n on b ed s sh eltered from fh e w in d . N o w if U p ali w ere to g o fo rth a m o n g th e recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, so w o u ld U p a li, a fte r o u r d em ise, liv e a t ease and n ot b e in w a n t/ ' ||2 | | T h e b o y U p a li h ea rd th is co n versa tio n o f h is p aren ts. T h en th e b o y U p a li ap p ro ach ed th ose b o y s ; h a v in g ap p ro ach ed , h e sp ok e th u s to these b o y s : " C om e, m a sters, w e w ill go forth a m o n g th e recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s / ' " I f y o u , m a ster, w ill go fo rth , w e lik ew ise w ill also go forth/* T h en th ese b o ys, h a v in g (each) a p p ro a ch e d his p a ren ts, sp oke th u s: " C on sen t th a t I m a y go fo rth from hom e in to hom eless n e ss/ ' T h en [77] th e p a ren ts o f th ose b o ys consented , th in k in g : " A ll th ese b a y s w a n t th e sam e th in g , th e y are b e n t on w h a t is g o o d / ' T h ese, h a v in g a p p ro a ch ed m onks, a sk ed fo r th e g o in g fo rth . T h e se m o n ks le t th e m go forth, th e y ordained th em , jf 3 1 | G e ttin g u p in th e n ig h t to w a rd s d a w n , th ese cried out ; " G i v e co n je y , g iv e rice, g iv e solid fo o d / r T h e m on ks sp o k e th u s ; " W a it, y o u r reveren ces, u n til it tu rn s lig h t. Sh ould there b e c o n je y y o u sh all d rin k it ; should there be rice y o u sh all p a rta k e o f it ; should th ere be so lid food y o u sh a ll e a t it . B u t should th e re n o t b e c o n je y or rice or so lid fo o d , then, h a v in g w a lk e d fo r alm s, y o u shall e a t / 1 B u t these m on ks, b e in g sp ok en to th u s b y th e m onks, cried o u t ju s t th e sam e : 0 G iv e convey, g iv e rice, g iv e solid fo o d ," a n d th e y soiled a n d w e tte d th e bed d in g. |[ 4 [( T h e n th e L o rd , g e ttin g up in th e n ig h t to w a rd s d a w n , h ea rin g this noise of b o y s, ad dressed th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a , s a y in g : W h y ever* A n a n d a , is th ere this noise o f b o y s ? T h e n the

96

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ve n e ra b le A n a n d a to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : ** Is i t tru e a s is said , m on ks, th a t m o n k s k n o w in g ly ordain a n in d iv id u a l1 w h o is u n d er tw e n ty ye a rs o f age ? " I t is tru e . L o r d , T h e aw ak en ed one, th e L o rd reb u k ed th e m , sa y in g : " H o w , m o n ks, ca_n these foolish m en k n o w in g ly ord ain an in d iv id u a l w h o is und er tw e n ty ye a rs o f age ? j[ 5 | | M onks, a n in d iv id u a l under tw e n ty y e a rs o f a g e is not able to endure co ld , h e a t, h u n g e r th irst, th e stin g o f gadflies or m o sq u ito es, w in d ajid sun , creeping th in g s, a b u sive , h u rtfu l la n g u a g e ; he is n o t th e k in d (of person) w h o endures b o d ily feelings w h ich , a risin g, are p a in fu l a cu te, sh arp , shooting, d isagreeab le, m iserable, d ead ly- B u t , m o n ks, a n in d iv id u a l o f tw e n ty y e a rs o f a g e is able to endure co ld , h e a t , * . m iserable, d e a d ly . M onks, th is is n ot fo r p lea sin g th o se w h o are n o t (yet} p le a se d , n or for in creasin g th e n u m b er o f those w h o are p leased *" H a v in g reb u k ed th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , he addressed th e m onks, s a y in g : " M on ks, an in d iv id u a l w h o is u n d er tw e n ty ye a rs o f age sh o u ld n o t k n o w in g ly b e ord ain ed . W h o e v e r sh ould (so) ordain (one such) sh o u ld b e d e a lt w ith a cco rd in g t o th e r u le .5 ** II 6 || 49 j| N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in fa m ily cam e t o pass a w a y as a resu lt o f m a la ria .4 (O nly) th e fa th e r a n d little son belongin g to it s u r v iv e d .* T h ese, h a v in g gone fo rth am o n g th e m onks, w a lk e d even fo r alm sfood togeth er- T h en th a t b o y , w h en a lm sfoo d w a s g iv en t o h is fa th er, h a v in g ru n up to him , spoke th u s : " G iv e to m e to o , fa th e r, g iv e to m e to o , fa th e r/ ' P eo p le [78] . . . sp read it a b o u t, s a y in g : " T h ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, are n o t ch a ste. T h is b o y w as b o m of
1 O n th e m onkish in ten tio n o f puggaXa see iii. In tr* p. acxii f* * A s a t V in . iv . 3 30, P i c . L X V iii. 12). * P S c. L X V . * ahh'&takarQga, sh o u ld b e " snalce-wiEid-dise&se , W o r d occu rs a t Jd+ ii. -79, iv . 200. S ee n o te a t J d . C a m b r id g e translation * ii. 53. C f Makdvastu^ L ^53, a disease ca lle d pdhiv&sa (prod u ced b y n o n -h u m a n a g e n cy } w h ich is said to a t t a c k a w h o le d istrict.
* w h ic h o r r o o f a t i. a h o n t iP c a m e p e rs o n a n d _/. to re m a in . fro m "T h is 5 5 . t o Is B n , th e is a t V A . 1003 b y e x p la in s th e m e a n s in iv . th e io o . b y w a ll S e e

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a n u n ." M onks h e a rd th ese people w h o . . . spread it about* T h en these m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e s a i d : ** M onks, a b o y of less th an fifte e n ye a rs o f a g e sh o u ld n ot b e le t go fo rth . W h o e v e r sh ou ld le t (one such) g o fo r th , th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g-d o in g/*1 |j i |] 50 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e th e fa m ily , faithful* b e lie v in g , w h o su p p o rte d th e ven erab le A n a n d a , passed a w a y a? a re su lt o f m a la ria , b u t tw o b o y s su rvived * T h e se , h a v in g seen m on ks, ra n u p to th em a cco rd in g to th e ir fo rm e r a llo w a b le cu sto m , (but) th e m o n k s sent th e m aw ay* T h e se c ricd on b e in g sent a w a y b y th e m o n ks. T h e n it occu rred t o th e v e n e ra b le A nanda : I t is la id d o w n b y th e L o rd th a t a b o y o f less th a n fifteen y e a rs of a g e sh o u ld n ot b e a llo w ed to g o fo rth , an d these b o y s are less th a n fifteen ye a rs of age_ N o w b y w h a t m eans m ig h t these b o y s n o t be lo s t ? M T h e n th e ve n e ra b le A n a n d a to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " B u t, A n a n d a h a re th e se b o y s ab le to sca re 2 cro w s ? *' * * T h e y are a b le (to do so). L o r d / ' T h e n th e L o rd , on th is occasion, in this con n ectio n h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , ad dressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g : " I allo w you* m onks, to le t a y o u th o f less th a n fifteen y e a rs o f age a n d w h o is a sca re r o f cro w s* go fo r th / ' [j x U51 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le U p a n a n d a , th e son o f th e S a k y a n s, h a d tw o n o vices, K a n d a k a 4 and M a h a k a .s T h ese co m m itted so d o m y w ith one another* M onks lo o k e d d o w n 1 F i v e years, th erefore, w ere t o ela p se b efo re th e u p a s a m p a d z o rd in a tio n w as a llo w e d (seeFac. lx v a n d belo w , p . ). T h is in te r v e n in g period is referred t o a t J & r ii 196 : htdapUriio * * > pabbajiii'd upasam padaya p elSidMiiiTrct htttvH, a b o y o f g o o d fa m ily , h a v in g gon e fo rth , b e in g fiv e y e a r s off ord in ation . . * 9 ujtepsturri, m ea n in g " t o m a k e fly u p or " t o c a tc h in sn a res * \ See FEDV A . 1003 n et b e lp io l
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upon, criticised , sp rea d i t a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w can th ese n o vices in d u lge in a b a d h a b it su ch as th is ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M onks, tw o n ovices sh o u ld n o t a tte n d one (m onk). W h o e v e r should m a k e tw o n o vices a tte n d 1 h im , th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' [| I \\52 |f N o w a t th a t tim e* th e L o rd sp en t th e rains ju s t there, in R a ja g a h a , th e cold w e a th e r there, th e h o t w e a th e r th ere. P eop le * . . sp rea d i t a b o u t, sa y in g : f< T h e d is tric t is cro w d ed up, confused w ith recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s ; b ecause o f th e m th e d istric t is not to b e seen /' M onks, h eard these p eo p le w h o . * - sp rea d it about* T h e n these m onks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . [ ]i [ | T h en th e L o rd ad d ressed th e ven era b le A n a n d a , s a y i n g : " G o, A n a n d a , a n d ta k in g a k e y , [79] an n oun ce to th e m o n ks in e v e r y cell : ' Y o u r reverences, th e L o rd w ishes to set out on to u r for D a k k h in a g irL W h a te v e r ven era b le one needs (to d o so), le t him come.* Y e s , L o r d / 1 and th e ven erab le A n a n d a , h a v in g answ ered th e L o rd in assent, ta k in g ti>e k e y , announced to th e m onks in e v e r y c e l l : Y o u r reveren ces, th e L o rd w ishes to set out on to u r for D a k k h in a g trL W h a te v e r ven erable one needs (to do so)j le t him c o m e ." ||2 | | M onks sp oke t h u s : " R everen d A n a n d a , it is laid dow n b y th e L o rd (th a t one is) to liv e ten y e a rs in d ep en d en ce, and' w h en one is o f ten y e a r s sta n d in g (he is) to g iv e guid ance*1 I f w e go th e re then g u id an ce m ust b e ch o se n 4 (there), b u t the
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c o m fo rt . . a r t :

d o e s

not

ra e a a

V i n .

a n d

K a n t a k a .

B e lo w ,

5 5 . i P th e

r u lin g

a m e n d e d .

C f. |] r lj w ith N u n s Pftc. X L , w h ere a sim ilar d e scr ip tio n of R 5 jaffaha i& g iv e n w hen it w as crow d ed o a t b y nuns. # S e e J1V , I + 3. 1 ab o ve. * nissayo ca gahctabbo bhavissaci* C f, upajjhdyo gaJt&tabbo a t M V . I. 2 5 . 7, a n d Acariyij *ahtt&bb& a t M V * I , 3 2 . 2 : < c t h u s sh ou ld a p receptor . . , a te a ch e r b e c h o se n /' T h e reference in th e a b o v e p assag e w ou ld a p p ea r t o b e b a c k to- th is k in d o f ch o o sin g : ch oosin g a p re ce p to r or teach er, or b o th , t o g iv e g u id an ce. I f a p u p il or p recep to r le a v e o n e 3-n oth er th en * 4ssaya (guidance) i s broken.

53-3

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IDI

sto p (there) m a y b e sh o rt ; th en w e m u st com e b a c k again and g u id an ce m u s t be chosen a gain . I f our te a ch ers an d p recep tors are go in g, w e to o w ill g o ; b u t if o u r teach ers an d p recep tors are n o t go in g, th en w e w ill n o t go. R e v e re n d A n an d a, w e sh a ll (otherw ise) lo o k fe a th e r-b ra in e d ."1 [(3 \ \ T h e n th e L o rd set o u t on to u r for D a k k h in a g iri w ith an O rd er o f m o n ks n u m b erin g less th a n a grou p.* T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d in D a k k h in a g iri fo r a s long as he fo u n d su itin g , cam e b a c k a g a in to R a j agah a. T h e n th e L o rd ad dressed th e ven era b le A n a n d a , sa y in g : " H o w is it, A n a n d a , th a t th e T ru th fin d er set o u t on to u r for D a k k h in a g iri w ith a n O rd er o f m onks n u m b erin g less th a n a g ro u p ? T h en th e ven e ra b le A n a n d a to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , T h e n th e L o rd on th is occasion, in th is connection, h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , addressed th e m on ks, s a y in g : " 1 a llo w , m onks, an e x p e rie n ced c o m p e ten t m o n k to liv e five y e a rs in dependence (but) an in exp erien ced one a ll h is life. || 4 II " M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f fiv e q u a litie s he sh o u ld n o t liv e in d ep en d e n tly3 (of a p re cep to r o r teacher) : i f he is n o t possessed o f an a d e p t's b o d y o f m oral h a b it . . . { = I, 36- 3) * * * M onks, if a m o n k is n o t possessed o f th ese five q u a litie s he should n ot liv e in d ep en d en tly* M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five q u a litie s he m a y liv e in d ep en d e n tly : if he is possessed o f a n a d ep t's b o d y o f m oral h a b it 36* 3) . * . M onks, if a m onk is possessed o f th ese fiv e q u a litie s he m a y liv e in d ep en d e n tly .4 || 5 || M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f fiv e fu rth e r q u a litie s he should n o t liv e in d ep en d e n tly : if he co m es t o b e o f no fa ith * * ( = I. 36. 6) , , . M onks, he should n o t liv e in d ep en d en tly. M onks, if a m on k is possessed o f five q u a litie s he m a y liv e in d ep en d en tly : if he com es to h a v e fa ith [80] - - . ( L 36 . 7) * - . M onks, * . . he m a y liv e in d ep en d e n tly . ||6 ||
1 lahuGtftakatd no paH nayiss . a fea th er-b ra in ed (lig h t m inded) s ta te w il l b e a p p a r e n t in us* * bhikhhuxanghfna, V A . 1003 e x p la in s oga%terta an pnTihimzga-$na9 la c k in g a gro u p , a n d a s oppatnatlaka bhikkhus&vigha, o n ly a sm all O rd er o f m onks. U s u a lly a 11 g ro u p Ji co n sisted o f from t w t o fo u l m o n k s o r n u n s , b u t a b o ve , I. 3 1 . a g ro u p o i te n m on ks is referred to. s antssitena, in in d epen d en ce, w ith o u t a te a ch e r to g iv e gu id an ce, * Of. below , I* 7 3 . 1-4 w here o th e r cases a r e g iv e n where- a mn-nk m a y liv e independently,, anissita*

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* * - , . five fu rth e r q u a lities he sh ould not liv e in d ep en d e n tly : ifr in regard to m oral h a b it, he com es to have fa llen a w a y from m o ral h a b it * . , ( = I . 36. S) - . . M onks, if a m onk is possessed o f five q u a lities he m a y liv e in d e p e n d e n tly : if, in regard to m o ral h a b it, he does n o t com e to h a v e fallen a w a y . , * ( = 1. 36. 9) . . . he m a y live in d ep en d en tly, |[ 7 | | ** . . * fiv e fu rth e r q u a litie s he should n o t liv e in d ep en d en tly : i f he does n o t k n o w w h a t is an offence L 36, 14) * . . M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f five q ualities h e m a y liv e in d ep en d en tly : if he know s w h a t is an offence 36. 15) * * . he m a y live in d ep en d en tly. || 8 || 4t. * . five fu rth e r q u a lities h e should n ot liv e in d ep en d e n tly : if he does n ot kn o w w h a t is an offence * . . ( = L 36. 16} * * * i f he is o f less th a n five y e a rs standing. . . , M onks, if a m o n k is p o ss e sse d 'o f five qualities he m a y liv e in d e p e n d e n tly : if he know s w h a t is an offence I, 36. 17) . . . if he is o f five ye a rs' sta n d in g o r o f m ore th a n five y e a rs stan d in g. , . . ]| g |j " M onks, if a m o n k is possessed o f s ix q u a lities he should n o t liv e in d e p e n d e n tly ; i f he is n o t possessed pf an a d e p t's b o d y of m o ral h a b it , . . I, 37. 1) . . . if he is o f less th a n five ye a rs' standing. M onks, if a m onk is n o t possessed o f these six q u a litie s he should n ot liv e in d ep en d en tly. M onks, if a m onk is possessed of six q u alities h e m a y live in d e p e n d e n tly ; if he is possessed of an a d e p t's b o d y o i m oral h a b it I. 37. 2) . . . if he is o f five yea rs' stand ing or m ore than five yea rs' standing . . - || 10 || " . , . six further q ualities he should n o t Live in d ep en d en tly ; if he com es to h a v e no faith . . ~ { = I. 37. 5) . . . if he is o f less th an five y e a rs' standing . . . possessed o f six qualities he m a y live independently : if he com es to h ave fa ith . + . ( = I- 37. 6) . . . if he is o f five yea rs' sta n d in g or more than five years" stan d in g . * * || 1 1 fj M . six fu rth er qu alities he should not liv e in d ep en d en tly: if, in regard to m oral habit, he com es to have fallen a w a y from m o ral habit , , . ( = I- 37. 7) * if he is o f less than five years' Standing . . . possessed o f six qualities he m a y lave independently ; if, in regard to m oral h a b it, he d o es not com e to h ave fallen awT a y . . . ( = L 37. b) . . . if he is o f five y e a rs1 standing or moTe th a n five years' standing. j| 12 [ | 4 4 * . - six further qualities he should not live in d ep en d en tly;

53.13 54,3]

MA H A V A G G A

if he does not k n o w w h a t is an o ffen ce - * . ( = L 37* 13) . * . if he is o f less than fiv e ye a rs' stan d in g . _ . possessed o f six qualities he m a y liv e in d ep en d en tly : i f he know s w h a t is an offence . . . I. 37. 14) . . if he is o f five years* stan d in g or m ore thaji five y e a rs' standing* M onks, i f a m o n k is possessed o f these s ix qu alities he m a y liv e in d ep en d en tly. 1(13 ||5 3 || T o ld is th e P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g on Safe and Secure. [8t]

T h en th e L ord , h a v in g sta y ed in R a ja g a h a for as long as he found suiting, set o u t on to u r for K a p ila v a tth u . W a lk in g on to u r in d ue course he arrived a t K a p ila v a tth u .1 T h e L o rd sta y ed there a m o n g th e S a k y a n s in K a p ila v a tth u in the B a n y a n m on astery.2 T h en the Londp h a v in g dressed in th e morning* ta k in g his b o w l and robe, approached th e d w ellin g of Sud d hod ana th e S a k y a jL ; h a v in g a p p ro ach ed he sa t dow n on th e appointed seat. T h en th e lady^ R a h u la s m other, sp ok e th u s to the b o y R a h u la : " T h i s , R ahula* is y o u r father, go a n d a sk h im foT yo u r in h eritan ce/' || 1 |( T h e n th e b o y R a h u la approached th e L o rd : h a v in g approachedj he stood in fron t o f th e L o rd and sa id : ' r P lea sa n t is y o u r sh adow , recluse*" T h en th e L o rd , rising up from his se a tp departed- T hen the b o y R a h u la , follow ing close behind the L o r d Psaid : G iv e m e m y inheritance, recluse, g iv e m e m y inheritance, recluse/* T hen th e L o rd addressed the venerable S arip u tta, sayin g 1 " W e ll th en , d o y o u , S a rip u tta , let the b o y R a h u la go fo rth / '3 H ow do I p Lord, let th e b o y R a h u la go forth ? " ]| 2 || T h en the L o rd on this occasion, in th is connection, h a vin g g iv en reasoned ta lk , addressed the m onks, s a y in g : " I allow , m onks, the goin g forth for n o vices b y th e three goings for refuge* A n d th us, m on ks, should yo u le t one go f o r t h : first, h a v in g m ade him h a v e his h air and beard cu t off, h avin g g o t (someone) to present him w ith y e llo w robes, h a vin g m ad e him arrange his upp er robe o ve r one shoulder, h a vin g m ade him honour th e m onks' feet, h avin g m ade him sit down on his haunches, h a v in g m ade him salute w ith jo in ed palm s, he should
1 1005. says- i t was- a d is ta n c e ot s ix ty y&jana j from R S^ agah a ; g o in g a yojam 1 a day* th e L o rd 's jo u r n e y to o k tw o m on th s. * S e e B *D , ii. 94P n, i , * S to r y of " ^ S h u la 's con version ,r also g iv e n a t D h A , L 1 1 6 (, an d

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be t o l d : 4 S p eak t h u s : I go to the aw aken ed one for refuge* I go to dhamma for refuge, T go to the O rder for refuge. A n d a second tim e 1 go . . . A n d a th ird tim e I go . * . to the O rder for refuge " I allow , m on ks, th e go in g fo rth fo r novices b y these th ree goings for refuge/" || 3 || T h en th e venerable S a rip u tta le t th e b o y R a h u la go forth. T h en Suddhodana th e S a k y a n approached the L o r d ; h a v in g approached* h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , he sat dow n at a resp ectfu l distance* A s he w as sittin g dow n a t a rcspectful distance, Su d d h o d an a th e S a k y a n sp oke th u s to the L o rd : I, L o rd , ask th e L o rd fo r one b o o n /1 * * B u t, G o ta m a ,2 T ruth-finders are beyond (granting) b oon s/'4 " L o rd , it is w h a t is allow able, it is w h a t is blam eless. " S p eak on, G o ta m a , ]| 4 [ | " L o rd , when the L o rd w ent forth there cam e to be n o t a little sorrow* likew ise when N an d a4 d id ; it w as extrem e when R a h u la d id .* [83] A ffcction for a son, L o rd , cu ts into the sk in , h avin g cut in to th e sk in it cu ts in to the h id e, h a v in g cu t in to the hide it cu ts in to the flesh . _ _ the ligam en ts, * . . the bones, h a vin g cu t in to th e bones and reaching the m arrow , it abides. I t were w ell, L o rd , if the m asters d id not let a child to go forth w ith ou t the p aren ts' consent, | |5 | | T h en th e L o rd glad d en ed , rejo iced , roused, d elig h ted S u d d h o d a n a th e S a k y a n w ith ta lk on dhamma. Then S u d d h o d an a th e S a k y a n g lad d en ed . , * d e lig h ted b y th e L o rd wr ith t a lk on dhamma, risin g from h is seat, h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , d e p a rted keep in g his rig h t side to w a rd s him . T hen th e L o rd on this o c c a s io n in th is connection, h a v in g given reasoned ta lk , addressed th e m on ks, s a y in g : M onks, a child w ho has n o t his p a ren ts' co n scn t should not be le t go fo rth . W h o e v e r should let (one such) go forth , th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / | ] 6| ] 54 |[
1 S a m e m eth o d e m p lo y e d a t I . 38. 3 for g r a n tin g p ro b a tio n t o form er m em b ers o f other sccts. * O o ta m a w a s th e c\s.n or fam iLv name* s atikkantavara. V in . Texts, in tra n s la tin g a b o v e an d para Lie] passages a t V in . i. 29-2, a d d s " (before th e y k n o w w h a t t h e y are) R ouse; J d * . transin,, iv< 198 (=z J . iv. 315., q u o tin g i. 92) has th e T a th a g a ta .* h a v e bo o n s b e y o n d m easure : C .P .D . " a b o v e {granting) boons > p . * T h e L o r d s ha!f-bTother, son of M a h U p aja p atL O n N a n d a 's g o in g fo rth see T M . tooS Str D h A . i. It& . V erses a t T h a g . S e t U d * 2 1 fT * . 6 V A . 10 10 s a y s t h a t S-uddhodana th in k in g th e fa m ily line broken because th e s e th r e e w en t forth , asked where a t i n s co u ld co m e Iram ,

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105

T h en th e L a rd , h a v in g s ta y e d in K a p ila v a tth u for as lo n g as he found su itin g, set o u t on to u r for S a v a tth L W a lk in g on to u r in d u e course h e a rriv e d a t S a v a tth l. T h e L o rd s ta y e d th ere in S a v a tth i in th e J e t a G ro v e in A n a th a p in ^ ik a 's m o n astery. N o w a t th a t tim e th e fa m ily w h o su p p o rte d th e ven era b le S a rip u tta sen t a y o u th t o th e ve n e ra b le S a rip u tta , sa y in g : " M a y th e eld er le t th is y o u th go fo rth /* T h e n it o ccu rred to th e v e n e ra b le S a rip u tta : " A rule o f tra in in g laid dow n b y th e L o rd sa y s th a t tw o n o v ic e s sh o u ld not a tte n d one (m onk),1 a n d th is R a h u la is m y n o vice. N o w w h a t line o f co n d u ct sh o u ld be fo llo w ed b y m e ? H e to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : < r I allo w , m o n ks, tw o n o vices to a tte n d one exp erien ced , co m p e ten t m on k, or else as m a n y to a tte n d (him) as he is able to exh o rt, to in stru ct/* |j 1 j| 55 ]| T h en it occurred to th e n o vices : N o w , how m a n y rules for tra in in g are there fo r u s and In w h ich w e are to tra in ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M onks, I a llo w ten rules fo r tra in in g fo r n o v ic e s 2 and novices to tra in in th ese : restra in t fro m o n slau gh t on crea tu re s,3 re stra in t from ta k in g w h a t is n o t g iv e n ,1 restra in t from n n c h a s tity ,B restra in t from ly in g ,6 restra in t from th e occasion o f sloth (induced b y ) ferm en ted ]iq u o rt sp irits an d stro n g d r in k / re stra in t from eating- a t th e w rong time, restra in t from seeing show s* o f d a n cin g, sin gin g a n d m u sic,10 restra in t from th e occasion o f using ga rla n d s, scen ts, u n gu en ts
4 A b o v e , I. 52 . 1.

4ii>.

* N ovice is defined at iv* 122 iL 413) as one corriorming to ten rules Jor trainitig ; also fem ale novice ia so defined a t Vin. iv* 343 iii.
4 P ir . I l l , F ac. L X I . T h e s e r estra in ts or a b s tin e n c e s o cc u r &t e.g. 4 ff., A . i, 2.1 3r Li. 2 ^ iv , ^47 S . v . 4G9, Pw g* 5S. Cf. D A . 69 ff. 4 P ar. II* . i.

* Par, I.

P a r. IV , T C f . P a c , L I. * P S c. X X X V I L vis&ka a p p e a rs to m ean tw is tin g , w rig g lin g , restless m o tio n . O n th e m im in g n atu re of sin gin g, d a n cin g a n d m u sic see B .D . iJi. Tntr, x l, n, a n d p. 2^S, n. 2T h e s e show s w here m o v e m e n t w as a, fe a tu r e w ere oi q u ite a d ifferen t ch aracter from show s of in a n im a te ob jects* N u n s w ere forbid d en to v is it these la tt e r b y th e ir P a c . X U . 1B A 4 tikk&fa fo r m o n k s t o see these, Vift- ii, iq S ; a p d cittiya for turns t o see th e m , N u n s ' F a c . X -

io 6

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a n d w ea rin g finery, [S3] restra in t from u sin g h igh beds, large b ed s,1 restra in t fro m a cce p tin g g o ld and silver*2 I a llo w , m on ks, these te n rules for tra in in g fc r n ovices and n ovices to tra in in th e s e / ' |[ I [| 56 || N o w a t th a t tim e n o vices w ere n ot resp ectfu l, n o t d eferen tial, n o t courteous to w a rd s th e m onks. M onks , , . sp rea d i t a b o u t, sa y in g : " H o w ca n these n o vices n o t be resp ectfu l * , , to w ard s th e m onks ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : ' f M onks, I allo w yo u to im pose a punish m ent* on a no vice w h o is possessed o f five q u a lities : if he tries fo r n an -receivin g (of gains)* b y m onks, if he tries for non-profiting b y m onks, if he tries fo r non-residence for m o n ks, if he reviles and a b u se s6 m onks, if he causes m onk to b re a k w ith m on k. I a llo w yo u , m onks, to im pose a p u n ish m en t on a n o vice w h o is possessed o f th ese fiv e q u a litie s. || i | | T h e n it o ccu rred to these m onks : " N o w , how should the pu n ish m en t be im posed ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I allow y o u , m o n ks, to m a k e a p ro h ib i t i o n / '0 N ow a t th a t tim e m on ks m ade a prohibition for n o vices in respect o f an O rd er's entire m o n a ste ry. T h e n o v ic e s, on b ein g un ab le to en ter th e m o n a stery, w e n t a w a y , an d le ft th e O rd er, a n d w e n t o ve r to (other) sects. T h e y told this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " M onks, a n O rd er's en tire m o n a stery should n o t be m ade (the su b je ct of) a p roh ibition . W h o e v e r should m ake (it such), there is a n offence o f w rong doing. I a llo w yo u , m onks, to m a k e a prohibition in respect o f w h erever he is s ta y in g or w h erever he is entering*7" [| 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e m on ks m ade a p roh ibition fo r novices in resp ect o f n u trim en t ta k e n b y th e m outh, People, m akin g a d rin k o f co n je y and also rice fo r an O rder, spoke th u s to th e novices : rf C om e, honoured sirs, d rin k th e c o n je y 3 com e, honoured sirs, p a rta k e o f th e rice . T h e n ovices spoke thus ;
* C f. r a c . L X X X V I I *

1 Nissag. X V I I I . da n gah a m m a ; cf* above I. 4'+. 1, 45 - i r 3-D .d Vi*t. iL 262 i.


* So V A * j o t 3 ; " o f r e q u is ite s /' A A . iv . 360* C f th ese w ith " five q u a li t i e s " a t Vin, ii. iS , " e igh t q u a lities a.t iv . 345, Vin. it. 125* * C f. V in t Ev. 5 , 21 1 309 w here nuns m a y not re vile or ab u se a tn^ nk, * dvarana, an obsta.de, hindrance,, b a it in g off, C f. V in . Ii. 16 2 /, * p&tikkatnnti, to return, V A . 10 13 e x p la in s b y pauisiUt to eater. The m ea n in g is en terin g a m o n a ste ry in th e sense of retu rn in g t o it-

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** I t is n ot possible, sirs, th e m onks h a v e m a d e {this th e su b je ct of) a p ro h ib itio n . T h e p eople . . . sp read it a b o u t, sa y in g : ** H o w can these revered sirs m a k e a p ro h ib itio n fo r n o vices in resp ect o f n u trim e n t ta k e n b y th e m o u th ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e sa id : *f M onks, n u trim e n t ta k e n b y th e m o u th is n o t to be m ad e (the su b je ct of) a prohibition* W Tioever sh ou ld m a k e {it such ), th ere is an offence o f w ro n g d o in g / 1 it 3 j| T o ld is th e Ite m on P u n ish m en t. |[ 57 |j

N o w a t th a t tim e th e gro u p o f sax m onks, [84] w ith o u t h a v in g a sk e d p recep to rs (for perm ission), m ad e a prohibition fo r n ovices. P recep to rs h u n ted a b o u t, s a y in g ; N o w , w h ere are our n o vices ? T h e y are n ot t o be seen* M onks spoke th u s : " A p rohibition w as m a d e, y o u r reveren ces, b y th e g ro u p o f six m o n k s / ' T h e p recep to rs . * , sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g ; ** H o w can th is gro u p o f six m on ks, w ith o u t a sk in g u s (for perm ission), m a k e a p ro h ib itio n fo r o u r n ovices ? T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " M onks, a p ro h ib itio n is n o t to be m ade w ith o u t askin g p rccep to rs (for perm ission). W h o e v e r sh o u ld m a k e one, th e re is an offence o f wrong-* doing/* || 1 || 58 || . N o w a t th a t tim e th e gro u p o f s ix m o n ks lu red a w a y 1 th e n o vices of m o n k s w h o w ere elders* T h e elders, g e ttin g th e ir o w n tooth -w o o d and w a te r for rin sin g th e m o u th , w ere in com m od ed .2- T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord- H e sa id : " M onks, a n o th e r's a ss e m b ly sh ou ld n o t b e lu red a w a y . W h o e v e r should lure it a w a y , there is an offence o f w ro n g d o in g / ' |! 1 [j 59 || N ow a t th a t tim e K a n d a k a ,3 a n o v ic e o f th e ven erab le U p an a n d a , th e son o f th e S a k y a n s, seduced th e n u n K a n d a k a .
* apa&i[enii> to d r a w over {to th em selves). B u . a t V A . 1 0 14 b in ts a t b rib ery, th e g ro u p o t s ix s a y in g t h e y w ou ld g iv e b o w ls a n d robes t o th e

novices.
* hUamaii, m ore u s u a lly to go s h o rt o f \ t o b e tired , fa tig u e d . T h o s e w ho shared cells a n d p u p ils sh ou ld g e t to o th -w o o d a n d w a te r for ringing th e m o n th lo r th e ir p recep to rs a n d teach ers r e s p e c tiv e ly , L 2 &, I* 3 2 . ^

* See above, I. &2. i p and B .D . iii. 31.

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M onks . * * sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w ca n this no vice indulge in a bad h a b it lik e th is ? ,J T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : ** I allow y o u , m onks, to e x p e l a n o vice w h o is possessed o f ten q u alities : if he is one w h o m akes onslaugh t on creatures, if he is one w h o ta k e s w h a t is n o t g iven , if he is one w h o is u n ch aste, if h e is a lia r, i f he is a d rin ker o f stro n g d rin k, if he sp eaks d ispraise o f th e a w a k e n e d one., if he sp eaks dispraise o f dkamma , ii tie sp eak s d ispraise o f th e O rder, if he is a holder o f a false v ie w ,1 if h e is a sed u cer o f nuns. I a llo w yo u , m on ks, to e x p e l a n o v ic e w h o is possessed o f these ten q u a litie s/ ' II1 1 1 60 || N o w a t th a t tim e a certain eu n u ch ca m e to h a v e gone fo rth a m o n g th e m onks. H a v in g a p p ro ach ed a n u m b er o f y o u n g m o n ks, he spoke t h u s : C o m e, ven erab le ones, com m it an offence w ith m e / ' T h e m onks refu sed , s a y in g : " B e off3, eunuch, depart*, eu n u ch . W h a t n e e d h a v e y o u ? " R efu sed b y th e m o n ks, h a v in g ap p ro ach ed a n u m b er o f large, f a t 6 n o vices, he sp oke th u s : " Com e, y o u r reverences, com m it an offence w ith m e / ' T h e n o vices refused, s a y in g : B e off, eunuch, d e p a rt, eunuch. W h a t n eed h ave yo u ? ** R efu sed b y th e n o vices, h a v in g approach ed m a h o u ts and grooms, he sp ok e t h u s ; " C om e, [85] sirs, co m m it an offence w ith m e / ' T h e m a h o u ts an d groom s co m m itted an offence w ith him- J ] i || T h ese + * * sp rea d i t a b o u t, s a y in g : T hese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s. are eunuchs, a n d those o f th em w h o are not eunuchs, th e y to o com m it offences w ith eunuchs. T h u s th e y are one a n d all u n c h a ste ," M onks h eard these m ahouts and groom s w h o . * - sp read i t about. T h en these m onks told this m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e s a i d ;
A A t Viw. iv . 138 ( B .D . iii, 33) a n o vice, K a & ^ a k a , w as exp elled on th is groun d. a V A . io r 5 expLains t h a t *' o n e w ho is u n c h a ste g J m a y be ordained ii h e is w illin g t o restrain h im self in t h e fu tu re, b u t a Seducer o t n u n s c a n n o t even go fo rth , C / t V ia . T exts i. * 1 5 , n, r. A t A . v , 70* 71 a m o n g ten specified occasion s .where th e P a tim o k k h a , m a y be suspended are in cluded th e presence of a seducer o f nuns, a n d t h e presence of a eu n u ch {see n e x t p ara gra p h b elo w ),

E ji assat disappear.
* vinjissa 7ias$o.t V A + & ? i, w h ich a d d s " go w here we d o n o t see y o u **F o r cara p i vc vinos sa see Viti. iv . 139.

* moligalta ; t. 11, given a t


* haithibhangti assabhantfa. w a tch m a n .

L 372 : mofigaUat mukaHa.


V A . 1 0 I 5 e x p la in s b/taptfa b y gopaka%gu ard ian ,

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,f M onks, if a eu n u ch is not o rd ain ed , he sh ou ld not be ordained ; ii he is o rd ain ed , he sh ou ld be ex p e lle d -1 |[ 2 j[ 61 || N ow a t th a t tim e a c e rta in d e scen d a n t o f an a n c ie n t fa m ily w h ich had com e d o w n in th e w o rld w a s d e lic a te ly n u rtu red . T h e n it occurred t o th is d escen d a n t o f th e an cien t fa m ily w h ich h a d com e dow n in the w o rld : " N o w , I am d e lic a te ly n u rtu red , I a m n o t a b le to a c q u ire w e a lth n o t (already) acq u ired , nor to increase th e w e a lth (alread y) acqu ired .* N o w b y w h a t m eans could I liv e a t ease a n d n ot be in w a n t ? T h en it occurred to th is d e scen d a n t , * in th e w o rld : " N o w these recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, are o f p lea sa n t co n d u ct, o f p leasan t ch a ra cter ; h a v in g e a ten g o o d m eals, th e y lie d o w n to sleep on beds sh eltered from th e w in d . Sup pose th a t I, h a v in g prepared a b o w l an d robe for m y se lf, h a v in g cu+ off m y h air and b eard , h a v in g clo th ed m y s e lf in y e llo w robes, h a v in g gone to a m o n a ste ry , sh ould b e in com m union to g eth e r w ith m onks ? || r [j T h en th a t d escen dan t . , . in the w o rld , h a v in g prepared a b o w l an d robe for h im self, h a v in g c u t off his h air a n d b eard , h a v in g cloth ed h im self in y e llo w robes, h a v in g gone to a m o n a ste ry , g ree te d th e m onks. T h e m o n ks sp oke t h u s : " O f h o w m a n y yea rs' sta n d in g are you> yo u r reverence ? J* *f W b a t does this m ean, y o u r re v e re n c e s: * h o w m a n y y e a rs' sta n d in g J " B u t w h o , y o u r reveren ce, is y o u r p recep to r ? J* " W h a t d o cs this m ean, y o u r rcveren ces : * p re cep to r J ? T h e m onks sp ok e th u s to th e ven e ra b le U p a li3 : " P lease, reveren d U p a li, exam in e th is one w h o has gone fo rth . [| 2 ||

1 V A . 10 16 s a y s he is t o b e ex p e lle d b y t h e expul& ion d u e to ch aracteristic* iitgansanar T h ree k in d s o f exp u lsio n are g iv e n a t V A . S70 i . : (1) exp u lsio n Jroiti co m m u n io n , m ea n in g exp u lsio n fa r n o t seein g a n offence, n o t m a k in g am en d s fo r it, c o t g iv in g up a fa lse v ie w ; (?) e x p u ls io n d u e t o ch aracteristic* as a n e x a m p le o f w h ich th e mac M e t t iy a is c ite d ( iii. 362-3) j (3 ) exp u lsio n as a p u n ish m en t, w ith th e w oi'ds, ' F ro m t o n ia y fo r th , reveren d n o vic e, th e L o r d ca n n o t be referred t o a s y-our te a ch e r 1 ( T i n , iv , a 39 = B tD , iiii. * T h i i in a b ility is a t A . i. T29 g iv e n a s a ch a r a c te r is tic oi a b lin d person w h ile th e o p p o site, a b ilit y in th is respect, is g iv e n a s a ch a r a c te r istic of a on e -eye d a n d o i a tw o -e y e d person, 1 N o d o u b t th e expert

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T h en a s th a t d escen d an t +, , in th e w o rld w as b ein g e x a m in e d 1 b y th e ven erab le U p a li, he to ld h im this m a tte r. T h e ven erable U p a li to ld th is m a tte r t o th e m onks. T h e m onks to ld this m a tte r to th e L ord- H e sa id : ** M on ks, i f one w h o is in com m union b y theft* is n o t ordained, he sh o u ld n o t be o rd ain ed ; if he is o rd ained , h e sh o u ld be expelled* M onks, if one w h o has gone o v e r to {another) se c t8 is n o t ordained, h e sh ou ld n o t b e o rd a in e d ; ai he is ordained, he sh o u ld be ex p e lle d ,1' H3 || 62 \ \ N o w a t th a t tim e a certain serpent w a s troubled a b o u t his b irth as a serpent, [86] he w as ash am ed o f it, lo a th ed i t 4* T hen it occurred t o th a t serpent : " N ow , b y w h a t m eans could I b e freed q u ic k ly from b irth as a serpent and g e t b a c k 5 hum an sta tu s ? p > T h e n it occurred t o th a t s e r p e n t: " T h ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, are dhamma-fsLters, even-farers, B rah m a* fa rers> t h e y are tru th -sp eak ers, th e y are o f m oral h a b it, of go od con d uct. N ow if I w ere to go fo rth am ong th e recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, so w o u ld I be freed q u ic k ly from b irth as a serp en t a n d co u ld g e t b a c k hum an s ta tu s ," || r || T h e n th a t, serpent ^ in th e form o f a brah m an yo u th , h a v in g approached th e m o n ks, asked fur th e go in g forth. T h e m onks le t him go fo rth , t h e y o rd ain ed him* N o w a t th a t tim e th a t serpent, to g eth e r w ith a c e rta in m on k, w a s liv in g in a dw ellingp la ce on th e b o u n d a ry.* T h en th a t m on k, g e ttin g u p in the n ig h t to w ard s d aw n , p aced u p a n d d o w n in th e open air*
1 V A , 1 oi-6 ? a s he w a s bein g asked a b o u t c u t tin g oft t h e h a ir a n d beard, a c ce p tin g y e llo w robes, g o in g for refu ge, ch oosin g a preceptor, a n d a b o u t p r o cla m a tio n s a n d g u id a n ce. A t V in . iii. 2 12 U p i l i w as asked t o ex a m in e m o n k s w ho, h a v in g co m e n ak ed , w ere ta k e n to be N a k e d A sce tics. V 665 g iv e s th e n atu re c3 th ese q u estion s (see B . D t ii. 45, n* 6, 7), H e exam in es b elo w M V . I. 64 + 2. 9 thtyy o f aTttvdfaka. W o r d occu rs also a t V in . i. 30 7. S&mvasa is bein g In co m m u n ion , see d efin ition a t en d o f ea ch P S iajL k a ru le i). TJieyya is " b y th e f t p \ here o f th e sign s or m a rk s of a m onk, * i-iUhiytxpahk&ntaha, T h is word also- occurs w ith thsyyasantv&saha an d others a t Vitt. i. 307. A l l t h e w ord s t e ll w h a t m onks, d isa p p o in ted o i ro b e-m a terial, p re ten d t o be.

* Stock, as at A . i. 145 ; M . i. 423* iU- 3W* paiilabAati. H e had been u n c h a ste {in a form er birth}. VA+ 1022. If pafilabhati does m ea n " to g e t b a c k F P here r a th e r th a n t o ff ac-quire *'* it in d ic a te s a b e lie f in th e p o s s ib ility o f losing h o man. s ta tu s lo r an im al sta tu s. * V in , T ex ts t. -a eS say " ( n e a r th e b o u n d a ry w all o f the J eta v ana) J, and a lth o u g h t h is m a y b e m eant, th e re is n o evid en ce for it a t V A . 1022. Paccanlim a c a n n o t w ell m ean " neighbou rin g, a d jo in in g " here, for th e ev id e n c e & t h a t m o n k a n d snake sh ared th e sam e d w e llin g -p la ce .

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T h en th a t serpent, confident th a t th a t m onk h a d gone o u t, fell asleep. T h e w h ole d w ellin g -p la cc w as fu ll o f th e sn ak e, his coils w ere p ro tru d in g th ro u g h th e window s, ]| 2 |[ T h e n th a t m on k, th in k in g : " I w ill e n te r th e d w ellin gp la c e / ' opening th e d o o r,1 sa w th e w hole d w ellin g-p lace fu ll o f th e sn ak e, his coils p ro tru d in g through th e w indow s. T errified a t seein g th is, he u tte re d a c r y of distress. M onks, h a v in g run up> spoke th u s to th a t m o n k : " W h y d id yo u , yo u r reverence, u tte r a CFy o f d istress ? " r< Y o u r reverences, this w h o le d w ellin g -p la ce is fu ll o f a sn ak e, his coils are pro tru d in g th ro u g h th e w indow s/* T h e n th a t serpent h a v in g aw aken ed b ecause o f th is n oise, sa t d o w n on his o w n seat. M onks sp ok e t h u s : < f W h o are yo u , frien d ? " " I am a serp en t, h onoured sirs/* " B u t w h y d id yo u , friend, a c t in th is w a y ? * * T h en t h a t serpent to ld th is m a tte r to th e m onks. T h e m onks to ld th is m a tte r to th e JLord, j| 3 ]| T h e n th e L o rd on this occasion, in th is co n n ectio n , h a v in g had th e O rd er o f m o n ks con ven ed, sp ok e th u s to th is serpent : Indeed* yo u serp en ts arc not liab le to g ro w th in th is dhamma and discipline. Y o u , serpent, go a w a y, observe th e O bservance d a y precisely* on th e fourteenth^ fiftee n th an d e ig h th d a y o f the h a lf-m o n th . T h u s w ill yo u b e freed q u ic k ly from b irth as a serpent and g e t b a c k hum an s ta tu s / 1 T h e n th a t serpent, th in k in g : " I t is said th a t I am n o t lia b le to g ro w th in th is dhamma a n d d isc ip lin e ," p ain ed , afflicted , shedding tears-, d e p a rted h a v in g u tte re d a c r y o f distress. [| 4 | | T h en th e L o rd addressed th e m o n ks, s a y i n g : M onks, th ere are these tw o cases o f m a n ifesta tio n o f a serp en t's tru e n a tu re a : when he in d u lges in sex u a l intercourse w ith a fem ale o f h is ow n species, a n d w h en he falls asleep in confidence. M onks, th ese are tw o flases [87] of m a n ifesta tio n o f a serp en t's tru e nature* M onks, if a n an im al is n o t ord ained , it sh ould n o t be ordained ; if it is ordained, it sh ou ld be e x p e lle d / ' 11 5I I 63 |j_____________ _________________ ______________
1 kavdfam pandmgttio. On. th is phrase see B . D . L lyQj n_ 3 * tatth* tv<ir 8 V A . 102^ g iv e s fiv e c a s e s : th e tim e o f its reinsta.tem eati pafisa nd ki, oi its sioujghing its skin, t h e t w o cases m en tio n ed in t h e t e x t , a n d th e tim e f it s p assin g aw a y*

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N o w a t th a t tim e a certain b ra h m a n y o u th d ep rived his m o th er o f life. H e w a s tro u b led a b o u t his e v il deed, he w as ash am ed o f it , lo a th e d it ,1 T h en it occurred to th a t brah m an y o u th : ** N o w , b y w h a t m eans could I g e t rid o f this evil d eed ? tf T h e n it o ccu rred to th is brah m an y o u t h : " T hese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, are rfAffwwM-farers, even-faxers, B rah m a-farers, th e y are truth-speakers, o f m o ral habit, of good conduct- N o w # i f I w ere to go fo rth am ong these recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, so w o u ld I g e t rid o f th is e v il d e e d ." || 1 1 | T h en th a t b rah m an youths h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d (some) m o n ks, a sk ed for th e going forth- T h e m o n ks sp ok e thus to th e v e n e r ab le U p a l i : " F o rm erly! in d eed , reveren d U p a li, a serpent in the form o f a brah m an y o u th w e n t fo rth a m o n g th e m onks. P lea se, reverend U p a li, exam in e th is brahm an y o u t h / '2 T hen as th a t b ra h m a n y o u th w a s b ein g e x a m in e d b y th e venerable U p ali he to ld him th is m a tte r. T h e ven erable U p ali to ld this m a tte r to th e m onks. T h e m onks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : 4 < M on ks, if a m atricid e is n o t ordained, he should n o t be ordained ; if he is ordained, he should be expelled/* | | 2 [j 64 j| A t th a t tim e a c e rta in brahm an y o u th d ep riv ed his fa th e r o f life. H e w a s tro u b led a b o u t his e v il deed . . . ( I . 64, I , 2) * , - T h e m onks to ld this m a tte r to th e Lord* H e said : M onks, if a p arricid e is n o t ordained, he sh o u ld not be ordained ; if he is ord ain ed , he sh ould be e x p e lle d / ' || 1 |[ 65 | | N o w a t th a t tim e several m o n k s w ere go in g along the h ig h ro a d from S a k e ta to S a v a tth l. T h iev es, h a v in g issued forth on th e road, robbed som e m onks an d kilJed o th e r m onks. T hose in th e ro ya l service, h a v in g s e t out from S a v a tth i, ca u gh t som e th ie v e s (but) o th er th ieves ran a w a y . T hose who ran a w a y w en t fo rth a m o n g th e m o n k s ; those w ho w ere cau gh t w ere led off to execu tio n . |f 1 [ | T h o se w h o h a d gone fo rth sa w those th ieves being led off to e xecu tio n ; seeing them , th e y sp ok e th u s : I t is w ell th a t w e ran a w a y, for h a d w e been c a u g h t then should w e h a v e
1 A s a t V in t iL 292. * C j. a b o v e L 62- 2.

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been killed lik e w ise ,1* [88] M onks sp a k e t h u s : B u t w h a t have y o u done, y o u r reverences ? * * T h en those w ho h a d gone fo rth to ld th is m a tte r to th e m onks. T h e m onk? to ld this m a tte r t o the L o rd . H e sa id : * * M onks, those m onks w ere p erfected ones. M onks, if a m urderer of a p erfected one is n o t ordained, he sh ou ld n ot be Ordained ; if he is ord ain ed , he sh o u ld be e x p e lle d ." || 2 || 66 H N ow a t th a t tim e several nuns w e re g o in g a lo n g th e h ig h -ro a d from S a k e ta to S a v a tth i. T h ie v e s , h a v in g 1 issued forth on th e road, ro b b ed som e nuns and sed u ced o th e r nuns. T h o se in th e ro yal se rvice, h a v in g set out from S a v a tth i . . . ( = I. 66, i r 2) , . . T h e m o n ks to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd , H e sa id : " M onks, if a sed u cer of a nun is not o rd ain ed , he should n o t be ord ained j if he is o rd ain ed , he sh o u ld be e x p e lie d .1 M onks, if a sch ism a tic is not ordained, he should not be ordained ; if he is ordained, he sh o u ld be exp elled . M onks, if a sbedder of (a T ru th -fin d er's2) b lo o d is not ordained, he should n ot be ordained ; if he is ordained* he sh ou ld be e x p e lle d .3 | | I || 67 | ] N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in herm ap h rod ite h a d gone fo rth am ong th e m onks. H e a c tcd a n d also m ade (another) a ct. T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id ; M onks, if a herm ap h rod ite is n ot ordained, he sh ould n ot be ordained ; if he is ordained, h e should be expelled-"' \ \ t || 68 \ \ N ow a t th a t tim e m onks ord ained one w h o h a d no precep tor. T h c y to id this m a tte r to the L o rd . H e sa id : " M onks, one w h o has no precep tor sh o u ld n ot be ordaincdW h o e v e r sh o u ld ord ain (one such), there is an offcnce o f wrong-doing/* ]| I | | N o w at th a t tim e m onks o rd ain ed one w ho h a d an O rd er a s p rc c e p to i4 . . H e said :
1 Cf* a b o v e p . ioB> w here a. n ovice Who settuces a nun is t o b e ex p e lle d , * So th e V A . 1024. a O th er p ro h ib itio n s in regard t o th e s e classes of persons g iv e n a t Vin* i, 136* 320, * I t is t o b e g a th ere d from V A . io ^ g t h a t a-Q O rder m ig h t (in a d verten tly ) co n ta in a n y oi th e ty p e s o f m a lefacto rs mcrvtioned a b o v e from a m a tricid e d o w n t o a herm aphrodite*

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M onks, one w h o h a s an O rd er a s p re cep to r should n o t be ordained. W h o e v e r should ord ain (one such), th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' || 3 |j N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s ordained one w h o h a d a group as p recep tor. * . . H e s a i d : < M onks, one w h o has a g ro u p as precep tor sh o u ld n o t be o rd ain ed , , . offence o f w rong-doing/* |f 3 [| N o w a t th a t tim e m onks ordained one w h o h ad a eu n u ch 1 as p re cep to r . . * one w h o h a d one liv in g in com m union as it w ere b y th e ft as p rcce p to r * * * one w h o h ad one w h o h a d gone o v e r to (another) sect as precep tor , . . one w h o h ad an a n im al as p recep to r [89] * . * one w h o had a m a tricid e as p recep tor , . * one w h o h a d a parricid e as p re cep to r . * * one w ho h a d a m u rd erer o f a p erfected one as p recep tor . . * one w h o had a sed ucer o f a nun as p recep tor . . * one w ho had a sch ism a tic a s p re cep to r . * . one w h o h ad th e sh edder o f (a T rath -find er's} blood a s p re cep to r , . . one w h o h a d a h erm aph rod ite as precep to r. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M onks, one w ho h a s a eunuch as precep tor . . . one w ho h a s a herm ap h rod ite a s p recep to r sh ou ld n o t b e ordained. W h o e v e r should ordain (one uch)r th ere is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g /' || 4 || 69 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e m on ks (each) ordained one w ho had no bowL* T h e y w a lk e d for alm sfoo d (to be put) into th eir hands,* People * * sp read it a b o u t, sa y in g : " L ik e follow ers o f (other) se c ts.4 " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : M onks, one w ho has no b o w l should n o t be ordainedW h o e v e r should ord ain {one such), there is an offence o f wrong* d o in g / ' || 1 || N o w a t th a t tim e m onks (each) ord ained one w ho h a d no robe. T h e y w alked naked fo r alm sfood . People , . . spread
1

* apaUaka^ &ee B.Ur ii, 333, n, { > . 9 hatthisv pingdya caranti, Same expression at Vin. iii. 245 ; see B.D. ii. ii<?f n. 3, 4. For aame expression in next paragraph* Fi*. j. 372 gives five tr.K. all reading carati. Hut Nuns* PAc- LXIII we get & singular noun, followed by a plural verb, as above, with th-e meaning that each nun ordained a woman, and that then these were considered, all together as a plurality t in referring to- their actions a plural verb was needed and was used* * Cf. Vin, iii. ^45 (B.D, ii. 119]P

T h e

fo llo w in g

c la s s e s

p e rs o n s

m e n t io n e d

a ls o

a b o v e ,

p *

1 0 S ff*

7 0 .2 7 1 .1 ]

MAHA VAG G A

it a b o u t, s a y in g : ,f L ik e fo llo w ers o f o th e r s e c ts / ' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " M onks, one w h o has no robe sh ou ld not b e ordained. W h o e v e r sh ou ld ordain (one such), th ere is a n offence o f w r o n g d o in g / ' jj 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s (each) o rd ain ed one w h o h a d n o b o w l or robe. T h e y w a lk ed n a k e d for a lm sfo o d (to be put) in to th e ir hands. . , . ^ M onks, one w h o h a s no b o w l or robe sh ou ld n o t be ordained. W h o e v e r ' sh o u ld ordain (one such), th ere is an o ffen ce of w ro n g-d o in g/' |[ 3 I I N ow a t t h a t tim e m onks (each) o rd ain ed b y m eans of lending; a b o w l .1 W h en th e y w ere o rd ain ed , th e y returned (each one) his b o w l a n d w a lk ed fo r alm sfood (to be pu t) in to th e ir hands. . . , " M onks, one sh o u ld n o t o rd ain b y m eans o f lending- a b o w l. W h o e v e r sh ou ld (so) ord ain, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g doing/^ || 4 I I N ow a t th a t tim e m o n k s (each) o rd ain e d b y m eans o f lend* in g a robe. W h en th e y w e re ord ain ed , th e y re tu rn ed (each one) h is robe a n d w a lk ed n a k e d fo r alm sfood* - * " M onks, one sh ou ld n o t ord ain b y m eans of len d in g a robe. W h o e v e r sh ould (so) ord ain, there is an offence o f w ro n g d o in g ." II 5 II N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s (each) ordained b y m ean s o f lend ing a b o w l an d robe. W h en th e y w ere o rd ain ed , [90] t h e y re tu rn e d the b o w l and robe and w a lk ed n a k e d for alm sfoo d (to be put) in to th eir hands* . T " M onks, one sh ou ld n o t o rd ain b y m ean s of len d in g a b o w l a n d robe. W h o e v e r should (so) ord ain > th ere is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / J j6J | 70 || T o ld is th e P o rtio n on T w e n ty (Cases) w h e re one sh ou ld n o t ordain. N ow a t th a t tim e m on ks (each) le t go fo rth one w h o h a d his h an d s cu t off , . . h is fe e t cu t o ff * , , his h an d s a n d feet cu t off . . , his ears cu t off - . . h is nose . * _ his ears an d nose . , . 1 yaciiakena paitfnarby (using) a boivl that had been asked for, i.et borrowed by the candidates ior ordination.

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h is fingers . . * h is n a ils1 c u t o ff , , , w h o h ad th e ten d on s {of his feet) c u t . , . one w h o h a d w e b b e d fingers3 . . * a h u n ch b a ck . . , a d w a rf . . * one w h o h a d a g o itre * * * one w h o had been b ra n d e d 3 . _* one w h o h a d been scourged* * , . one w h o h a d been w ritte n a b o u t4 . * . one w h o h ad elep h an tiasis . * . one w ho w a s b a d ly ill . , . one w h o d isgraced an a s s e m b ly 6 (b y som e d e fo rm ity *) , * * one w h o w a s p u rb lin d 7 < - one w ith a crooked lim b . * , one w h o w as lam e - . * one p a ra ly se d d o w n one side - - . a crip ple . . * one w e a k from old age . . . one w h o w a s b lin d 7 _ ,- one w h o w a s d u m b * . . , one w h o w as d eaf* . . . one w h o w as blin d and d u m b . * . one w h o w as d e a f and d u m b . * . one w h o w a s b lin d an d d e a f and d u m b . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , fj r |j H e said : " M onks, one w ho has h a d h is h an d s c u t off should n o t b e le t go fo rth ; one w h o has h a d his fe e t cu t off . . * one w h o is b lin d an d d e a f and d u m b should n ot b e le t go fo rth . W h o e v e r should le t (one such) go fo rth , th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g /' |[ n T o ld is th e P o rtio n on T h irty -tw o (Cases) w h ere one sh ould n o t le t go fo rth [| 71 || T o ld is th e N in th P o rtio n fo r ^Repeating : t h a t on In h eritan ce
1 afa / sec J . F . T . S . 1884, p. 7 1 , i 3S 6 * p . 105. 1 fikzn&hiitthaJid,. w ith a h a n d lik e a &n.a.kc's hood. C f. hattkapka#.aka a t Vitt. ii, 107, *' h a n d s used a s an in stru m en t shaped like a sn ake's hood ft fo r s m o o th in g th e hair. V A . t o ? ) * " one w hose fingers w ere gro^vn to g e th e r like a t a t ' s w in g s S e e n o te t y A , K . Coonvara-sw a m y on t h e jd la la k kh a n a f " T h e " W e b b e d F in g er * o i B u d d h a * '. V o l. V II,. 1Q31, p* 365* where he is of th e opinion t h a t ja la does n o t m ean a w e b b in g co n n e c tin g t h e fingers, b u t refers t o th e th in lines of rosy Sight w h ich m a y be seen b etw een th e fingers w hen t h e y a i e h eld to g e th e r a n d t h e h a n d held u p to th e light,. T h e fingers of th e B u d d h a , as M a h a p u m ^ . w o u ld be s tr a ig h t an d r e g u la r ly fo r m e d , of o n e m easure, ekappamana* acco rd in g to th is or s-tgiu *r I t is ev e n p o ssib le as C o o m a r a sw a m y a d d s in a p o s ts c r ip t* " t h a t * h a v in g w ebb ed Angers- " represen ts th e e x a c t o p p o site of th e m eaning of th e origin al tahkkapa ^ J * C f. V tn . t. 76 {above, p- $5). * C f. V in + *75 (above, p* 95).

* p<iriSadusaka.
* G iv e n a t le n g th a t 1027 if* 7 T h e tw o w ord s for b lin d : ka&a a n d atfrfA-a, are used. B u . a t V A . 1030 s a y s th a t kdna m eans b lin d o f one o r b o th e y e s (and not m erely blind o f one). H e c ite s t h e M ah& paccarl Corny, a s asserting kd fie* t o m ean blind of o-n^. ey e and andha o f b o th , an d his cites t h * Great C&tny* as s a y in g t h a t andha m eans blin d from b i r t h ; he k e ep s th is e x p la n a tio n a t 10 31. "* P u rb lin d " and t h e n e x t t h ie e term s occu r a t V in . ii. go, A . r 107, ii. 85, iiL 385, 5 . j. 94, Pug. 5 1. * V A + 1031 e x p la in s t h a t if he w ere u n a b le t o s a y th e c o m p le te fo rm u la fo r g o in g for refuge, he co u ld n o t go iorih * ^*4 . 2031, if he could hear a lou d n oise he m ig h t go forth.

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s g a v e g u id a n ce to those w ho w ere unconscientious* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd - H e said : M onks, g u id an ce sh ou ld n o t be g iv e n to th ose w h o are unconscientious. W h o e v e r sh o u ld g iv e i t to (a n y sucb), th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g ," N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s liv e d tind er th e g u id a n ce o f th ose w ho w ere u n con scien tious ; these soon also b e ca m e unconscientiouSj d ep raved m onks. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : f< M onks, one sh o u ld n o t liv e u n d er th e g u id a n ce o f those w ho are u n con scien tiou s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) liv e , th ere is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g . j| x || T h en i t occurred to th e m o n k s : I t is Laid dow n b y th e L o rd th a t g u id a n ce sh o u ld n o t b e g iv e n to th o se w h o a re un conscientious, a n d th a t one sh o u ld n ot liv e u n d er th e g u id a n ce o f those w h o are un con scien tio u s. N o w , h o w are w e to kn ow w h o is con scien tious or w h o is u n co n scien tio u s ? T h e y to ld this m a tte r t o th e L o rd - H e sa id : " I allow you,, m o n b , to w a it fo r fo u r or five d a y s u n til (you can sa y ), * I know w h a t is th e n a tu re o f th e m o n k s1 '/* j| 2 || 72 || [91] N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k w a s go in g a lo n g a high road in th e K o s a la c o u n try. T h en it o ccu rred to th a t m o n k : " It is la id dow n b y th e L o rd t h a t one should not liv e in d ep en d e n tly -2 I a m in need of g u id a n ce 3 b u t I am goin g a lo n g a high-road. N o w w h a t line o f co n d u ct sh ou ld b e fo llo w ed b y me ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord . H e s a i d : " I a llo w a m onk, m onks, if he is go in g a lo n g a h igh -ro ad a n d is n o t receivin g g u id an ce to liv e in d e p e n d e n tly / ' || i || N o w a t th a t tu n e tw o m o n k s w ere go in g along a h igh -ro ad in the K o s a la co u n try. T h ese a rriv e d a t a certa in residen ce, and th ere one m o n k b e ca m e ill- T h e n it o ccu rred to th a t ill m o n k ; " I t is la id dow n b y th e L o rd th a t one sh o u ld n ot liv e in d ep en d en tly. I am in n eed o f g u id a n ce, b u t I am ill. N o w
1 bhihkhttsabh&gaia. Y A . 10 3 1, " U n t i l I k n o w from m on ks t h a t th e ir con scientiousn ess is shared b y th e m o n k g iv in g g u id a n c e Or, i& sabhagata equal t o sabJiava, t h e n a tu re (of a mo-nkj, a s I t a k e it t o be ?

a ahan c a m h i nisaya.hampiyom
K

* A b o v e , p> i o i ,

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OF

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w h a t lin e o f co n d u ct sh o u ld be follow ed b y m e ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " I allo w a m on k, m o n ks, if he is ill and is n o t receivin g g u id a n c e to liv e in d e p e n d e n tly ," || 2 || T h e n it occurred to th a t m o n k w h o w as te n d in g th e ill one : ,r I t is la id d o w n b y th e L o rd * . . I am in need o f guid ance b u t this m o n k is ilj. N o w w h a t line o f co n d u ct should be follow ed b y m e ? J > T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* He s a id : I allo w a m on k, m on ks, if he is ten d in g an ill one and is n o t re ce iv in g g u id a n ce , to liv e in d ep en d en t]y alth o u gh being req u ested .1 1] 3 || Now' a t th a t tim e a certa in m o n k w as sta y in g - in a forest a n d there cam e to be com fort* fo r h im in th is lod ging. T h en it o ccu rred to th is m o n k : I t is laid dow n b y th e L o rd th a t one sh ou ld n o t liv e in d ep en d en tly. I am in need o f g u id an ce, b u t I a m s ta y in g in a fo rest a n d there com es to b e co m fo rt fo r m e in th is lodging. N o w w h a t line o f con d uct sh o u ld be follow ed b y m e ? Jl T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the Lord- H e sa id : ** I allow a m onk, m onks, if he is a forest-d w eller an d is th in k in g a b o u t a b id in g in co m fo rt3 and is n ot receivin g guidance* to liv e in d ep en d en tly, th in kin g : * I f a su itab le g iv e r o f g u id a n ce com es along, I w ill liv e u n d er his guid ance V ' II4 B 73 I I N o w a t th a t tim e (a person) w ish ed for o rd in ation from th e v e n e ra b le K a ssa p a th e G reat.* T h en th e ven erab le K a ssa p a th e G re at sent a m essage to th e ven erable A n a n d a , s a y in g : '* L e t A n a n d a com e, he w ill proclaim 5 this (person)." T he
B y th e L lJ one, V A * 032+ T h a t is* as V A . says, th e ill manic m a y ask the other t o req u est him t o g iv e g u id a n ce : b u t if th rou gh pride he does n o t a sk , he m a y go a w a y . W e m u st th erefore assu m e th a t i f h s ta y s w , iih th e in va lid b u t does n o t t a k e g u id a n ce from him , h e m a y liv e in d ep en d en tly of gu[dance.

* phasu^ V A * 1032, there comes to be com lort in regard to obtaining tranquillity and vision
8 phasuvikara ; cfw brah*nGu\har<kY and th e m on k w h o w as phastcvikarika, b e lo w 373- AfV. v ii. 10. i. * At i* 23 -called " c h ie f of th o s e w h o u p h old th e a sc e tic p ractices f*. V erses a t Tftag. 10 51-10 9 0 , H e ex c h a n g e d robes, w ith G o ta m a . S . ii. 221. 1 in te ch n ica l m ea n in g of p ro cla im in g th e resolu tion three tim es a fte r th e m o tio n fo r ord atai& g a person had been p u t before am O rder. Cf.

MV- I. 28, j-e.

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119

ven e ra b le A n a n d a sp o k e t h u s : " I am n o t a b le t o p ro n o u n ce1 th e eld er's* nam e {for} th e eid er is m y te a ch er4," [ 92T | T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L ord- H e said : n I a llo w yo u , m o n ks, to p ro cla im m e re ly b y c la n (-n a m e)/' (I* II . N o w a t th a t tim e tw o (persons) w ish ed fo r o rd in a tio n fro m th e ven era b le K a s s a p a th e Great* T h ese qu arrelled , s a y i n g : ** I w ill b e o rd ain ed first, I w ill be o rd ain ed fir s t/ T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e LoTd* H e said : " T a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to m a k e tw o p ro cla m a tio n s to g e th e r/ ' Sl2|| N o w a t th a t tim e there w ere those w ish in g fo r o rd in a tio n fro m se ve ra l elders- T h ese quarrelled* sa y in g : " I w ill be ord ain ed first, I w ill b e o rd ain e d fir s t/ ' T h e elders sp ok e th u s : MC om e, y o u r reveren ces, w e a re m a k in g a ll th e p ro clam atio n s to g e th e r/ ' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id ; " I a llo w yo u , m onks, to m a k e tw o o r th ree p ro cla m a tio n s to g e th e r if th ere is one p recep to r, b u t n ot i f th e re are d ifferen t p re c e p to rs / ' \ \ 3 |j 74 | | N o w a t th a t tim e th e ven erab le K a ss a p a th e B o y 1 b e cam e ord ain ed tw e n ty y e a rs a fte r his co n cep tio n . T h e n it o ccu rred to th e ven era b le K a ss a p a th e B o y : 4 * I t is la id d o w n b y the
1 gahetum,. a word w ith a v a r ie t y oi m ea n in g s : h ere m e a n in g to pro n ou n ce *p in sense of t o ta k e cf. ** t o ta k e h is n am e in v a in S in c e A n a n d a calls K a s s a p a his guru {gartt me), a n d il w e e q u a te guru w ith ac&riya, sp ir itu a l te a ch cr or fa th e r {cf. p itucifta, V in . i. 45, 6o), it w as Hot S u itab le lo r A n a n d a t o fl t a k e " ^pronounce) h is " fa th e r 's *" nam e* T h e u se oi th e gotta (clan ) iiam-e is leas in tim a te a n d therefore perm issible- C f. K a U f. U p . II . ir * 7 w here th e la th e r ^ ta k e s his son's n am e % ndm a asya grnhati, I a m In d eb ted fo r th is n o te to A - K t C o o m a rasw a m y , M a h lk a s s a p a * s referen ce to A n a n d a as kumarah^, y o n n g b o y , a t 5 1 * ii. 218, should also be n oted . * I .e r M aJiSkassapas* a s sta te d a t T exts i. 4 18 . F o r in m a k in g t h e pro clam atio n s, A n a n d a w ou ld h a v e h a d t o s a y t h a t s o -a n d -so w ished t o b e ordained b y K a ssap a, 1 p r o b a b ly e q u iv a le n t t o guru, s p ir itu a l te a ch e r. C f _ garunissaya a t V in . ii. 303. * K u ir^ r a k a s sa p a . K u m d r a h a s th e m ea n in g b o th o f b o y a n d o f prin ce, K vrm drakassapa " w e n t fo rth *' w h en h e w as o n ly seven y e a r s oJd And he h a d been reared b y a k in g sin ce his b ir th b y a man ; see A A . i. 18 4 , M A _ ii, 120, T h a g A . (Pxs. hreth. p r I4 7 f.jp & H A . iii. 144, Ja.. i. 148. V erses a r e ascribed to h im a t Thag, 201-302. C a lled " c h ie f o f th o se w h o are v e r s a tile sp eak ers " at 34- T h e S u ita ( M . i. 143) w a s spoketi t o K^m Sarakassapa ; th e igrodhandgajattikii {Jvo, 12) an d D h p . 160 on a c c o u n t o f h is m other.

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L o rd th a t an in d iv id u a l w h o is under tw e n ty y e a rs o f age should n o t be o rd ain ed ,1 a n d I am tw e n ty y e a rs from m y co n cep tion . N o w am I o rd ain e d 4 o r a m I not ord ained ? T h e y told th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said : ** W h en in his m o th er's w o m b th e first th o u g h t h a s arisen, th e first consciousness a p p ea red ,3 his b irth is (to be reck on ed as) fro m th a t tim e . I a llo w y o u , m onks, to ord ain one w h o is t w e n ty y e a rs o f age from his conception/* ]| i \ \ 75 || N o w a t th a t tim e ordained (monks) w ere to b e seen who w ere (afflicted by) le p ro sy a n d bo ils a n d eczem a a n d con sum p tion a n d e p ile p sy .4 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said ; " I a llo w y o u , m onks, w h en one is b e in g o rd ain ed to a sk him a b o u t th in g s w hich are stu m b lin g -b lo ck s5 for him .* A n d th u s, m onks, should he b e asked : H a v e y o u diseases Like th is ; le p ro sy , boils, eczem a, consum ption, e p ilep sy ? A re y o u a h u m an b e in g ? A re yo u a m an ? A r e y o u a freem an? A re y o u w ith o u t d e b ts ? A re yo u n o t in th e ro y a l service ? H a v e y o u y o u r p a re n ts' co n sen t ? A re yo u full tw e n ty yea rs o f a g e ? A r e y o u c o m p le te a s to b o w l a n d robes ? W h a t is y o u r nam e ? W h a t is th e nam e o f y o u r p re cep to r ? || r |[ N o w a t th a t tim e m on ks a sk e d those w ish in g for ordination, b u t w h o w e re n ot in stru cted , a b o u t th e thin gs w h ich are stu m b lin g-b locks. T h o se w ish in g fo r o rd in ation w ere a t a loss, th e y w ere abashed , th e y w ere un able to re p ly . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord- H e said : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, h a v in g in stru cted first, atterw ard s [93] to a sk abo u t th e th in g s w h ich are stu m b lin g -b lo ck s/ ' T h e y in stru cted ju st th ere in th e m id st o f th e O rder. A s before, those w ish in g fo r o rd in a tio n w ere a t a loss, th e y w ere abashed , th e y w ere un able to rep ly. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd , H e s a i d :
1 P ic , L X V , and above,, p. 9^. 4 Cf. Pile. L X V where it is stated that if * person is ordained while he is under tw en ty he is not (really) ordained. He him.self incurs no offence, u t there E s an offence lor the monies ordain him. 9 C f. definition of m attu&satiggaiM , h u m an being, at Via-. iii. 73. * Cf, above. I, 39 . 1. * antarftyike dham tne , cf. Vin+ iv, J34 (?,>. Hi, 21, where see n. 5).
C / r i n ii* 271 f. fo r th e q u e s t io n s p u t to n u n s. o n t h e ir o rd in a tio n -

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I allo w y o u , m o n ks, h a v in g in stru c te d aside, to a sk a b o u t th e th in g s w h ich are stu m b lin g -b lo ck s in th e m id st o f th e Order* A n d th u s, m o n ks, sh o u ld one b e in stru c te d : F ir s t, h e sh o u ld be in v ite d to ch o o se1 a p re cep to r ; h a v in g in v ite d h im t o choose a p recep tor, a b o w l an d ro b es sh o u ld b e p o in te d o u t t o him (w ith th e words) : ' T h is is a b o w l fo r you* th is is a n o u te r clo a k , th is is a n u p p e r ro be, th is is an in n e r r o b e ; g o a n d s ta n d in such a n d su ch a p la c e V ' J J3 || Ig n o ra n t, in exp erie n ced (m onks) in stru c te d th em . T h o se w ish in g fo r o rd in a tio n , b u t w h o w ere n o t (properly) in stru cte d , w ere a t a loss, th e y w ere ab a sh ed , t h e y w ere un able t o rep ly. T h e y t o ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : M onks, one sh ou ld n o t be in stru c te d b y an ign oran t, in exp erien ced (monk). W h o e v e r (such) sh o u ld in stru c t, th ere is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g , I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to in stru ct b y m ean s o f an exp erien ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k ." | | 4 || T h o se w h o w ere n o t a greed u p o n in stru cte d . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e s a i d : " M on ks, one sh o u ld n o t b e in stru c te d b y one w h o is n o t a g re e d u p o n . W h o e v e r (such) sh o u ld in stru c t, th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ron g-d oin g. I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to in stru ct b y m ean s o f one w h o is a g reed upon . A n d th u s, m o n ks, sh ou ld he be agreed upon : oneself m a y b e a g ree d upon b y oneself o r a n o th e r m a y b e agreed u p o n b y another*. A n d h o w is oneself t o b e a g reed u p o n b y o n e se lf ? T h e O rd er sh ou ld be in fo rm ed b y an e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y i n g : * H on ou red sirs, le t th e O rd er h ea r m e. So a n d so w ish es fo r o rd in atio n from th e v e n e ra b le so a n d so. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, I w o u ld in stru c t so a n d so / T h u s m a y on eself be a g ree d u p o n b y oneself. \] 5 || 4 * A n d h o w is a n o th e r t o b e a g ree d u p o n b y a n o th e r ? T h e O rd er sh ou ld b e in fo rm ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k, sa y in g : f H on oured sirs, le t th e O rd er h e a r m e. So an d so w ishes fo r ord in atio n fro m th e v e n e ra b le so an d so* I f i t seetns rig h t t o th e O rd er, so a n d so co u ld in stru c t so an d so / T h u s m a y an o th er b e a g reed upon b y an o th e r. [[ 6 [ | " T h e m o n k w h o is a g ree d upon , h a v in g a p p ro ach ed th e one w h o w ish es fo r o rd in atio n , sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to h im : ' L isten ,
1 gahapctabbo ; cf, gahapaha a t V in , iii. 246 ( B .D . ii. 13 2 , w here see n. 1). 1 C f. b elo w , I I , 15. 6.

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so a n d so. T h is is for y o u a tim e for tr u th (-speaking), a tim e fo r fa c t (-speaking)- W h e n I am a sk in g yo n in th e m idst o f th e O rd er a b o u t w h a t is ,1 y o u sh o u ld sa y , * I t is / if i t is so ; y o u sh ou ld s a y , 4 I t is n o t,1 if it is n o t so. D o n ot ha a t a loss, do n o t b e ab a sh ed . T h u s I w ill a s k 2 yo u : 4 H a ve y o u diseases lik e th is . . . W h a t is y o u r p re c e p to r's nam e ? 1 " I! 7 If T h e y * a rriv e d to g e th e r. T h e y sh o u ld n o t a rriv e to g eth er. T h e in stru c to r h a v in g com e first, th e O rd er sh ou ld b e in form ed b y h im , s a y in g : H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. So a n d so w ish es for o rd in atio n from th e ven erab le so and so. [94] H e h a s been in stru cte d b y m e. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, let so a n d so c o m e " H e sh ould b e to ld : " C o m e H a v in g m ad e h im arran ge h is u p p er robe o ve r one shoulder, h a v in g m ad e h im honour th e m o n k s1 feet, h a v in g m a d e him sit dow n on his haun ch es, h a v in g m ade him sa lu te w ith jo in ed p alm s, he sh o u ld b e m a d e t o ask for o rd in atio n , s a y i n g : " H on oured sirs,, I a sk th e O rd er for o rd in a tio n ; hon oured sirs, m a y th e O rd er ra ise m e u p o u t o f com p assio n ,4 A n d a second tim e , h onoured sirs, - . . A n d a th ird tim e , h o n o u red sirs, I ask th e O rder fo r ord in atio n ; honoured sirs, m a y th e O rd er raise m e u p o u t o f co m p asso n /' II 8 II T h e O rd er should b e in fo rm ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m on k, s a y i n g ; 4f H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er listen t o me. T h is one, so an d so, w ish es fo r o rd in atio n from th e venerable so and so. I f i t seem s rig h t t o th e O rd er I could a s k so a n d so ab o u t th e th in g s w h ich are stu m b lin g-b locks. L isten , so a n d so. T h is is for y o u a tim e fo r tr u th (-speaking) > a tim e fo r fa c t
1 pant j&tettn. V A . 3033 says ibout that which is produced, j& a * has arisen, is existing in your body. This can only refer to the questions on the diseases. H ie Pali in such cases is idiomatic : " Is there for you a disease ? " So O tJC could say, " I am asking you about what exists* yarp jd ia m (as a disease for you], and you should say there is, atthi {such a disease for me) it being sor SQiitam ; there is not, n'atthi, it being not so, asantam ,f_ But since in fact n o t all the questions are about diseases* T have translated as above, the better to emphasise the general necessity to answer all the questions truthfully in accordance with the preliminary reminder, *' This- is a time ior truth and fact The instructor and his candidate* Nothing to show whether the Lord is supposed to continue to give these instructions, or whether they are incorporated without being attributed to him.
* C f. a ho ve, I. 29 . 2,

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(-speaking). I am a s k in g y o u a b o u t w h a t is. Y o u sh ould sa y , ' I t is ry if it is s o ; y o u sh ou ld s a y h * I t is n o t/ i f it is n o t so. H a v e y o u diseases lik e t h i s : . . , W h a t is y o u r p re c e p to r's nam e ? [f g [| T h e O rd er should b e in fo rm ed b y an experien ced , co m p e te n t m o n k , sa y in g : " H o n o u red sirst le t th e O rd er h e a r m e. T h is one, so a n d so, w ish es for o rd in a tio n from th e v e n e ra b le so a n d so. H e is q u ite ptire in re g a rd to th e th in g s w h ich are stu m b lin g -b lo ck s, h e is com p lete a s to b o w l a n d robes* So a n d so is a sk in g the O rd er fo r ord in atio n b y m eans o f th e p re cep to r so an d so* I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, le t th e O rd er ordain so an d so b y m ean s o f th e p recep to r so an d so. T h is is th e m otion . ]| i c |[ " H on ou red sirs, le t th e O rder h ea r m e, T h is one, so a n d s o ( w ishes fo r o rd in atio n from th e ve n e ra b le so an d so. H e is q u ite pure in regard to th e th in g s w h ic h a re stu m b lin g -b lo ck s, he is co m p lete as to bow] a n d robes. So a n d so is a s k in g th e O rder fo r o rd in ato n b y m eans o f th e p recep to r so an d so. T h e O rd er is o rd ain in g so a n d so b y m ean s o f th e p re cep to r so a n d so* I f th e o rd in a tio n o f so an d so b y m ean s o f th e p re cep to r so and so is p lea sin g t o th e v e n e ra b le on es, le t th em be s ile n t ; h e to w hom it is n o t p lea sin g sh o u ld sp ea k . [Ji x ]| ** A n d a second tim e I sp ea k fo rth th is m a tte r . . - A n d a th ird tim e I sp e a k fo rth th is m a tte r _ . _ h e to w hom i t is n o t pleasin g sh o u ld sp ea k . S o an d so is b ein g o rd ain ed b y th e O rd er b y m ean s o f th e p recep to r so an d so. I t is p le a sin g to th e O rder, th erefo re it is silent* T h u s do I u n d erstan d this/* |[ j a y 70 || T o ld is th e (F orm al) A c t o f O rd in atio n . T h e sh adow sh o u ld be m e a su re d 1 a t once, th e le n g th o f th e season* sh ou ld b e exp la in ed , th e portion o f th e day sh ould
1 T h is m u st m ean th e s h a d o w of t h e c a n d id a te , c a s t b y th e sun* V A . 1033 sa y s th e sh ad o w should be m easu red w ith th e w ord s, I t is th e le n g th o one m an or tw o m en, ekapcrisd dveporisa. C j . p p risa m e a n in g ** h e ig h t o f a m a n " a t M , i. 74 , 187, 365. * V A . 1033 t h e season s are th e rains, t h e co ld w eath er, t h e h o t w eath er. I f w h ich eve r season i t is is n o t en ded, t h a t season Is in co m p le te b y so m a n y d a y s " , th u s th e num ber o f d a y s rem ain in g in t h a t season,, or ** t h e e x a c t season (/VE.-D*) sh o u ld be exp lain ed . * V A , 1033, m o rn in g c r aftern oon .

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b e explained* th e fo rm u la 1 should be e xp lain ed , [95] th e fou r resources should be e x p la in e d (w ith th e words) : 1 G oin g fo rth is on acco u n t o f m e a ls o f scraps , . (as at M V. I. 30. 4) , . - T h ese a re e x tr a a cq u isitio n s : ghee, fresh b u tte r, oil, h o n e y , m olasses/ |] 1 ]| 77 || T o ld are th e F o u r R esources N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks, h a v in g ordained a c e rta in m o n k, w en t a w a y le a v in g him alone. A fte rw a rd s as he w a s going a lo n g alone* he m et his form er w ife on th e w a y . She sp oke th u s : W h a t, h a v e yo u n o w gone fo rth ? " " Y e s , I h a v e gone fo r th / ' She s a i d : " S e x u a l interco u rse is d ifficu lt fo r th o se w h o h a v e gone forth . Com e ajid in d u lg e in sexu a l in terco u rse. H a v in g in d u lged in sexu a l in tercourse w ith h er3 he a rriv ed late* M onks sp o k e th u s : *' W h a t w ere y o u , y o u r reveren ce, d o in g for such a lo n g tim e ? ** |[ 1 ]| T h e n this m o n k to ld th is m a tte r to th e m on ks. T h e m onks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : *' I a llo w yo n , m onks, h a v in g ord ained (a monk)* to g iv e hijxi a com panion a n d to cjcplain fo u r th in gs w h ich arc not to b e done* W h en a m o n k is ordained he sh ould n o t in d u lge in sexu al intercourse, eve n w ith an a n im a l,2 W h a te v e r m onk in d u lg es in sex u a l intercourse, he becom es not a (true) recluse, not a son o f th e S a k y an s. A s a m an w ith h is head cu t off could n ot becom e one to liv e b y th a t b o d ily connection, even so a m o n k, h a v in g ind ulged in Sexual intercourse, becom es not a (true) reclu se, not a son o f th e S a k y a n s .3 T h is is a th in g not to b e done b y y o u as lo n g as life lasts. || 2 || " W h e n a m o n k is o rd ain ed he should n o t ta k e b y th e ft w h a t has n o t been g iv e n , even if it is o n ly a blad e o f grass.* W h a te v e r m on k takes b y th e ft a pada* or th e w o rth o f a pdda o r m ore th a n a pdda th a t has n o t been g iv e n , he becom es n ot
1 sangiii. c h a n tin g to geth er. A c c o r d in g ta V A . E034P h a v in g d one a ll th is to g e th e r h e should b e a sk ed a b o u t h is m easure, th e season a n d p ortion o f th e d a y in order th a t he m igh t g iv e th e correct a n sw ers a n d so m ake it clear th a t h e h a s p r o p e r ly u n d ersto o d hia a g e as a m em b er o f t h e O rder. 1 Par, 1P Vin, iiC az* * V in . iii. z 3 .

* Par. II*
* &ee n o te a t B , D . i* ? i .

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a (true) recluse, n o t a son o f th e S a k y a n s, A s a w ith ered leaf, freed from its s ta lk , co u ld n o t becom e green a g a in , even so a m o n k , h a v in g ta k e n b y th e ft a pdda o r th e w o rth o f a pdda or m ore th a n a pdda th a t w a s not g iv en , becom es n ot a (true) recluse, n o t a son o f th e S a k y a n s .1 T h is [96] is a th in g n o t to b e done b y y o u as lo n g as life la sts. [| 3 | | " W h e n a m on k is o rd ain ed he sh o u ld n o t in te n tio n a lly d e p riv e a liv in g th in g o f life, e v e n i f it is o n ly an a n t.2 W h a t e v e r m o n k d e p riv es a h u m an b e in g o f life e ve n d o w n to causin g a b o rtio n ,3 h e becom es n ot a (true) recluse, not a son o f th e S a k y a n s. A s a fla t sto n e r b ro k en in h alf, becom es (som ething) n o t to be p u t to g eth e r a g ain , even so a m o n k , h a v in g in te n tio n a lly d e p riv ed a h u m an b e in g o f life, becom es n o t a (true) reclusej not a son o f th e S a k y a n s ,4 T h is is a th in g n o t t o be done b y y o u as lo n g as life la sts, || 4 j| W h en a m o n k is o rd ain ed h e sh o u ld not la y claim to a s ta te o f fu rth er-m en , e ve n th in k in g ; ' I d e lig h t in so litu d e \ 5 W h a te v e r m o n k , o f e v il desires, filled w ith co vetou sn ess, la y s claim t o a sta te o f fu rth er-m en w h ich is n o n -existen t, n o t a fa c t* to m e d ita tio n or to a d eliv era n ce or to c o n te m p la tio n or to an a tta in m en t or to a w a y or to a f i u i t 5 he becom es n o t a (true) recluse* n ot a son o f th e S a k y a n s. A s a p a lm y ra p alm , c u t o ff a t th e cro w n , c o u ld n o t becom e one for fu rth e r g ro w th ,8 even so a m o n k, o f e v il desires, filled w ith co v e to u s ness, h a v in g cla im ed a s ta te o f fu rth er-m en w h ich is n on e x iste n t, n o t a fa c t, becom es n o t a ftrue) reclu se, n o t a son of th e S a k y a n s. T h is is a th in g n o t to b e d one b y yo u as lo n g as life la s ts .J* [ |5 1 ] T o ld a re the F o u r T h in g s w h ich are n o t to be done. |] 7S ]|

N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , su sp e n d e d s fo r n o t seeing an offence, le ft th e O rd er, (hut) h a v in g com e b a c k a g a in , he


1 C f. iii. 47* * P a r. I l l (lor h u m a n bein gs) a n d P a c , L X I (for anim als),

* Vin. iiL 83
* V in . H E . 74.

* See Vin. iii. Qij where " delight in solitude for th e mind devoid of the hindrances *p occurs in definition ot 'r state of furtber-m^n " , * V in . iai. 90, where such a one is called the " chief great thief 7 C/< the longer List of concepts enumerated id defiDitidH of state of iu rth e r-m en " a t V in . iii. gr* 93. * V in . iii. <52,
* vhkhitta, Cf+ iv . 115., 13 7 , a i S a n d see iii. 2.S, n. 4*

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a sk e d th e m o n ks for o rd in atio n . T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e Lord- H e said : T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a m o n k , suspended fo r n ot seein g an offence, lea ves th e O rd er, (but) h a v in g com e b a ck again , a sk s th e m on ks for ord in atio n . T h e y sh o u ld sp eak th u s to him : ' W ill yo n see th is offence? ' I f he s a y s : f I w ill see it he m a y be Jet go fo rth . I f he s a y s : - I w ill n o t see it % he sh o u ld n ot b e le t go fo rth . |[ i ]\ ** H a v in g le t h im go fo rth th e y should s a y (to him) ; ' W ill y o u see this offence ? * I f he sa y s : * I w ill see it % he m a y be ordained- I f he s a y s : ' I w ill n o t see it he sh ou ld n o t he ordained. H a v in g o rd ain ed h im , th e y should s a y : 4 W ill y o u see this offence ? * I f he sa y s : f I w ill see it he m a y b e resto red .1 I f he sa y s : ' I w ill n o t see it he should n ot be restored. H a v in g restored h im , th e y sh ould s a y : * D o y o u see th is offence ? * I f he sees it , th a t is good ; if he does not see it, he m a y be suspended again if i t possible to o b ta in u n a n im ity * ; i f it is n o t possible to ob tain u n a n im ity th ere is no offence in eatin g w ith , in bein g in com m union w ith (him ).3 j| 2 [ 1 " T h is is a tase, monks* w h ere a m o n k, suspended fo r n o t m a k in g am en d s for an offence, le a ve s th e O rd er (but) h a v in g com e b a c k a g ain , asks th e m onks fo r ordination. T h e y sh ou ld sp eak thus to h im : f W ill y o u m ake am end s fo r th is offence ? * I f he s a y s : ' 1 w ill m a k e am ends \ [97] he m a y b e le t go fo rth . - . {as in |[ 2 |j reading m ake am ends for instead o f see) . . . in b ein g in com m union w ith (him), [j 3 ]| r* T h is is a case* m on ks, w h ere a m onk, suspend ed for n ot g iv in g u p a w ro n g v ie w , leaves th e O rd er (but) h a v in g com e b ack again* asks th e m onks fo r o rd in ation . T h e y sh ould sp eak th u s to him r 1 W ill y o u g ive up this w rong v ie w ? ' I f he sa y s : ' I w ill g iv e it up JF he m a y be le t go forth . . . {as in || 2 || reading g iv e up instead o f see) - * * in b ein g in com m union w ith (him). [] 4 j| 79 J | T h e G reat S e ctio n 4 : th e F irs t

1 On. 0saritt t o r e s t o f e a f t e r s e e in g an o ffe n c e , tJidtking a m e n d s fo r i t a a d g i v i n g u p a ia ls e v ie w , see B.D+ iii. 23 t n. 4., 1 1 ,$. a m o n g t b e tn o n k s , l o r t h is f u r th e r ^ u sp e a sio a , * S o B u . a t V A . 10 34, terra saddkim t a n d a s m a y b e d e d u c e d fr o m P& c. L .X I X a n d it s D M C om y's d e fin itio n o f " h a s n o t a c t e d a c c o r d in g to t h e r u t e 'J, * M a h a k t ia n d h a k a . C a lle d P a b b a jj ik lt h a a d f r a k a a t JIM . ii. 363*

m a h

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A s to g re a t m a tte rs in th e V in a y a , to b rin g in g ease to th e w e ll-b e h a v ed b o th in re stra in t o f e v il d esires a n d in striv in g s for conscien tiousness, A n d also b e a rin g in m in d th e in stru ctio n w h ich is w ith in th e ra n g e o f th e a ll-k n o w in g co n qu ero r, in a realm w h ic h h a s no Other, in peace from b o n d a ge, in w h a t is w ell la id d o w n , in th a t w h ich has no d o u b t, I n Sectio n in V in a y a , as w e ll as in P a riv a ra an d in H ca d in g (s)J th e good fo llo w s clo se ly as th o u g h im ita tin g . W h o does n o t u n d e rsta n d c a ttle does n o t g u a rd th e herd, so not. k n o w in g m o ra l h a b it, how ca n he g u a rd re stra in t ? A lth o u g h th e S u tta n ta s a n d A b h id h a m m a b e fo rg o tte n , fo r a ll tim e [98] th e te a ch in g p ersists w h ile V in a y a is n o t d e stro ye d . T h e refo re , b ecau sc firm ly su p p o rted , I w ill d eclare th e k e y in regu la r sequence a cco rd in g to (m y) kn ow led ge. L isten w h ile I sp eak. T h e m a tte r, th e p ro v e n a n ce 1, th e offence, th e m eth o d s an d th e a b bre v ia tio n s i t is n o t e a sy n ot to le a v e so m eth in g o u t ; d iscern th a t from th e m ethodA w a k e n in g , a n d th e R a j& y a ta n a , th e G o a th e rd s', S a h a m p a ti B ra h m a , A la ra , U d d a k a , a n d m onks, U p a k a th e seer* K o n d a n n a , V a p p a , B h a d d iy a an d M ah an am a, A ssa ji, Y a s a , four, fifty* all, he sen t o u t (on tour), th e qu arters, T h e s u b je c t,2 a s t o M ara, an d th e th ir ty , a t U ru v e la , th re e m a tte d h air ascetics, fire-room , th e G reat K in g s, S a k k a , a n d B ra h m a , th e en tire (population), R a g -ro b e, a ta n k , a n d a sto n e, kakudha-{tree)t a ston e, a rose-apple* a n d a m a n g a , em blic m y ro b a la m , he b ro u g h t a flow er from th e C oral T ree,
1 nidaw t. T h is u s u a lly app ears in t h e to m ean t h e p la c e 'where th e L o r d w as s ta y in g w hen su ch c o n d u c t occurred a s led to t h e fram in g o f a rule or allo w an ce, th u s th e " p r o v e n a n c e o f a rule or allo w an ce. S e c also K . S . iii, In tr. x ff. ; K . S . iv , In tr . x i v f. 1 vattku-m. A p p e a r in g to refer to 12 . 2-4, t h e g o in g forth a n d ord in ation fo rm u la b y th e throe refuges, G oin& fo rth a n d O r d in a tio n form th e s u b je c t m a tte r of S ectio n I o f th e M &h&vagga*

128

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' K a ssa p a , le t th em b e chopp ed , le t th e m be k in d le d , a n d let th em b e e xtin g u ish ed r, th e y p lu n g ed into* fire-vesselsj ra in , G a y a , a n d th e P a lm G ro v e , (K in g of) M agad h a, U p a tissa , K o lita , an d d istin g u ish ed (young m en), th e goin g fo rth , w ro n g ly dressed, d ism issal, a n d th e le a n w re tch e d brahm an, He in d u lg ed in b a d h a b its, th e stom ach* th e b rah m an y o u th , a gro u p , y e a r 's sta n d in g , b y th e ig n o ra n t, g o in g a w a y , te n y e a rs' sta n d in g , gu id an ce, T h e y d id n o t co n d u ct th em selves (properly), to dism iss, ign o ra n t, n u llification , five, six, and w h o ev er else, a n d n a k ed , n o t w ith (his hair) c u t off, m a tte d h air ascetic, a S a k y a n , F iv e d iseases am ong th e M agad hese, se rvice,1 a th ie f (and) fingers, a n d (the K in g of) M a g a d h a d ecreed, ja il, w ritte n ab o u t, scourged, B ra n d e d , d eb to r, and a sla v e , d o se -sh a v in g , U p a li, sn ak e (-w ind d isease),2 a fa m ily w ith fa ith , a n d K a n tfa k a , a n d th e n crow d ed up, A b o u t how to li v e ,3 th e b o y , train in gs, an d th e y were,* N o w how ? en tire, b y m o u th , p recep to rs, lu rin g a w a y , K a n ^ a k a , E u n u c h , t h e f t ,* go in g o v e r to, an d a sn ake, on a m other, a fa th e r, p e rfe cte d ones, a nun, sch ism atic, con cern in g b lo o d ,T h erm a p h ro d ite ,8 W ith o u t a p r e c e p to r th ro u g h an O rd er, a gro u p , eunuch, w ith o u t a bow l,
1 T e x t read s tfAo. O ld e n b e rg , V in . i. 373 th in k s w e o u gh t to rea d bhafo (for raj abhata in 4 0 . 3). 1 S ee I . 5 0 * j ; 5 1 . t, 9 valthitmhi, i.e. in d ep en den ce for fiv e y e a r s or for life, I, 53 . 4. C in g . e d n . vatthusmzTfi. 4 viha ta n tif as in I. 5 7 . I* * I*e, in co m m u n io n b y th eft* I. 62 ~ 3, * I.e . g o in g o ver to (another) sect, I . 6 2 . 3. T ruktrena, here r e p la c in g lokitupp&dako o i I . 67 * i j th e shedder o f a {ialhdgaia's) blood. H H ere ca lle d o n ly vyaHjana (a cc o m p a n y in g a ttrib u te* d is tin c tiv e ch a r a c te r istic ) in stead o f ubhatovyaiijanaka as a t 1. 6 5 . I .

M A H A V A G G A

129

w ith o u t a ro b e, b o th th e se , th e n th o se th ree on w h a t w as len t, H a n d s, fe e t, h an d s a n d fe e t, e a ts, nose* b o th th ese, fingers, nailSj ten d o n s, w e b b e d h an d s, a n d a h u n ch -b ack , d w a rf, H a v in g g o itre, and th e n a b ra n d ed one, scourged, w ritte n a b o u t, e le p h a n tia sis, b a d ly (ill), a n d on e w h o d isg races a n a ssem b ly , b lin d , a n d ju s t th en one w ith a c ro o k e d lim b , [99] A n d th en a la m e c u e , p a ra ly s e d d o w n one side, w ith a crip p le, old a g e, b lin d from b irth , d u m b , d e a f, b lin d a n d d u m b , and w h a t is th e re to , W h a te v e r is ca lled b lin d a n d d u m b , a n d th en d u m b a n d d e a f, A n d b lin d a n d d u m b a n d d e af, a n d g u id a n ce to th e unconscientious, A n d one sh o u ld (not) liv e , w h a t is done on a jo u r n e y ,1 b e in g a sked , w ishing' for, 'l e t him com e V t h e y q u a rre lle d ,3 if th ere is one p recep tor, K a ssa p a , A n d o rd ain ed (monks) w ere t o b e seen p ressin g a b o u t diseases, th e u n in stru cte d w ere a t a loss, in stru c tio n ju s t th e re . A n d th e n in th e O rder, th e n a n ig n o ra n t one, a n d n o t agreed upon, to g eth e r, th e ' m ay-it-raise-{m e-) up ' o rd in ation , resource, alo n e, th e three*4 I n th is Sectio n a re one h u n d red an d se v e n ty -tw o item s. T o ld is th e F ir s t K e y , th a t t o th e G re a t S ectio n [100]

1 kaiaddh&na, referring to 7ft. I, 2. C in g . edn, reads iaihdddJidnxnt. * F o llo w in g agacchaiu of C in g , edn* ^ 7 4 * . i p in s te a d o f dgacchantam, s vivad&rtti (w ith v.t. vivddentiw V in . i 373). 4 D o u b tle ss referrin g t o (1) n o t seein g an offence, (2) n o t m a k in g am en d s fo r a n offence, (3) n o t g iv in g u p a w io n g v ie w (each, a g ro u n d fo r a m o n k s suspension ; an d their opposites; ea ch b ein g a g ro u n d fo r his resto ratio n ) d e a lt w ith a t I. 7 9 . 2-4.

130

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GREAT

D IV IS IO N

(M A H A V A G G A )

II

A t one tim e th e aw ak en ed on e, th e L o rd w a s s ta y in g near R a ja g a h a on M o u n t V u ltu re P e a k , N o w a t th a t tim e w anderers belo n gin g to o th e r sects, h a v in g co llected to g e th e r on th e fo u rteen th , fifteenth *and e ig h th d a y s o f th e h a lf-m o n th ,1 spoke dhamma.2 P e o p le ca m e u p t o th e m to h ea r dhamma. T h e y g a in e d affection for th e w an d erers b elo n gin g to oth er sects, th e y g ain ed fa ith (in them }, th e w and erers b elo n gin g to o th e r sects g a in ed a d h e ren ts,4 |[ I |f T h e n reason in g arose th u s in th e m in d o f K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a as he w a s m e d ita tin g in s e c lu s io n : A t present w an d erers b elo n g in g to o th e r sects, h a v in g co lle cted to g e th e r on th e fo u rteen th , fifte e n th a n d e ig h th d a y s o f th e h a lf-m o n th , sp ea k dhamma. T h ese people g o up to th e m to h ea r dhamma. T h e y g a in affectio n fa r th e w a n derers b elo n g in g to o th e r sects, th e y g a in fa ith (in th em ), th e w an d erers b e lo n g in g t o o th e r sects g a in ad h eren ts. Sup pose th e m asters sh ould also collect to g eth e r on th e fo u rteen th , fifte e n th an d eig h th d a y s o f th e h a lf-m o n th ? J' |] 2 \ [ T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M agad h a ap p ro ach ed the L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , he sa t d o w n a t a resp ectfu l d istan ce. A s he w a s sittin g d o w n a t a resp ectfu l d istan ce. K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M agad h a spoke th u s to th e L o rd : N o w , L o rd , a s I w a s m e d ita tin g in seclusion, a reaso n in g arose in m y m in d t h u s : * A t present w an d erers b elo n gin g to o th e r se cts . * - should collect to geth er on th e fo u rteen th , fiftee n th an d eigh th d a y s o f the h a lf m onth ? " || 3 || T hen th e L o rd gla d d en ed , rejoiced , roused, d eligh ted K in g S e n iy a B im b isara o f M agad h a w ith ta lk on dkamma. T hen K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M agadha, glad d en ed , . . . deligh ted b y th e L o rd w ith ta lk on dhamma, rising from his seat, [ 101] h a v in g g reeted th e L ord , d ep arted k e ep in g his right
1 O n pahkhn. cf. V in . iv . 75 {& .D . Li, 313 , a o d q ,v r n. 3^ w h ere e a tin g food g iv e n paAAftiham and upcsatbiJtarit, r Mo a a d a y o f th e w a x in g -or w an in g of th e m o o n > p and on an o b s e r v a c c e -d a y io rm ex c ep tio n s t o th e ru le p ro h ib itin g a group-meaJ* 1 V A , 1034, w h a t is a n d w h a t U n o t t o be d on e b y th e m , 1 is lit. a p a r ty , a side* a factio n , n o t n ecessarily a sch ism atic one, as is show n b y a b o v e c o n te x t, a n d sec iii* 190* n. 3-

1-4

M A H A V A G G A

II

sid e to w a rd s h im . T h en th e L o rd , on th is o ccasion , in this co n n ection , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , ad dressed th e m o n ks, sa y in g : " I a llo w yo u , m on ks, to assem ble to g eth e r on th e fo u rteen th , fifteen th and e ig h th d a y s o f th e h a lf-m o n th .1' j] 4 fj 1 jj N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks, th in k in g : I t is a llo w ed b y th e L o rd to assem ble to g e th e r on th e fo u rte en th , fifteen th a n d e ig h th d a y s o f th e h a lf-m o n th / ' h a v in g assem bled to g eth e r, sa t d o w n in silen ce. T h o se p eo p le cam e u p to h ea r dhamma. T h e y looked dow n upon , criticise d , sp read it a b o u t, s a y in g : H ow can these recluses, sons of th e S a k y a n s, h a v in g assem bled to g eth e r on th e fo u rteen th , fifte e n th a n d e ig h th d a y s o f the h alf-m on th , s it in silen ce, lik e d u m b p ig s1 ? O u gh t n o t dhamma to he spoken w h en t h e y are a ssem b led to g e th e r ? M onks h eard th ese people w h o . * , sp read it a b o u t. T h en these m onks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h en th e L o rd on this o ccasion , in th is connection* h a v in g g iv e n reasoned talk* ad d ressed the m onks, s a y in g : I allow" y o u , m on ks, h a v in g assem bled to g eth er on th e fo u rteen th , fifteen th and e ig h th d a y s o f th e half-m onth , to sp ea k d h a m m a [| 1 j| 2 || T h en as th e L o rd w a s m e d ita tin g arose in h is m ind t h u s : " W h a t now rules o f tra in in g , laid dow n b y m e recital o f P a tim o k k h a * fo r th em ? I t o f o b serva n ce1 fo r th e m ." | |1 | |
1 Tnugastikara : in bod y.

in seclusion if.I w ere to for m on ks, w o u ld be a

a reason in g allowr th ose (to form ) a (form al) a c t

V A . 2034 e x p la in s b y thulasarirasu/sard, p ig s t h a t a,re (a t

* R h y s D a v id s ; P S t i m o k k h a ) s a y s t h a t fr o m " t h e m a n n e r i ti which t h e w o rd U u s e d " in t h i s p a s s a g e it is n o t s u r p r is in g -J t o fin d t h a t t h e e a r l y B u d d h i s t s a s c r ib e d t h e i n s t it u t i o n . . _ o f t h e P a tim o k k h a . its e lf to a d 4 t e l o n g a n t e c e d e n t t o t h a t o f t h e B u d d h a . I f t h a t b e c o rr e c t, th e w o rd pdtirtiokkka- m u s t h a v e b ee n c m r e n t in K o s a l a w h e n B u d d h is m a r o s e , a n d . , ^ m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e p r e v i o u s o rd e rs Rh JJ, r e fers t o Z>. iL 4 6 -4 9 , w h e r e ti-a d itjo n a s c r ib e s A P i l u m o k k h a t o t h e t i m e w h e n V i p a s s i n w a s E u d d h a , a n d t o t h e v e r s e {D. iL 49]., r e p e a t e d a t D h p . r S 5 , w h ic h c o n t a in s t h e w o tfds : p a t i m o k k h e ca saifivaro . , . et am bteddh anasQsanam, " a n d r e s tr a in t a c c o r d in g t o t h e P a t i m o k k h a t h i s is t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e B u d d h a s " (p lu r a l).

On suggested meanings of patimokkha, see B .D . 3-, Tntr.. p- ati fT. ; Vin, Texts Lr Intr., p* scxviL On the number of rules th at the Patim okkha contaiaed, see W in tem itz, Hist. Ind. JLi(^r ii, 3, n. 5. which gives further references, and also B* C, Lavr. Ilisi* P u li L iL wi. 48 i.
9 ttposathakamma. U potoih a s ta n d s for " o b se r v a n c e " i t s e l f T h e phrase t<id-ah-upti$Liihitf '* on th is d av 'so b serviL n ce",. is u s u a lly used fo r an O b se rv a n c e d*y "

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T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g em erged from his seclusion In th e even in g, on th is occasion, in th is con n ection h a v in g g iv en reasoned ta lk , addressed th e m onks, sa y in g : " N o w , m onks, as I w a s m e d ita tin g in seclu sio n a reasonin g arose in m y m ind th u s : * W h a t now if I sh o u ld a llo w th o se ru les o f tra in in g , la id d o w n b y m e for m o n ks, (to form ) a re cita l of P a tim o k k h a fo r th em ? I t w o u ld b e a (formal) a ct o f o b serv a n ce for th e m I a llo w y o u , m onks, to recite a P a tim o k k h a , II3 II . . " A n d th u s, m o n ks, should i t be- recited : T h e O rd er sh ou ld b e in fo rm ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p e ten t m o n k , sa y in g : H on oured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. T o -d a y , the fiftee n th (day), is a n O b servan ce (day). I f it seem s righ t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y c a r ry o u t O b serva n ce, it m a y recite th e P a tim o k k h a . W h a t is th e O rd er's first d u ty ? L e t th e ven erab le ones [102] announce en tire p u r ity .1 I w ill recite th e P a tim o k k h a (while) one a n d a ll o f us p re se n t3 listen pro p e rly a n d p a y a tte n tio n to i t .3 H e for w h o m th ere m a y be an offence sh o u ld r e v e a l4 it. I f th ere is n o offence, y o u sh ou ld becom e silent- B y y o u r b ecom in g sile n t I sh all th u s kn o w th a t th e v e n e ra b le ones a re q u ite pure. F o r as th ere is a n answ er fo r e a c h q u e stio n ,5 so it is proclaim ed* up to th e th ird tim e in an a sse m b ly lik e this. W h a te v e r m o n k rem em b er in g w h ile i t is b ein g p ro claim ed u p to th e th ird tim e th a t there is an e xisten t offence an d should n o t reveal it , there com es to be conscious ly in g 7 fo r him. N o w , conscious ly in g , venerable ones, is a th in g called a stu m b lin g-b lock* b y th e Lord- T h erefo re th e e x iste n t offence sh o u ld b e revealed
1 parisuddhi, i.e* t h a t o n ly th ose are p resen t w ho h a v e c o m m itte d no offences, or w h o h a v e a c k n o w led ge d a n y c o m m itte d , or w h o h a v e fulfilled th e p e n a lty fo r th e m . C/* below , p. 158. ^ * sabbeva sanid* C f. wbho va Santa a t Vi-n, ill, 218. * V in . T zx ts i< 242 ta k e th ese words (all o f u s . * . to it) to b e t h e an sw er o i th e m o n k s then, presen t. A s th e r e is no it m a rk in g th e end of a, speech, I th in k G o ta m a is still su pposed to be te llin g th e m o n k s t h e vra y in w hich th e r e cita tio n is t o be carried out* * dvikareyya* is t o m a k e clear, to m an ifest, th u s t o disclose, to brin g to ligh t- T h is m eth o d o f clea rin g oneself o f an offen ce is p e rh a p s a forerunner to th e m ore form al confession, apntti t o an O rder, a gro u p or t o on e in d iv id u a l m onk. * paccehapui^hassa.

* fwt*s$&vita.

T D efin ed a t Vitt* iv . 2 (B J> . i i 166). * Q u o te d A s L 92* antardyikc dhummc ; see B .D . iiL a I. n, 5*

3 -3 -5 ]

M A H A V A G G A

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b y a m o n k w h o rem em bers th a t he h a s fa llen (into an offence) and w ho d esires p u r ity ; for w h en i t is re v e a led th ere com es to be co m fo rt fo r him* j| 3 [j P atim okkha1 m ean s : th is is th e beginning* th is is th e head,* th is is th e forem ost o f sta te s th a t are g o o d ; th erefo re it is ca lled Patim okkha. The venerable ones m ean : th is * th e ven e ra b le ones J is a term o f e ste e m ,3 th is is a te rm o f respect, th is is a d eferen tial and honorific designation*1 I w ill recite m e a n s ; I w ill e x p la in I w ill tea ch , I w ill la y d ow n, I w ill establish , I w ill m a k e clear, I w ill a n alyse, I w ill m ake p la in ,5 T o it m eans : to (w h at) is c a lle d th e P a tim o k k h a . One and all o f us present m eans : as m a n y as th e re are in this a ssem b ly e ld e rs a n d jie w ly o rd ain ed an d th o se o f m id dle sta n d in g these are ca lled * one and a ll o f us present \ (VFtf) listen properly m e a n s : h a v in g a p p lie d o urselves, h a v in g a tte n d e d ,0 w e co n cen tra te w ith a ll our m in d ,7 (iVp) p ay attention m e a n s : w e lis te n ,e m inds one-pointed, m inds not d istracted i m in d s n o t p ertu rb ed .* H4 || H e f o r whom there may be an ojf&nc& m e a n s : a c e rta in offence o f th e five classes o f offence or a certain offence o f the seven classes of offence10 for a n eld er o r for a n e w ly ord ain ed one or fo r one o f m id d le stan d in g. H e should reveal m e a n s : he sh o u ld te ll, he sh o u ld m ake d e a r , he should open up, he sh o u ld m a k e plain in th e m id st o f an O rd er o r in th e m id st of a gro u p or to one in d iv id u a l.
1 O n th e in clusion of th is C o m m e n ta r y in. t h e M Y rt see V tn r T&xU j, I n t f . p acv a n d S. Duttj, Early Hud. M onachtsm * <>1. 1 T h is d eriv ative* p$tifnokhh& from mitkha t4 13 q u ite im p o ssib le **3 WLiit-errutE* H ist. I n i . ii. 22* z- B u t p u n n in g is n o t t-o b e ta k e n as serious scien tific e ty m o lo g y , for th is w as u n k n o w n so early. * Or, o f en dearm en t, o f affection* p'iyt*. 1 C f. ii. r jo , 536, * Cf^ S . ii. 25. 154, iii. 132, iv. 166 ; A . i. 266, ii. 160. * afthibatvst manasikatvd ; cf * V in . iv . 44. 7 sabbam ceias& samanndhtrra mu ; cf. S . i* 7 12 , 289, ii- 220 ; A . u< 1 1 6 , iii. 163, 402, iv . 167 j M , L 325-

a nisdmertut*

* C f. A* iii. 174 ; frh s. i i , 15. 34 : N d . i. 501. 10 T h e five classes o f offence com prise t h e PSrSjLfca* Saftgh& disesa, A n iya.ta, N issaggiya., F a c it t iy a offences ; th e seven classes these fiv e w ith th e a d d itio n of t h e P a ^ d ^ sa n iy a s a n d S e k h iy a s .

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I f there is no offence m ean s: eith er o n e conies n o t to be co m m itted or, if fallen in to , i t is re m o ve d .1 Y o u should become silent m eans : y o u should consent, y o u should n ot speak, / shall know2 that y o u are quite pure m eans : I w ill k n o w 2, I w ill understand* II 5 || F or as there is a n answer fo r eack question m e a n s : as one (person) i f q u estio n ed a b o u t one (thing) w o u id answ er, so it should be kxicwxi to th a t a ssem b ly : - H e questions m e \ Aw assembly l i f e this (means) : i t is called a n a ssem b ly of m onks. I t is proclaim ed up to the third time m eans : i t is proclaim ed once a n d it is p ro claim ed a secon d tim e and it is proclaim ed a th ird tim e. Remembering m e a n s ; kn o w in g, p erceivin g. There i s an existent offence m eans ; eith er one co m es to be co m m itted o r if fallen in to is n o t rem ovedShould not reveal m eans : sh o u ld n o t te ll, sh o u ld not m a k e clear, sh o u ld n ot o p en up, should n e t m ake plain [103] in th e m id st o f an O rd er or in th e m idst o f a g ro u p o r to one in d iv id u a l, [j 6 |j There comes to be consczmts lying fo r him m eans : W h a t is conscious ly in g ? I t is an offence o f w rong-doing'.3 A thing called a stumbling-block by the Lord m eans : a stu m b lin g -b lo ck t o w h a t ? I t is a stu m b lin g -b lo ck to the a tta in m e n t o f th e first (stage in) m e d ita tio n , it is a stu m b lin gb lo c k to th e a tta in m e n t o f th e second (stage in) m ed itatio n - * . th e th ird (stage in) m ed itatio n , . . . th e fourth {stage in) m ed ita tio n , it is a stu m b lin g -b lo ck to the a tta in m en t of th e m ed itatio n s, of th e d e liv e ra n c e s ,, of the co n tem plation s, o f th e a tta in m e n ts4, o f th e renunciations, o f
1 trutthiter, fem ., agreeing w ith its su b ject apatti, V A . ro34 reason ably exp la in s : " here, either* w h a te v e r m o n k there com cs t o be not fa llin g in to an offence, or, h a v in g fallen is rem oved from it, this is t h e m eaning of - if there is no offence ' " , C f. apatfiya vttttitana in M V , I . 36 . xo. 2 t/frfissfijm i i , , jattissami. s In th e P ic itt a y a s , h o w l e r , con sciou s ly in g ap p ears as th e first offence ia t h is cla-ss, T in , T exts i* 2*45, a. s a y s t h a t because of th is w e ca n n o t interpret here du/tkafA in th e tech n ica l sense o f a dtckkafa offence r". I th in k , h o w e m , th a t t h e difference in th e p en a lties laid dow n for conscious ly in g m a y p o in t to d ifferen t sta g es in th e grow th o f t h e legislation . * C f. Vin. iii. -91, 9-2, iv. 25.

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th e escap es,1 o f th e aloofnesses, o f sta te s th a t a re good. Therefore m e a n s ; fo r th a t reason. B y (& monk) who remembers m ean s : b y (one) k n o w in g , b y (one) p erceivin g. B y (a monk) who desires p u rity m e a n s : b y (one) w ish in g to re m o v e (an offence), b y (one) w ish in g to b e purified. 7 I! E xisten t offence m eans : e ith e r one co m es to b e c o m m itted , or, i f fallen in to , is n ot rem oved. Should be revealed m eans : it sh ould b e re v e a led in th e m id st of a n O rd e ro r in th e m id st o f a g ro u p or to one in d iv id u a l, F o r when it is revealed there comes to be comfort fo r him m e a n s : I n w h a t is th e re co m fo rt ? T h e re com es to be c o m fo rt in th e a tta in m e n t o f th e first {stage in) m ed ita tio n , there com es to be co m fo rt in th e a tta in m e n t in th e second (stage in) m e d ita tio n * 4 * th e third (stage in) m e d ita tio n , . . th e fo u rth (stage in) m e d ita tio n ; th ere com es to be c o m fo rt in th e a tta in m e n t o f th e m editations* o f th e d e liv er ances, o f th e co n tem p la tio n s, o f th e a tta in m e n ts , o f th e renunciations* o f th e escapes, o f th e aloofnesses* o f sta te s th a t are g o o d .2 || 8 J | 3 |j
II

N o w a t th a t tim e m onks, th in k in g : " T h e re cita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a is allow ed b y th e L o rd ," re cite d the P a tim o k k h a d a ily . T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a sh o u ld n o t b e recited d a ily . W h o e v e r should (so) re c ite it, there is an offence o f w ron g d o in g . I allow yo u , m onks, to recite th e P a tim o k k h a on an O b serva n ce d a y / ' |[ 1 || N o w a t th a t tim e m onks, th in k in g : " T h e re cita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a on an O b servan ce d a y is a llo w ed b y th e L o r d / 1 recited th e P a tim o k k h a th ree tim es d urin g th e h a lf-m o n th on th e fo u rteen th , on th e fiftee n th a n d on th e e ig h th (days) o f th e h a lf-m o n th . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said ; " M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a sh ould n o t b e recited th ree tim es 1 Escapes ' mentioned at Ud. ; lli. p. 37, 61 ; I>* iiL 375;
A . ui. 245-6* _D * iii* 239-240 ; A . iii, 290, D . iii. 5 4 7 ; M . i. 84 etc. * C f. t h e forest or ju n g le d w ellin g m on k w ho h ad co m fo rt, p h a su t M V . I. 7 3 . 4. T h is e x a m p le to g e th e r w ith th e on e g iv e n a b o v e in d ic a te t h a t phdsu is b y 00 m eans used e x c lu s iv e ly t o d e n o te p h y s ic a l co m fo rt.

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in th e half-m onth - W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) recite it, th e re is an o ffen ce of w ron g-d oin g. I a llo w yo u , m on ks, to recite th e P a tim o k k h a once in th e h a lf-m o n th : e ith e r on th e fo u rteen th or on th e fiftee n th (d a y )/ F j| z || 4? [| N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p of six m onks re cite d th e P a ti m o k k h a a cco rd in g to a ssem b ly , each one b efore h is own a ssem b ly. T h e y to id this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : MM on ks, [10*] th e P a tim o k k h a should n o t be recited a cco rd in g to a ssem b ly , each one befo re h is ow n a ssem b ly. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) re cite it , th e re is an offence o f w ro n g doin g. I a llo w you* m o n ks, a {form al) a c t o f O b serva n ce for a ll to g eth e r, 1 | Ji | | T h e n it occurred to th e m on ks ; " A (formal) a ct o f O b serv an ce for a ll to g e th e r is a llo w ed b y th e L o rd . N ow , how far does * b e in g a ll to g eth er (go) ? A s fa r as one residence, or th e w h ole e a rth ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I a llo w r rnonks, Tb e in g a ll t o g e t h e r ' {to m ean) a s fa r as one resid en ce/' || 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e ven erab le ICappina th e G reat 5 w as s ta y in g near R a ja g a h a a t M ad d ak u cch i in th e d eer-park. T h en as th e ven era b le K a p p in a th e G reat w as m e d ita tin g in seclusion a reason in g arose in his m ind t h u s : Sh ou ld I go to an O bservan ce or sh ou ld I not go, sh ou ld I go to a (formal) a c t o f th e O rd er or sh ould I n ot g o , I , n evertheless, am purified w ith th e h ig h est p u rific a tio n / ' |j 3 jj T h e n th e L o rd , k n o w in g b y m in d th e reasoning in th e m ind o f th e ven era b le K a p p in a th e G re at, as a stro n g m an m ig h t stre tch o u t his b e n t arm or m ig h t ben d b a c k his out stre tc h e d arm , even so d id h e f van ish in g from M ount V u ltu re P e a k a p p e a r in M ad d aku cch i in th e d eer-p ark b efore th e
L samaggamnn. /* samaggtx a t V in . iv * 53* 1 4 1 all com e " , a n d see B*D+ ii. 367., n. 7 ; a n d t / samagga s&tpgha. a t V in . i v + 154, 231 m eaning a c o m p le te Order*

m sdmaggi.
* A t A . i, 25 ca lled c h ie f of th e exh orters of m onks. Verses, a t Thug. 547-35G. S e t JPss. Breth, p. 234 if*, an d N>B, t h a t on p. 2 56 '* ta u g h t th e s i s t e r s - f o r aans} shou ld read ta u g h t th e b reth ren " (or monks)* as noticed a t P ss. Brtth, p , 417+ ii. $75* a r t : M a h ik a p p in a , sh ou ld be corrected accordingly^ S ee Sa k y a t p. ff.p For Mas, R hjrs D a v id s ' su ggestion t h a t K ap p L aa w as A s s a jis teacher.

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venerable K a p p in a th e G reat, T h e L o rd sa t dow n an an ap p o in ted seat, a n d th e ven era b le K a p p in a th e G re a t, h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , sat dow n a t a re sp e ctfu l d ista n ce. || 4 || A s th e ven erable K a p p in a th e G re a t w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a respectfu l d istan ce th e L o rd sp oke th u s to h im : N o w , K a p p in a , as yo u w ere m e d ita tin g in seclusion d id n o t a reason in g arise in y o u r m ind t h u s : 4 S h ould I g o to an O b servan ce or should I n o t g o , sh ou ld I go to a (form al) a c t o f th e O rd er or should I not go, I f nevertheless* am p urified w ith th e highest pu rification ' ? " " Y es, L o rd / fr B u t if yo u brah m an s1 do n o t reveren ce, revere, esteem , ho n o u r th e O bservan ce, w h o is th ere w h o w ill reveren ce, revere, esteem , honour th e O b servan ce ? Y o u go alon g, brah m an , to th e O b servan ce, d o n ot n o t go * go lik ew ise to a (form al) a ct of th e O rder, d o n o t n ot g o .p ? " Y e s t L o r d ," th e ven era b le K a p p in a th e G re a t answ ered th e L ord in assent. |f 5 || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g g lad d en ed , rejo iced , roused, d elig h ted th e ven erab le K a p p in a th e G re a t w ith ta lk on dhammaf a s a s tro n g m an m ight stre tch out his ben t arm or bend b a ck his o u tstretch ed arm , even so d id he, va n ish in g from before th e ven erab le K a p p in a th e G re a t in M a d d aku cch i in tne d eer-park ap p ear on M ount V u ltu r e P e a k . || 6 || 5 [| [ 105] T h en it occurred to th e m on ks ; ,J I t is laid d o w n b y the L o rd th a t ' b ein g all to g eth e r ' (means) as fa r a s one residence. N o w , how far does one residence (go) ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord- H e sa id : *f I allo w yo u , m onks, t o a gree u p o n a boundary* A n d thus* m onks, should it b e agreed upon ; "First, m a rk s sh ould be an n o u n ced ,2 a m a rk co n sistin g o f a h illsid e, a m a rk con sistin g o f a rock, a m ark con sistin g o f a g ro v e , a m ark con sistin g of a tree, a m a rk co n sistin g o f a road, a m ark consisting o f an anthill* a m a rk con sistin g o f a river, a m a rk consisting o f (a piece of) w a te r. T h e O rd er, h a v in g announced th e m arks, sh o u ld be inform ed b y an exp erien ced , co m peten t
1 B ra h m a n p r o b a b ly being: used here in it s .B u d d h ist sejjse oi h igh est " , K a p p in a w as older t h a n G o ta m a . f* bestj

1 ntmitia kitteta& b{!l+

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m onk, sa y in g : ' H onoured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. In as m u ch as m arks a ll round are an n oun ced, if i t seem s rig h t to th e O rd er th e O rd er m a y a gree upon a b o u n d a ry in acco rd an ce w ith th ese m arks fo r th e sam e com m union, fo r one O b serva n ce. T h is is th e m otion . j| i | | H on oured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to me. In a s m u c h as m a rk s a ll round are announced* th e O rder is agreeing upon a b o u n d a ry in a cco rd an ce w ith th ese m arks for th e sam e com m union, fo r one O bservance* I f the agreem en t upon a b o u n d a ry in a cco rd a n ce w ith these m arks for the sam e com m union, fo r one O b servan ce, is pleasing to th e ven era b le ones* th e y sh o u ld be silent ; he to w hom it is n o t pleasin g should speak- T h e b o u n d a ry in accord ance w ith these m arks is agreed u p o n b y th e O rd er fo r th e sam e com m union, fo r one O b serva n ce. I t is p leasin g to th e O rd er, therefore it is s ile n t; th u s do I u n d erstan d t h l s V Il2 ]|6 [[ N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p of s ix m onks, th in k in g : " A n agreem en t upon a b o u n d a ry is a llo w ed b y th e L o r d / ' agreed upon v e r y e x te n siv e boundaries, o f fo u r yojanas a n d five yojanas and six yojanas* M onks co m in g for O bservan ce a rriv ed w h ile th e P a tim o k k h a w a s bein g recited, and th e y a rriv e d ju s t a fte r it h a d been recited , and th e y sta y e d (a night) on th e w a y . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : M onks, a v e r y e x te n siv e b o u n d a ry should n ot be agreed upon, o f four yojanas or five yojaiias or six^ 'cy'a^ s* W h oever should {so) agree, th ere is an offence o f w rong-doing. I a llo w y o u , m onks, to a gree upon a b o u n d a ry of three yojana s a t m o s t/ '1 |[i ]| N o w a t th a t tim e th e group o f s ix m onks agreed upon the o th e r side of a rive r as a b o u n d a ry. M onks com in g for O bservan ce w ere carried a w a y and th eir b ow ls were carried a w a y and th e ir robes w ere carried away* T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : 4t M onksJ the other side o f a riv e r sh ould n o t be agreed upon a s a b o u n d ary. W h o ever should (so) agree, there is an
1 A cco rd in g t o V A - J04G th is m ea n s t h a t h a v in g esta b lish ed th e m id d le o f th e proposed residence, th e b o u n d a r y .should n o t be m ore t-han. o q c an d a h a lf yojanas iro m it in ea ch direction, A trian gle m a y b e agreed upon, th re e yojaKas fro m Corner t o corner.

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offence o f w ron g-d oin g. I a llo w y o u , m onks, w hen th ere m a y b e a reliable b o a t 1 or a re lia b le b rid g e 3 to agree upon th e o th e r side o f such a river as a b o u n d a ry ." ]] 3 || 7 j| N ow a t th a t tim e m on ks recited th e P a tim o k k h a in successive cells [106] w ith o u t (m aking) a rendezvous. In -co m in g m on ks d id not know o r th e y th o u g h t, *r W h ere w ill th e O b servan ce b e carried o u t to - d a y ? r* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : " M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a sh ou ld n o t be recited in su ccessive ce lls w ith o u t (m aking) a ren d ezvo u s, 'W hoever sh o u ld (so) recite it* there is an offence o f w rong-doing1 , I a llo w you^ m onks, to c a rry o u t th e O b servan ce h a v in g agreed upon an O bservan ce-h all th a t th e O rd er desires : a d w ellin g-p lace or a cu rve d house or a long house or a m ansion or a c a v e .4 A n d thus, m onks, should it be agreed upon : || j || " T h e O rd er should be inform ed b y an experien ced , com p eten t m onk, sa y in g : ' H o n o u red sirs, ]et th e O rd er listen t o me* I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er sh o u ld agree upon such a n d such a d w ellin g-p lace as an O bservan ce-h alh T h is is th e m otion . H on oured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. T h e O rd er is agreeing upon such a n d such a d w ellin g-p lace a s an O b servan ce-h all. I f th e a g reem en t upon such a n d su ch a d w ellin g-place as an O b serva n ce-h a ll is pleasin g to th e ven erab le ones, le t th em be silen t ; he to w h o m it is n ot pleasin g should speak. Such a n d such a d w ellin g-p lace a s an O bservan ce-h all is agreed upon b y the O rder. I t is pleasing to th e O rder, th erefo re it is silent ; th u s do I und er stan d this V J || 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e in a certain residence tw o O b se rva n ce halls cam e to b e agreed upon* M onks assem b led to g eth er in
1 dhuvanavii. V A . 1046 g iv e s v a r io u s possibilities-, o n e o i w h ich is a b o a t w h ich piles reg u larly a t th e fords. 1 dhuv&$f-tu, V A , 1047 s a y s *r m a d e o f a co lle c tio n o i trees or b o a rd s jo in ed to g e th e r or a bridge w h ere a c a r a v a n ca n g o -or w h a t is su ita b le for t h e cro ssin g o v e r o f e le p h a n ts a n d horses is a Large b r id g e ; or a 1 r e lia b le b r id g e * m eans h a v in g eve n a t t h a t m o m en t c u t d o w n a tree , a b r id g e th a t is su ita b le fo r p eo p le t o cross o ver b y one a t a tim e. B u t it n o t a ' reliab le b r id g e * if i t is n o t possib le t o cross b y h o ld in g t h e ju n g ie -r o p c a n d creepers tw in e d a b o v e i t * O n satpktta see S . D r i. 74, SSf 126 , *35., ii- 164 , 239 (and 3}* 2 9 1. 294 4 C f t a b o v e . I* 30 , 4 (and notes) a n d Vin+ i. 384.

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b o th th in k in g : M O b servan ce w ill b e carried o u t h e re / ' ' r O b servan ce w ill be c a n ie d o u t h e r e ." T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M onks, tw o O b servan ce-h alls in one residence should n ot be a greed upon. W h o e v e r sh ould (so) agree, th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g, I a llo w yo u , m onks, h a v in g ab o lish ed 1 o ne, to c a r ry o u t th e O b serva n ce in one place (only)* || 3 || " A n d th u s , m o n ks, should it b e a b o lish e d : T h e O rder sh o u ld b e inform ed b y an exp erien ced , co m peten t m o n k, s a y in g : ' H onoured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to me. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rder, th e O rd er m a y abolish such an d such an O bservan ce-h all. T h is is th e m otion . H onoured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to me. T h e O rd er is a b o lish in g such and such a n O bservan ce-h alL I f th e abolition of such and such an O b servan ce-h all is p leasin g to th e ven erable ones, th e y should be silen t ; he to w hom it is not pleasin g should speak. S u ch an d such an O bservan ce-h all is abolished b y th e O rder. I t is p lea sin g to th e O rd er, therefo re it is silen t ; thus do I u n d erstan d th is ]\ 4 |[ 8 \ \ N o w a t th a t tijn e in a certain residence a v e r y sm all O bservan ce-h all ca m e to be agreed upon. A large O rd er of m o n k s cam e to be assem b led to g e th e r on an O bservan ce-d ay. M onks, sittin g on ground th a t had not been agreed upon, h eard th e P a tim o k k h a . T h e n it occurred to th ese m onks : " I t is la id dow n b y th e L o rd [107] th a t th e O bservan ce is to be ca rried o u t h a v in g agreed upon an O b serva n ce-h a llp b u t w c h eard the P a tim o k k h a w h ile w e were sittin g on ground th a t w a s n o t agreed upon- N ow w a s th e O bservan ce ea rn ed out for us or w as it n ot carried out ? " T h e y told this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M onks, i f one is sittin g on th e ground , w h eth er it has been agreed upon or n o t agreed upon, and hears the P a ti m okkha* from th ere, th e O b servan ce is carried out fa r him . II1 iI ' ' . " W e l l then, m onks, if an O rder desires a m axim u m for
* V A . 1 0 3 9 *\ e x p la in s i.e , th is t o m e a n o n e ** b a v i n # o f th e a b o lis h e d a g re e m e n ts is n o o n e s o o f th a t th e o n e

p r o c la m a t io n s o f

h a v in g a g re e d

r e s c in d e d u p o n as. a n

t h e p la c c s a lr e a d y

O b s e rv a n c c -h a L l

lo n g e r

re g a rd e d

in this, light.

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O b serva n ce1 o f a certain size let at agree npon a m axim u m for O b servan ce o f th a t size* A n d th u s, m o n ks, sh ould at be agreed u p o n : F irs t, m a rk s should be announced- T h e O rd er, h a v in g an n ou n ced th e m a rk s, sh ou ld be inform ed h y an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k, s a y i n g : H on oured sirsp le t th e O rd er liste n to m e, in as m uch as m a rk s all round a re announced, i f i t seem s rig h t to th e O rd er the O rd er m a y agree upon a m a x im u m fo r O b serva n ce in acco rd an ce w ith these m arks. T h is is th e m o tion . H o n o u red sirs, let the O rd er listen to m e. In as m uch a s m arks a ll roun d are an n o u n ced , th e O rd er is a g reein g u p o n the m a xim u m for O b se rv a n ce in a cco rd a n ce w ith these m arks. I f th e a g ree m ent upon a m a x im u m for O b se rv a n ce in accord an ce w ith the=;e m arks is p lea sin g to th e ven e ra b le ones, th e y should be silen t ; he t o w h om it is n o t p lea sin g sh o u ld sp eak. T h e m axim u m for O b servan ce is agreed upon b y the O rd er in acco rd an ce w ith these marks* It is p leasin g to the O rder, th e re fo re it is silent ; th u s d o I u n d erstan d this V J ] 2 [[ 9 || N o w a t th a t tim e in a certa in residen ce n e w iy ordained m o n k s,3 b ein g th e first to h a v e assem bled to g eth er on an O b servan ce d a y , s a y i n g : " T h e cid ers are n o t co m in g y e t . w e n t a w a y . T h e O b serva n ce w as not a t a right tim e .3 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " I allo w , m on ks, on an O b se rv a n ce d a y m o n k s w h o are elders to assem b le to g e th e r firs t.11 ]| X || 10- J | N o w a t th a t tim e in R a ja g a h a several residences cam e to h a v e th e sam e b o u n d a ry. M onks q u a rrelled ab o u t this* s a y in g : L e t th e O b serva n ce be ca rried out in o u r residence/* " L e t th e O b serva n ce be c a rrie d o u t in o u r resid en ce/' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said ; " T h i s is a case, m onks, w h e re several residences com e to
1 uposaihapamuFthattt. N o t noticed in P . E tD+ I t m ust refer to the size of a site for hearing the O bservance b y a m axim um number of m onks of which an Order m ight consist. * These navaka bkikkhu were only f newly ordained '* or junior in comparison -with the tn&jjhima. bkikhh&* those of middle standing- and ordained for as long a s five years, and w ith th e theras, elders, ordained for as m any as ten years. A inonk i-5 called navaba or navu for the first lo u r'ye ars of ilis- religious life after th e date of his ordination* * I.e. not on the fourteenth or fifteenth d a y of a half-month.

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h a v e th e sam e boundary* M onks quarrel a b o u t th is, sa y in g : ' L e t th e O b serva n ce be ca rried o u t in o u t residence \ ' L e t th e O b servan ce be ca rried o u t in our residence \ M onks, those m onks, one and all*1 h a v in g assem bled to g eth e i in one p lace, should c a rry o u t the O b servan ce, o r, h a v in g assem bled to g eth er th e y sh o u ld c a r ry o u t the O bservan ce there w here a m o n k w h o is an eld er is sta y in g . B u t th e O bservance sh ould n o t b e carried o u t b y an incom plete O rd er.1 W h oever sh ould (so) c a r ry it o u t, there is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g ." II I II 1 1 I! [ 108] N ow a t one tim e th e ven era b le K a ssa p a th e G reat, goin g from A n d h a k a v in d a 3 to R a ja g a h a fo r O b servan ce and crossing a riv e r4 on th e w a y , w a s n e a rly 5 carried a w a y , a n d his robes g o t w e t. M onks sp o k e th u s to th e ven erab le K a ssa p a th e G re at : W h y are y o u r robes w e t, y o u r reveren ce ? " N ow I f y o u r reverences, co m in g from A n d h a k a v in d a to R a ja g a h a for th e O b serva n ce and crossing a rive r on the w a y , w a s n e a rly carried away* B eca u se of this m y robes are w e t+ J > T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " W h a te v e r b o u n d a ry, m onks, is a g reed upon b y a n O rd er fo r th e sam e com m union, for one O bservance* le t th e O rd er a gree (to regard) th a t b o u n d a ry (as a place where a m onk is) n ot a w a y, sep a ra ted from th e th ree robes** || i [| " A n d th us, m onks, sh ould it be agreed upon : T h e O rder sh ould b e in form ed b y an exp erien ced , com peten t m onk, s a y i n g : H o n cu red sirs, le t the O rder listen to me. W h a t e v e r b o u n d a ry w as agreed upon b y th e O rder fo r th e sam e co m m union, for one O bservance* if it seem s righ t to th e O rder
1 sabb&Jt* ev<i+

1 na tv eva voggtna samghenctt as below, MV. TI. 22 . 2 ; subsequently- On. vagga* see B .D . Ii. 269, n 10.

23 . 2 and

3 According t-o V A . 1049 A ndhakavm da was at least a g&vvta from RSjags-ha. Arotiad R ajag ah a were eighteen l^rge vLharas having the same boundary, b u t the " being a ll together " oi an Order took place in the Bamboo Grove.
* V A . 3049 s a y s th e S a p p in i (Sippin l), w h ich th e y s a y rises in M t* V u ltu r e Peak,, a n d b e c a u se i t flow s q u ic k ly so near its sou rce th a t is w h y th e eld er w i s n e a r ly carried a w a y . * m < i n a also a t i* 1 4 ^ D h A . iiL 14 7 . * tic tv a r& n a a v ip p a v d s a , C f . N ia sa g - I I w h e r e a m o n k in c u rs a n o ffc n c e

i f h e i s a w a y fr o m t h e th r e e r o b e s e v e n fo r o n e n ig h t u n le s s h e h a s o b ta in e d t h e a g r e e m e n t o i t h e m o n k s . B u t o n e w h o is ill m a y o b t a in a n a g re e m e n t t o b e re g a r d e d a s n $ t s e p a r a te d fr o m h is robes., a lt h o u g h in f a c t h e ia. T h e A b o v e r u lin g is t o t h e s a m e effect* S e e B . D . ii. 14 , n+

12.3 4]

M A H A V A G G A

II

th e O rder m a y a gree (to regard) th a t b o u n d a ry {as a place w h ere a m onk is) n o t a w a y , se p a ra te d fro m th e th re e robes* T h is is th e m otion. H on ou red sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to me* W h a te v e r b o u n d a ry w a s a g ree d u p o n b y th e O rd er for th e sam e com m union, fo r one O b serva n ce th e O rd er is agreein g (to regard) th a t b o u n d a ry {as a p la ce w h ere a m onk is) not a w a y , sep arated from th e three ro b es+ I f th e agreem en t (to regard) th is b o u n d a ry (as a p la c e w here a m o n k is) n ot a w a y , sep arated from th e th ree robes is p lea sin g to the ven erab le ones, th e y sh o u ld b e silent ; he to w h o m it is n o t p leasin g should speak, T h is b o u n d a ry is agreed upon th e b y O rd er (to b e regard ed as a place w h ere a m o n k is) n o t a w a y , sep arated from th e th re e robes* I t is p lea sin g to th e O rd er, therefore i t is silen t ; th u s d o I u n d erstan d th is V* j| 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e m on ks, th in k in g : f'A n agreem en t (for a m onk to be regarded) as not a w a y , sep a ra ted from th e three robes is allow ed b y th e L o r d / ' la id aside robes in a h o u se,1 T h ese robes w ere lost a n d b u rn t an d eaten b y ra ts. T h e m on ks becam e b a d ly dressed, th e ir robes w o rn th in . M onks spoke th u s : " W h y are y o u , y o u r reverences, b a d ly dressed, y o u r robes w orn th in ? " J < N o w w e, y o u r reverences, th in k in g : 'A rt agreem en t {for a m o n k to be regarded) as not a w a y , se p a ra te d from th e three robes is a llo w e d b y th e L o r d / la id aside robes in a house, TJiese robes h ave been Lost and b u rn t a n d eaten b y rats. T h a t is w h y w e a re b a d ly dressed, o u r robes w orn thin/* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e sa id r W h a te v e r b o u n d ary, m on ks, is a g reed upon b y a n O rd er for th e sam e co m m u n io n , for one O b se rva n ce , le t th e O rd er agree (to regard) th a t b o u n d a ry (as a p la ce w h ere a m o n k is) not a w a y , sep arated from th e three robes, e x ce p t it be a v illa g e a n d th e p recin cts o f a village. j| 3 ]| " A n d th u s, m onks, sh o u ld it b e agreed u p o n 3 : . * . [ 109]
1 In Nissag. X X I X monks, if stayin g in jungle lodgings arc a [Lowed to la y aside one of their three robes in a. house. B ut* except w ith th e agreement of the monks, th ey m ust not be aw ay from their robes for more th an six nights, * Defined a t i i i 46 ; see B .D . L 74, n. z. " V illage having one p recin ct *' defined a t Vin . iii. zoo* see ii. 17 and note V A . 1051 says th at the above ruling is not for nuns because th e y live in a v illa g e ; see also Tiji. fj i,

156, n. 1*

* T h e same as i| a ]| above, b u t after the words " a w a y r separated from the three robes 1 ,1 add " excep t it b e a village and th e precincts of a v illa g e /'

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' * . . th u s do I u n d erstan d th is \ J | 4 j| W h en agreeing upon a. b o u n d a ry, m on ks, first the b o u n d ary for the sam e co m m un ion should be agreed upon, afterw ards th e (place w here a m o n k is regarded) as n o t a w a y , sep arated from th e three robes should be agreed upon. I n ab o lish in g a boundary* m on ks, first th e (place w here a m o n k is regarded) as n ot a w a y, separated from th e three robes should be abolished, a fte rw a rd s th e b o u n d a ry fo r th e sam e com m union should b e abolished- A n d th u s, m on ks, should the (place w h ere th e m o n k is regarded) as not a w a y , sep a ra ted fro m the th ree robes be abolished : T h e O rd er should be inform ed b y a n exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k , s a y in g : * H on oured sirs, le t th e O rder listen to me- W h a te v e r w a s a g ree d upon b y th e O rd er (as a p lace w h ere a m o n k is to b e regarded) as n ot a w a y , sep a ra ted from th e th ree robes, if it seem s righ t to th e O rd er, th e O rder m a y abolish th a t (place w here a m o n k is to be regarded) as n o t a w a y , separated fro m th e three robes. T h is is the m otion . H onoured sirs, let th e O rder listen to m e. W h a te v e r w a s agreed upon b y th e O rd er {as a p la ce w h ere a m o n k is to be regarded) as n o t aw ay* separated from th e throe robes, th e O rder is abolishing (that place where a m o n k is to be regarded) a s not a w a y, separated from the th ree robes. I f th e abolition of (the place w here a m on k is to be regarded) as not away> separated from th e three robes is p leasin g to th e ven erab le ones, th e y sh o u ld be silen t ; he to w hom it is n o t pleasin g should sp eak. T h a t (place w here a m onk is to be regarded) as not a w a y , sep arated from th e th ree robes is abolished b y the O rder. It is pleasing to th e O rder, therefore i t is silent ; th u s d o I u n d erstan d this \
1 1 5 II

" A n d th us, m onks, sh o u ld a b o u n d a ry for the sam e com m union 1 be abolish ed : T h e O rd er should b e inform ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k , sa y in g : ' H onoured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to me* W h a te v e r b o u n d a ry has been agreed upon b y th e O rder fo r th e sam e com m union, for one O bserv ance, if it seem s righ t to the O rder, th e O rder m a y abolish th a t b o u n d a ry . T h is is the m otion. H onoured sirs, le t the O rd er listen to me* W h a te v e r b o u n d a ry has been agreed
1 " For the same comm union " om itted in Oldenberg's tex t, t u t included ia the C eylo a edn*

1 S .& 1 3 , 2 ]

M A H A V A G G A

I I

-45

u p o n b y th e O rd er fo r th e sam e co m m u n io n , fo r one O b se rv an ce, th e O rd er is a b o lish in g th a t b o u n d a ry . J f th e ab o litio n of th a t b o u n d a ry for th e sam e com m u n io n , for one O b servan ce is pleasing to th e ven era b le ones, th e y should b e si tent ; he to w h om it is not p lea sin g should sp eak. T h a t b o u n d a ry for th e sam e com m union, fo r one O b se rv a n ce is abo lish ed b y th e O rd er. I t is p leasin g to th e O rd er, therefo re i t is silent ; th u s do I u n d erstan d th is \ || 6 j| w M onks, w hen a b o u n d a ry is n o t a greed up o n , n ot established, w h a te v e r v illa g e o r little to w n 1 (a m onk) liv e s d epen ding on, w h a te v e r is th e v illa g e b o u n d a ry o f th a t v illa g e or th e little to w n b o u n d a ry o f th a t little to w n , th is in th a t case [110] is (the bo u n d ary) fo r th e sam e com m union, for one O b servan ce. I f, m onks, he is in w h a t is n ot a villa g e . In a jungle,* in th is case the sam e com m union, one O b servan ce, ts seven abbhantaras* alj round- N o river, m o n te , is a boun d ary, no sea is a boundary* no n a tu ra l la k e is a bound ary, W h ere there is a river, m on ks, or a sea or a n a tu ra l la k e , th a t w h ich in th is case is (the boundary) fo r th e saxne com m union r one O b serva n ce, is th e d istan ce th a t a m an of average (height) can th ro w w a te r ail ro u n d / ' || J || 1 2 || N ow a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m onks co m bin ed b o u n d a ry w ith boundary*4 T h e y to id this m a tte r to the L o rd . H e said : " M onks, those for w hom a b o u n d a ry w as agreed upon firs t, th a t (formal) a c t of theirs is legitim ate* it is irreversible, fit to s ta n d .3 M onks, those fo r w h o m a b o u n d a ry w as agreed upon a fte rw a rd s, th a t (form al) a c t of th eirs is n ot leg itim a te, it is reversib le, not fit to sta n d . M onks, b o u n d a ry sh ould n o t b e co m b in ed w ith bo u n d ary- W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) com bin e, th ere is a n offence o f w ron g-d oin g."1 | |i | | N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s p laced b o u n d a ry w ith in b o u n d a ry .6 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : M onks, those for w h o m a b o u n d a ry w as agreed upon
t *tigamat s e e ^ .-D . ii* 63. n- 3. m r* Ju n gle d efin ed a t B .D . L 74., 65* * S e e B . & . ii. I n tr ,. p . 3-. 4 simdya sim am sttmbbtTfdanti. 4 C f B .Z t. iii. 161 ( F i . iv . 2.14,} an d V in . i. 3 13 , 3 16 L ahuppa a n d th&n&raha, are define^ a t V b h A . 330. * stma-ya sim atn ajjhottharanti.

T h e la&t two*

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first, t h a t (formal) a c t o f th eirs is le g itim a te , i t is irreversible, fit t o sta n d . M on ks, th o se for w h o m a b o u n d a ry w as a greed u p o n a fte rw a rd s, th a t (formal) a c t o f th eirs is n o t le g itim a te , i t is reversible* n o t fit to stan d . M onks, a b o u n d a ry sh o u ld n o t be p la ce d w ith in a b o u n d a ry . W h o e v e r should (so) place w ith in , th e re is an offence o f w rong-doing* I allow y o u , m onks, w hen a b o u n d a ry is b ein g agreed upon, h a v in g le ft an in tersp ace b etw een bo u n d aries,1 t o agree u p o n a b o u n d a ry ."
ii 2 m s 1 1

T h e n i t occurred to m o n k s ; ** N o w , h o w m a n y O b servan ce d a y s are there ? '* T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M onks, th e re are th ese tw o O b servan ce d a ys, th e fo u rte e n th a n d th e fifteen th . T hese, monks* are th e tw o O b serva n ce d a y s ." J | x )| T h en it occurred to m o n k s : N o w , h o w m a n y (form al) a c ts for O b serva n ce are th e re ? J # T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord- H e sa id : M onks, th e re a re these fou r (form al) a c ts fo r O b se rv a n c e : a (form al) a c t for O b serva n ce (carried o ut) n o t b y ru le w h en a ji O rder is in co m p lete4 ; a (formal) a c t fo r O b serva n ce (carried out) n o t b y rule w h en a n O rd er is co m p le te ; a (form al) a c t fo r O b servan ce (carried out) b y rule w h en an O rd er is in com p lete ; a (formal) a c t for O b se rv ance (carried out) b y rule w h en an O rd er is com p]ete. N o w , m onks, th a t w h ich is a (form al) a c t fo r O b serva n ce carried o u t n o t b y rule w h en an O rd er is in com p lete, such a (formal) a c t for O b se rv a n c e , m on ks, sh ou ld n o t be carried o u t, nor is such a (form al) a c t fo r O b serva n ce allow ed b y m e. || 2 || c < T h e n , m oukSj th a t w h ich is a (form al) a c t for O bservan ce (carried out) n o t b y rule w h e n an O rd er is co m p lete, [111] such a (forma]) a c t fo r O b se rv a n ce , m onks, sh ould not be carried o u t n or is such a (form al) a c t for O bservan ce allo w ed b y me. T h e n P m onks, th a t w h ich is a (formal) a c t fo r O b se rv an ce (carried out) b y rule w h en an O rd er is in com p iete, such a (formal) a c t for O b servan ce should n o t be carried o u t n or
1 ftmaniarikct. This- m ay be qu ite small : a. hattkii (on which see fl.B , ii. Ixttr, p. t i.) according to V A * 1056 ; a span or fo u r finger-'breadths according to the tw o Sinh. Com ys. cited at V A . 1056. * adhammina-vagg&m ; /. Kin. iv. 37, 126, 152, 15^, adhammemi vagg&n& 05* See MV* I X . 3 for elucidations o f n o t b y rule*' and " 'b y r u le '1, and oi
" in c o m p le t e " a n d <J c o m p l e t e a s s e m b lie s

14.3 lS .z ]

a h

v a g g a

II

147

is su ch a (form al) a c t for O b serva n ce a llo w ed b y m e. T hen, m onks, th a t w h ich is a (form al) a c t for O b se rva n ce (carried out) b y rule w h en an O rd er is co m p le te , su ch a (form al) a c t fo r O b serva n ce, m on ks, m a y be carried o u t a n d su ch a (form al) a c t for O b se rva n ce is a llo w e d b y me- T h erefo re, m o n ks, th in k in g : 1 W e w ill c a r ry out a (form al) a c t for O b serva n ce lik e th is, th a t is to s a y b y ru le w hen an O rd er is co m p lete ' th u s yo u sh o u ld train yo u rselves, m o n k s/ J |[ 3 ( ] 14 J | T h en it o ccu rred to m o n ks r ' r N o w , how m a n y w a y s fo r th e recita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a are th ere ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the Lord* H e said : " M onks, there are these five (w ays fo r the) recital o f th e P a tim o k k h a : h a v in g recited the p ro ven a n ce,1 th e rest m a y be an n ou n ced as th o u g h it had been (already) heard* ; this is the first (w a y for the) re cita l of th e P a tim o k k h a . H a v in g recited th e proven an ce, h a v in g recited th e fo u r offences in v o lv in g d e fe a t, th e rest m a y be announced as th o u g h it h a d been (already) heard ; th is is th e second (w a y for the) re cita l of th e P a tim o k k h a . H a v in g recited the provenance* h a v in g re cite d the fou r offences in v o lv in g d efeat, h a v in g re cite d th e th irte en offences en ta ilin g a form al m eetin g o f th e O rd er, th e re st m a y be announced as th o u g h it h a d been [already) heard ; thi's is th e th ird (w a y for the) recita l of th e P a tim o k k h a . H a v in g re cite d th e pro ven an ce, h a v in g rc c itc d th e four offences in v o lv in g d e fea t, h a v in g recited th e th irte en offences e n ta ilin g a form al m eetin g of th e O rder, h a v in g recited the tw o u n d eterm in ed offences, th e rest m a y be announced as th o u g h it h a d been (already) heard ; th is is th e fo u rth (w a y fo r the) rc c ita l o f the P a tim o kkh a. (R ecital) in full is th e fifth . M onks, th ese are th e five (w ays for the) recital o f th e P a tim o k k h a / jj 1 |[ N ow , a t th a t tim e, m onks, th in k in g : " R e c ita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a in b rief is a llo w ed b y the L o rd / ' all the tim e recited th e P a tim o k k h a in b rief. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id ; " Monks* th e P a tim o k k h a sh ou ld n ot be recited in brief. W h o ever sh ould (so) recite it, there is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g /' [| 2 | ]

t t i d & n a t, s e e

a b o v e ,

p .

1 -2 7 .

* ava$e*satn sutsna tavctabbatn.

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N o w a t th a t tim e in a ce rta in residence in th e K o sa la c o u n tr y th e re cam e t o be a m enace from sa v a g e s1 on an O b serva n ce d a y . T h e m o n k s w ere unable to recite th e P a tim o k k h a in full* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord. He said ; " I allo w yo u , m on ks, if th ere is a danger, to recite the P a tim o k k h a in b rie f." I! 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m onks, a lth o u g h there w a s no d anger, re cite d th e P a tim o k k h a in b rief. T h e y told th is m a tte r t o th e Lord- H e s a id : " M o n k s , if th ere is no d a n g er th e P a tim o k k h a sh ou ld n o t be recited in brief* W h o e v e r should (so) recite it, there is an offence o f wrong-doing* I allow y o u , m onks, if th e re is a d a n g er, to recite th e P a t i m o k k h a in brief. In th is con n ection th ese are d an gers : a d an ger fro m kin g s,2 a d a n g er from th ieves, a d a n g er from fire, a d a n g er from w a te r, a d a n g er from hum an bein gs, [112] a d a n g er from non-hum an beings, a d a n g er from b easts o f p re y , a d anger from creep in g things, a d anger to life, a d an ger to the B ra h m a -fa rin g .3 I allow y o u , m onks, w h en there are d an gers su ch as th ese, to recite the P a tim o k k h a in b r i e f ; in fu ll af th e re is no d a n g er. (j 4 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m o n ks, u nbid den,4 spoke dkamma in th e m idst o f an O rder. T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : * M onks, dhamma should n o t be spoken, b y one w h o is n o t b id d en (to do so), in th e m id st o f a n O rd er.5 W h o ever should (so) sp eak i t r there is an offence o f w rong-doing. I allo w y o u , m onks, to sp eak dh&mnui b y m eans o f a m onk w h o is h im self a n elder, or (for him) t o b id a n o th er (to sp eak it) . 9 j| 5 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e gro u p o f s ix m onks, (although) n o t
1 savara^bhaya ; cf+ Vin. t. 16S. V A . 1057 reads sancarabhaya. 1 Same list again a t Vin. L 169, ii. 244. C f also i. 148-149. See also list ol seven dangers a t Z>iuV, 544. 4 On braJim&c&riya, see Mrs, R h y s D & vid s, W ayfarer's Words, ii, 533, -rA Technical Term where she regards it a.3 a term taken over Irom the brahmans -who used, it to denote the & tudeQt^ay stage in their training, 1 B y the cldcxs, V A , ig ^ . * tia bhikkh&v# sawighamajjh-e attajj kitchen a dhammo bhdsitabbo* These cases probably mean th at dhamma- L s not to be spoken or vinayjx jacked about (by one not qualified to do sol i-rt the midst of an Order. T h e y p robably do rt-o j" mean th a t one not bidden or not agreed upon in the midst of an Order m ight not speak or a&k questions C f t A iv* 153 where if a monk speaks dhamma himself or bids another [to do so) " it L s one of the eight reasons for his developm ent in th-e 9ra.h ma -i a ring.

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agreed u p o n ,a sk e d a b o u t d iscip lin e in th e m id st o f an O rd er. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd , H e said : M M onks, discipline should n ot b e asked a b o u t, b y one n o t agreed upon, in th e m id st o f an Order* W h o e v e r should (so) a s k , th ere is a n offence o f w rong-doing- I a llo w yo u , m o n ks, to a s k ab o u t disciplin e, b y m eans of one w h o is agreed upon, in th e m id st of an O rder, A n d thus, m on ks, m a y he b e agreed upon : eith er oneself m a y be a g reed upon b y o n e se lf, or a n o th er m a y b e agreed upon b y a n o th e r *1 |] 6 1 | A n d h o w m a y oneself be agreed upon b y oneself ? T he O rd er should be in form ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m on k, sa y in g : * H on oured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. I f it seem s righ t to th e O rder, I co u ld a sk so arcd 50 a b o u t d iscip lin e T h u s m a y oneself be agreed upon b y oneself. A n d h o w m a y an other be a greed upon b y a n o th e r ? T h e O rd er should be inform ed b y an exp erien ced , com p eten t monk* s a y i n g : * H on oured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. I f i t seem s righ t to th e O rder, so an d so co u ld a sk so and so about disciplin e *. T h u s m a y a n o th e r be a g reed upon b y a n other / 1 |[ 7 || N o w at. th a t tim e w ell b e h a ve d m o n k s w h o w ere agreed upon asked ab o u t disciplin e in th e m id st o f the Order* T h e g ro u p o f six m on ks took offence, th e y to o k u m b rag e, th e y th re a te n ed th em w ith harm .* T h e y told this m a tte r to th e L ord , H e said : " I allow y o u , m onksj to a sk a b o u t d iscipline in th e m id st of th e O rd er b y m eans o f one w h o is agreed upon, a lth o u g h 3 h a v in g (first) looked round th e a ssem b ly, h a v in g assessed* (each) in d iv id u a l / '5 || 8 |f N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s (although) n ot agreed upon answ ered question s on d iscip lin e in th e m idst of th e O rder. T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " M onks, questions on d iscip lin e sh o u ld n o t be answ ered in th e m id st of th e O rd er b y one n o t agreed upon. W h o e v e r should (so) answ er, there is an offence o f w rong-doing. T
4 C f , ab o ve , p.
* v a d h * * ta t

belov/, p , 150.
m e a n in g

* tulayilva, lit, havin g weighed. C f. tulayitabbajn a t Vin. iv, 147. VA* 1059 says the one who is asking* havin g looked round the assem bly, m a y ask about discipline if there is no risk for bimseli,

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D IS C IP L IN E

a llo w you, m o n ks, to an sw er questio n s in th e m id st o f th e O rd er b y m ean s o f on e w h o is agreed upon . A n d th u s, m o n ks, m a y he be agreed upon : e ith e r o n eself m a y b e agreed upon b y oneself, or a n o th er m a y be agreed upon b y another* | | 9 ]| A n d how [113] m a y oneself be agreed u p o n b y oneself ? T h e O rd er sh ou ld be inform ed b y an experienced* co m p eten t m o n k , s a y i n g : ' H on oured sirs. let th e O rd er listen to m e. I f i t seem s rig h t t o th e O rd er, I, a sked a b o u t d iscip lin e b y so and so, co u ld an sw er.' T h u s m a y oneself be agreed upon b y oneself. A n d h o w m a y a n o th e r be a g reed u p o n b y another? T h e O rd er sh o u ld be in fo rm ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p eten t m o n k , s a y in g : f H onoured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to me* i f it seem s rig h t to th e O rder, so a n d so, ask ed a b o u t discipline b y so a n d so, co u ld a n sw e r/ T h u s m a y an o th er be agreed upon b y a n o th e r/ ' || 10 || N o w a t th a t tim e w ell b e h a v e d m o n k s w h o w ere agreed upon an sw ered question s on d iscip lin e in th e m id st o f th e O rder, T h e gro u p o f six m o n k s to o k offence, th e y to o k u m brage, t h e y th re a te n ed th e m w ith h arm . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord . H e sa id : I a llo w yo u , m onks, to an sw er questions on disciplin e in the m id st of the O rd er b y m eans o f one w h o is a greed upon , a lth o u g h h a v in g (first) looked roun d th e assem bly, h a v in g assessed (each) in d iv id u a l/ ' II x i li 15 f| N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s rep ro ved , on a cco u n t o f an offence, a m o n k w h o h a d not g iv en (them) le a v e .1 T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd , He s a id : 4t M onks, a m o n k w h o has n ot g iv e n le a v e sh o u ld n o t be rep ro ved on a cco u n t of an offence. W h o e v e r should (so) rep ro ve, there is a n offence o f w ron g-d on g. I allo w y o u , m on ks, h a v in g o b ta in e d leave b y s a y i n g : r L e t th e ven erable one g iv e m e le a v e , I w a n t to spe^k to yo u to rep ro ve him on a c co u n t of an o ffe n ce/ ' | | 1 ]| N ow a t th a t tim e w ell-b eh a v ed m onks, h a v in g o b ta in e d the le a v e o f th e group o f six m onks, rep ro ved th em on a cco u n t o f
to m ake an occasion J P , to give, to gran t leave : ok&sam C f. Vi*t. iv. 344 w h ere nuns must not question monks unless th e y ha,ve obtained tlieir leave to do so, and where an&hasahata Ls defined b y anapucchA, w ithout havin g asked (for permission).
kdrapeti, to m & ke to g iv e , thus- to obtain, leave,

* <t7iQk&sakatat

1 6 .2 5]

M A H A V A G G A

II

an offence. T h e g ro u p o f s ix m o n th s to o k offence, th e y to o k um brage* th e y th re a te n ed th e m w ith harm* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e sa id : 441 a llo w yo u , m on ks, e v e n if le a v e is g iv en , to rep ro ve fo r an o ffen ce a fte r y o u h a v e assessed th e in d ivid u al/* j| 2 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m o n ks, th in k in g ; " B e fo r e 1 w ell-b eh aved m o n k s o b ta in o u r le a v e , th e m selv e s o b ta in e d th e p u re monks* le a v e beforehand, b u t th ere w as no g ro u n d , no reason, since t h e y w ere n o t offend ers5. T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e Lord* H e sa id : M onks, leave sh ou ld n o t be o b ta in ed from pure m o n k s w h en th e re is n o g ro u n d , no reason, since th e y are n o t offenders. W h o e v e r should (so) o b ta in it* there is an offence o f w rong-doing* 1 a llo w yo u , m onks, to o btain leave a fte r y o u h a v e assessed th e in d iv id u a ls . \ \3 | | N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n ks carried o u t a (form al) a c t th a t w a s n o t le g a lly v a lid in th e m id st o f an O rder. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : M onks, a (form al) a c t th a t is n o t le g a lly v a lid sh o u ld n o t be carried o u t in th e m id st o f th e O rder- W h o e v e r sh ou ld (so) c a r ry one out* th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g/* E v e n so^ th e y carried o u t a (form al) a ct th a t w a s not le g a lly v a lid . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r [114] to th e L o rd . H e said : " I a llo w y o u , m onks, to p ro te s t1 w h en a (form al) a c t th a t is n o t le g a lly v a lid is b e in g carried o u t.'* I) 4 !| N o w a t th a t tim e w ell-b e h a v ed m o n k s p ro tested w h en a (form al) a c t th a t w a s n o t le g a lly v a lid w a s b e in g carried o u t b y th e g ro u p o f six m o n ks. T h e g ro u p o f six m onks to o k offence, th e y to o k u m b ra g e, t h e y th re a te n ed th em w ith harm . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e said : ** I a llo w yo u , m onks, jn ere ly to express an opinion/* T h e y exp ressed an opinion to these them selves* T h e group o f s i x m onks to o k offence, t h e y to o k u m brage, t h e y th re a te n ed th em w ith harm . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : ** I a llo w y o u , m onks, w h en th e re are fou r or five, to p ro test, w hen th ere are tw o or th ree t o ex p re ss an opinion, w h en th ere is one, to d e term in e : 4 I d o n o t a p p ro v e o f th is '/ ' j| 5 ||
1 ** * firtr* =pahaia?jtt 1059* C f M V . I V . i& . 3. petfigacc evst = pafhamaiaratft* 1059 andpattika. pa$ikko$iiutrtr C f, B.E>~ iii- 58,

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N o w a t t h a t tim e th e group o f six m onks, w hen th e P a t i m o k k h a w as b e in g recited in th e m id st of th e O rd er, in ten tio n a lly d id n o t h ear. T h e y to 3 d th is m a tte r t o th e L ord . H e s a i d : '* M onks, a re cite r o f th e P a tim o k k h a sh o u ld n ot in te n tio n a lly n o t b e heard. W h o e v e r should n ot hear, there is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g ," j| 6 \ \ N o w a t th a t tim e th e ven erable U d a y in cam e to b e reciter of th e P a tim o k k h a fo r an O rder, b u t h is vo ice w a s lik e a cro w 's. T h e n i t occurred to th e ven era b le UdSLyin ; " I t is la id dow n b y th e L o rd th a t a rc c ite r o f th e P a tim o k k h a should be heard , b u t m y vo ice is like a crow 's. N o w w h a t line of co n d u ct should be follow ed b y m e ? T h e y to ld this m a tte r t o th e L o rd , H e sa id : I a llo w , m onks, th e one w h o is th e re cite r o f th e P a tim o k k h a to exert h im self, th in kin g: ' H o w can I b e h eard ? * T h e re is no offence fo r one w h o e x erts h im se lf/' | | 7 || N o w a t th a t tim e D e v a d a tta re cite d th e P a tim o k k h a before an a sse m b ly th a t co n ta in e d laym en* T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a should n o t be re cite d b efore an a ssem b ly th a t con tain s laym en . W h o e v e r should (so) re cite it* th e re is an offence o f w rongd o in g .'1 || 8 |f N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m onks, unbidden* recited th e P a tim o k k h a in th e m id st o f an O rder. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : ' M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a should n o t be recited in th e m id st of an O rd er b y on e w ho is n o t bidd en (to do so). W h o ever (such) should recite it, th e re is an offence o f w rong-doing. T a llo w , m onks, th a t th e P a tim o k k h a be in charge o f an cid e r/"1 || g t| 16 |[ T old is th e P o rtio n for R e p e a tin g on M em bers o f O th er Sects. T h en th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d in R a ja g a h a fo r a s lo n g as he found su itin g, se t out on to u r fo r C o d a n a v a tth u , In due course, w a lk in g on a tour, he a rriv ed in C o d an avatth u * N ow a t th a t tim e several m onks w ere s ta y in g in a certain re sid e n ce ; [115] the m onk w ho there w as th e elder w as ig n o ra n t,
1 thzrddhik&rn pdtimok&ham. V A , 1059 s a y s t h a t th e eld er sh ou ld recite it

himself or call upon another to do so. dhamnut unbidden, above, p . 14ft*

Cf. the ruling which arose from speaking

17.x 6]

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in exp erien ced , he did n o t kn o w th e O b serva n ce o r a (formal) a c t fo r O b servan ce or th e P a tim o k k h a or th e re cita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a , \ \ 1 |( T h en i t o ccu rred to th ese m o n k s : " I t is la id dow n b y th e L o rd th a t th e P a tim o k k h a b e in ch a rg e o f an elder, b a t th is eld er o f ours is ign o ra n t, in exp erien ced , he does n o t k n o w th e O b servan ce . . . or th e re c ita l of th e P a tim o k k h a . N o w w h a t line of co n d u ct sh o u ld b e fo llo w ed b y us ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w , m o n ks, th e P a tim o k k h a to be d isch a rg ed 1 b y w h o e v e r th ere is a n exp eri enced, co m p eten t m o n k / ' { | 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e se ve ra l ig n o ra n t, in exp erien ced m o n ks w ere s ta y in g in a certain residence on an O b serva n ce d a y . T h ese d id n o t k n o w th e O b serva n ce or a (form al) a c t fo r O bservan ce o r th e P a tim o k k h a or th e recital o f th e P a t i m o kkh a. T h ese c a lle d upon an eld er, s a y i n g : H onoured s ir ,le t th e eld er recite th e P a tim o k k h a / ' H e sp ok e th u s : " Y o u r reveren ces, I am n o t ab le t o do so */1 T h e y called upon a second eld er , . H e also sp oke t h u s : . , . T h e y c a lle d upon a th ird e ld e r . . . Tn th is w a y th e y ca lled upon {all th e m onks) dow n to th e m o st n e w ly o rd ain ed in th e O rder, sa y in g r " L e t th e ven era b le one re cite th e P a tim o k k h a / H e also spoke th u s : *# H on oured sirs, I am n o t a b le t o do s o / ' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : || 3 || * * T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere se ve ra l ign oran t, in exp erien ced m o n k s are s ta y in g in a certa in resid en ce . . . - . * H on ou red sirs, I am n o t able to do so \ M onks, one m o n k sh ou ld im m e d ia te ly be sent to a n eig h b o u rin g residence b y these m o n ks, sa y in g : f D o go , y o u r reveren ce ; h a v in g m a stered th e P a tim o k k h a in b rie f or in fu ll, com e b a c k V* U4>5ir T hen it occurred to m o n k s : r' N o w , b y w h om sh o u ld he be Sent ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e sa id : 1 allow y o u , m onks, to en jo in a n e w ly ordained m o n k th rough a m o n k w h o is an e ld e r/ J N e w ly ord ain ed m o n k s, (although ) enjoined b y a n eld er, d id n o t g o . T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : 4f M onks, [ 116] one w h o is n ot ill
* tnssadheyy<2?jt pa.titttoh&kani, Adheyya means Mt o be appropriated
e p re s e n t te n se*

* tut w vaitati, it is not for me. * A s in (| 3 y above, b u t t o l d m t h

* 54

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D IS C IP L IN E W h o ever sh o u ld J j 6 || 17 J |

sh o u ld n o t n o t go w h en en jo in ed b y an elder* not go, th ere is an offence of w ro n g -d o in g /'

T h en th e L o r d r h a v in g s ta y e d a t C o d a n a v a tth u for as lo n g as he fo u n d s u it in g retu rn ed a g ain to R a ja g a h a . N o w a t th a t tim e people ask ed th e m o n ks as th e y w ere w alk in g fo r alm sfood : W h ic h (day) o f th e h a lf-m o n th is it, honoured sirs ? T h e m o n k s spoke th u s ; " W e, sirs, do not k n o w / ' T h e people , * spread i t a b o u t, sa y in g : T hese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, do not even kn o w th e c a lc u la tio n 1 o f th e hdlf-m onths, so how ca n th e y k n o w a n y th in g else th a t is good ? J J T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord . H e sa id : " I allo w , yo u , m on ks, to learn th e ca lcu la tio n o f th e h a lf m o n th s/ ' || i J j T h e n it occurred to m o n k s : N o w b y w h om should th e c a lcu la tio n o f th e h alf-m o n th s be le a rn t ? M T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " I allo w y o u , m on ks, one and all* to learn th e ca lcu la tio n of th e h a lf-m o n th s/J fj 2 \ \ N o w a t th a t tim e people a sk e d th e m onks as th e y w ere w a lk in g for a lm s fo o d ; " H o w m a n y m o n k s are there, honoured sirs ? * * T h e m onks sp ok e t h u s : " W e. sirs, do not know /* T h e people . * * spread it a b o u t, s a y in g : T h ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y an s, do n o t e ve n know one another, so h o w can th e y know a n y th in g else th a t is good ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : I allow you, m onks, to count th e m o n k s. |[ 3 jj T h e n it occurred to m o n k s ; " N ow , h o w should the m onks be c o u n te d ? ,J T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L ord . H e sa id : I allow yo u , m onks, on an O b servan ce d a y to co u n t b y w a y o f g ro u p s3 or to ta k e fa count) b y tic k e t* / j| 4 |j 18 |j N o w a t th a t tame m onks, not kn o w in g, " T o - d a y is an O b se rva n ce d a y/* w a lk e d to a d ista n t v illa g e fo r alm sfoodN o t o n ly d id these co m e b a ck w h ile th e P a tim o k k h a w as being re cite d , b u t th e y cam e b ack ju st a fte r it h a d been recited . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord- H e said :
1 gafta-na, see * sabbeh evam ii. 176 , t#( 5,

9 ga^tamaggcna gaygtutn* 4 said ha 17 1 g a h ctu q i_

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" I allo w y o u , m onks, to an n oun ce, ' T o -d a y is an O b se rva n ce day V T h e n it o ccu rre d to m o n k s : '* N o w , b y w h om should it b e an n ou n ced ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : I allow y o u , m onks, to announce i t in g o o d tim e th ro u g h a m o n k w h o Is a n elder/" N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in eld er did n o t rem em ber in good tim e. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : ** T allow yo u , m onks, to announce it eve n a t m e a l-tim e / ' H e d id n o t rem em b er e ve n a t m eal tim e. T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e &aid : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to announce it a t w h a te v e r tim e h e1 rem em b ers/' ]| 1 1 | 19 \ \ [117] N o w a t th a t tim e the O b serva n ce-h a ll in a ce rta in residence ca m e t o b e soiled. In co m in g m o n k s lo o k ed dow n upon, criticised , sp read it about* s a y i n g ; 4 4 H o w can these m o n ks n o t sw eep th e O bservan ce-h all ? ** T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " I a llo w y o u , m onks, to sw eep th e O b se rv a n c e -h a ll/ ' J [ 1 [j T h en it occurred to m on ks 1 N o w , b y w h om sh o u ld an O bservan ce-h all be sw e p t ? ,T T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " I a llo w y o u , m on ks, to enjoin a n e w ly ord ained m onk th rough a m onk w h o is an e ld e r/ ' N e w ly ord ained m onks, (although) en jo in ed b y an elder, did n o t sw eep. T h e y to ld th is rn a tter to th e L o rd . H e s a id ; ** M onks, one w ho is n o t ill sh ou ld n ot n o t sw eep w h en en jo in ed b y an elder. W h o ever sh ou ld n o t sw eep , th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g . |[ 2 | | N o w a t th a t tim e a se a t w as n o t p rep ared in an O b servan cehall. M onks sat on th e ground. T h e ir lim bs a n d robes becam e co ve red w ith d u st. T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : 4 1 I allo w y o u , m onks, to p repare a se a t in th e O b serva n ce-h a ll. T h e n it occu rred to m onks : N ow , b y w h om sh o u ld a se a t in th e O b serva n ce-h a ll b e p rep a red ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : I a llo w y o u , m onks, t o en jo in a n e w ly ord ain ed m o n k th ro u g h a m o n k w h o is an e ld e r/ ' N e w ly o rd ain ed m o n ks, (although) enjoined b y an elder* d id n o t p rep are (a seat). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e s a i d : " M onks, one w h o is n o t ill sh o u ld 1 I.e. the elder.

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n o t n o t prepare (a seat) w hen en jo in ed b y an elder, Who^ e v e r sh o u ld n o t p repare (a seat), there is an offence o f w ro n g doing/* || 3 II N o w a t th a t tim e th ere ca m e to be n o lig h t in an O bservan ceh all. M onks tro d on (one a n o th er's) bodies and robes in th e d a rk . T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e Lord* H e said : fJ I allo w yo u , m onks, to m a k e a lig h t1 in a n O b se rv a n ce -h a ll/ J T h en it occurred to m o n k s : * * N o w , b y w h om is th e lig h t to be m ad e in an O b servan ce-h all ? Ji T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L ord . H e sa id : " I a llo w yo u , m onks, to en jo in a n e w ly ord ained m o n k th ro u g h a m onk w h o is an elder/" N e w ly o rd ain ed m onks, (although) en jo in ed b y a n elder, did n o t lig h t a lam p .* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e s a i d : " M onks, one w h o is n o t ill should n o t n o t lig h t a la m p w h en en jo in ed b y an elder. W h o e v e r sh ould n o t lig h t a la m p P th ere is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g ." ]| 4 |[ A t th a t tim e in a c e rta in residence resident m on ks neith er se t out d rin k in g w a te r n or d id th e y set out w a te r for w ashing. In co m in g m onks lo o ked dowT n upon, criticised , spread it about* sa y in g : " H o w can these resident m onks neither set o u t d rin k in g w a te r n or set o u t w a te r fo r w ash in g ? rj T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : *' I a llo w y o u , m onks, [418] to set o u t d rin kin g w a te r and w a te r fo r w a s h in g / 1 || 5 |[ T h en it occurred to m o n k s : ,f N o w , b y w h om should d rin k in g w a te r a n d w a te r fo r w a sh in g be set o u t ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : " I allo w yo u , m onks, to enjoin a n e w ly ordained m o n k th ro u g h a m o n k w h o 15 an e ld e r/ ' N e w ly o id a in ed m onks, (although) en jo in e d b y an elder, d id not s e t o u t (the w ater)- T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e Lord- H e sa id : " M onks, one w h o is n o t ill should n o t not set out (water) w hen en join ed b y an elder. W h o e v e r sh o u ld n o t set it o u t, th ere is an offence o f w rong d o in g / ' ! J 6 || 20 | | N o w a t th a t tim e ign oran t in exp erien ced m onks, tra v e llin g to d ista n t p a rts ,3 did n o t ask teach ers a n d p recep to rs (for 1 padipam k&tut?th
* p a d ip ttit t o lig h t u p , t o ligh t a lam p* * disatitgamikii ; /t V in , L 163 ; a n d M V * I. 35 . 24 w here those w h o share cells m a y n o t le a v e th e d is tr ic t (dtsa) w ith o u t a-sfring th e precep tors for perm ission*

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permission). T h e y told this m a tter to th e Lord. H e s a id : " This is a case, m onks, where several ignorant inexperienced monks, travellin g to d istan t parts, do not ask teachcrs and preceptors (for permission). Monks, th e y should be asked by these teachers and preceptors : ' W here w ill you go ? W ith whom w ill yo n go ? ' I f r m onks, these ignorant inexperienced ones should cite other ignorant inexperienced ones, then, monks, th e y should not be allow ed to go b y the teachers and preceptors. If th e y should a llo w them (to go), there is an offence of wrong-doing. A n d if, m onks, these ignorant inexperienced ones should go {although) not allow ed b y 1 the teachers and preceptors, there is an offenceof wrong-doing, jj X || " This is a case, m onks, w here several ignorant in e x p e rt enced m onks are sta yin g in a certain residence on an Observance d ay. These do not know th e O bservance or a (formal) a ct fo r O bservance or the P atim okkh a or the recital of the P atim okkh a, A certain m onk arrives there. He has heard m uch, he is one to whom the tradition has been handed d o w n / he is an expert on dhamm&i an exp ert on discipline, an expert on the sum maries ; he is w iseP experienced, clever ; he is conscientious, scrupulous, desirous of training. M onks, th a t m onk should be furthered4 b y those m onks, he should be h elp ed ,6 he should be encouraged,6 he should be su p ported 7 in regard to chunam p cla y, tooth-w ood, w ater fo r w ashing the face. If he should not be furthered, helped, encouraged, supported in regard to chunam , cla y , tooth-w oodr w ater for w ashing the face, there is an offence of wrong-doing, [j 2 [ j This is a case, m onks, w here several ignorant, inexperi enced m onks are stayin g in a certain residence on an Observance-day* These do not know the O bservance . * + or the 1 ananunnata, defined at Vin. iv. 335 as artapuccha, not asking (for permission)* Permission has to be asked for before it can be given. 1 agatdgama See B.D, iii. 71, n, 1. * Cf: A. i. 117, ii. 147, iii, 179/*
* santgahetabbo. T h is w o rd is u sed w ith th e n e x t (anuggahetabbo) a b o v e , iii* 1 anugga&etabbo. S ee d efin itio n o f anuggarth&yya a t V i n n av, 3Z5 T h e w ord o c c u rs a b o v e , p . 67. * upaidp&tabbo, C/. d efin itio n o f u p a la p e y y a a t V in . jv , 140 {B .D . iii.
upatthdpetabbo^ C f , d efin itio n o f u p a tth d p e y y a a t V in , iv* J40 (i?*!?.

i i i 34).

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re cita l of th e P a tim o k k h a . M onks, one m o n k sh ould im m edi a t e ly be sen t t o a n eigh b o u rin g residence b y th ese m o n k s, s a y i n g : 4 D o go, y o u r reveren ce, h a v in g m astered th e P a tim o k k h a in brief or in lu ll, com e b a ck \ I f he th u s m an a g es thi% i t is g o o d . I f he does n o t m an ag e it, th e n , m o n ks, th o se m o n ks, one a n d all, sh ould go to a residence w h ere th e y k n o w th e O b se rv a n ce . . . or th e recita l o f th e P a tim o k k h a . [119] I f t h e y sh o u ld n o t g o , th ere is an offence o f w rong-doing, ||3 || T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere se ve ra l ign oran t, in exp erien ced m o n ks are sp en d in g th e rain s in a certain residence. T h ese d o n o t k n o w . . . (as above in ]| 3 |[) - - * I f he th u s m an ages th is, i t is good . I f he does n o t m a n a g e it , th e n , m onks, one m o n k sh o u ld be sen t off fo r se ve n d a y s (w ith th e words) : ' D o go , y o u r reveren ce, h a v in g m a ste re d th e P a tim o k k h a in b rie f o r in fu ll, com e b a c k I f he th u s m an ages this, it is good- I f h e does n ot m an age it, th en , m onks, th ese m o n k s sh ou ld n o t sp en d th e rain s in th a t residence. I f th e y sh o u ld sp en d th e m (there), th ere is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g ."
I!

4 II 2 1 II

T h e n th e L o r d addressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g : " G a t h e r to g eth e r, m o n ks, th e O rd er w ill c a r r y o u t th e O b se rv a n c e /' "When he h a d spoken th u s, a certain m o n k sp ok e th u s to th e L o r d : ** T h e re is, L o rd , a m o n k w h o is ILL H e h a s not com e/* H e sa id : " I allow y o u , m onks, to d e clare 1 entire p u r ity 3 on b e h a lf o f a m o n k w h o is ill. A n d th u s, m onks, should i t be d eclared : T h a t ill m on k, h a v in g approached one m o n k , h a v in g arran ged his upp er robe o v e r one shoulder, h a v in g sa t dow n on h is haunches, h a v in g sa lu ted w ith jo in ed p a lm s, sh o u ld sp eak th u s to him : * I w ill d eclare entire p u r ity ic o n v e y en tire p u r ity fo r m e, announce en tire p u r ity fo r m e \ I f h e m a k e s it u n d erstood b y gestu re, if he m akes i t u n d erstood b y v o ic e , if he m a k e s it u n d ersto o d b y g estu re a n d v o ic e , th e en tire p u r ity com es t o b e declared- I f h e does n o t m a k e i t u n d ersto o d b y gestu re, i f he does n o t m a k e i t * datum, Kt, to give, Cf. ek&ndzttjt datum at Fin* iv. 151 {B.D. iii. 58}
a d d below , p . 161* * p d r t s u d d h i, c f , a b o v e,. p + 133*

I t m e a n s t h a t t h e i l l m o n k b e lie v e s t h a t h e h a s c o m m it t e d n o n e o f t h e o ffe n c e s s p e c ifie d in t h e P S tim o k k h a * o r t h a t , i i h e h a s , h e h a s c o n fe s s e d t h e m , so t h a t in r e g a r d to t h e m h e is p u re .

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u n d erstood b y v o ic e , if h e does n o t mstke it u n d e rsto o d b y g estu re a n d v o ice, th e en tire p u r ity does n o t co jn e to be d eclared . || i || 4' I f he th u s m an a g es th is, i t is go od ; if he does n o t m a n a g e it, then, m o n ks, th a t ill m o n k, h a v in g been b ro u g h t to th e m id st o f th e O rd er on a co u ch o r a ch air, th e O b servan ce m a y b e ca rricd out. I f, m o n ks, it occurs to th e m oxiks w h o are te n d in g th e ill one : * I f w e m o v e th e ill one from (this) p la c e , eith er th e disease w ill g ro w m u ch w orse or he w ill d ie1 ', m onks, th e ill one sh o u ld n o t be m o v e d from (that) p la ce ; th e O rder, h a v in g gone th ere, sh o u ld c a r r y o u t th e O bservan ce; th e O b servan ce sh o u ld not b e ca rrie d o u t b y an in com p lete Order*2 I f it sh ou ld be (so) ca rried o u t, th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g. ]| 2 ]| I f j m on ks, th e c o n v e y e r o f th e e n tire p u r ity goes a w a y th en a n d th e re ,3 a lth o u g h th e en tire p u r ity w a s d eclared (to h im )4, th e en tire p u r ity sh o u ld be d eclared to another* If, m onks, th e c o n v e y o r o f th e en tire p u r ity le a v e s .th e O rd er then an d there a lth o u g h th e en tire p u r ity w a s d e cla re d (to him ), if he passes a w a y , if he p reten d s to b e a n o v ic e ,5 [120] if he preten d s to b e a d isa vo w e r o f th e tra in in g ,* if he pretends to b e a co m m itter o f an e x tre m e o ffe n c e ,7 if he p reten d s to be m a d ,s ii he pretend s to be u n h in g e d ,& i f he p reten d s to h a v e b o d ily p a in s ,8 if he p reten d s to be one w ho is suspended* for n o t seein g an offence, i f he p reten d s to be one w h o is suspend ed fo r n ot m a k in g am ends for an offence, if he p re te n d s to b e one w h o is su sp en d ed for n o t g iv in g u p a w ro n g view , if he pretend s to b e a eu n u ch ,10 if he p reten d s to be one

1 kalt*7?ikiriyd bhavissatit lit. there w ill be a OoLijg o f (hi$) tun?


*

A s above,

IT .

1 1 .

I.

a n a se v e r a l tim es b elow ,

* ta tth ' eva. V A , 10 62, i f h e g o e s e ls e w h e r e , n o t t o t h e m id s t o I t h e O r d e r , * * T h e o n e w h o h a s u n d e r t a k e n t o c o n v e y th e t n t L e p u r i t y s h e lv e s h is

re sp o n sib ility an d d o es n o t c a r r y o u t th e m essage en tru sted to him*


* Cf* th e f o llo w in g s e q u e n c e a n d t h e t h r e e p r e c e d in g ite m s : Ejomg a w a y

an d le a v in g th e O rde* a n d p a ssin g a w a y , w ith Vin^ i. 135 , 167-6, 307, 320,


iL r y . 1 S ee R+D. L 40 ff.

A t A * v . 7 1 th e p resen ce o f a " d is a v o w e r o f th e tr a in in g * 1 , is g iv e n a s one o f th e reasons w h y th e P & titn ok k h a m a y b e su sp en ded . 7 anJimavatthurH a jjh & p a n n a k o , m e a n in g a P a r S jik a offen ce ; c f. p , f 3 o. * R easo n s fo r e x e m p tio n from th e p e n a lty i o t a n offen ce a s g iv e n in Sutt&uibhanga.

* uU hhitia , cf.

iiL 28, n, 4,

lfl N o t t o b e ord ained , a b o v e p* 109,

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liv in g in com m union as it w ere b y t h e ft ,1 if he pretend s to b e one w h o has gone o v e r to another se c t2* if he preten d s t o b e a n a n im a l,3 if he preten d s to b e a m a tricid e ,4if b e pretends to b e a p a r r ic id e / if he p reten d s to be a sla y e r of one p e r fe c te d / i f h e p reten d s to be a sed ucer of a n u n / if he preten d s to b e a s c h is m a tic / if he p reten d s to be a sh edder o f (a T ruth-finder's) b lo o d / if h e p reten d s to b e a h e rm a p h ro d ite / th e entire p u r ity shotild b e d eclared to another. || 3 || f If, m o n ks, th e c o n v e y e r o f th e entire p u r ity goes a w a y w h ile he is on th e r o a d / a lth o u g h th e entire p u r ity w as d e cla re d (to h im ), th e en tire p u r ity com es to be n o t co n veyed . I f, m o n ks, th e c o n v e y e r o f th e entire p u rity lea ves th e O rder w h ile he is on th e ro a d , a lth o u g h th e en tire p u r ity w as d eclared (to him ), if he passes a w a y , . * i f h e pretend s to b e a h erm a p h ro d ite , th e entire p u r ity com es to b e n o t co n veyed . If, m o n ks, th e co n ve ye r o f th e entire p u rity , a fte r th e entire p u r ity w a s d eclared (to h im ), h a v in g a rriv e d a t th e O rder, then goes a w a y , th e en tire p u rity com es to b e c o n ve ye d . I f, m o n ks, th e convener o f th e e n tire p u rity , a fte r th e en tire p u rity w a s d eclared {to h im ), h a v in g a rriv e d a t th e O rder, th en le a v e s th e O rder, passes a w a y , , * . p reten d s to be a herm a p h ro d ite, th e en tire p u rity com es t o be co n veyed . I f, m onks, th e co n ve ye r o f th e en tire p u rity , a fte r the entire p u rity w as d eclared {to him ), h a v in g a rriv ed a t th e O rd er does n ot a n n o u n ce it because he has fallen asleep, does n o t announce i t b ecau se he is in d olen t, does n o t announce i t because he is a tta in in g (what is h ig h e r7), th e en tire p u rity com es to be c o n v e y e d ; th ere is no offence for th e c o n v e y e r o f th e entire purity* If, m o n ks, th e co n ve ye r o f th e entire p u rity , a lth o u g h th e en tire p u r ity w a s d eclared (to him ), h a v in g a rriv ed a t th e O rder, in te n tio n a lly does n o t announce it, th e entire p u r ity com es to be c o n v e y e d (but) th e re is a n offence of w rong-doing for th e c o n v e y e r of th e entire p u r ity ."
ft 4 II 2 2 ||

1 ihtyyasatftv& sa ka ; n o t to b e ord ain ed , cf* a b o v e, p- n o . 1 iitth iy& p ab ban Jaka ; zxo t t o b e ord ain ed , see a b o v e , p . i i o , * N o t t o b e ord ain ed , a b o v e p* n r .
4 N ot to b e ordained, a b o ve p* i n .

* W h ile he is on the way to th e O rd e r ; if he goe$ elsew here. 7 sattt&panna, a. term which has the technical sense of Attaining the attainments, som&patti, See B ,D . i i 177, u- 5, 6,

* N o t t o b e o rd ain ed , a b o v e p* 113*

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T h en th e L o rd ad dressed th e m o n ks, s a y i n g : " G a th e r to geth er, monks* th e O rd e r w ill c a rry o u t a (formal) a c t .jr W hen he h a d spoken th u s a c e rta in m o n k sp oke th u s t o th e L o rd : " L o rd , th ere is a m o n k w h o is ill ; he has n o t c o m e ." Jr H e s a id : 1 allow y o u , m o n k s, t o g iv e th e co n se n t1 for a m o n k w h o is ill. A n d th u s, m on ks, sh ou ld i t be g iv e n : T h a t ill m o n k , h a v in g ap p ro ach ed one m o n k , h a v in g arran ged his u p p er robe o v e r one sh o u ld er, having' sa t d o w n on his haunches, h a v in g sa lu ted w ith jo in e d palm s, sh o u ld sp ea k th u s to him : ' I w ill g iv e th e consent, c o n v e y th e consent fo r m e, announce th e consent for m e .r. I f he m a k e s it.u n d e r sto o d b y g estu re, i f he m a k e s it und ersto o d b y v o ice, if he m ak es it u n d erstood b y gestu re a n d v o ic e , th e con sen t com es to bo g iven . I f he does n ot m ake it u n d e r s to o d b y g estu re, if he does not m a k e it u n d erstood b y v o ic e , if he d o es not m a k e it understood b y g estu re and vo ice, th e con sen t does not com e to b e given , | ]x | | 4 4 I f he th u s m an ages th is Pi t is good. I f he d oes n o t m an age it, then, [121] m onks, h a v in g ta k e n th a t ill m o n k to th e m id st of th e O rd er on a couch or a ch a ir, a (form al) a c t m a y b e carried o u t. I f, m onks, it occurs t o th e m o n ks w h o are ten d in g the ill one : f I f w e m o v e th e ill one from (this) p lace, eith er th e disease w ill gro w m u ch w o rse o r he w ill die m onks, th e ill one sh ould n o t be m o ved fro m (that) place ; the O rder, h a v in g gone there, sh o u ld c a r ry o u t th e (form al) a c t ; a (forma]) a c t sh o u ld n ot be carried o u t b y a n in com plete O rder. I f it should be (so) carried o u t, th e re is an offence o f w rong-d oing. j| 2 || I f, m o n ks, th e c o n v e y e r o f th e con sen t goes a w a y then and th e re a lth o u g h th e con sen t w a s g iv e n (to him ), the consent sh o u ld b e given t o another. I f, m onks, the co n v e ye r o f th e consent le a v e s th e O rd er th en and th ere, a lth o u g h th e con sen t w as g iv e n (to him ), if he d ies , . . if he pretends to b e a h erm aph rod ite, th e consent sh o u ld be g iv e n to another. I f, m onks, th e co n v e ye r o f th e consent g o es a w a y w h ile he is on th e road, a lth o u g h th e con sen t w as g iv en t o h im , th e con sen t com es to be not co n veyed . I f, m on ks, th e c o n v e y e r o f th e consent le a v e s th e O rd er w h ile h e is on th e ro a d , . J cha n da tft see 13 ,JD. iii. 58, 6 1. le a v e o f ab sen ce b y p r o x y .

I t is h ere th e 1 co n sen t ' t o send

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(as in i r . 22* 4) . * - th e re is an offence of w ro n g-d o in g fo r th e c o n v e y e r o f th e co n sen t. I a llo w y o u , m on ks, on an O bservan ce d a y , to g iv e th e co n sen t also, b y d eclarin g th e en tire p u r ity ; th e y a re th e O rd er's busin ess1/ || 3 |! 23 || N o w a t th a t tim e his relation s g o t h o ld o f a c e rta in m o n k on an O b serva n ce d a y . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere his relation s g e t hold o f a m o n k on an O b serva n ce day* T hese relation s sh o u ld be spoken to th u s b y th e m o n k s ; * P lea se w ill y o u , ven erab le ones,3 le t go o f th is m o n k fo r a sh ort tim e 3 w h ile th is m o n k carries o u t th e O b serva n ce ? * j| 1 | | I f th e y m an age th is th u s, i t is good. I f t h e y do n ot m an age it, th ese relatio n s should be spoken to th u s b y th e m onks : f P lea se w ill y o u , ven e ra b le ones, sta n d a t a re sp ectfu l d istan ce fo r a sh o rt tim e w h ile th is m o n k d eclares h is en tire p u r ity ? ' I f th e y m a n age th is th u s, i t is good. I f th e y do n ot m an ag e it, th ese rela tio n s sh o u ld be spoken to th u s b y th e m onks : ' P le a se w ill y o u , ven era b le ones, ta k e th is m onk o u tsid e th e b o u n d a ry 4 fo r a sh ort tim e w h ile th e O rd er carries o u t th e O b se rv a n ce ? 1 I i th e y m an age th is th u s, it is good* I f th e y do n ot m an ag e i t th e O b serva n ce should n o t b e carried o u t b y an in co m p le te O rder. I f it sh o u ld be (so) ca rrie d out, th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g, ||2 [ | fl T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere kin gs g e t h o ld o f a m o n k on an O b servan ce d a y * * * th ie v e s , , , men o f aband on ed life 5 . . . m o n ks w h o are opponents o m onks* g e t hold of a m o n k o n an O b serva n ce d a y . T h ese m on ks w h o are opponents o f m o n ks sh ou ld be sp o k en to th u s b y th e m o n k s ; ' P lease w ill y o u . * . (as i n 1 , 2) . . . th e O b servan ce sh ould n ot be carried o u t b y a n in com p lete O rder. I f i t sh o u ld b e (so) carried out, th ere is an offence o f w r o n g d o in g ." |[3 l| 2 4 j|
[122]______________________________________________
IT* 25 . r* Kt*rap.tyu is something to be done* a duty ; */. MV. IV, 3 h5* * An occasion where monks a d d r e s s lay people with the honorific title
dyasm d. * mvhuetatp, fo r a m om en t. o f t h a t O rd er, a n d 90 his ab sen ce or his faita] e t o g e t his en tire p u r ity d eclared

santi samghassa Anrantyntn,

S a m e expression o ccu rs a t b e g in n in g o f MTV.

4 W h ile

o u tsid e an O rd e r's b o u n d a ry a m o n k w o u ld n o t b e a m em ber

w ou ld n o t render t h a t O rd e r "* in c o m p le te p > .


* dhuita* See H.D* u 234, & r * Cf+ B j y , L 4$ L

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T h en th e L o rd ad dressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g : " G a th e r to g eth e r, m onks, th e re is business fo r th e O rd e r, 1 W h en he h a d sp ok en th u s a ce rta in m o n k sp ok e th u s to the L o rd : fr T h e re is, L o rd , th e m ad m o n k G a g g a 2 ; he h a s n o t c o m e. H e sa id : M T here a re, m o n ks, th ese tw o (kinds of) m ad m en : th ere is th e m ad m o n k w h o now rem em bers th e O b se rva n ce , now does n ot rem em ber it ; w h o now rem em bers a (form al) a c t o f th e O rder, now d o es n ot rem em ber it. H e is one w h o does n o t rem em ber a r ig h t.3 (A nd th ere is th e one) w h o n o w com es fo r th e O b se rva n ce , n o w docs n o t co m e fo r it, w ho now co m es fo r a (form al) a c t of th e O rder, now does n o t com e for it. H e is one w h o does n o t com e aright- jf I \ \ ** In a case, m onks, w here th is m a d m a n now rem em bers the O b servan ce, n o w does n o t rem em b er i t , . . now com es fo r a (formal) a c t o f th e O rd er, now does not com e for it, I a llo w you, m onks, to g iv e the agreem en t fo r a m a d m a n 4 to su ch a m a d m a n , jj 2 ]| A n d th us, m on ks, sh ouid i t be g iv en : T h e O rd er should be in form ed b y an exp erien ced , c o m p e ten t m on k, s a y in g : ' H onoured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. T h e m ad m o n k G a g g a now rem em bers I he O b se rv a n c e , now does n o t rem em ber i t 5 n o w rem em bers a (form al) a ct o f th e O rder, now does n o t rem em ber i t , lie n o w com es for the Observance^ now d ocs not cornc for it ; n ow com es fo r a (formal) a c t o f the O rder, now does n o t com e fo r it. I f it seem s righ t to the O rder, th e O rder shou]d g iv e th e agreem en t for a m ad m an to th e m*id m onk G a g g a r so th a t w h e th e r th e m o n k G a g g a 6 rem em bers th e O b serva n ce or does n o t rem em ber it, w h eth er he rem em bers a (formal) a ct o f th e O rd er o r does n o t rem em ber it, w h e th e r he com es for th e O b serva n ce or does n o t com e fo r it, w h eth er he com es for a (form al) a c t of th e O rd er or does not com e for it, th e O rd er eith er w ith G a g g a or w ith o u t G a g g a can c a r ry o u t th e O b serva n ce, can c a r r y out a (form al) a c t o f th e O rder. T h is is th e m otion- |[ 3 [j 4t 1 H onoured sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to me* T h e m ad m onk G a g g a now rem em bers th e O b serva n ce _ . . now com es 1 a ith i
sanzgh&sa a A ura filyam ,
* C/, V in . ii. 80

eva. * ummait&kaso-ftitnuti,
s ,f mad M om itted here in te x t.

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fo r a {forma]) a c t of th e O rder, now does n o t com e for it. T h e O rd er is g iv in g th e agreem en t for a m ad m an to th e m ad m o n k G ag g a so th a t w h eth er th e m o n k G a g g a rem em bers - . . ot does n o t com e for it, th e O rd er eith er w ith G a g g a or w ith o u t G a g g a w ill c a r ry o u t th e O b servan ce, w ill c a r ry out a (form al) a c t of th e O rder. I f th e g iv in g o f th e agreem en t for a m a d m a n t o th e m a d m o n k G a g g a sr> t h a t w h eth er he rem em bers , . . or does not com e fo r it, th e O rder eith er w ith G a g g a or w ith o u t G a g g a w ili c a rry o u t th e O bservan ce, w ill c a r ry out a (form al) a c t o f th e O rder, is p leasin g to the venerable ones, th e y sh o u ld b e silen t ; he to w hom it is n ot p le a sin g should speak. T h e agreem en t fo r a m ad m an is g iv e n b y th e O rd er to th e m a d m o n k G a g g a , so th a t w h e th e r he rem em bers . . . o r does n o t com e fo r it, th e O rder eith er w ith G a g g a o r w ith o u t G a g g a w ill c a rry o u t th e O bservan ce, w ill c a rry o u t a (formal) a ct o f th e O rder. Tt is p lea sin g to th e O rd er, therefore i t is silen t ; th u s do I u n d erstan d this V

I I4 I J25 S I [123]
N o w a t th a t tim e fo u r m o n ks w ere s ta y in g in a certain residence on an O bservan ce d a y . T h e n i t occurred to th ese m o n ks ; " I t is la id d o w n b y th e L o rd th a t th e O bservan ce sh o u ld be carried o u t, b u t w e are (only) fou r persons*1 N o w how can th e O b servan ce b e ca rrie d out b y u s ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd . H e s a id : ,r I a llo w y o u , m onks, to re cite th e P a tim o k k h a w h en th e re are fo u r (of y o u )/ ' lh I I N o w a t th a t tim e th re e m o n k s w ere s ta y in g in a c e rta in residence on an O bservan ce d a y . T h e n it occured to these m onks : " I t is allo w ed b y th e L o rd to recite th e P a tim o k k h a when there are fo u r (of us), b u t w e are (only) three persons* N o w how ca n th e O b serva n ce he carried out b y us ? They to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e said : " I allo w yo u , monks* to c a rry o u t th e O b serva n ce b y w a y of en tire pu rity* when th ere a re th ree (of you)* || 2 II w A n d th u s, m o n ks, sh o u ld it be carried o u t : T hese m o n ks sh o u ld b e in form ed b y an experienced* co m peten t m o n k . * pdrisuddkiuposaihatyt,
* S e e th< sco p e of th e p o w e rs of th e " five (kin ds of) O rd er " a t F in , L 3 19 .

* S c * n e x t t w o p ara gra p h s.

S fl-3 -7 1

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sayin g : ' I^et th e venerable ones listen to me. T o-d ay is an Observance d a y , th e fifteenth. I f it seems right to the venerable ones, let us carry out the O bservance w ith one another b y w a y of entire p u rity \ A m onk who is an elder, havin g arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, havin g saluted w ith joined palm s, should speak thus to these m onks : I, yo u r reverences,1 am q uite pure, understand th at I am q uite pure ; 1, your rever ences, am quite pure, understand th a t I am quite pure ; I, yo u r reverences, am quite pure, understand th a t I am quite pure \ tl 3 II t # ^ " A n ew ly ordained m onk, h avin g arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, h avin g sa t dow n on his haunches, havin g saluted w ith joined palm s should speak th u s to these m o n k s : ' Tp honoured sirs,4 am quite pure, understand th a t I am quite pure ; I , honoured sirs, am quite pure, understand th at I am quite pure ; I, honoured sirs, am quite pure, understand th a t I am quite p u r e '- jl4lt N ow at th a t time tw o monks were stayin g in a certain residence on an O bservance d ay . T hen it occurred to these monks : " It is allow ed b y the L ord to recite th e P atim okkha when there are four (persons), to carry out th e Observance b y w a y of entire p u rity when there are three, but w e are (only) tw o persons* Now how can the O bservance be carried out b y us ? T h e y told this m atter to the Lord- He s a id : " T allow you, monks, to carry out the O bservance b y w a y o f entire p u rity when there are tw o (of you). || 5 f| r* A nd thus* monks, should it be carried out : T he m onk who is an elder, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted w ith joined palm s, should speak thus to the n ew ly ordained monk : ' I, yo u r reverence, am quite pure, understand th a t I am quite pure ; I, yo u r reverence, am quite pure, understand th a t 1 am quite pure; [ 124] I, your reverence, am quite pure, understand th a t I am quite pure \ ]| 6 \ \ " T he new ly ordained m onk, havin g arranged his upper
* avu$Q I t is a p p a r e n t l y a s s u m e d t h a t t h e r e i-s o n e e ld e r a t Least a n d o n e o r t w o ju n io r s , o t h e r w is e t h e e ld e r w o u ld d o u b tle s s h a v e a d d r e s s e d t h e o t h e r s a s bkartte*
1 bhante, becau se it ap p ears t o b e a ssu m e d t h a t a t le a st one elder w a3 present*
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robe over one shoulder, havin g sat dow n on his haunches, havin g saluted w ith joined palm s, should specie thus to the m onk who is an e ld e r : 1 I, honoured sir, am quite pure, understand th at I am quite pure ; I 3 honoured sir, am quite pure, under stand th a t I am quite pure ; I, honoured sir, am quite pure, understand th at I am quite pure V* [ |7 I I N ow a t th a t tim e one m onk was stayin g in a certain residence on an O bservance day. Then it occurred to this m onk : " I t is allowed b y th e L ord to rccite the P atim okkh a when there are fou r (persons), to carry out the Observance b y w a y of entire p u rity when there are three, to carry out the O bservance b y w a y of entire p u rity when there are two, b ut I am alone* N ow how can the Observance be carried out b y m e ? T h e y told this m atter to the Lord, H e said :

IE 8 il

*' This is a case, m onks, where one m onk is staying in a

certain residence on an Observance day. T hat monk, having swept th at placc to w hich monks return an attendance hall or a pavilion or the root of a tree having p u t out drinking w ater and w ater for washing, havin g made ready a seat, having made a light, should sit down* I f other m onks arrive the Observance should be carried out together w ith them ; if th ey do not arrive, it should be determ ined1, ' T o-d ay is an Observance d a y for m e J, I f he should not (so) determine, there is an offencc of wrong-doing* \ ] 9 j| t4 Monks, there where four m onks arc staying, the Patim okkha should not be recLted b y three (persons), having conveyed the entire purity for one* If th ey should (so) recite it j there is an offence of wrong-doing- Monks, there where three monks are staying, the O bservance b y w ay of entire p u rity should not be carried out by two, having conveyed the entire p u rity for one. I f th ey should (so) carry it out, there is an offence o f wrong-doing. Monks, there where tw o m onks are staying, it should not be determ ined upon b y one havin g conveyed the entire p u rity for the other* I f he should (so) determ ine, there is an offence of w rong-doing/'
I] 1 0 jj 2 6 ]|

Now at th at tim e a certain m onk cam c to have fallen into


l arfh ittha ta bbam ; see
3 - 12 8 , ci. 3,

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I 1

167

an offence on an O bservance d ay . Then it occurred to this monk : I t is laid dow n b y the L o rd th a t th e O bservance should not be carried out b y an offender,1 b u t I have fallen into an offence. N ow w h at line of conduct should be follow ed b y m e ? " T h e y told this m a tter to th e Lord- H e said : 4 4 T his is a case, m onks, where a m onk com es to have fallen into an offence on an O bservance d ay. M onks, th a t m onk, h avin g approached one monk* havin g arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, [125] havin g sat down on his haunches, havin g saluted w ith joined palm s, should sp eak th u s to him: * I , your reverence, have fallen into such and such an offence* I confess3 it \ I t should be said b y h im 3 : f D o yo u see it ? 1 * Y e s, I see it \ f Y o u should be restrained in the future \ 1 | 1 || " This is a case, m onks, w here a m onk becom es doubtful of an offence on an Observance day* M onks, th a t m onk, having approached one m onk, havin g arranged his upper robe _ _ * havin g saluted w ith joined palm s, should speak thus to him : I, your reverence, am doubtful as to such and such an offcnce. W hen I come to be w ithout doubt, then w ill I m ake amends for th at offence * * W hen he has spoken thus, th e Observance m a y be carried out, th e P atirrtokkha m ay be heard, b u t no obstacle should be p u t in the w a y of the O bservance from such a cau se/' || 2 |[ Now at th at tim e th e group of six m onks confessed4 a co llective5 offence. T h e y to ld this m a tter to the Lord. H e s a id : "M o n k s , a co llective offence should not be con fessed- W hoever should confess it, there is an offence o f w rong-doing. A t th at tim e the group of six m onks acknow ledged a collective offence- T h e y told this m atter to the Lord, H e s a id : " Monks, a co llective oftence should not be acknowledged. W hoever should acknow ledge (such), there is an offence of w rong-doing/' U3 || N ow at th at tim e a certain m onk rem em bered an offence
1 See CV. IX , 2 .

* patideScmi. * desmti,

1 I ,e , b y t h e m onl* w h o m t h e o ffe n d e r a p p r o a c h e d . * sabhdgat s h a r e d i a. b y t h e m all* b u t w h e t h e r actin g t o g e t h e r o r s in g ly is n o t c le a r . V A . 10 6 4 in s t a n c e s e a t in g a t t h e w r o n g t im e o r e a t i n g 'w h a t has. c o t b e e n l e f t over*

i68

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while th e P atim ok kh a w as being recited. Then it occurred to this m onk : *r It is laid dow n b y the Lord th at the O bserv ance should not be carried out b y an offender and I have fallen in to an offence. N ow w hat line o f conduct should be followed b y me ? ** T h e y told this m atter to the Lord. H e said : This is a case* m onks, where a m onk remembers an offence w hile the P a tim o k k h a is being recited. Monks, th is m onk should speak th u s to the m onk n ext to him : r I, you r reverence, have fallen into such and such an offence. H avin g rem oved from here I w ill m ake am ends for th at offence \ W hen he has spoken thus, the Observance m a y be carried out, the P atim okkha m ay be heard, but no obstacle should b e pu t in the w a y c f the O bservance from such a cause, " This is a case, monks, where a m onk becomes doubtful as to an offence w hile the P atim okkh a is being red tcd . Monks, this monk should speak thus to the m onk n ext to him : ' I, your reverencc, am doubtful as to such and such an offence. W hen I com e to be w ithout doubt, then w ill I m ake amends for th a t offence \ W hen h e has spoken thus, the Observance m ay be carried out, the P atim ok kh a m a y bu heard, but no obstacle should be put in the w a y of the Observance from such a cause/' I! 5 1 ! N ow a t th a t tim e the whole Order in a certain residence cam e to have fallen in to a collective offcnce on an Observance day_ Then it occurred to these monks : " It is laid down b y the Lord that a collective offence should not be confessed, th a t a collective offence [126] should not be acknowledged, b ut th is whole Order has fallen into a collective offence. Now w hat line or conduct should be followed b y us ? They told th is m atter to the Lord. He said : " This is a case, m onks, where in a certain residence the whole Order comes to have fallen into a collective offcnce on an Observance d ay. Monks, one m onk should im m ediately be sent to a neighbouring residence b y these m onks, w ith the w o rd s : 'G o along, 3? our reverence, and come b ack having m ade am ends for th at offence, and we w ill m ake amends for the offence in yo u r presence \ || 6 j[ I f th ey thus m anage this, it is good. If they do not m anage it, th e Order should be informed b y an experienced.

su n . .

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com petent m onk, sayin g : ' H onoured sirs, let the Order listen to m e. This whole Order has fallen into a collective offence. W hen it shall see another m onk, a pure one, not an offender* then it shall m ake am ends for th a t offence in his presence \ W hen he has spoken thus,the O bservance m a y be carried out, the P atim okkha m a y b e heard, b u t no obstacle should be put in the w a y of th e O bservance from such a cause, t| 7 ]| " This is a case, m onks, w here in a certain residence the w hole Order comes to be d ou b tfu l about a collective offence on an Observance day* T he O rder should be inform ed b y an experienced, com petent m onk, saying : ' H onoured sirs, let the Order listen to me* T h is w hole Order is doubtful about a collective offence. W hen it comes to be w ithou t doubt, then w ill it m ake am ends for th at offen ce'. W hen he has spoken thus, th e O bservance m a y be carried out, the P atim okkha m ay be heard, but no obstacle should b e put in the w a y of the O bservance from such a cause, \ \ 8 jj " T h is is a case, m onks, w here in a certain residence the Order, entered on the rains, has fallen into a collective offence* Monks, one m onk should im m ed iately be sent to a neighbouring residence by these m onks w ith the w ords . . . {its in j| 6* 7 ID . , . I f th e y do not m anage it, one m onk should be sent a w a y for seven days, w ith the words ; ' G o along, y o u r reverence, and come back h avin g m ade amends for that offence, and we w ill m ake am ends for th a t offence in y o u r presence \ ,J || 9 \ [ N ow at th at tim e in a certain residence the w hole Order came to have fallen into a collective offence. I t did not know th e name or the class1 o f th a t offence. A certain m onk came there ; he had heard m uch, he w as one to whom the tradition had been handed dow n3 ; he was an expert on dhamma, an expert on discipline, an expert on the sum m aries ; he w as w ise, experienced* c le v e r ; he w as conscientious, scrupulous, desirous of training.* A certain m onk approached th at m onk ; havin g approached, he spoke thus to h i m ; " W hat kind of an offence does he fall into, your reverence, who does such and such a thing ? " |[ 10 \ \ H e spoke thus : " W hoever does such an d such a thing,
1 g o tta . 1 C f , a b o v e , p . 157.

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your reverence, falls into this kind of offence. This is the kin d of offence th at yo u , your reverence, have fallen into ; m ake amends for this offence." H e spoke th u s: I , yo u r reverence, h a ve not fallen into this offence altogether alone ; this [127] whole Order has fallen into th is offence/' H e spoke thus ; ** W hat has it to do w ith you, your reverence, w hether another has fallen or has not fallen ? Please do you, youT reverence, rem ove1 your own offence/* |[ i i |[ Then th at m onk, havin g at th a t m onk's bidding made am ends for th a t offence, approached those monks ; havin g approached them , he spoke thus to those m onks : fi I t is said, your reverences, th a t whoever does such and such a thing falls into this kind of offence. This is the kind of offence th at yo u , youx reverences, have fallen into make amends for this offence/' B u t these m onks did n ot w ant to m ake amends for th a t offence at th at m onk's bidding. T h e y told this m atter to the lord* He said : |[ xz |j " This is a case, m onks, where in a certain residence the whole Order com es to have fallen into a collective offence. I t does not know the name or th e class of that offence. A certain rnonk comes there ; he has heard m uch , . * desirous of training. A certain m onk approaches th at m onk ; having approached, he speaks thus to th at m o n k : " W hat kind o f offence does he fall into, your reverence, who does such and such a thing ? ' |[ 13 J | " H e speaks thus : ' W hoever does such and such a thing, yo u r reverence, falls into this kind of offence. This is the kind of offence th a t yo u , your rcverence, have fallen into ; m ake amends for th is offence \ H e speaks thus : 1 L your reverence, have not lallen in to this offence altogether a lo n e ; this whole Order has fallen into th is offence \ He speaks thus : * W hat has it to do w ith you, your reverence, w hether another has fallen or has not fallen ? Please do yo-ti, you r reverence, rem ove you r own offence/ | | 14 |[ " Then if th at m onk, having at that m onk's bidding m ade amends for th at offence, approaches those m onks and havin g approached them speaks thus to those m onks: I t is said, your reverence, th a t w hoever does such and such a thing
1 vutthaha.

27.15 28.3]

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fa lls in to th is k in d o f offence- T h is is th e k in d o f offence th a t y o u , youT reveren ces, h a v e fa llen i n t o ; m a k e am en d s for th is offencc 1; a n d if, m o n k s, th ese m o n ks sh ou ld m a k e am ends fo r th a t offen ce a t th a t m o n k 's bidding* th a t is good* B u t i f t h e y sh o u ld n o t m a k e am en d s fo r it, th e n , m o n ks, these m on ks n eed n o t be spoken t o b y th a t m o n k i f he is n o t w illin g 1, I! 15 1127 I I T o ld is th e P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g on C o d a n a v a tth u . N o w a t th a t tim e in a c e rta in residence se v e ra l resid en t m onks, fou r o r m ore, c o lle c te d to g e th e r on an O b serva n ce d a y . T h e y d id n o t k n o w t h a t th e re w ere o th e r resid en t m o n k s w h o h ad n o t a rriv ed . [ 138] T h in k in g 2 o f th e rule, th in k in g o f discipline, th in k in g th a t th e y w ere co m p lete, th e y carried out th e O b servan ce, th e y re cite d th e P a tim o k k h a w h ile th e y w ere incom plete* W h ile th e P a tim o k k h a w a s b ein g re cite d b y them , o th e r resid en t m o n ks, a la rg e r n u m b e r ,1 a rrived . T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . || r || H e said : T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere in a c e rta in resi dence , . * (as in || r |[ above) . . - recite th e P a tim o k k h a w h ile th e y are in com plete. W h ile th e P a tim o k k h a is b e in g recited b y th e m , other resident m o n ks, a la rg e r n um ber, a rriv e. M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a sh o u ld be re cite d a g ain b y these m o n ks , 5 a n d th ere is no offence fo r th e reciters. || 3 ]| T h is is a case* m onks, w h ere in a ce rta in residence * * . {as in j| 2 |[ above) . * , W h ile th e P a tim o k k h a is bein g recited b y them , o th e r resident m o n ks, a lik e n u m b er, a rriv e . W h a t has been recited is d u ly rc c ite d , th e rest sh ou ld be heard , a n d there is no offence for th e reciters. " T h is is a case, m o n ks, . , . {as in || Z || aioz) 4 * . W h ile th e P a tim o k k h a is b ein g recited b y th em , o th e r residen t
1 i ik d tn & wc f , V i n . iii. i 36 { B . D , i, 328). I f t h e offen d in g m o n ks d o n o t w ish to m a k e am end s, th e o th er m on k need n o t sp ea k t o th e m p erh a p s m ean in g t h a t be need n o t sp e a k t o th e m in t h e w ords g iv e n a t t h e en d o f || 14 j| a b o v e . B u t c f A * ii. i i 3 P " F o r t h is is d e str u ctio n * . * w here a T m th fin d e r or his fe llo w B rah m a-farers d eem t h a t h e is one w h o sh o u ld n o t be sp-oken t o F\

* a)itK0. 9 dh-am m a,

the ruies that O b s e r v a n c e should be carried out: by a complete

assem bly*

* I.e. than those already assembled6 Presumably meaning by those already assembled together, and who have already recited part oi it ; c/. S9 , I below, where th e y incur an offence ol wrong-doing for reciting it when they know th a t they are incomplete.

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m onks, a smaller num ber, arrive, W h at has been recited is d u ly recited, the rest should be heard, and there is n o offence for the reciters. || 3 || This is a case, m onks, . - . W hen th e Patim okkha has ju st been recited b y them , other resident m onks, a larger num ber, arrive- Monks, the P atim okkha m ay be recited again b y these m onks, and there is 110 offence for the reciters, " T h is is a case, monks, * . . W hen the P atim okkha has ju st been recited b y them , other resident m onks, a like number, arrive. W h a t has been recited is d u ly rccited, the entire p u rity should be announced in their presence,1 and there is no offence for th e reciters. *' This is a case, monks, . - . a sm aller number, arrive. W h a t has been recited is du]y recited, the entire p u rity should be announced in their presence, and there is no offence for the reciters. || 4 || This is a case, m onks, - * . W hen the P atim okkha has ju st been recited b y them and th e assem bly has not risen, other resident m onks, a larger num ber, arrive. Monks, the Patim okkh a m a y be recited again b y those monks, and there is no offence for the reciters. This is a case, m onks . . . {129] * . * a like number, arrive. W hat has been recited is du l y recited, the entire p u rity should be announced in their presence, and there is no offence for the reciters " This is a case, m onks, . . . a sm aller number, arrive. W hat has been recited is d uly recited, the entire pu rity should be announced in their presence, and there is no offence for the reciters* || 5 [ | " T h i s is a case* m onks, - . * W hen the Patim okkha has ju st been recited b y them and part of the assem bly has risen, other resident monks, a larger num ber, arrive . * . (as in II 5 II afroue) * - * a like num ber . . . a sm aller num ber . * , ^ This is a case, m onks, * * . W hen th e P atim okkh a has just been recited b y them and the whole assem bly has risen, o th e r residen t m onks, a larger n um ber, arrive . * (as in
1 T h is mea-na t h a t th e m o n k s a r r iv in g la te m u s t a n n o u n c e t h e ir e n tir e p u r i t y t o th e o n e s a lr e a d y a s s e m b le d a n d w h o h& d r e c it e d t h e P a t im o k k h a .

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|| 6 \ \ above) * . . a Jike n u m b er _ * * a sm aller n um ber . . . || 7 || T o ld are th e F ifte e n C ases in w h ic h th ere is II 28 It N o O ffence,

fr T h is is a case, m onks* w here in a ce rta in resid en ce se v e ra l residen t m onks, fo u r or m ore, c o lle c t to g e th e r on a n O b serv an ce d a y . T h e y know th a t th e re a re other resid en t m o n ks w h o h ave n o t arrived- T h in k in g of th e ru le, th in k in g of d iscip lin e, th in k in g t h a t th e y are in com p lete, th e y c a r ry out th e O b servan ce and recite th e P a tim o k k h a w h ile t h e y are incom plete* W h ile th e P a tim o k k h a is b e in g re cite d b y th em , o th e r resident m onks, a larger n um ber, a rriv e . M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a sh ou ld be re cite d a g a in b y th ose m on ks, and there is a n offence o f w ron g-d oin g fo r th e reciters. j| r[[ T h is is a case, m o n ks, . . + (as in [j 1 ||} . . , a like n u m b er, a rriv e. W h at has been re cite d is d u ly recited , th e rest should be h eard , and th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g fo r th e reciters. T h is is a case, m onks (^s in || 1 ||) . . . a sm aller num ber, a rriv e . W h a t h a s been recitcd is d u ly rccited , th e rest sh ould b e heard , a n d there is an offen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g tor th e reciters. T h is is a case, m o n k s _ . , W h en th e P a tim o k k h a has ju s t been recited b y them a n d th e a sse m b ly has not risen . * . p art of th e a sse m b ly has risen . * . th e w h o le [130] assem b ly has risen, and o th e r resident m o n ks, a larger num ber . . . a like n u m b er . . . a sm aller num ber, a rrive. W h a t h a s been recited is d u ly re cite d , th e e n tire p u rity sh o u ld be an n ou n ced in th e ir presen ce, a n d th ere is an offence o f wrong* d o in g fo r th e reciters. [ \3 \ \ T o ld are th e F ifte e n C ases on th in k in g th a t (an A ssem bly) is incom plete w h en it is in com p lete || 29 || " T h is is a case, m onks . . , T h e y k n o w t h a t th ere are oth er resid en t m onks w h o h a v e n o t a rriv ed . T h in k in g ; - N o w , is it allo w ab le fo r u s to c a r ry o u t th e O b se rva n ce or is it not allo w ab le ? J th e y c a r ry o u t th e O b serva n ce and recite th e P a tim o k k h a (although) t h e y a re in doubt- W h ile th e P a ti m o k k h a is being recited b y th em , o th e r resid en t m onks, a

u*n

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larger n u m b er, a rrive. M o n k sp th e P a tim o k k h a sh o u ld b e re cite d a g a in b y th o se m onks * . (cf. TL 29, 3) * - * an offence o f w ron g-d oin g fo r th e reciters, |j 1 || MT h is is a case, m onks, . . * (cf. I L 29, 2, 3) . . . an offence o f w ron g-d oin g fo r th e reciters* || 2 T o ld are th e F ifte e n C ases on b ein g in D o u b t. [| 30 ||

rt T h is is a case, m o n k s, , . * T h e y k n o w th a t th ere are o th er resid en t m o n k s w h o h a v e n o t a rrived . T h in k in g : ' In d e ed , it is a llo w ab le fo r u s to c a r r y out th e O b servan ce, it is n o t u n a llo w ab le fo r us \ th e y , a c tin g b a d ly ,1 c a rry out th e O b servan ce a n d recite th e P a tim o k k h a . W h ile the P a tim o k k h a is b ein g recited b y them , o th e r resident m onks, a la rg er n um ber, a rriv e. M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a should be recited a g a in b y th ese m on ks, a n d th ere is a n offence o f w ro n g-d o in g fo r th e reciters. \ \ 1 jf -r T h is is a case, m o n k s - * * {cf. II- 29* 2, 3) . . . an offence o f w ron g-d oin g for th e reciters, || 2 j| T o ld are th e F ifte e n C ases on A c tin g B a d ly || 31 ]|

,r T h is is a case, m o n ks, , * . T h e y kn o w th a t th ere are o th e r resident monk^ w h o h a v e n ot a rrived . S a y in g , T h ese are p erishin g, th ese a re b e in g d e stro ye d , w h a t good a re these to y o u ? J th e y c a r r y o u t th e O b serva n ce and recite th e P a tim o k k h a a im in g a t a schism , . * {as in II* 29, 2, 3 ; instead o f offence o f w ron g-d oin g read g ra v e offence), || r |[ 131 2 T o ld are xhe F ifte e n C ases on A im in g a t a Schism j| 32 ||

[ ].-.j s i i

T o ld are th e S e v e n ty -fiv e Cases*3 T h is is a case, m o n ks, . . * T h e y kn o w th a t o th e r resident m o n k s are en terin g w ith in th e b o u n d a ry. T h e y kn o w th a t o th e r residen t m onks h a v e en tered w ith in th e bound ary. T h e y see o th er resident residen t m onks en terin g w ith in th e b o u n d ary. T h e y see o th er resid en t m onks en tered w ith in th e boundary* T h e y h e a r th a t o th e r residen t m on ks are entering w ith in th e bound ary- T h e y h ear th a t o th e r resid en t monies h a v e en tered w ith in th e b o u n d ary.
1 kuMAuctapaiaJd. e x p l. a t V A . 1065 a s overcom e* d o in g as t h e y w ished, 1 F iv e tim e s fifteen cases, in C h ip s . 2 3 - 32 -

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" F r o m a hundred and se v e n ty -fiv e tria d s referrin g to resident (monks) w ith resident (m onks) ; to incom ing (m onks) w ith residen t (m onks) ; to resident (m onks) w ith incom ing (m onks) ; to incom ing (monks) w ith in com in g (m onks), there com e to be seven h u n d red tria d s b y m eans o f (these) sets,1 {! 1 || 33 I I ** T h is ls a case, m onks, w h ere th e fo u rte e n th is (the O b servan ce day) for resident m o n ks, th e fifteen th fo r in co m in g ones* I f th e resident ones are larger in n um ber, th e incom ing ones sh o u ld acco m m od ate th em selves to th e residen t ones. I f th e y a re equ al in n u m ber, th e in com in g ones should a cco m m o d a te th e m selv e s to th e resid en t ones. I f th e incom ing ones are larger in n u m b er, th e resid en t ones sh o u ld a cco m m od atc th e m selve s to th e incom ing ones. j| 1 J j T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere th e fiftee n th is (the O b se rv ance d a y) fo r resident m onks, th e fo u rte en th for in com in g ones. I f th e resident ones a re la rg e r in n u m b er, th e in co m in g ones sh o u ld acco m m od ate th em selves to th e resident ones. I f , . . {as in || 1 || above) . . . ]| 2 |[ T h is is a case, m on ks, whnre th e firM: d a y o f a lu n a r fo rt n ig h t1 is (the O b serva n ce d ay) fo r resid en t m onks, th e fiftee n th fo r in com in g ones. I f th e resident ones are la rg e r in num ber, th e residen t ones, if th e y are n ot w illin g , need n ot h o ld a m e e tin g 3 w ith th e in com in g ones. T h e O bservan ce sh ould be carried o u t b y th e in com in g ones h a v in g gone o u tsid e the b o u n d a ry. I f th e y are e q u a l in num ber* th e resid en t ones, if th e y are n ot w illin g, need n o t h o ld a m eetin g w ith the in com in g ones. T h e O bservan ce sh ould be carried out b y th e in com in g ones h a v in g g o n e o u tsid e th e b o u n d a ry . I f th e in com in g ones are la rg er in n um ber, th e resident ones sh ould h o ld a m eeting w ith th e in com in g ones o r th e y sh ou ld g o o u tsid e th e bo u n d ary. j| 3 |j T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere th e fiftee n th is (the O b se rv a n ce d a y) for resident m o n ks, [132] th e first d a y o f th e lu n ar
1 peyydlamukhviay a s a t 46. P eyyala = pariydyat an d is a rran g e m en t, order, d isposition E a c h " s e t " refers t o each p a ir (resident w ith residen t . . . in co m in g w ith incom ing) of tria d s in a ll its p e r m u ta tio n s a n d c o m b in a tio n s ; th e y k n o w , th e y see, t h e y hear., a n d th.ey d o n o t k n o w , see a n d hear.
p a tipa tia , cf. B . D , LL 314* n. 1 .

* n<X d d ia b b d sd m agg l,. need n o t g i v e co m p le tio n to*

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fo rtn ig h t fo r in com in g ones. I f th e resident ones are larger in num ber, th e incom ing ones sh o u ld hold a m e e tin g w ith th e resident ones o r t h e y sh ould go outside th e bo u n d ary. I f th e y are equal in number* th e incom ing ones should h old a m ee tin g w ith th e resident ones or th e y should go outside th e b o u n d a ry . I f th e in com in g ones are la rg e r in num ber, th e in com in g ones* i f th e y are n o t w illin g, need n o t hold a m e e tin g w ith th e residen t ones. T h e O b serva n ce sh o u ld be carried o u t b y th e resident ones h a v in g gone o u tsid e th e bo u n d a ry, | | 4 || -r T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere in com in g m onks see signs o f residen ce o f resid en t m on ks, featu res of residence, m a rk s o f residence, in d icatio n s o f residence, c a re fu lly prepared couches an d chairs, m attresses a n d sq u a ttin g m ats, c a re fu lly arran ged w a te r fo r d rin k in g a n d w a te r fo r w ashing, c a re fu lly sw ep t cells ; b u t h a v in g seen (these signs) th e y com e to be d o u b tfu l, th in k in g : f N o w are there resident m o n ks, o r are th ere * o t ? J Ii 5 I I . . I f th ese, b ein g d o u b tfu l, do n o t search and, n o t h a v in g searched, c a rry o u t th e O b serva n ce, th ere is an offence o f w rong-doing. I f th ese, being doubtful* search and h a vin g search ed d o n ot see (an y m on ks), an d if n o t h a v in g seen (any) th e y c a rry out th e O b se rv a n ce , th ere is no offence. I f these, b ein g doubtful* search and h a v in g searched see (some m onks), an d if h a v in g seen (them) th e y c a rry o u t th e O bservan ce to g eth er, th ere is no offence. I f th ese, bein g d o u b tfu l, search and h a v in g searched see {some m onks), and if h a v in g seen (them) th e y c a rry out th e O b se rva n ce a p a rt, there is a n offence o f w ron g-d oin g. I f these, b ein g d o u b tfu l, search an d h a v in g search ed see (some m onks), and if h a v in g seen (them ) th e y s a y : ' Y o u are perishing, yo u are being des tro y e d , w h a t is th e go od o f these to y o u ? an d c a rry out th e O b servan ce a im in g a t a schism , there is a g ra ve offence. Jj6j| T h is is a c a se r m onks, w here in com in g m onks hear signs of residence o f resid en t m o n ks, fe a tu res o f residence, m arks o f resid en ce> in d icatio n s o f residence, th e sound o f fo otsteps as th e y are p a cin g tip an d dow n, th e so u n d o f stu d y in g , th e sound o f cough in g, th e sound o f sn eezing ; b u t h a v in g heard
1 A s ia II . 33 a b o v e .

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th e y com e to b e d o u b tfu l, th in k in g : ' N o w are th ere resid en t m o n k s or are th e re n o t ? ' I f th ese, being1 d o u b tfu l, do not search . , , ( = * || 6 ||) . . , th e re is a g ra v e offence, [[ 7 | J t T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere resid en t m onks see sign s o f in com in g of in com in g m o n ks, fe a tu res o f in com in g, m arks o f incom ing, in d icatio n s o f in com in g, u n kn o w n b o w ls, u n know n robes* unknow n pieces o f c lo th to sit upon, w a te r for w ash in g th e feet sp rinkled a b o u t ; b u t h a v in g seen {these signs), th e y com e to b e d o u b tfu l, th in k in g : f N o w arc there incom ing m on ks o r are th ere n ot ? ' I f these, b ein g d o u b tfu l, do n o t search . , . ( ]|6 ||) . * . th e re is a g ra v e o ffen ce.
IIS II
b

" T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere resident m onks hear sign s of in com in g o f in com in g m o n ks, fea tu res o f in com in g, m a rk s o f incom ing, in d ica tio n s o f in co m in g , th e so u n d o f fo o tste p s as th e y are a rrivin g , th e sound o f san d als ta p p in g , th e so u n d o f coughing, th e sound o f sn eezin g ; b e t h a v in g h eard th e y com e to be d o u b tfu l, t h in k in g : * N o w are th ere in co m in g m onks or are th e re not ? * I f these, b ein g d o u b tfu l, do n ot search , . . ( | | 6 ||) , . , fheTe is [133] a g ra v e offence. | | " T h is is a m on ks, wheTe, in com in g m onks see resident m on ks belongin g to a d ifferen t com m un ion . T h e y g e t th e (wrong) v ie w th a t th e y belong to th e sam e com m union ; h a v in g g o t th e (wrong) v ie w th a t t h e y b e lo n g to th e sam e com m union, if th e y d o not ask , and not h a v in g a sk e d c a rry o u t th e O bservan ce to g e th e r, th ere is no offence- I f th e y a s k ,a n d h a v in g asked p a y no a tte n tio n ,1 and h a v in g paid no a tte n tio n c a rry out th e O b serva n ce to g eth e r, th ere is a n offence o f w rong-doing. I f th e y ask , and hairing asked p a y no a tte n tio n , and h a v in g p a id no a tte n tio n c a r ry o u t th e O bservan ce ap art, there is no offence* || 10 1! < f T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere incom ing m onks see residen t m onks b elo n g in g to the sam e com m union* T h e y g e t th e (wrong) v ie w th a t th e y b elo n g t o a d ifferen t co m m un ion ; h a v in g g o t the (wrong) v ie w th a t th e y belong to a d ifferent com m union, if th e y do not a s k , a n d n o t h a v in g a sk ed c a rry
1 ndbkiviiarattti* V .A . to 6 6 of a differing com m u n ion j th e t h a t w rong v ie w C f. Vivt, 11 h a v in g c o m m i t t e d P , i s , D observe C .J M ), m e r e ly s a y s s a y s th e y a r e not a b le t o n e g le c t th e s ta tu s m ea n in g is : th ^ y d o n o t m a k e th e m g iv e u p iii, 73 w here abhivitaritu& app-ears t o m ean f g iv e s for abhivitarnli " t o p a y h ed P t o t o wrnic t o an end

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o u t th e O bservan ce to g eth er, there is a n offence o f w ro n g doing- I f th e y ask , a n d h a v in g a sk e d p a y atten tio n , and h a v in g p a id a tte n tio n c a n y o u t th e O bservan ce a p a rt, th ere is a n offence o f w rong-d oing. I f th e y ask, and h a v in g asked p a y a tte n tio n , an d h a v in g p a id a tte n tio n c a rry o u t th e O b servan ce to g eth e r, there is no offence. [ |n | f *f T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere resid en t jn on ks see in com in g m o n k s b elo n g in g to a. d ifferen t com m union- T h e y g e t the (wrong) v ie w th a t t h e y b elo n g to th e sam e com m union , . . || 10 IQ - . , there is no offence, 1J12 || T h is is a case, m onks, w here resident m o n ks see incom ing m o n ks b elo n g in g to th e sam e com m union. T h e y g e t th e (wrong) v ie w th a t th e y b elo n g to a d ifferen t com m union . * * { = [| XI |[) - . * th ere is no offence. || 13 || 34 |] " M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t go o n an O b serva n ce d a y from a residence w h ere th e re are m onks to a residence w h ere th ere a re no m o n k s e x c e p t w ith a n O rd er,1 excep t th ere be a d a n g er.3 M onks, y o u should n o t go on an O bservan ce d a y from a residence w h ere th ere are m o n ks to w h a t is n o t a residence3 w h ere th ere are no m o n k s e x ce p t w ith an O rd er, excep t th e re b e a danger. M onks, yo u should n o t go - . * e ith e r to a residence or to w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere there are no m o n ks e x ce p t w ith an O rder, e x ce p t th e re be a danger* II I I I " M onks, y o u sh ould n o t go on an O bservance d a y from w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere there a ie m onks to a residence w h ere th e re are no m o n ks e x ce p t * . . M onks, yo n sh ould not g o on an O b servan ce d a y from w h a t is n o t a residence w here th ere are m o n k s to w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere there are no m o n ks e x ce p t . * ~ M onks, yo u should n o t go * . * from w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere there a re m o n k s eith er to a residence o r to w h a t is n ot a residence w here there are no m o n ks, e x ce p t w ith a n O rder, e x ce p t there be a danger. I^ :| V M onks, y o u sh o u ld n o t go on an O bservan ce d a y from
1 U n le ss th ere g o su fficien t m on ks t o form an O rderC f . 35 w ith C V - I*

1* 3, 4

1 See above,. I I . IB. 4 , w here ten " d an gers are enum erated. * V A . roGft s a y s t o a p la ce w here a. h a ll a n d so fo r th are u n d erg o in g repairs*.

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eith er a residen ce or from w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere th ere are m o n k s to a residence w h ere there are no m o n k s c x c c p t w ith an O rder, e x ce p t th e re b e a d anger, M onks, [134] y o u should n o t go 011 an O b serva n ce d a y from a residence or from w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere th ere a re no m o n ks t o w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere th e re are no m o n ks e x c e p t . . * a d a n g er. M onks, y o u sh o u ld n o t go * * . eith er from a residence or from w h a t is n o t a residence w h e re th ere are no m o n k s eith er to a residence o r to w h a t is n o t a residence w here there are no m o n k s, e x c e p t . . . a d anger. ]| 3 ]| " M onks, y o u sh ou ld n o t go on an O b se rv a n ce d a y from a residence w h ere there are m o n k s to a residence w h ere there are m on ks if th e m o n k s th ere sh o u ld b elon g to a d ifferen t co m m union, e x ce p t w ith an O rd er, e x c e p t th e re b e a d a n g er. M onks, yo u sh o u ld n ot go . , . from a residence w h ere th ere are m o n k s to w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere th e re a re m onks if th e m o n k s th e re sh ould b e lo n g to a d ifferen t com m union , - - a danger. M onks, y o u th o u ld n o t go . . . from a residence w h ere there are m onks e ith e r to a residence or to w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere th ere are m o n ks , . (cf, |J r . 2, 3 ||) - * * M onks, y o u sh ou ld not go . . . e ith e r from a residence or from w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere there are m o n k s eith er to a residence or to w h a t is n o t a residence w here th ere are m o n k s if th e m o n k s th ere b elo n g to a d ifferen t com m union, e x ce p t w ith an O rder, e x ce p t there be a d anger. [| 4 ]| " M onks, yo u m a y go on an O b se rv a n ce d a y from a residence w h ere there a rc m onks to a residence w h ere there a re m on ks should th e m o n k s th ere b elo n g to th e sam e com m union a n d if h e kn o w s, * I am a b le to a rriv e th is v e r y d a y M onks, yo n m a y go on a n O b servan ce d a y from a residence w h ere there are m o n k s to w h a t is n ot a residence w h ere th ere are m onks should th e m o n ks th e re b elo n g to th e sa m e com m union, and if he k n o w s, "I am able to a rriv e th is v e r y d a y \ * . to a residence o r io w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere th ere are m onks . . * from w h a t is n o t a residen ce w h ere th ere are m on ks to a residence w h ere th e re a rc m o n k s . . . to w h a t is n o t a residence w here th ere are m onks . , , to a resid en ce o r to w h a t is n ot a residence w here th e re are m o n k s . . . M onks, y o u m a y go on a n O b serva n ce d a y from w h a t is n o t a residence w here there are m o n ks to a residen ce w h ere there are m o n k s , . .

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t o w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere th e re are m onks . ( , to a residence or to w h a t is n o t a residence w h ere th e re are m o n k s should th e m o n ks th e re b elo n g to th e sam e com m union a n d If he kn o w s, * I a m a b le to a rriv e th is v e r y d a y . 1 | 5 (|3 5 || ** M onks, th e P a tim o k k h a sh o u ld n o t b e re cite d in a seated a sse m b ly (oi m onks) b efo re a n un . W h o ever should (so) recite it, th ere is an offence o f wrong-doing* Monks* th e P a tim o k k h a sh o u ld n o t b e recited in a seated a ssem b ly {of m onks) b e fo re 'a p ro b atio n er . . . a n o vice * * * a w o m an no vice _ one w h o h a s d isavo w ed th e tra in in g , . , one w h o h as co m m itted a n e x trem e offence. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) recite it, th ere is a n offence w rong-doing. || I | J " T h e P a tim o k k h a sh ould n o t be recited in a se a te d a ssem b ly before one su spen d ed for n o t seein g a n offence. W h o e v e r should (so) recite it sh o u ld b e d e a lt w ith a cco rd in g to th e r u le / . T h e P a tim o k k h a sh ou ld n ot b e re cite d in a sea ted a ssem b ly b efo re one suspended for n o t m a k in g am ends for a n offence . . before one suspended for n o t g iv in g u p a w ron g view - W h o e v e r sh ou ld (so) recite it sh o u ld b e d e a lt w ith acco rd in g to th e ru le .1 t| z jj " T h e P a tim o k k h a should n o t b e re cite d in a seated a ssem b ly b efore a eu n u ch .2 W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) recite it, th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g. T h e P a tim o k k h a sh ou ld not be recited in a seated a ssem b ly before [135] one liv in g in co m m union as it w ere b y th e ft T . _ b efo re one w h o h a s g o n e o ver to a sect . . . before an an im al , . - before a m a tricid e . , . b efore a p arricid e , T . b efo re a sla y e r o f one p erfected , . . before, a seducer o f a nun . . . b efo re a sch ism atic * - * b efore a sh ed d er o f (a T ru th -fin d ers} blood * . - before a h erm ap h rod ite,3 W h o e v e r sh ou ld (so) recite it, th ere is an offence o f w ro n g doing. 1 | 3 || " M o n k s, O b se rv a n ce sh ou ld n o t b e carried o u t b y d eclarin g th e en tire p u r ity o f one on p ro b a tio n 4 unless th e assem bly has n o t risen. A n d , m onks, O b serva n ce sh o u ld n ot be carried
1 1 9 * P r o b a b ly referrin g t o P 5 c. L X I X . S e e iii. aS, a . 4, A s in M V . II - 2 2 . 3 a b o v e . A s in M V , I I . 2 2 . 3 ab ove* pdrivasika., R u le s lo r m o n k s u n d e r p ro b a tio n d e ta ile d in C V , XI., II I.

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o u t on a n on -O b servan ce d a y unless th e O rd er b e u n a n im o u s/ 'J If 4 II 36 i| T h e T h trd P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g in the Sectio n on O bservance* In this Section are e ig h ty -s ix ite m s. T h is is its k e y :

O th e r sects a n d B im bisara* th e y a ssem b led to g e th e r in silence* on dhammat in p riv a te , on th e P a tim o k k h a , d a ily , th e n ce fo rth onceP A c c o rd in g to assem bly* fo r a ll to g e th e r, b ein g a ll to g eth e r, a n d M a d d a k u cch i, a b o u n d a ry, e x te n siv e , a b o u t a rive r, su cce ssiv e, tw o 3 an d sm all ones, N e w ly o rd ain ed (m onks), a n d th en in R a ja g a h a , a b o u n d a ry (as a p lace w h ere a m onk) is n ot a w a y from {his robes), in a g reein g first on th e b o u n d a ry , a fte rw a rd s on ab o lish in g th e boundary* W h en n o t a g reed u p o n a v illa g e boundary* th e th ro w in g of w a te r in river, sea, la k e, th e y com bin ed , an d lik e w ise th e y placed w ith in , H o w m a n y ? (form al) acts, re cita l, sa v a g e s, and if th e re is n ot, dhamma, d iscip lin e, th e y th re a te n ed , a g a in a th re a t to discip lin e. R ep ro o f, if le a v e is g iv e n , a p ro te st ag ain st w h a t is n o t [eg ally v a lid , m ore th a n fo u r or five, opinion, in te n tio n a lly , and if he w o u ld e x e rt him self, W ith la y m e n , unbidden, in C o d a n a (v a tth u ), he d id n o t know , several d id n o t kn o w , im m e d ia te ly , an d If he should n o t go, W h ic h ? h o w m a n y ? a n d to an n o u n ce a t a d ista n c e , he did n ot rem em ber, soiled, a seat* a lig h t, d is ta n t p a rts, a n o th e r w h o h as h eard m uch, Im m e d ia te ly , O bservan ce d a y an d th e rains, a n d a (form al) a c t o f en tire p u rity , relatio n s, G a g g a , fo u r and th re e , tw o a n d one, an offence, co lle ctiv e (offence), he rem em bered,
1 S ec J iV * X . L4,

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T h e w h ole O rd er, d o u b tfu l, t h e y d id n ot kn o w , one w h o has h eard m uch, a larger, a like, a sm aller (num ber), and w hen th e a ssem b ly h a s n o t risen. S o m e h a v e risen, a ll, a n d th e y k n o w , th e y are d o u b tfu l. T h o se (acting) b a d ly sa y , ' In d eed it is a llo w a b le kn o w in g, seein g, a n d th e y hear. L e t th e m com e i f (a m onk) is resid in g, th e four (sets of) fifteen (cases) again , th e first d a y o f a fo rtn ig h t (and) th e fifteen th , b o th com m u n io n s (by) m ark. O ne on probation, (and) a non -O bservan ce d a y , unless the O rd er be unanim ous. T h ese p a rtitio n e d k e y s are n eeded for d istin guishin g the item s. [136],

T H E G R E A T D I V I S I O N (M A H A V A G G A ) I I I A t one tim e th e a w a k e n e d on e, th e L o rd w a s s ta y in g a t R a ja g a h a in th e B a m b o o G ro v e a t th e squirrels* feed in g p lace. N o w a t th a t tim e (the use of) a rains-residence for m on ks h a d n o t com e to b e la id d o w n b y th e Lord* S o these m o n ks1 w a lk e d on to u r d u rin g th e c o ld w e a th e r a n d th e h o t w e a th e r a n d th e rains. \ \i | | P eo p le Looked dow n upon, criticise d , sp rea d it a b o u t, sa y in g : t( H o w can th ese recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s , w a lk on to u r d u rin g th e co ld w ea th er an d th e h o t w ea th e r an d th e rain s, tra m p lin g d o w n th e cro p s and grasses, in ju rin g life th a t is on e-facu ltied a n d b rin g in g m a n y sm a!l creatu res to d estruction * ? S h a ll it b e th a t th o se m em b ers o f o th e r sects, whose ru les are b a d ly k e p t, c lin g , to a n d p repare a rainsresidence, shall i t be th a t th ese birds, h a v in g m ad e their nests in th e tree-to p s, c lin g to a n d p repare a rain s-resid en ce,3 w h ile th e se recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s w a lk on a to u r d u rin g th e c o ld w e a th e r an d th e h o t w e a th e r an d th e rain s, tra m p lin g dow n th e crops a n d grasses, in ju rin g life th a t is on e-facu ltied and b rin g in g m a n y sm all c rea tu re s to d e stru c tion ? ** \\z | | M onks heard these p eo p le w h o - . . sp read it about- T hen these m o n ks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , T hen th e L o rd , on th is occasion, in th is connection* h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , ad dressed th e m o n ks, sa y in g : " I a llo w y o n , m onks, to en ter upon th e ra in s ,"4 |j 3 [j 1 [| T h en i t occurred to these m o n k s : N ow , w hen sh o u ld the rains b e en tered upon ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd .
1 te *dha b h i k k h u , V A . 10 67 -sciys thsit idh& is o n ly a Conjunction. ; th is is borne o u t b y th e several v_ !/. g iv e n a t V i n . i. 376. 1 C f. V in iv* 2^6 (B,D^ iii* 320) w h ere i t Ls m a d e a- p a d ttiy a for n un s t o w a lk on to u r d u rin g t h e rains. 1 Quoted. A A + ii* 97.

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H e s a i d : * I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to e n te r upon th e rain s in th e ra in y season 1/ ' || i || T h e n it occu rred to th ese m o n k s : " N o w , how m a n y (periods) are th ere fo r b e g in n in g th e ra in s1 ? T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e Lord- H e sa id : M on ks, th ere a re these tw o (periods) fo r b e g in n in g th e r a in s : th e earlier and th e later. T h e earlier m a y b e en tered upon th e d a y a fte r (the fu ll m oon of) A sa lh l, th e la te r m a y b e e n tered upon a m o n th a fte r (the fu ll m o o n of) A salh l.* T h ese, m onks, are th e tw o (periods) fo r beg in n in g the r a in s ." || 2 \ \ 2 |[ [ 137] N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m onks, h a v in g entered up o n th e ra in s, w a lk e d on to u r d u rin g th e rains. People * * . spread it a b o u t, sa y in g ; " H o w ca n these recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, w a lk on to u r d urin g th e cold w e a th e r and th e h o t w e a th e r a n d th e rain s, tra m p lin g dow n - (as in 1, 2) . . . b rin g in g m a n y sm all creatu res to d estru ctio n ? p || 1 ]] M onks heard these people w h o , * spread it a b o u t. T h o se w h o w ere m od est m o n k s . * , sp read i t a b o u t, sa y in g : " H o w ca n th is gro u p of s ix m o n ks, h a v in g en tered upon th e rains, w a lk on to u r d u rin g th e rain s ? ,J T h en these m onks to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord . T h en th e L o rd , on th is occasion, in th is co n n ectio n , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , addressed the m o n ks, s a y i n g : " M o n k s , h a v in g en tered -u p o n th e rains, b u t n o t h a v in g k e p t eith er th e first th ree m o n th s o r th e last th re e m o n th s, one should n o t set o u t on tour. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (thus) set o u t, th e re is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g ." II* II 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m onks d id n o t w a n t to e n te r upon th e rains. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e s a i d : " M onks, one sh ou ld n ot n o t en ter upon th e rains. W h o e v e r sh o u ld n o t en ter upon (them ), there is an offence o f w rong-doing/* || 1 | J
1 v&ss&na* C f. V in . iv , 74, io o , 286, Vass&na,. th e r a in y season, lasts fo r f o n t m o n th s, V ossa, sls m e a n in g t h e ram s~retxeat for m on ks, h a d to b e k e p t fo r th ree o u t o f th e fo u r m o n th s o f t h e r a in y season, 1 va&svpan&yikd. S e e i 4 7, n. t t a n d V in . T exts l 299, n. 1. * C f. A . L $ 1. /4 .4 , ii. 9 7 s a y s t h a t th is w a s laid d ow n tw e n t y y e a r s after th e lord h ad a tta in e d en ligh ten m en t. 4 T h ese are tw o o u t th e th ree d ates ior a llo ttin g lod gin gs, Viw- i i 167*

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N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m o n ks, on a d a y fo r beginning: th e rains, n o t desiring to en ter upon th e rains, in te n tio n a lly passed a residence b y .1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " Monks* on a d a y for b eg in n in g th e rains, a residence sh o u ld n o t be in te n tio n a lly passed b y b y one w h o does n o t d esire to en ter upon th e rains* W h o e ve r should pass one b y r th ere is an offence o f w r o n g d o in g / ' |[ 2 |[ N o w a t th a t tim e K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M agad h a, desiring to po stp o n e th e rain s, se n t a m essenger t o th e m o n ks, s a y i n g : ** W h a t if th e m a ste rs co u ld e n te r upon th e rain s a t th e n e x t full-m oon d a y ? "* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e s a i d : " I a llo w yo u , m o n ks, t o o b e y k in g s ," II 3 il 4 || [138] T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t R a ja g a h a fo r a s lo n g as he fo u n d su itin g a se t o u t o n to u r fo r S a v a tth l. W a lk in g on tourj in due course he a rriv e d a t S a v a tth l. T h en th e L o rd sta y e d th ere in S a v a tth l in th e J e ta G ro v e in A n a th ap irt^ ik a's m o n a stery. N o w a t th a t tim e in th e K o s a la c o u n try a la y follow er, U d e n a ,3 h a d h a d a d w ellin g -p la ce b u ilt for an O rd er-4 H e se n t a m essenger to m o n ks, sa y in g : " L e t th e re ve red sirs com e ; I w a n t to g iv e a g ift a n d to h e a r dhamma and to see th e m o n k s ." || 1 || M onks sp oke th u s : " I t is la id d o w n b y th e L o rd , sir, th a t one sh ould n ot set o u t on to u r, h a v in g entered up o n the rains and n o t h a v in g k e p t th e first th ree m o n th s o r th e la st three m onth s. L e t U d en a, th e layfoLlow er, w a it u n til th e m onks h a v e k e p t th e rain s ; w h en th e y h a v e finished th e rains th e y w ill go. B u t if th e re is som eth ing u rg en t to be d o n e ,5 le t him establish * th e d w ellin g-p lace in th e presence o f resident m onks w h o a re a lre a d y there..7'* \ \ 2 jj
1 dv a sam a tikka tn a n ti. * jutthe, e x p la in e d a t V A . r06S a s m o n th , a n d w o u ld therefore m ean a t t h e n e x t period {a m on th l&ter) fo r b e g in n in g th e rruns-retreat. T h is seem s a b e tte r in terp re ta tio n ju n h e h ere th a n does t h e .JVE.-D/s ,Jb r ig h t fo r tn ig h t o f th e m o n th *p . CJ. h&fe a n d j'xtnhe bcl-ow, p. 2 3 1 s H eard now here b u t h ere I t h in k * C /. Viff. iv . 287 (B .D * iii. 302), w h ere "'s. ce r ta in la y fo llo w e r * ' d id lik e w ise a n d w an te d to g iv e r o b e -m a te ria l t o both, t h e O rders. 1 accdyiha harG\tlyat t i.D . ii. 1 5 1 , n. 6 for xpl& n ation a n d references. 1 patHthdpeHt* A t V iit . Lv, 2S7 th e r e w as a " fe s tiv a l for th e d w ellin g -p la ce *% b u t patitthjipcti p r o b a b ly d o es n o t im p ly this* * tn tlh ' eva .

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T h e la y fo llo w e r, U d e n a , , * _ spread it about, s a y in g : " H ow can these revered sirs, w h en sent fo r b y m e, not com e, for T am ^ b e n e fa cto r, a builder*1 a su p p o rter o f the O rd er ? " M onks h eard th e la y fo llo w e r, U d en a , as he . . , sp read it a b o u t T h en th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* || 3 || T h e n th e L o rd on th is occasion, h a v in g g iv en reasoned ta lk , addressed th e m o n ks, sa y in g ; ,r I allow yo u , m on ks, to g o if y o u are sent for b y seven (classes o f people), and if th e business can be done in seven d a y s, b u t n ot if y o u are n ot sent for : b y a m o n k , a nun, a p ro b atio n er, a n ovice, a w om an n o vice, a la y fo llo w e r, a w om an la yfo llo w er. I a llo w yo u , m onks, to g o if y o u are se n t for b y th ese (seven classes o f people) an d If th e business can b e d one in seven d a ys, b u t not if y o u are n ot sen t for. T h e retu rn should be m ade in seven d a y s. || 4 |j T h is is a case, m onks, w here a d w ellin g-place for an O rd er oom es to h a v e been b u ilt b y a la yfo llo w er. I f he should send a m essenger to m onks, sa y in g : r L e t the revered sirs com e, I w a n t to g ive a g ift and to hear dhamwut and to see th e m onks yo u should g o , m on ks, if yo u are sent for and if th e business can be done in seven d a y s, b u t n ot If yo u are n ot sent for. T h e retu rn sh o u ld be m ade in seven day's. || 5 [} T h is is a case, m onks, w here a c u rv e d house* fo r an O rd er com es to h a v e been b u ilt b y a la y fo llo w e r , . - a lo n g ho u se2 _ _ . a m an sio n 2 . . - a cave * * a c e ll3 . * , a p orch . * . an atten d an ce h a ll4 . . . a fire-fiall . * * a h u t fo r w h a t is allowable , * * a p r iv y * , a p la ce fo r p a cin g up and dow n in* . . . a hall in th e place for p a c in g up a n d dow n in 7 . . . a w ell . . . a hall a t th e w ell . . . a bath ro o m [ 139] . . . a hall In the bath room , . . a lo tu s pond _ . _ a shed . * * a m o n a ste ry 8 * * * a site fo r a m o n a ste ry com es to h a v e been b u ilt b y a la y lo llo w er. I f he should send a m essenger to m o n k sP s a y i n g :
a w orker a n d a d oer o f good w orks. * Cf> a b o v e , p H 75* * T h is occurs a g a in a t t'm . iL 155 w ith all c x c e p t th e la s t tw o of th e fo llo w in g bu ild in gs. * upatthdnasAiS. See S . D . ii. 194, n r 4, * kappiy&kutl. C f - sam e wo-rd a t Vi n. ii. 15-9, i t i d see kappiyabh&m i a t V in - i. 239 (below , p . 328,) N o te th a t t b i s is replaced in \\9 \ \ *>7 '* k itch e n M , * caithama, m o n k 's w alk . S e e C V . V . 14 . 2, 3,.

1 h&raka* also

canhatt*anatUa+

drar?iat tra n sla te d " p a r k ** in || g f ] below .

See fl-J?. ii. 2( n r

5.69]

M A H A V A G G A

III

' L e t th e re ve red sirs com e, I w a n t to g iv e a g ift and to b e ar dhamma and to see th e m on ks ^ yo u sh ou ld g o , m on ks, if y o u are sen t fo r a n d i f th e business ca n b e done In seven days* b u t n ot if y o u are n o t se n t for. T h e re tu rn sh ou ld be m ade in seven days* | | 6 [\ T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a d w ellin g-p lace . . . a cu rved house * . . a lo n g house . . . a site fo r a m o n a ste ry { = ]| 6 ||) . . . for several m o n ks, * . . fo r one m o n k com es to h a v e been b u ilt b y a la y fo llo w e r , . . T h e retu rn sh o u ld b e m ad e in seven d a y s. || 7 || cr T h is is a case, m o n k s w here a d w ellin g -p la ce * , , a site for a m o n a stery1 fo r an O rd er o f nuns, . . . fo r several nuns , . , fo r one nun , , . for se v e ra l p ro b atio n ers . * fo r one probation er . , . for several n o vices . . * fo r one n o vice . * * for several w om en n ovices , , - for one w o m an n o vice com es to h a v e been b u ilt b y a la y fo llo w e r. I f he sh o u ld send a m essenger to m o n k s2 sa y in g : * L e t th e re v e re d sirs com e, I w a n t t o g iv e a g ift and t o hear .dhamma and to see th e m o n ks yo u sh ould go, m onks, if yvu are sen t fo r a n d if th e business can be done in seven d a ys, b u t not if yo u are n ot sen t for. T h e retu rn should b e m ad e in seven d a y s. || 8 |] " T h is is a case* m onks, w h ere a d w ellin g com es to h ave been b u ilt b y a la y fo llo w e r fo r h im se lf . . . a sleeping-room , . a sta b le 3 . . . a w a tc h -to w e r4 . . . a q u a d ran g u lar building* . * . a shop . . . a hall fo r a shop . , . a lo n g house . - . a m ansion , . a c a v e . , . a cell . . . a porch , . . an a tte n d a n c e hall . . . a fire h a ll . a kitchen . . . a p r iv y . + . a p la ce for p a cin g up an d dow n in . . . a hall in th e p la ce fo r p a cin g up a n d dcn^n in . . . a w e l l . * _a hall a t the w e l l . . . . . . a bathroom : . . a hall in th e b a th ro o m , . * a lo tu s pond

1 S am e a s th e edifices given, in || 6 t| . e x c e p t for th e p r iv y , b a th ro o m and h a il in a bathrtxjfm, th e tw o form er of \vhich n u n s are n o t t o u se (Vm_ 11. 2S0). JEdd* V in. T e x ts [.'304, n. 3 s a y t h a t t h e y th in k th e tw o cases referring t o women, n o v ic e s should b e excep ted * * A p p a r e n tly m o n k s h a d t o a c c e p t R ifts on b e h a lf oi th e nuns. 1 -udd&stia, S e e S .L > . ii. l 6 h n. a, iJ.Z>. iii. 1 7 7 . n. 2. * a-ftfip see -Z?.L ii. 16. n. 3. M en tion ed also, w ith t h e n e x t {maia)a s a *' lo d g in g ** a t D A 209. * tnaia, see B .D , ii, j6 . n + 4. * r&s&v&tlj J p possessing fla vo u rs > p . V e r y lik e ly th e w ord occurs nowhei'e b u t b-ere. V A , 1068 c a lls it bhaitageha, food -h ou se, perh ap s '* larder "+ I t rep la ces th e kappiyakutt, h u t for w h a t is allowable^ w hich in I I I . 5 .6 a la y follow er m a y b u ild for a n O rder.

tSS

BO O K

OF

D IS C IP L IN E

* . . a shed . . * a p a r k 1 . * , a site for a p a r t co m es to h a v e been b u ilt b y a la y fo llo w e r for him self, or th ere com es to be his so n s m a rria g e, or th ere co m es to be his d a u g h te r's m arriage t or he becom es i llr or he sp eaks a w ell know n dis course.2 I f h e sh o u ld send a m essenger to m o n ks, sayin g ; ' L e t th e revered sirs com e, th e y w ill m a ste r this discourse before th is [140] discourse falls in to o b livio n ' ; or if he has som e business, so m eth in g to be done, a n d sh ould send a m essenger t o m o n ks, s a y i n g : - L e t th e re ve red sirs com e, I w a n t to g iv e a g ift and to heir dhamma a n d to see the m on ks ^ y o u sh ou ld g o , m onks, if yo u are sent fo r and if th e business c a n b e done in seven d a y s, b u t not If yo u are n o t sent for* T h e retu rn sh o u ld b e m ade in seven d a ys.
II 9 II _

'* T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a d w ellin g-place fo r an O rder com es to h a v e b een b u ilt b y a w om an la yfo llo w er. I f she should send a m essenger to m onks, sa y in g : ' L e t the revered sirs com e, I w a n t to g iv e a g ift and to hear dha?nma an d to see th e m onks \ y o u sh ould go, m onks, if yo u are sen t fo r and if th e business can b e done in seven d a v s t b u t not if yo u are n ot sent for* T h e return should be m ad e in seven d a y s
II 1 0 II

" T h is is a case, m onks, w here a cu rve d house fo r an O rd er com es to h a v e been b u ilt b y a w om an la y fo llo w e r . - . { t! 6 [ ] ) . . , a f r a m o n a ste ry com es to h a v e been b u ilt fo r an O rd er b y a w o m an layfo llo w er. I f she should sen d a m essenger . * . ( = | | id ||) . . . T h e return should be m ade in seven d a y s. ]| i i ]| ,c T h is is a caser m on ks, w h ere a d w ellin g-place - . - a site for a m o n a ste ry for several m o n k s * * * fo r one m onk . . , for an O rd er o f nuns . . . fo r several nuns . . + for one nun * * * fo r several p ro b atio n ers * , * fo r one p ro b atio n er . * . fo r several n o vices , . , fo r one n o vice * . . for several w om en n ovices . . _ fo r one w om an n o vice com es to h a v e been built b y a w o m an la yfo llo w er. I f she should send a m essenger . . ( = || 8 ||) . . * T h e return should be m ade in seven d ays. " T his is a case* m onks, w here a d w ellin g-place com es to h a v e been b u ilt b y a w om an layfo llo w e r for h erself * . 1 nr am a, a.Lso m eaning1 a mon^-st^ry.

* stftianta.

5 , 12 6.2]

MA H A V A G G A

III

^ |j) + . , or if she co m es t o be ill, or if she sp eaks a w ell know n d iscourse. I f she sh o u ld send a m essen ger to m o n ks, s a y in g : ' L e t th e m a ste rs com e, a n d th e y w ill m a ste r this discourse before th is discourse fa lls in to o b livio n J, or if she h a s som e business* so m eth in g to b e done, a n d sh ould sen d a m essenger to m onks* sa y in g : * L e t th e m asters com e, F w a n t to g iv e a g ift and to h ear dkamma and to see th e m onks \ yo u should g o , m on ks, if yo n a rc sent for and if th e bu sin ess can be done in seven d a y s , but n ot if y o u are n ot sent for. T h e retu rn sh ou ld be m ad e in se ve n d a y s. |j r2 || ,J T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a d w e llin g -p la ce . . , ( =I I 8 ||} - . . a site for a m o n a ste ry fo r an O rd er , . * fo r se v e ra l m onks, , . . for one m o n k . * fo r an O rd er o f nuns . . fo r several nuns . * * fo r one n u n . * * for se v e ra l pro b atio n ers * . . fo r one p ro b a tio n e r , . . for seve ra l n o v ic e s . . . fo r one n o vice [141] . * , fo r several w o m en n o v ic e s . . . fo r on e w om an n o vice . * . for him - (ber-) s e lf is b u ilt b y a m o n k , , Ha nun , , . a p ro b a tio n er . , , a n o v ice - * * a w om an novice* I f he (she) sh ou ld sen d a m essenger to m o n ks, s a y i n g : * L e t th e revered sirs {m asters) com e, I w a n t to g iv e a g ift a n d to hear dkamma an d to see the m o n k s \ yo u should go^ m on ks, if y o u are sent fo r and if th e business can be d o n e in seven d a y s, but n o t if yo u are not sen t for. T h e return should be m ad e in se ve n d a v s / II 13 t! 5 II N o w a t th a t tim e a certain m o n k ca in e to be ill. H e sen t a m essenger to m onks, s a y in g : J( I , n o w , am ill* le t m o n ks com e, I w a n t m on ks to com e F J. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd , H e s a i d : " I allow y o u , m o n ks, tn go e ve n if not sent fo r, all th e m ore if sen t for, a n d if th e business can be done in seven d a y s, to fiv e (classes o f people) : to a m o n k, a nun, a p robation er, a novice* a w om an n ovice. 1 allow you, m onks, to go to these five (classes o f people) even if not sent for, all th e m ore if sent for, and if the business can b e done in seven d a y s. T h e retu rn sh o u ld be m ade in seven d ays. || i j| " T h is is a case* m onks, w here a m onk com es to be ill. I f he sh o u ld send a m essenger to m onks, sa y in g : * I, now, am ill, le t m onks com e, I w a n t m onks to com e \ yo u should

190

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go, m o n ks, even i f not sent fo r, all the more if sent for, and if th e business can be done in seven d a ys, th in k in g : ' 1 w ill lo o k a b o u t for a m e a l for the in valid , or I w ill lo o k a b o u t for a m eal fo r th e one w h o is tending th e in valid , or 1 will look a b o u t fo r m ed icin e for th e in valid , o r I w ill a sk (after) him 1, or 1 w ill te n d him \ T h e re tu rn sh o u id b e m ade in seven days* IU B _ T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere d issatisfactio n com es to h ave arisen in a m on k. Xf he sh o u ld send a m essenger to m onk7 s a y in g : D issa tisfa ctio n has arisen in m e, let m onks com e, 1 w a n t m o n k s to co m e \ y o u should go, m on ks, even if n o t se n t for, all th e m ore if sent for, an d it th e business ca n b e done in seven d a y s, th in k in g : f I w ill a lla y his d issatisfactio n or g e t (someone) to a lla y it, or I w ill g iv e him a ta lk on dhamma T h e return sh ou ld b e m ad e in se ve n d a y s, 11311 . . 4 4 T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere rem orse coines to h a v e arisen in a m on k. I f he sh ould send a m essenger to m onks, sa y in g : * R em orse has arisen in m e . . * I w an t m onks to com e ', y o u sh o u ld go , m onks, . . . if th e business can be done in seven d a y s, th in k in g ;: * I w ill dispel his rem orse or g e t (someone) to dispel it, or I w ill g iv e him a ta lk on dktimma*^ T h e retu rn should be m ad e in seven d ays, j! 4 I t " T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a w ron g view com es to have arisen in a monk- I f he [142] should send . . * if the business can b e done in seven d a y s, th in kin g : ' I w ill dissuade him from the w ro n g v ie w or get (someone) to dissuade him . or I w ill gave him a ta lk on dh am m a \ 3 T h e return should be m ade in seven d a ys. || 5 [ ] if T h is is a c a se , m o n ks, w here a m on k com es to h a v e co m m itted an offence a g a in st an im p o rtan t rule an d to d eserve p ro b a tio n .2 I f he should send a m essenger to m onks, s a y i n g : 1 I h a v e co m m itted an offence ag ain st an im p o rta n t rule, I deserve pro batio n , le t m onks com e, t w a n t m onks to com e \ y o u sh o u ld go , m on ks, even if not sent for, a ll th e m ore if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven d a y s,
1 putchdvni, I th in k m eaning to Inquire a fte r his health here (c/, " m on ks a r c in g a fte r ill ones *l. J E 5.D* ii. 341* 399, 402), an d not to "l i s k h im (questions referring to t h e D h u n m a ) " ( a? a t T exts i> 306., a n d w hich is m ore u su a lly paripucchati. C f. M V , I , 25 . 20, ; C V . II . I-S.

6 .6io]

M A H A V A G G A

I JI

th in k in g : r 1 w ill m a k e an effort for p la cin g (him) on p ro b atio n , or I w ill m ake a p ro cla m a tio n , or I w ill b ecom e one w h o com pletes a gro u p '-1 T h e re tu rn sh ould b e m ad e in s e v e n d a y s. 1 1 6 1 1 " T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a m o n k d e se rve s to be sen t b a c k to th e beginning, I f he sh o u ld send a m essenger to m on ks, sa y in g : f I d eserve to b e sen t b a c k to th e begin n in g, le t m onks come* I w a n t m o n k s to com e y o u sh o u ld go m on ks, even if n o t sen t for, , * , if th e business can be done m seven d a y s, th in k in g : * I w ill m ake an efio rt for sending (him) b a c k to th e b eg in n in g , or I w ill m a k e a p ro cla m a tio n , o r I w ill becom e one w h o co m p letes a g r o u p * T h e retu rn should be m ade in seven d a y s. | | 7 (j " T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a m o n k d eserves inanatta {discipline)3. I f he sh ou ld send a m essenger t o m o n ks, sayin g; * I desire mdnaUa (discipline), le t m o n ks com e, I w a n t m onks to com c y o u sh ou ld g o r m onks, even if n o t sen t for, a ll th e m ore if sent for, if th e business can be done in seven d a y s, th in kin g : J I w ill m ake an effort for in flictin g m a w tta d is ciplin e (on him ), or I w ill m a k e a p ro cla m a tio n , or I w ill becom e one w ho co m p letes a g ro u p \ T h e retu rn sh ould b e m ad e in seven d a y s. |[ 3 || " T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a m o n k d eserves re h a b ilita tio n .4 I f he should send a m essenger , . - th in k in g : T I w ill m a k e an effort for (his) re h a b ilita tio n t o r I w ill m a k e a pro cla m a tio n , o r I w ill bccom e one w h o com pletes a gro u p T h e retu rn sh ou ld be m ad e in seven d a y s. [ | g |i " T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere an O rd er b ecom es desirous o f c a rry in g o u t a (form al) a c t a g a in st a m o n k c ith e r one o f censure or one o f g u id a n ce or one o f b an ish m en t or one o f recon ciliation or one o f su spen sion ,5 I f he sh ou ld send a m essenger to m onks, s a y in g : ' T h e O rd er desires to c a n y o u t a (formal) a c t a g a in st m e, le t m onks co m e, I w a n t m onks to com e y o u sh ould go . , . if th e retu rn ca n b e m ad e in seven d a y s, th in k in g : [143] J H o w th en m a y th e O rd er n ot 1 F o r p[a.cing him on p ro b a tio n , for g r a n tin g or g iv in g it, parivasad&na. fnOidya paikassandrtthor C/* M V . I. 2 5 .-z l ; A n d Vi n. ii. 7, 34, 163, 25. n t C V . I I , 5. 25. 2 1 j C V . I I . 9, 25- 2 * .

A ri. gQ-

C f. M V . I . * C f. M V . L * C f . M V , J,

BOOK

OF

D IS C IP L IN E

ca rry out a (form al) a ct or m a y chan ge i t to so m eth in g lig h te r ? 1 T h e retu rn sh o u ld be m ade in seven d a y s. j| 10 || * * O r a (form al) a c t com es to fee carried o u t again st him b y th e O rd e r e itb e r one o f censure . . . or one o f suspension. I f he sh ou ld send a m essenger to monks* sa y in g : e T h e O rd er carried o u t a (form al) a c t again st m e * * , I w a n t m onks to com e y o u sh ou ld go m o n ks, , . th in k in g : * H o w th e n in a y he co n d u ct h im self p ro p e rly , b e subd u ed , m en d his w a y s, (so th a t) th e O rd er can re v o k e t h a t (formal) a c t ? n T h e retu rn sh o u ld be m ad e in seven d ay?. | { n |] " T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a nun com es to b e ill * * * { = I I I . 6. 2) Ii 12 !| * * . , w h ere d issa tisfa ctio n com es to h a v e arisen in a n u n - * , (III. 6. 3) II13 II . . * * * w h ere rem orse com es to h a v e arisen in a nun - + ( = 111. 6 . 4) I I 14 II < . - w h ere a w ro n g v ie w com es to h a v e arisen in a nun . . . ( = 111. 6 . 5) II 1 5 I! . . . . . w h ere a n u n co m es to h a v e co m m itted an offence again st an im p o rta n t rule and to d eserve mdnatia (discipline).2 I f she should sen d a m essenger to m o n k s, s a y in g : * I [144] h a v e co m m itted an offence a g a in st an im p o rta n t rule and d eserve mdnatta (discipline)* le t th e m asters co m e, I w a n t th e m asters to com e y o u sh o u ld go, m on ks, e ve n if n o t sent fo r, a ll th e m ore if sent fo r, a n d if th e business can be done in seven d a y s , th in k in g : ' I w ill m a k e an effort for in flictin g mdnatia (discipline) on her. ' 3. T h e retu rn should be m ad e in seven d a y s, |[ 16 [| " T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a n u n d eserves to b e sen t b a ck to th e beginning. I f sh e should send a m essenger . - . ( = III* 6. 7) . . - th in k in g : r I w ill m a k e a n effort for sending (her) b a c k to th e b eg in n in g \ T h e return should be m ade in seven d a ys. || 17 ]| T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a nun d eserves reh ab ilitatio n { = r i l . 6. 9) * - * th in k in g : " I w ill m ake an effort for (her) re h a b ilita tio n \ T h e return should be m ad e in seven d ays. | | 18 |f ^ C/+MV. I. 25. 22. . . .

a "Nuns d id n o t u n d ergo p ro b a tio n , parivdsa ; cf, th e ir S a n g h ^ is e s a s . 3 T h e m o n k d oes not s a y tfciat he will m a k e a p ro cla m atio n o r becom e orte
t o c o m p le t e a. g r o u p ,

6.19 25]

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193

" T h is is a case, m onks, w here a n O rd e r b ecom es d esirous o f c a rry in g o u t a (formal) a c t a g ain st a n un, e ith e r one o f censure . * . o r one o f suspension . _ . { = III* 6. i o ) * , , T h e retu rn sh o u ld b e m ad e in se v e n d a y s, |[ rg || " O r a (form al) a c t co m es to b e carried o u t a g a in s t h e r b y an O rd er e ith e r one o f cen sure . . * o r one o f suspension , . . ( a H I, 6, ix ) , . - T h e re tu rn sh o u ld b e m ad e in seven days- |[ 20 || " T h is is a case, m onks* w h ere a p ro b a tio n e r com es to be ill * , . (c/. I l l , 6, 2) . - - in s e v e n d a y s, J j 21 f| " T h is is a case, m o n ks 145] w h ere d issa tisfa c tio n com es to h a v e arisen in a p ro b a tio n e r . * . w h ere rem orse com es to h a v e arisen in a p ro b a tio n er . < . w h ere a w ro n g v ie w com es t o h a v e arisen in a p ro b a tio n er . . . w h ere a p ro b a tio n e r's tra in in g com es t o b e in te rru p te d ,1 I f she sh o u ld sen d a m essenger to m onks, s a y in g : ' M y tra in in g is in terru p ted , le t th e m asters co m e, I w a n t th e m a ste rs to com e \ y o u sh o u ld g o , m onks, even if n o t sent fo r, a ll the m o re if sent for a n d i f th e business ca n be done in se v e n d a y s , t h in k in g : * I w ill m ake an effort for h er to u n d e rta k e th e tra in in g T h e re tu rn sh ould be m ad e in seven d ays. || 22 | J " T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a p ro b a tio n e r b ecom es desirous o f b ein g o rd a in e d .1 I f she sh o u ld send a m essen ger t o m o n ks, s a y in g ; * I a m desirous of b ein g o rd ain ed . . . I w a n t th e m asters to com e \ y o u sh o u ld go, m o n ks, * . . t h in k in g : * E ith e r 1 w ill m a k e a n effort fo r her o rd in a tio n or I w ill m a k e a p ro cla m a tio n or I w ill b ecom e one w ho com pletes a gro u p **4 T h e re tu rn should be m ad e in seven d a y s, it 33 || ^ " T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a n o vice becom es iU * * . {III. 0L 2) - - - T h e retu rn sh o u ld b e m ad e in se v e n d a y s. II24 I! . . " . . . w here d issatisfactio n . * . w h ere rem orse . . . w h ere a w ro n g v ie w co m es to h a v e arisen in a n o v ic e . . . w h ere a n o v ice becom es d esirous o f a skin g ab o u t h is y e a r 's standing.
1 ku.p\t&msee liL 366. * siAkhdsamddditam.

* W ith th e upasampadg ordination. See IU>+ iii*, In tr+ p< Jtliv fif, * Nuns* wpasuntpaad ordination tak es pla.ee before an Order of moak$. * vassa. S e * above, p + 309. T h is m ust be the technical m eaning of vassarp. pvcchitotjp, which edd. V in . Texts L 310, n, s a y is unknow a to us ".

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I f he should sen d a m essen ger to m o n ks, s a y in g : - I am desirous o f a sk in g a b o u t m y y e a r's sta n d in g * * * I w a n t m o n ks to co m e \ y o n sh o u ld go . . * th in k in g : * 1 w ill a sk or I w ill e x p la in \ T h e re tu rn sh o u ld be m a d e In seven d ays. j| 25 (j ^ + * . w h ere a n o vice becom es d esirous o f b ein g ordained , * , {as in I I I . 6. 23) , * . T h e retu rn should be m ad e in seven d a ys, || 26 || " T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a w o m an n o vice co m es to b e ill , . . ( I I L 6, 2) . . . [ 146] T h e retu rn should b e m ade in seven d a y s. |[ 27 || . . * w h ere d issa tisfa ctio n * . . w h ere rem orse * , * w here a w rong v ie w com es t o h a v e arisen in a w om an n o vice * * . w h ere a w o m an n o vice becom es desirous o f a sk in g a b o u t her year's sta n d in g . . . ( I I L 6. 25) * * * T h e retu rn should be m ad e in seven d a ys. j| 28 f| 4t * * . w h ere a w o m an n o vice becom es d esirous o f und er ta k in g th e tra in in g .1 I f sh e sh ou ld sen d a m essenger to m onks, s a y i n g : - N o w I am d esirous of u n d e rta k in g the tra in in g , le t th e m asters com e, I w a n t th e m asters to com e \ yo u should go, m o n ks, e ve n H n ot sent fo r, all th e m ore if sen t for, a n d if th e business can be d on e in se ve n d a y s, th in k in g : ' I w ill m ake an effort for her to acquire th e tra in in g \ T h e retu rn sh ou ld b e m ad e in seven d a y s / 1 || 39 || 6 ][ N o w a t th a t tim e a certa in m o n k 's m o th er b ecam e ill. She sen t a m essenger to her son, s a y in g : " N o w I am ill, le t m y son co m e, I w a n t m y son t o co m e/' T h en it occurred to th a t m o n k ; I t is la id d o w n b y th e L o rd th a t, i f th e business c^n b e done in seven d a y s, one c a n go if sent for b u t n o t if not sen t for to seven (classes o f people) ; a n d , if the business can be d o n e in seven d a y s, to go even if n o t sent for, a ll th e m ore if sen t fo r to five (classes o f p eople)2 ; a n d m y ow n m o th er3 is ill, b u t she is not a la y fo llo w e r. N o w w h a t lin e of co n d u ct should be fo llo w ed b y m e ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd . || 1 |[
1 B a la n c in g th e ,T to be ord ain ed " o f probation ers an d maJe n o vices. T h e w om an n o v ic e h a d t o b eco m e a p ro b a tio n er a n d spend tw o y e a r s in tra in in g in th e s ix rules to r p ro b a tio n ers b efo re she co u ld b eco m e ordained. * See a b o ve , p . iflg. * ayan an d i b is m y mother*

7*2. 8]

m a h

v a g g a

III

H e sa id : I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to go e v e n if n o t sent for, a ll th e m ore i f sen t for, i f th e busin ess can b e done in seven d a y s, to seven (classes o f people) : to a m o n k , a nun, a p ro b atio n e r, a novice* a w om an n o v ic e , a m o th er, a fa th e r. 1 a llo w y o u , m on ks, to go even i f n o t sent fo r, a ll th e m ore i f sen t for, ii th e business ca n be done in se ve n d a y s, to these seven (classes o l people). T h e retu rn sh ou ld b e m a d e in se ve n d a y s. J ] 2 j| T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a m o n k 's m o th e r com es to b e ill. I f she sh o u ld sen d a m essen ger t o h er son, s a y in g : * N o w I am ill, let m y son com e, I w a n t m y son to com e \ y o u sh ou ld go, m o n ks, . * . f III- 0 . 2) , . , T h e retu rn sh o u ld be m ad e in seven days* || 3 || T h is is a case* m o n k s, [ 147} w h ere a m o n k s fa th e r com es t o be ill. I f he sh o u ld send a m essenger to his son, s a y in g f N o w I am ill* Jet m y son com e, I w a n t m y son to com e J, y o u sh ould g o * , . ( = III* 6. 2) * * * T h e retu rn should be m ade in seven d ays. j| 4 || -r T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere & m o n k 's b ro th e r com es to be ill. Tf he sh ould sen d a m essenger to his brother, sa y in g : 1 N o w I am ill, let m y b ro th er come* I w a n t m y b ro th er to c o m e J, y o u should go* m o n ks, if sent for, b u t n ot if n ot sent for, if th e business ca n b e done in seven d ays. T h e retu rn should be m ad e in seven d ays. j| 5 || ' T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a m o n k's sister com es to be ill. I f she should send a m essenger to her b ro th er, s a y i n g : * N o w I am iii, le t m y b ro th e r com e, I w a n t m y b rother to com e \ y o u should go . . . ( = |[ 5 ||) , . * T h e return should he m ad e in seven d a ys. [ | 6 |j * * T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a m o n k 's re la tiv e com es to b e ill. I f he should sen d a m essen ger to m onks, sa y in g : ' N o w I am ill, let th e revered sir com e, I w a n t th e revered sir to co m e % y o u should go , m onks, if sent for, b u t not if n o t sent for, if th e business can b e done in se ve n days- T h e retu rn should be m ade in seven d ays. |[ 7 j| T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a person liv in g w ith m o n ks1 com es to be ill. I f he sh o u ld sen d a m essenger to m o n ks, s a y in g : ' N ow I am ill, le t m on ks com e, I w a n t m o n k s to
1 b ftik b h u ga tik a . V A r 1069 a n d C m g. edn, read hhatiha ; IM - exp lain s as " a m an (/w m a ) liv in g in on e d w ellin g -p la ce to g e th e r w ith m o n ks F \

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com e *t y o u sh o u ld go , m onks, if se n t for, b u t n o t if n o t sen t for, i f th e business ca n b e done in se ve n d a y s. T h e retu rn sh ou ld b e m ad e in seven d a y s . | J 8 [f 7 J | N o w a t th a t tim e an O rd er's d w ellin g-p lace w a s fa llin g to pieces. A certain la y fo llo w e r h a d th e go od s1 re m o ve d in to th e ju n g le. H e sen t a m essenger to m on ks, sa y in g : " I f th e re v e re d sirs w ou ld fe tch a w a y * these goods, I w o u ld g iv e th e m b a c k these g o o d s / 1 T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I a llo w yo u , m o n ks, to go a w a y on business con n ected w ith an O rd er. T h e retu rn should b e m ad e in seven d a y s / ' \ \ i || 8 j| T o ld is th e P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g on Rains-residence* N o w a t th a t tim e in th e K o s a la c o u n try m onks w h o h ad en tered upon th e rain s in a certa in residence cam e to be m o lested b y beasts o f p r e y w h o seized th em and a tta c k e d th em . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : " T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere m o n k s w h o h a v e entered upon th e ra in s com e to be m o lested b y beasts o f p re y w h o seize them a n d a t t a c k them . T h is is indeed a d an ger,3 a n d y o u sh ould d e p a rt. T h ere is no offence in c u ttin g sh o rt th e rains. T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere m o n k s w h o h a v e en tered u p o n th e rain s com e to be m o lested b y creep in g th in g s w h ich bite th e m a n d a tta c k th em . T h is is in d eed . . . in c u ttin g sh ort th e rains. || x ]| [148] " T h is is a case, m on ks, w here m on ks . , * are m olested b y th ie v e s w h o ro b th em a n d th rash them - T h is is indeed , . * in c u ttin g sh o rt th e rains. T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere m onks . , , are m o lested b y d em o n s4 w h o ta k e possession o f 5 th em a n d sa p th e ir v ita lity** T h is is indeed . . . in c u ttin g sh ort th e rains. j| 2 ||
1 bkaptfxt71 chedapitarn hoti. N o ju stifica tio n for 1 4 h ad a q u a n tity o w o o d c u t a s a t Vi n. Texts i H 3 1 2 . V A . lo& $ exp la in s b y dabbasambhdrabha^kfc*, go o d s fo rm in g a s u b s ta n tia l co llectio n . C f. b h a ^ a k a a t V in , iv , 304 referring t o th e goo d s or " th in g s ,r* p r o p e r ty t h a t som e a n u s w a n te d t o receive from ThullanandA^a b u rn in g d w ellin g. 1 O ld e u b e r g 's t e x t avahoreyyvm ; C iu g - ed n , &vah<%pcyyurj% , * S e e above* p . 148,, w h ere th is a n d som e o f th e fo llo w in g d an gers are e n u m era te d a lth o u g h n o t in q u it e t h e sam e order. 4 pis&ca. N o t a m o n g t h e 1 ten d an gers 1 dvi&anti, ex p la in e d a t V A * 1070 a s t h e y en ter in to th e b o d y *\ * ojatjt haranii, th e y c a r r y off t h e life-stren gth .

9.3 11.x]

m a h

v a g g a

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197

" T h i s is a case, m on ks, w h e re th e v illa g e o f m o n k s w h o h a ve en tered upon th e rains com es to be b u rn t b y fire and th e m onks g o sh ort o i alm sfood- T h is is in d ee d a danger * , , in c u ttin g sh ort th e rains. T h is is a case, m on ks, w here th e lod gin gs o f m o n k s w h o h a v e en tered upon th e rain s com e to be b u rn t b y fire a n d t h e m o n k s g o short o f lodgings* T h is is in d eed , - , in c u ttin g sh ort th e rains. || 3 |[ " T his is a case, m onks, w h ere th e v illa g e o f m onks w h o h a v e en tered upon th e rains co m es to be ca rrie d a w a y b y w a te r a n d th e m o n ks go sh ort o f alm sfood. T h is is indeed - , . in c u ttin g sh o rt th e rains. T h is is a case* m o n ks, w h ere th e lod gin gs o f m o n ks w h o h a v e en tered upon th e rain s co m e to b e carried a w a y b y w a te r an d th e m o n k s go sh o rt o f lod gin gs. T h is is in d eed a d anger, and yo u sh ould d ep art. T h e re is no offen ce in c u ttin g sh o rt th e r a in s ." || 4 [| 9 [j N o w a t th a t tim e th e v illa g e o f certain m onks w h o h ad entered upon th e rains in a ce rta in residence w a s re m o v e d 1 on a cco u n t oi th ieves. T h e y told th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said : " I allow y o u , m on ks, to go t o th a t v illa g e / ' T h e v illa g e w a s &plit in two* T h e y to ld this m a tte r to the L ord . H e said ; " I allow y o u , m o n ks, to go w h ere th ere are th e m o re (people)." T h e m a jo r ity c a m e to be o f little faith* not believing. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w yo u , m onks, to go to those w h o h a v e fa ith an d are b e lie v in g / 1 0 x |[ 10 j] N ow at th a t tim e in th e K o s a la c o u n try m o n k s w h o had entered upon th e rains in a certa in residence did n ot o b ta in a sufficiency, as m uch as th e y n eeded, o f coarse or o f sum p tu o u s food. T h e y told this m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said T h is is a case* m on ks, w h ere m o n k s w h o h a v e en tered upon th e rains do n o t o b ta in a su fficien cy, a s m u ch as th e y need, o f coarse o r o f su m p tu o u s food. T h is is indeed a danger, and th e y should d ep a rt. T h e re is no offence in c u ttin g sh o rt th e rains. T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere m onks w h o h a v e en tered upon the rains o b ta in a sufficien cy, as m uch as th e y
1 w tfh & s i, a ro se, got a p ; th u s , went aw ay,

1 Thcs is

a " d a n g e r to life *\, the ninth d a n g e r listed a t Ttw. i h 113.


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n eed , of coarse or o f su m p tu o u s food , b u t th e y do n o t o b ta in ben eficial food s. T h is is indeed a d a n g er _ . . in cu ttin g short th e rains, |j i } \ " T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere m onks w h o h a v e entered upon th e rain s obtain a sufficien cy, as m uch as th e y need, o f co arse o r o f su m p tu o u s fo o d t th e y o b ta in beneficial [149] foods, b u t th e y do n o t ob tain beneficial m edicines. T h is is in d eed a d an ger . _ _ the rains. T h is is a case, m on ks, w here m o n ks w h o h a v e en tered upon th e rain s obtain a su fficien cy, as m u ch as th e y need, o f coarse o r of su m p tu o u s food* th e y o b ta in beneficial foods, t h e y ob tain beneficial m edicines, but th e y do n o t ob tain a suitable a tte n d a n t. T h is is indeed a d a n g er . * * . in c u ttin g sh ort th e rains* j| % ( J " T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a w om an in vites a m onk w h o h a s en tered upon th e rains, s a y i n g : ' Com e, honoured sir, I w ill g iv e yo u go ld 1 or I w ill g ive y o u go ld orn am en ts1 o r I w ill g ive y o u a field or I w ill g iv e yo u a site* or I w ill g iv e you a b u ll3 or I w ill g iv e y o u a cow or I w ill g iv e you a sla v e or I w ill g iv e y o u a slave w om an o r I w ill g iv e yo u (m y) d a u g h te r as w ife or I w ill be y o u r w ife or 1 w ill lead an o th er w ife to y o u .1 I f it then occurs to the m onk : * T h e m in d is called q u ick ly-ch an g in g * b y th e L o rd , a n d th is m a y be a d anger to m y B ra h m a -fa rin g \ he should d ep a rt. T h ere is no offence in c u ttin g sh o rt th e rains. || 3 [] " T h i s is a case, m onks, w h ere a lo w class w om an . . . a grow n girl* * . . a eunuch in v ites a m onk w h o has entered upon th e rain s . . * w here rela tio n s in v ite , . . kings , . , th ie v e s . t . m en o f aban d on ed life in v ite a m onk w ho h as en tered upon th e ram s, s a y i n g : ' Com e, honoured sir, we w ill g iv e yo u go ld . . . or w e w ill g iv e yo u a d a u g h te r as w ife or w e w ill lead a n o th er w ife to yo u \ I f it then occurs to the m onk : * T h e m in d is c a lle d q u ick ly-ch a n g in g b y the L ord * . 1 . . . T h e re is no offencc in cu ttin g short the rains. This is a case, m onks, w h ere a m o n k w ho has en tered upon
1 hira fiiiti
S e e & . D . i. z S ( n r

* vaithxt. P r o b a b ly m ea n in g a s ite io r a. h u t o r a dwc]lin.g-place* as In Sangh. V I, V II .

* lahttparittaMa cxtta. For this sentiment, cf. S. ii. 95, Thtig. i i i i ; also tbe expression vibbAariJatifta at It. p, 9 1 ; and lahncittakata, p, i o i h above,
* thuilahum ari ; c f . a b o v e , p . 87, n. 6,

* gavutn,

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th e rain s sees a tre a su re 1 w ith o u t an owner* I f th en it occurs to th e m o n k : * T h e m in d is c a lle d q u ic k ly ch a n g in g . . . * - . * T n ere is no o ffen ce in c u ttin g sh ort th e rains. || 4 || T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a. m o n k w h o has en tered upon th e rains sees several m o n ks striv in g fo r a schism in th e O rd er. I f then it occurs to th e m onk : 'A schism in an O rder is cabled serious b y th e L o rd ,5 1 do n o t let th e O rd er be d iv id e d in m y presence he should d ep a rt. T h e re is no offence in c u ttin g short th e rains, " T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a m o n k w h o h a s en tered upon th e rains hears 1 * I t is sa id th a t several m o n k s are striv in g for a schism in th e O rd er \ I f th en it occurs to th a t m o n k . . . in c u ttin g sh o rt th e rain*. || 5 | | T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a m onk w h o has e n tered upon th e rains h e a r s : " I t is said th a t several m o n k s in a ce rta in residence are striv in g for a schism in th e O r d e r J. I f it then occu rs to th e m o n k : * N ow these m on ks are m y friends. I should sp eak to them , s a y in g : In d eed , y o u r reverences, a schism in th e O rder is ca lled serious b y th e L ord, please d o not le t a schism in th e O rd er be p rom oted b y th e ven e ra b le ones and if he th in k s : ' T h e y w ill do m y bidding* th e y w i!l a tte n d , th e y w ill g iv e ear \ he should d epart. T h ere is no offence in c u ttin g short the rains* [j 6 ]| " T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a m o n k w ho h a s entered upon the rains bears : * I t is said th a t several m o n k s in a certain residence [150] are s triv in g fo r a schism in th e O rder I f it then occurs to the m onk : * N ow these m o n k s are not friends o f m ine, b u t those w h o are frien d s o f th eirs are friends of m ine ; to these I shall sp ea k , and when I h a v e spoken to them , th e y w ill sp eak to th e m ,3 sa y in g : In d eed , y o u r re v e r ences, a schism in the O rder is called serious b y th e L o rd * . + * (= II ^ I!) * ' n c u ttin g sh ort th e rains. |j 7 [[ " T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a m onk w h o h a s en tered upon the ra in s h e a r s : ' It is said th a t th e O rd er in a certain resi dence is d iv id e d b y several m onks \ I f it then occurs to th e m onk : 1 N ow these m on ks are friends o f m ine. J should
* nidki ; store,, hoardings, treasure a t S n a -2S.5, Dhp. 76* A'Au* YE 1 E, 2, q. A t Ja, vi. 79 explained as vdltnciraiiivdsijwt, puttin g on a b a r k dress. C / t the ruling as to picking up treasure (raffia ) a t FAc. L X X X I V .

2A

V i n m iL

J9S, in

speaking

to

D e v a d a t t a .

8 1

t o t h e s c h is m a tic m o n k s .

200

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sp eak to th e m , sa y in g f| 6 |() . . . in c u ttin g short th e rains. |[ 8 |] *4 T h is i& a case, m onks, w h ere a m o n k w h o has entered upon th e rains hears : ' I t is said th a t an O rd er in a certain residence is d iv id e d b y several m o n ks \ I f it th en occurs to th e m o n k : ' N o w th ese m on ks are not Iriends o f m ine, b u t those w h o are friends o f th eirs are friends o f m in e ; to these I sh a ll sp ea k , and w h en I h a v e spoken to th em , th e y w ill sp eak to th em , s a y in g : In d eed , y o u r reveren ces, a schism in th e O rder is c a lle d serious b y th e L o rd * . . J ( = |[ 6 j]) . . * T h e re is no offence in c u ttin g sh o rt th e rains. || 9 | ] " T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a m o n k w h o has en tered upon th e rains h ears : I t is sa id th a t several nuns in a ce rta in resid en ce are s triv in g fo r a schism in th e O rd er \ I f it th en occurs to th e m o n k : r N o w th ese n u n s are friends o f m ine, I sh ou ld sp ea k to them , sa y in g : Sisters, a schism in th e O rder 15 called serious b y th e L o rd , please do n o t le t a schism in th e O rd er b e p ro m o ted b y th e sisters', an d if he th in k s : * T h e y w ill do rny b id d in g , th e y w ill a tte n d , th e y w ill g iv e ear \ he should d e p a rt. T h ere is n o offence in c u ttin g sh ort th e rains. || ro | | T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere a m onk w h o has en tered upon th e rain s hears : I t is said th a t several nuns in a cer ta in residence are striv in g for a schism in the O r d e r ', I f it th e n occurs to th e m onk : N o w these nuns are not friends o f m ine, b u t those w h o a re friends of th eirs are friends of m in e ; to th ese T sh a ll sp ea k , and w h en I h a v e spoken to th em , th e y w iil sp eak to them , sa y in g : Sisters, a schism in th e O rd er - + J ( = | | 10 ! ! ) * . . th ere is no offence in cu ttin g sh o rt th e rains. | [ n | | " T h is is a case, m on ks, w here a m o n k w h o has entered upon th e rain s hears : * I t is said th a t th e O rd er in a certa in resi dence is d iv id e d b y several nuns \ I f it then occurs to the m o n k : * N o w these n u n s are frien d s o f mine* I should sp eak to th em , s a y in g : Sisters, a sch ism in th e O rd er . , . ' (= | | 10 ]|) . * * in c u ttin g sh ort th e rains, H 13 f[ T h is is a case - - * hears : ' I t is said th a t the O rder in a certain residence is d ivid ed b y several nuns \ I f it then occurs to the m o n k ; ' N o w these nuns are n o t friends o f mine, b u t those w ho are friends o f th e irs are triends o f m ine ; to

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these I sh all sp ea k , a n d w h en I h a v e spoken to th em , th e y w ill sp ea k to th e m , sa y in g : S isters, a schism in th e O rd er * * * r ( s |j 10 |[) , . - in cu ttin g sh ort th e ra in s . [j 13 j| 1 1 |[ N o w a t th a t tim e a certa in m o n k [151] becam e desirous o f en terin g o n th e rains in a c o w -p e n ,1 T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said : 4f I a llo w y o u , m onks, to enter on th e rains in a c o w -p e n / 1 T h e cow -pen w a s re m o v e d .2 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e said : ,f I a llo w y o u , m onks, to go to th a t c o w -p e n ," || 1 [1 N o w a t th a t tim e, as th e beg in n in g o f th e rains w as a p p ro a ch ing, a certa in m o n k becam e desirous o f g o in g in a c a ra v a n . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said ; " I allo w y o u , m onks, to e n te r on th e rains in a ca rav an /* N o w a t th a t tim e, a s th e b egin n in g o f th e rain s w a s a p p ro a ch in g , a certain m o n k b e c a m e desirous o f gotng in a b o at. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " I allo w y o u , m onks, to e n te r on th e rains in a b o a t/ ' [| 2 j| N o w a t th a t tim e m onks e n te red on th e rains in hollow trees. P eop le looked dovfti on, criticised , sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g ; " L ik e dcm on-w orsh ippcrs/*3 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : M onks, y o u sh o u ld n ot en ter on th e rain s m holiow trees. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) en ter on th em , there is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g , || 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s en tered on th e rains in fo rk s o f trees. P eop le - . . sp read i t a b o u t, sa y in g : L ik e h u n te rs. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " M onks, y o u should n o t e n te r on th e rain s in th e fo rks o f trees. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) e n te r on th em , there is an offence o f w ro n g d o in g / ' || 4 || N o w a t th a t tim e m onks e n te red on the rain s in th e open air. W h en th e g o d s rained th e y ran u p to th e fo o t o f trees and to th e sh elter o f a nim h tr e e .4 T h e y told th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e said : M onks, you sh o u ld n ot e n te r on th e rains in th e
1 v aja , V A . 1 0 7 1 e x p la in s a s t h e d w e ll in ." -p la c e o i c o w h e r d s * W o rd o ccu rs

a t A . iii, V i s m . 16 6, 2 7 9 in m e a n in g o f A t C o w -p e n * wtihasi : cf, above p, rg-7, n, a pis&cittska, or perh ap s ab origijiccs. S e e Vin, Texts I. 318 n ., a,n4 C V f V, , 2 V . 27 . 5, C f. pisdea a b o v e , p. 196. * tit w bakosa. K o s a c a n m ean, c a v i t y , t h u s the: h o llo w o f a tr e e , o r i t m ig h t m e a n a s h e a t h o r e n d o s n re * t h u s t lie b e l t e r , t h e c o v c r o f a tre e .

10

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pen air. W h o e v e r should (so) e n te r on them , there is an offence o f w rong-doing/* [| 5 |[ N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks en tered on th e rain s w ith o u t lo d g ings. T h e y suffered from cold a n d th e y suffered from heat. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the Lord- H e sa id : -l M onks, y o u sh o u ld n ot en ter 011 the ra in s w ith o u t lodgings. W h o ever sh o u ld (50 ) en ter on them , th ere is an offence o f w rong~doing/J I1 6 J ! N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s e n te red on th e rain s in a c h a rn e l' house. P eople * . . sp read it about, sa y in g 1 J' L ik e th o se w h o b u m corpses f\ T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , He said ; t4 M onks, y o u should n ot en ter on th e rain s in a charnel-house. W h o e v e r , . . w ro n g -d o in g . [] 7 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks en tered on th e rains und er a su n sh a d e .1 P eop le . + . spread it a b o u t, s a y i n g : " L ik e cow h erd s , T h e y told th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said : " M onks, y o u should n ot en ter on th e rains u n d er a sunshade. W h o e v e r . * . w ro n g -d o in g / ' || 3 |[ [152] N o w a t th a t tim e m o n ks en tered on th e rains in a w a te r-ja r.1 P eop le . . + sp read it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e follow ers o f o th er se tts T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M onks, yo u should n o t en ter on th e rains in a w a te r-ja r. W h o e v e r . - o f w ro n g -d o in g /' jj 9 || 1 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e an agreem en t cam e to be m ade b y an O rd er in S a v a tth i th a t no one should be allo w ed to go fo rth d u rin g th e rains. A neph ew o f V isa k h a , M igara's m other, h a v in g a p p ro ach ed m onks, a sked fur the go in g fo rth . M onks sp o k e t h u s : " Sir, an agreem en t w as m ade b y th e O rd er th a t d u rin g th e rains no one sh o u ld b e allow ed to go fo rth . W a it, sir, un til the m o n k s h a v e kep t th e rains ; w hen th e y h a ve ke p t the rain s th e y w ill allow yo u to go fo rth . T h en these m onks, h a v in g k e p t th e rains, sp oke th u s to th e n ep h ew of V isa k h a, M igara's m o th e r: " C o m e n o w , sirp go fo rth / ' He sp oke th u s ; " H onoured sirs, if I could h a ve gone fo rth , I
1 thaiU a L 5 th e reg u lar word fo r sunshade* I t ca n m eaa a. ca-tlopy* 1 edit, s o m e l>lg v e s s e l ; user] fo r c o n t a in in g 1 a n d t r a n s p o r t in g w a te r a t
J d . i. QQ. l o t . P e r h a p s a t A n u ra d h ap u ra. th e lo n g b a t b -I ik e s t o n e v e s s e ls s t il l t o b e seen

1 3 .1 1 4 ,3 ]

M A H A V A G G A

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203

sh ou ld h a v e been pleased. B u t now , I, h o n o u red sirs, w ill n o t go fo r th ." |[ 1 |[ V isa k h a , M ig a ra's m o th er T . - sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : *' H o w ca n th e m a ste rs m a k e an agreem en t to th e effect th a t no one should b e a llo w e d to g o fo rth d u rin g the rain s ? A t w h a t tim e sh ou ld dhamma n o t b e fo llo w ed ? M onks h ea rd V isa k h a , M igara's m other, a s sh e . . . spread it a b o u t. T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : M onks, a n agreem en t th a t no one sh o u ld b e allo w ed to go fo r th d u rin g th e rain s should n o t be m a d e. W h o e v e r should m a k e (one), th ere is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' [j 2 |j 13 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e a rain s-resid en ce b elo n g in g to K in g P a sen a d i o f K o s a la ca m e to b e assented to fo r th e earlier p e rio d 1 b y th e v e n e ra b le U p an a n d a , th e soil o f th e S a k y a n s. A s he w a s going to th a t residen ce, he sa w on th e w a y tw o residences w ith m a n y robes. Tt o ccu rred to him : " N o w , suppose I sh o u ld sp en d th e rains in these tw o residences ? T h u s w o u ld m a n y robes a c cru e to m e / ' H e sp en t th e rain s In these tw o residences. K in g P a se n a d i o f K o sa la * . * . sp read it a b o u t, sa y in g ; " H o w ca n th is m a ste r U p an an d a, th e son o f the S a k y a n s, h a v in g assen ted to o u r ruins-residence, b reak his w o rd ? I s n o t ly in g con d em n ed in m a n y a figu re b y th e L o rd a n d restra in t fro m ly in g e x to lle d ? ** [j 1 |] M onks beard K in g P a sen ad i o f K o s a la as he . * . sp rea d it a b o u t. T hose w ho w ere m o d est m o n ks . . * sp read it a b o u t, sa y in g : " H ow c a n [ 153] th e ve n e ra b le U p an a n d a , th e son o f the S a k y a n s, h a v in g a ssen ted t o a raiias-residence b elon gin g to K in g P asen ad i o f K o s a la , b re a k his w o rd ? Is n ot ly in g condem n ed in m a n y a figu re b y th e L o rd and re stra in t from ly in g e x to lle d ? " | | 2 || T hen these m onks told this m a tte r to th e L o rd . T h en th e L o rd on th is occasion, h a v in g h a d th e O rd er o f m onks co n ven ed , question ed th e ven erab le U p a n a n d a , th e son of th e S a k y a n s, s a y in g : ,f Is i t tru e , as is said , U p an a jid a , th a t y o u , h a v in g assen ted to a rains-residence b elo n gin g to K in g P a se n a d i o f K o sa la , bro k e y o u r w ord ? ,c It is true* L o rd . T h e a w a k e n e d o n e, th e L o rd , reb u k ed him , sa y in g : 1 purimik&ya,
t h a t is,

for

th e first th ree m o D th i o i the r a in y -season.

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4 4 H ow can yo u , foolish m an, h a v in g assen ted to a rainsresidence b elo n gin g to K in g P asen ad i o f K o sa la , b re a k yo u r w ord ? F o o lish m an , is n ot ly in g cond em n ed in m an y a figure b y m e and restra in t from ly in g e x to lle d ? I t is n o t, foolish m an , for pleasing those w ho are not (yet) pleased *. / #a n d h a v in g reb u k ed h im , h a v in g g iv en reasoned ta lk , he addressed th e m on ks, s a y in g : |{ 3 | | T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a rains-residence com es to he a ssen ted to b y a m onk fo r th e earlier period. A s he is go in g to th a t residence he sees on th e w a y tw o residences w ith m a n y robes. I t occurs to h im : - W h a t n o w if I should spend th e rains in these tw o residences ? T h u s w o u ld m a n y robes accru e to m e / H e spen ds th e rains in these tw o residences. M onks, th e earlier period is n ot v a lid for th a t m onk, an d also th ere is a n offence o f w rcn g-d o in g in th e assent114 n , _ . _ ,r T h is is a case, m onks, w h ere a rains-residence com es to be assented to b y a m o n k fo r th e earlier period. A s he is goin g to th a t residence he carries o u t O bservan ce o u tsid e it, he reaches a d w ellin g-p lace on th e d a y a fte r th e O b serva n ce d a y , he prepares a lo d gin g, he sets o u t d rin k in g -w ater a n d w a te r fo r w ashing, h e sw eeps a cell, an d , h a v in g n othing to d o , he d ep a rts th a t self-sam e d ay. M onks, th e earlier period is not va lid for th a t m o n k, a n d also th ere is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g in th e assent. T h is is a case, m on ks, * * * ( = ! [ 5 1 1 ) * - he sw eeps a c d 3 , and, h a v in g so m eth in g to do, he d e p a rts th a t self-sam e d a y . M onks . * . in the assent, jj 5 |[ " T h is is a case, m onks, . . . and, havLng n o th in g to do, he d ep arts, h a v in g spent tw o or three d ays. M onks, . . * in th e assen t. f" T h is is a case, m on ks, , - and, h a v in g som eth ing to d o , he d e p a rts, h a v in g sp en t tw o o r three d ays. M onks, * * in th e assent, T h is is a case, m on ks, . . * and , h a v in g sta y ed tw o or three d a y s, he d e p a rts on som e business th a t can be done in seven d a y s. B u t he passes those seven d a y s outside. M onks, . . in th e assen t. " T h is is a case, m o n ks, - , . a n d , h a v in g sta y ed tw o o r three d ays be d ep arts on som e business th a t can b e done in seven

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d a ys. [154] H e re tu rn s w ith in seven d a ys. M onks, th e earlier period is v a lid lo r th a t m o n k , a n d th ere is no offence in th e assen t, jj 6 |[ T h is is a case, m onks, * . , a n d h a v in g so m eth in g to do b efo re th e In v ita tio n .1 he d ep a rts fo r se ve n d a y s. Monks^ w h e th e r th a t m onk retu rn s o r w h eth er he d o es n o t return to th a t residence, th e earlier period is v a lid fo r th a t m o n k , and also th e re is no offence in th e assen t. || 7 |[ ** T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a rains-resid ence com es to b e assented to b y a m onk fo r th e earlier period. H a v in g a rriv ed a t th a t residence he carries o u t th e O b se rva n ce , h e reach es a d w ellin g-p lace on th e d a y a fte r th e O b serva n ce d a y * . , * il &-10 || *f T h is is a case, m on ks, w h ere a rains^residence com es to be assen ted t o b y a m o n k fo r th e la te r period . A s he is goln^ to th a t residence he carries o u t O b se rva n ce o u tsid e it . . . (the whole passage is identical with || 5-10 || j fo r earlier p erio d read la te r period ; f o r before th e In v ita tio n read before th e k om u di catum dsinP) . . , an d also th e re is no offence in th e a sse n t/' H u l l 141 | T h e T h ird S ectio n : th a t on beg in n in g th e R a in s T h is is its k e y : T o en ter on (the rains), and ju st w h en ? h o w m a n y ? and d u rin g th e rains, and th e y did n o t w a n t to , in te n tio n a lly , to p o stp o n e, a la y follow er, [155] 111, a n d a m o th er, a fa th er, a n d a b ro th e r, th e n a relatio n , a person liv in g w ith m on ks, a d w ellin g -p la ce, and also beasts

1 P a v & r a p d . a c e r e m o n y h e ld a t t h e e n d o f t h e t h ir d m o n th , o f th e r a in s . See M V . IV . '


e I I 5-7 1 1 repeat-ed, th e o n ly d ifferen ce b e in g t h a t th e re th e m o n k h e ld O b se rv a n c e o u tsid e th e residen ce t o w h ich he w as g o i n g ; here he h o ld s it w hen he has arrived.

* Cf. p . 2 3 1, b elow . T h is is th e f u ll m o o n d a y of th e m on th K a t t ik a , and m a rk s th e end o f th e la te r period fo r k eep in g th e rain s, And th u s th e end o f th e lo u rth m o n th of th e r a in y season* See Vi*t. T e x t s L 324* n* 2 a n d D i a l * i. 66, a* i . A c c o rd in g to DA . 139 th e w h ite lotu s, humuda, b lc c m s then*

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o f p re y , creep in g th in g s. A n d so th ie v e s ? an d dem ons, burnt, and in regard to b o th 1, carried a w a y b y w ater, w as rem o ved , a n d the m a jo r ity , benefa cto rsa* A n d a b o u t coarse and su m p tu o u s (foods), beneficial m edicines, a n a tte n d a n t, a w om an , a lo w class w o m an , a n d a g ro w n g irl, a eu n u ch , and a b o u t a relatio n , K in g s , th ie v e s, m en o f ab a n d o n ed life, a treasure, schism s, an d b y w h a t is e ig h tfo ld 3, a cow -pen, and a c a ra v a n , and a b o at, in a hollow , and in a fork* A rains-residence in th e open a ir, an d ab o u t one w ho had no lod gin gs, a ch am el-h o u se, a n d u n d er a sunshade, and these w e n t upon {the rains} in a w a te r-ja r. A n agreem ent* h a v in g assented , a n d O bservan ce d a y s o u tsid e, th e earlier, th e la te r, one should com bin e them a fte r th e sam e fashion*, H e d e p a rts h a v in g n o th in g to d o , and lik ew ise because he has so m eth in g to do, sp en din g tw o or three d a y s 5, and on business th a t can be done in seven d a ys, A n d then g o in g a w a y for se ve n d a y s , w h e th e r he .should retu rn or sh ou ld n o t com e b a ck .

* tadubJtayena:^ W o r d is n o t in th e t e x t . R e fe r e n t* Is to M V , H i , 9 . 3^ w here th e case is tak en ol b o th a v illa g e an d m onks* lod gin gs bein g bu rn t.

daya&a. W ord not in th e tex t, but it probably refers to tlie m inority Who-! because believing, m ay be presumed to have ffivcn aim s to the monk^ M V r I I I . 10* i. Indeed these three headings : ' was removed, and th e m ajotity, benefactors " refer to one anti the same episode, and should therefore not be counted as separate items in reckoning the total of 4 i fifty-tw o items *" In tb U Chapter. * l,e. the eight w ays of making a schism which the monk bears about . M V I I I . I t . 6-t3. T h e first way, which he sees, M V , H I* 11. J , has as its key-w ord the word ,J schisms " which also iacludcs the n e x t heading 'b y w h a t is tigh tio ld
* yathantxyena r e fe r iin g to th e sim ila r perm u tation s, o f e v e n t s w h ich are rep eate d for th e la te r as for th e earlier period o f th e rains. * T h e Cing. reading o f dvihaifharn. is to be preferred to Oldenburg's dythailha ca puna, " after tw o or three days and again ' t as it corresponds

more closely to M V . III. 14* 6, T h e latter, however, m ight be justified by the three cases there mentioned of " tw o or three da ys J > ,

MAHAVAGGA
In th e k e y to th e w o v e n w a y ,2 item s th e

III

207

o rd er1 sh o u ld o b serve

th e

In this C h a p ter th ere are fifty -tw o ite m s .3 [156]

L Gtitarika, sphere, c o m p a s s ; in te r v a l, i.e . t h e in te rv a ls , b e tw e e n t h e it e m s , t h e r a n g e t h e y c o v e r , h e n c s t h e ir o rd e r,


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is

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lin e

h u t

o n e

r e fe r r in g

t o

o n -e

t h e

s a m

e v e n t u a lit y ,

I I I .

14.

ZOS

THE

GREAT

D IV IS IO N

(M A H A V A G G A )

IV

A t one tim e th e en lig h te n ed one, th e L o rd w as s ta y in g a t S& vatth i in th e J e ta G ro v e in A n ath ap in d ik a*s m o n a ste ry N ow a t th a t tim e se v e ra l m on ks, friends and associates, en tered on th e rain s in a ce rta in residen ce in th e K o sa la country* T h en i t o ccu rred to th ese m o n ks : " N o w b y w h a t m eans can w e, all to g e th e r on frie n d ly term s and harm onious, sp e n d -a co m fo rta b le r a in y season and n o t go sh ort o f a lm sfoo d ? || i || T h e n it occurred to th ese m onks : If w e sh ouid n eith er ad dress one an o th er n o r converse, b u t w h o ev er sh ou ld retu rn first fro m th e v illa g e fo r a lm sfoo d 1 sh ou ld m a k e re a d y a se a t, should p u t out w ater fo r (washing) th e fe e t, a fo o tsto o l, a footstand* h a v in g w ash ed a re fu se -b o w l2 should se t it out, sh o u ld se t out d rin k in g w a te r a n d w a te r fo r w ashin g ; i u i: W h o e v e r sh o u ld retu rn la s t fro m th e v illa g e for alm sfood, if th ere sh ou ld b e th e rem ains of a m eal and if he sh o u ld so desire, he m a y *at th em ; but if he does not so desire, he m a y th ro w them a w a y w h ere there is b u t little green grass3 or he m a y d rop th em in to w a te r w here there are no liv in g c re a tu re s/ he sh o u ld p u t up th e seat, he sh o u ld p u t a w a y the w a ter fo r (washing) th e feet, th e fo o ts to o l the fo o tsta n d , he sh o u ld p u t a w a y th e refuse-bow l h a v in g w ash ed it, he should p u t a w a y the d rin k in g w a te r and th e w a te r fo r w ashin g, he sh ould sw eep the re fe c to ry , | |3 I I W h o e ve r sh o u ld see a vessel fo r d rin kin g w a te r or a vessel for w ash in g w a te r or a v e ^ e l {for w ater) for rinsing a fte r e v a c u a tio n ,5 vo id a n d e m p ty , sh o u ld set out (water) ; i f it is im possible fo r h im (to do this) he sh o u ld set out (water) b y sig n allin g w ith
1 F ro m here t o M . 1. 207. near th e en d o f
||

4 j| c ft

M Y .

X.

4-

5 ; GV, V III. 5. 3 ;

x T h i s is a r e c e p t a c le for t h e le a v i n g s o i tne&Ls, 4 a p p ah arila , or i ew craps, or no .green grass,. JtlA . 1. 94 e x p la in in g b y tind.nit g r a s se s, a n d r e fe r r in g to F a c r X I .

4 T h is sentence occurs also a t M V . V I - 26 - 6 S . i. iGq. Sit. p . 15, AT. i. 13.


* C / H ;Vf- . ii. 24 2.

1 .4

B]

M A H A V A G G A

IV

209

his han d , h a v in g in v ite d a co m p an ion (to help him) b y a m ove* merit of h is h a n d 1 : b u t he sh o u ld n o t fo r su ch a reason b reak in to sp eech. T h u s m a y w e, a ll together* on frie n d ly term s a n d harm onious, spend a co m fo rta b le ra in y season a n d not go sh o rt of a lm sfo o d .Jr || 4 [ | T h e n th ese m o n ks n eith er ad d ressed one a n o th e r nor con versed , W h o ever retu rn ed first from th e v illa g e fo r alm sfood m ade re a d y a se a t, p u t o u t w a te r fo r (w ashing) th e fe e t, a fo o t stool, a fo o tsta n d , set o u t a refu se-b ow l h a v in g c a s h e d it, set o ut d rin k in g w a te r and w a te r fo r w a sh in g , || 5 | | [ 157] W h o e v e r retu rn ed la s t from th e v illa g e fo r alm sfood* if th e re w ere th e rem ains o f a mea] a te th e m if he so d esired ; if he did n o t so desire he th rew th em a w a y w h ere there w as b u t little green grass or he d ro p p ed th em in to w a te r w here there w ere no liv in g crea tu res, he p u t u p th e se a t, he p u t a w a y the w a te r fo r (washing) th e fe e t, th e fo o tsto o l, th e fo o tsta n d , he p u t a w a y th e refu se-b ow l h a v in g w ash ed i t J he p u t a w a y the d rin k in g w a te r a n d th e w a te r fo r w ashin g, he sw ep t th e re fe c to r y . | 1 6 || W h o e v e r s a w a vessel fo r d rin k in g w a te r or a v e sse l fo r w ash in g w a te r or a vessel (for w ater) fo r rin sin g a fte r e v a c u a tio n , v o id a n d e m p ty , set o u t w a te r. I f it w as im possible fo r him (to do tliis) he se t out w a te r b y s ig n a lin g w ith his han d , h a v in g b y a m o vem en t o f his han d in v ite d a com p an ion [to h e lp him) ; b u t not fo r such a reason d id he b re a k in to speech. j| 7 [ | N o w it was th e cu sto m fo r m on ks w h o h a d k e p t th e rains to go a n d see th e L o rd .2 T h en th ese m on ks, h a v in g k e p t th e rains, a t th e end of th e th re e m onths p a c k e d a w a y th e ir lod gin gs and ta k in g th eir b o w ls a n d ro b es, s e t out fo r S a v a tth L In due course th e y a p p ro ach ed S a v a tth l, the J e ta G rove,
1 At A . i i , 242 says th a t if an y of these vessels is e m p ty, havin g taken it t o a. pond ami washeil it inside and outside, h avin g filtered ^.vater (into i t ) r havin g set it down on the bank, th e y in vite another m onk (to help them j b y a movement of th e hand-. th in k th at hatthaui&arena b y a m ovem ent of the hand p < ) and hatthtiviiaiftghtikeiiii b y signalling with th e h^uid ir) fire com plem entary and are used to emphasise the gesturc-langu.age needed in place of speech. T therefore think th a t there should be no cotnma, as in 014?nb$rg'i after hatthauiAareua (there is none a t A/, i. 207) since t h ii makes the passage Teat! ii it is impossible for him (to do this) b y a m ovem ent ol the hand J\ i*e. if he is not able to m ove the vessel single-handed, T h is is of course a possible reading, but it is not elegant Pali an d balance a n d emphasis are lost, * F or following passage, cf, B .D . i. 3^3 t.

210

B O OK

OF

D I S C I P L I N E

A n a th a p in tjik a 's m o n a ste ry a n d th e L o rd . H a v in g approach ed , h a v in g greeted th e Lord* th e y sa t dow n a t a resp ectfu l d istan ce. N ow it is th e custom for aw ak en ed ones, for L o rd s to exch an ge frie n d ly g ree tin g s w ith in-com ing m onks. |[ 8 [ | T h en th e L o rd sp ok e thus to these m o n k s ; I h o p e th a t y o u w ere w ell, m o n ks, I hope th a t yo u k e p t go in g, I hope th a t, a ll to g eth e r, on frien d ly term s and harm onious, y o u passed a c o m fo rta b le ra in y season a n d d id n o t go sh o rt o f alm sfood ? J P W e w e re w ell, L o rd , w e k e p t go in g, L ord , and w e, L o rd , a ll to g eth e r, on frien d ly term s and harm onious, passed a co m fo rta b le r a in y season a n d d id n o t go short of a lm sfo o d ." || 9 |[ N o w , T ru th fin d ers (som etim es) a sk kn o w in g , an d kn o w in g (som etim es) d o not a sk ; t h e y ask , kn o w in g th e rig h t tim e (to a sk ),^ n d th e y do n o t ask , k n o w in g th e righ t tim e (when not to ask ), T ru th fin d ers a sk a b o u t w h a t belongs to th e go al, n ot a b o u t w h a t d o es n ot b elo n g to th e go al ; th ere is b ridgeb re a k in g for T ru th fin d ers in w h a te v e r does not b e lo n g to th e goal* In tw o w a y s d o a w a k e n e d ones, L o rd s question m o n k sT e ith e r : S h ell w e tea ch dhamma ? or Sh all w e la y dow n a ru le o f tra in in g fo r d iscip les ? JJ1 T h en th e L o rd spoke th u s tn th ese m o n k s : J' B u t in w-hat w a y did yo u , m on ks, a ll to g eth e r, on frien d ly term s a n d harm onious, spend a co m fo rtab le ra in y season an d n ot go sh ort o f a lm sfo o d ? " | | 10 | | " In th a t co n n ection d id w e . L o rd , several friends and a sso cia tes, en ter on th e rains in a certa in residence in th e K o s a la c o u n try . T h en it occurred t o us, L o rd : * N o w b y w h a t m ean s can w c, a ll to g e th e r, on frien d ly term s an d harm onious, sp en d a c o m fo rta b le ra in y season and [158] not go sh o rt o f alm sfoo d ? ' T h e n it o ccu rred to us. Lord : * If w e should n eith er address one a n o th e r2 , , * T h u s co u ld w e, all to g eth er, on frie n d ly term s a n d harm onious, spend a co m fo rtab le r a in y season a n d not g o short o f alm sfood*' So w e. L o rd , n eith er a d d ressed one a n o th er nor con versed . W h o ever retu rn ed first from th e viila g e fa r alm sfoo d m ad e re a d y a seat3 - . . b u t n o t fo r such a reason did he b reak in to speech. T h u s d id w e, L o rd , a ll to g eth er, on frie n d ly term s and
1 As
* As

at

Vin.

L 5-9, 250, iiL 6, 88-89*


||-

in |!

* As

in [j 5-7 j|.

l . I I 14 ]

m a h

v a g g a

IV

211

h arm on ious, spend a co m fo rtab le r a in y season a n d n o t go sh o rt o f a lm sfo o d . || 1 1 \ \ T h e n th e L o rd addressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g : In d eed , m onks, these foolish m en, h a v in g sp en t an u n co m fo rta b le tim e, p reten d to h a v e sp en t a n e q u a lly c o m fo rta b le tim e. In d eed , m o n ks, th ese fo o lish m en, h a v in g sp en t com m union lik e beasts, p reten d t o h a v e sp en t an e q u a lly c o m fo rta b le time* In d e e d . . * lik e sheep* p re te n d to h a v e sp en t an e q u a lly c o m fo rta b le tim e. In d eed , . . h a v in g sp en t co m m u n io n in in d olen ce, preten d to h a v e sp e n t an e q u a lly c o m fo rta b le time* H o w , m o n ks, ca n these foolish m en o b serve an o b se rva n ce o f m em b ers o f (other) sects : th e p ra c tic e o f silen ce P1 \ ] 12 jj I t is n o t, m on ks, for p le a sin g those w ho are n o t (yet) pleased , . .J J H a v in g re b u k ed th em , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , he addressed th e m o n ks, s a y i n g : " M on ks, an o bservan ce o f m em b ers o f o th e r sects, th e p ra c tice o f silen ce, sh ou ld n ot b e o b served . W h o e v e r sh o u ld o b se rv e it, th ere is a n offence of w ron g-d oin g, I a llo w , m onks, m onks w h o h a ve k e p t th e rain s to f in v ite 12 in regard to th ree m a tte rs : w h a t has been seen or h eard or su sp e cted . T h a t w ill be w h a t is su ita b le for y o u in regard to one a n o th er, a re m o va l o f offences3, an a im in g a t (grasping) th e d iscip lin e .4 !! 13 II A n d th u s, m o n ks, sh o u ld one invite* T h e O rd er sh ou ld be inform ed b y an exp erien ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : 1 H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. T o -d a y is an In v ita tio n d a y .* I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y in v ite / A m o n k w h o is an eld er, h a v in g arran ged h is u p p er robe o v e r one sh ou ld er, h a v in g sa t d o w n on his h au n ch es, h a v in g sa lu te d w ith jo in ed palm s, sh ou ld sp ea k to it th u s : 1m
th re e th e y * o l u g & b b a ta , m o n th s. m ig h t h a v e
a

c u sto m C f. th e

o f

b e in g

d u m b sa t a m fo r

(m -u g o ). Ji k e

a c c o rd in g : s w in e , 131. ' in v it e o r

to

V A .

1073,

fo r

m o n k s

w h o d h

d u m b p . to

w h e n

b e e n

s p e a k in g

a b o v e , a m o n k o r

p a ir d r e iu tji, ra in s to a n y a n d h is

te c h n ic a l te rm t e li h im if h e I f

u se d h a s

' o th e rs a t s u s p e c te d a n is

th e to

e n d

th e

b e e n d o it,

se e n so , h e

h e & rd h e

h a v e

c o m m it te d b y s e e in g to it

o ffe n c e s . m a t t in g p la c e in o r

th e y fo r

a n d

a c k n o w le d g e s r id o i it , a n d

o ffe n c e

a m e n d s th e a

b e c o m e s

th e re fo re

p u r e 8

t a k e

O r d e r 's u p

b u s in e s s . fro m a t a n o ffe n c e 1 0 . i P a (o r o ffe n c e s ). w a s C /A p a U i

d p ^ ttx v U tth Q n ^ rtu . M V \ I I .

ris in g

u u ^ t h it S - a t * iii, * a n d

3 - 3 ,

a n d

w itih a s i

T il.

v illa g e

re m o v e d . a t e .g . V in ,

v in a y a p -u r e U k h a r a t d . 1 3 a, iv * 3 j , 277* in v it a t io n * t h is o n e

C /*

tU th a p u rfh h fia ra

d h a .m 'i n a p v t ^ h h h a r a

p a v a r a n d , p la c e s firs t

A T A + a t

i. th e

9 3 e n d

d is tin g u is h e s o i th e ra in s .

lo u r

k in d s

o f

p a v & rc tn a

h e ld

212

B O OK

OF

d i s c i p l i n e

' Y o u r reveren ces, I in v ite the O rd er in respect o f w h a t h a s been seen or h eard o r susp ected . L e t th e ven erab le ones speak to m e o u t o f com passion, a n d seein g I w ill m ake a m en d s,1 A n d a second tim e . . . A n d a th ird tim e, y o u r reverences, I in v ite th e O rd er in resp ect o f w h a t has b e en seen or heard or suspected* L e t th e v e n e ra b le ones sp ea k to m e out o f com passion, a n d seeing I w ill m ake a m en d s/ A n e w ly o rd ain ed m on k, h a v in g a n ^ n g e d his u p p er robe o ver one sh ou ld er * * , h a v in g sa lu ted w ith jo in e d p a lm s, sh ou ld spenk to it th u s : ' H o n o u red sirs, I in v ite th e O rd er [ 159] in respect of w h a t has b een ^een . . A n d a second tim e . , . A n d a th ird tim e . . , an d seein g I w ill m a k e a m en d s/ ?t | | 14 \ \1 J | N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n ks re m a in e d 2 on seats w h ile m o n k s w ho w ere elders, sittin g dow n on th e ir haunch es, w ere th e m selv e s in v itin g . T h o se w h o w ere m odest m o n k s . * . sp read it a b o u t, s a y in g : H o w can this g ro u p o f six m o n k s rem ain on seats w h ile m onks w h o a re elders, sittin g dow n on th e ir haunches, are th em selves in v itin g ? J J T h en these m o n k s to ld this m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e said : " Is it true, as is said, m onks, th a t th e group of s ix m onks rem ain ed on seats . , . w ere th e m selv e s in v itin g ? " I t is tru e . L o r d ." T h e aw ak en ed one, th e L o rd rebuked th em , sa y in g : How* m on ks, can these foolish m en rem ain on se a ts . . are th e m selv e s in v itin g ? I t is n o t, m o n ks, for p lea sin g those w h o are n o t (yet) p lea sed . . / p A n d h a v in g reb u k ed them , h a v in g g iv en reasoned ta lk , he addressed th e m onks, sa y in g : M onks, yo u sh o u ld n o t rem ain on se a ts w h ile m onks who are ciders, s ittin g d o w n on th e ir h au n ch es, a re th em sleves in v itin g . I allowr y o u , m o n ks, to in v ite w h ile each a n d e v e ry one is s ittin g dow n on h is h a u n ch es/' [[ 1 [ | N o w at th a t tim e a certain elder, feeble w ith a g e, th in k in g : " U n til a ll h ave in v ite d " , w h ile sittin g dow n on h is haunch es an d w a itin g, fell dow n in a faint* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd . H e said : " 1 a llo w y o u t m onks, {each one) to sit dow n on his h au n ch es d u rin g th e period un til he in v ites, a n d h a v in g in v ite d , to sit dow n on a s e a t/ ' |[a j] 2 ||
1 I.e. for the oflenec im puted to him and '* seen b y him, * acchjttti. V A . 1074 says they were sitting dov.'n, they did not stand up.

3-1 5]

MAHAVAGGA

IV

213

T h en it occurred to m onks : N o w , h o w m a n y In v ita tio n (days) are there ? T h e y told th is to th e Lord- H e said : " M onks, th ere are th ese tw o In v ita tio n (days), th e fo u rteen th and th e fifteen th . T h e se , m on ks, a re th e tw o In v ita tio n (d a y s)/ '1 ]| 1 |t T h en it occurred to m o n k s : N o w , h o w m a n y (form al) a cts for th e In v ita tio n are th ere ? " T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : " M onks, there are these fo u r (form al) a cts for th e In v ita tio n : a {form al) a ct fo r th e In v ita tio n (carried out) n o t b y rule and w hen art a sse m b ly is in co m p lete * . * ( = 11. 14* 2 ,3 ; read act fo r th e In v ita tio n instead o f a c t for O bservance) . . - you* m on ks, sh o u ld train yo u rsetv es th u s T h en th e L o rd addressed th e m onks, sa y in g ; ** G a th e r togeth er, m onks, th e O rd er w ill invite/** W h en he h ad spoken thus a c e rta in m o n k sp ok e th u s t o th e L o rd : < f T here is, L o rd , a m o n k w h o is ill* H e h a s n ot c o m e ." H e s a i d : f< I a llo w y o u , m on ks, to g iv e th e In v ita tio n on b eh a lf o f a m onk w h o is ill. A n d thus, m onks, sh o u ld it b e g iv e n : T h a t til m o n k , [160] h a v in g a p p ro ach ed one monk,, h a v in g arran ged his u p p er robe o ve r one sh ould er, h a v in g sat dow n on his haunches, h a v in g salu ted w ith jo in e d palm s, sh ou ld sp eak thus to him : f i I w ill g iv e th e In v ita tio n , c o n v e y th e In v ita tio n for m e, in v ite on m y b e h a lf/ I f he m akes it understood b y gesture, if he m akes it u n d erstood b y v o ice, if he m akes it understood b y gestu re a n d v o ice, th e In v ita tio n co m es to be g iven . I f he does n ot m a k e it u n d erstood b y g estu re * . * b y gesture and voice, th e In v ita tio n d o es not com e to b e given* || 3 || I f he th u s m anages th is, it is good. I f he does n ot m an age it then, m onks, th a t ill m onk, h a v in g been b ro u g h t to the m idst o f th e O rder on a couch or a ch air, sh o u ld in v ite. I f t m on ks, it occurs to th e m onks w ho are te n d in g th e ill one . . ( = II. 22, 2) - . . th e ill one should not be m o v e d from (that) p l a c e ; th e O rd er h a v in g go n e th ere m a y in v ite , b u t one should n ot in v ite if an O rd er is in com p lete. W h o e v e r should so in vite, there is an offence o f w ron g-d oin g. || 4 (| " If, m o n ks, the c o n v e y o r o f th e In ^ ta tio n goes a w a y th en and there * , * ( = M V . I L 22. 3, 4 ; read In v ita tio n , a lth o u g h
1 C f . M V , IJ, 14 . 1. * Cf. M V . II . 22. I .

I I 2 I!

2X4

BO O K

OF

D I S C I P L I N E

the In v ita tio n , th e c o n v e y o r oi th e I n v ita tio n instead o f entire p u r ity , a lth o u g h th e e n tire p u rity , th e c o n v e y o r o f th e en tire p u rity ) - . * th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g fo r th e co n v e y e r o f th e In v ita tio n . I allow y o u P m o n k s, on an In v ita tio n d a y to g iv e th e co n se n t a lso b y g iv in g th e In v ita tio n ; th e y are the O rd er's b u s in e s s / '1 \ \ 5 II 3 !t N o w a t th a t tim e his relation s g o t h o ld o f a ce rta in m on k on a n I n v ita tio n d a y * . . (as in M V. II. 24 . 1-3 ; read In v ita tio n d a y fo r O b servan ce d a y , and gives th e In v ita tio n fo r d eclares his e n tire p u rity , and in v ite s for ca rries o ut th e O bservan ce)
- * - [ l & i ] - ^ It

II 4 E ]

N o w a t th a t tim e five m onks w ere s ta y in g in a certa in residen ce on a n In v ita tio n d ay. T h e n it o ccu rred to these m o n k s : 4f I t is la id d ow n by th e L o r d th a t a n O rd e r m a y invite, b u t w e are (only) five persons. N o w , h o w can w e in v ite ? 11 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e s a id : " I a llo w y o u , m on ks, t o in vite in a n O rd er o f iive_3 [ | 1 j) N o w a t th a t tim e fo u r m onks w ere s ta y in g in a ce rta in residen ce on a n In v ita tio n d ay. T h e n it o ccu rred to th ese m o n ks : " I t is a llo w ed b y the L o rd to in v ite in a n O rd e r o f five, b u t we are (only) fo u r persons. N ow , how can w e in v ite ? J 1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord, H e sa id : " I a llo w yo u , m o n ks, to in v ite o n e a n o th e r w h en y o u are (only) four* | |2 | | " A n d th u s, m onks, sh o u ld one i n v i t e : T hese m o n ks should b e in form ed b y an exp erien ced , co m p e ten t m onk, sa y in g : ' L e t th e v e n era b le ones liste n to m e. T o -d a y is an In v ita tio n d a y. I f it seem s rig h t to the ve n e ra b le ones, le t u s in v ite one a n o th e r.1 T h e se m o n k s should b e sp ok en to th u s b y a m onk w h o is an elder, h a v in g arran ged his u pp er robe o v e r one sh ou ld er, h a v in g sa t d ow n on his h au n ch es, h a v in g salu ted w ith jo in e d p a lm s ; ' I, y o u r reverences, in v ite th e ven erab le ones in regard to w h a t has been seen o r heard o r su sp ected .
1 CJ. M V + 11. 23 . 3.
* C f . M V . I V . 1 - 14* * T h e p ro ced u re fo r in v itin g a n O rder h a s been. R iven in M V - I V - 1 . 14 an d ia n o t re p eated here. " in v it in g one a n o th e r w h e n th ere are o n ly four, tiir-ee or t w o perso n s h a s n o t y e t been expJained,. aiu l so d ire c tio n s for th e r ig h t m e th o d are g iv e n in t h e n e x t p ara gra p h s. V a r io u s sizes o f s&mghns are p iv e n a t M V t I X . 4 . r* w ith th e form al a c ts t h e y m a y m?i c a r r y o u t. T h is 'whole p a s s a g e -should b e co m p a r e d witJi M V . I I , 26 . m o .

& 3 7]

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L e t th e v e n era b le ones s p e a k to m e o u t o f co m p a ssio n , a n d seeing, I w ill m a k e am end s. A n d a second tim e * . . A n d a th ird tim e * . * _ an d seeing, I w ill m a k e am en d s/ T h e se m o n k s sh o u ld be sp o k en to th u s b y a n e w ly o rd ain ed m o n k , h a v in g a rran ge d . , , * L h o n o u red sirs, in v ite th e v e n e ra b le ones in rega rd to w h a t h a s b een seen o r h e a rd or su s p e c te d . . . A n d a second tim e . . - A n d a th ird tim e - - - an d se e in g , I w ill m a k e a m e n d s/ " N o w a t t h a t tim e th re e m o n ks w e re s t a y in g in a ce rta in residen ce on an I n v ita tio n d a y. T h e n it o ccu rre d to th ese m on ks : " I t is a llo w ed b y th e L o r d t o in v ite in an O rd e r o f fiv e persons, an d t o in v ite one a n o th e r w h en th ere are four, b u t w e are (only) th ree persons. N o w h o w c a n w e in v ite ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord. H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to in v ite one a n o th e r w h en y o u a rc (only) three* A n d th u s, m on ks, sh o u ld o n e in vite : T h e se m o n k s sh o u ld be in form ed . - I I 3 II) [162] . . . I w ill m a k e a m e n d s/ || 4 \ \ N o w a t th a t tim e tw o m o n ks w ere s ta y in g in a c e rta in residence on an In v ita tio n d a y . T h e n it o ccu rre d t o th e se m on ks : " It is a llo w ed b y th e L o r d to in v ite in a il O rd er o f five (persons), to in v ite o n e an o th e r w h e n th e re are four, to in v ite one a n o th e r w h en there are th re e , b u t w e are (only) tw o persons. N o w , h o w can w e in v ite ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to in v ite o n e an o th e r w h en y o u a rc (only) tw o . || 5 || " A n d th u s, m o n ks, sh o u ld one in v ite : T h e m o n k w h o is th e e ld e rr h a v in g a rran ge d h is u pp er ro be o v e r one sh o u ld er, h a v in g s a t dow n on h is haunches, h a v in g sa lu te d w ith jo in ed palm s, sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to the n e w ly o rd a in e d m o n k : ' 1 , y o u r reveren ce, in v ite th e v e n era b le o n e in rega rd to w h a t has been seen o r h e a rd o r su sp ected . L e t th e ve n e ra b le o n e sp ea k to m e o u t o f com p assio n , and se e in g , I w ill m a k e am ends. A n d a seco n d tim e . . . A n d a third tim e . _ . an d seein g, I w ill m a k e a m e n d s/ T h e n e w ly o rd ain ed m o n k , h a v in g arran ged h is u p p er ro b e . . . w ith join ed p a lm s, sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to th e m o n k w h o is th e e ld er : ' I , h o n o u red sir, in v ite th e ve n e ra b le one . , t A n d a th ird tim e . - . a n d seein g, E w ill m ake a m e n d s/ " | | 6 || N o w a t t h a t tim e one m o n k w as s ta y in g in a ce rta in residence on an In v ita tio n d a y . T h e n it o ccu rre d to th a t m o n k : fr I t is

Cf 3 I!

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a llo w e d b y th e L o rd to in v ite in an O rd er o f five (persons), to in v ite one a n o th e r . * . w h e n th e re a re (only) tw o , b u t I am alon e. N o w , h o w can I in v ite ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . || 7 [ | H e s a id : " T h is is a case, m onks, w h e re one m o n k is s ta y in g in a ce rta in resid en ce on a n In v ita tio n day* M onks, th a t m o n k , h a v in g s w e p t the p la c e to w h ich m o n ks re tu rn an a tte n d a n c e h a ll o r a p a v ilio n o r th e ro o t o f a tre e h a v in g p u t o u t d rin k in g w a te r an d w a te r fo r w a sh in g , h a v in g m a d e re a d y a se a t, h a v in g m a d e a lig h t, sh o u ld s it d ow n. I f o th e r m o n ks a r r iv e , h e m a y in v ite to g e th e r w ith th e m ; if th e y d o n o t a rriv e , h e sh o u ld d e te r m in e : c T o -d a y is an In v ita tio n d a y fo r m e \ I f h e sh ould not (so) d eterm in e, there is a n o ffen ce of w ro n g -d o in g . im " M onks, th e re w h ere five m onks are s ta y in g , fo u r sh o u ld n o t in v ite in a n O rd er, h a v in g c o n v e y e d th e in v ita tio n for one. I f th e y sh o u ld (so) in v ite , there is an offen ce o f w rong-doing* M onks, th ere w h ere fo u r m o n ks are s ta y in g , th re e sh ould n o t in v ite one a n o th e r, h a v in g co n veyed th e in v ita tio n for one. I f th e y sh o u ld (so) in v ite , there is an offence o f wxong-dom g* M onks, th ere w h ere th re e m onks are s ta y in g , [163] tw o sh ould n o t in v ite one a n o th er, h aving' c o n v e y e d th e in v ita tio n fo r one. If th e y sh o u ld (so) in v ite , there is a n offence o f w ro n g-d o in g. M onks, th ere w h e re tw o m o n ks a re s ta y in g , one sh o u ld n o t d eterm in e, h a v in g c o n v e y e d th e in v ita tio n fo r th e other* I f h e sh o u ld (so) d eterm in e, th ere is an offence o f w ro n gd o in g ,'1 ||9 l| 5 H N o w a t th a t tim e a certain m o n k ca m e to h a v e fallen in to an o ffen ce on a n I n v ita tio n d a y .1 T h e n it o ccu rred to th is m o n k : It is la id d o w n b y the L o rd th a t an o ffen d er sh o u ld not in v ite ,* a n d I h a v e fallen ir>to a n offence. N o w w h a t line o f co n d u ct sh o u ld be fo llo w ed b y m e ? " T h e y told th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : This is a case, m o n ks, , . , (cf, II, 27. i r 2 : read In v ita tio n d a y fo r O b serva n ce d a y ). . . W h en h e h a s sp oken th u s, he m a y in v ite , b u t no o b s ta d c sh o u ld be p u t in th e w a y o f the In v ita tio n fro m such a c a u s e . j j I \ \
1 C f . C f I I . 2 7 . i. 22 3,

b e lo w , p -

6 . 2 7-3]

m a h a v a g g a

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217

N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k, a s he w a s h im s e lf in v itin g , re m em b ered an o ffe n ce.1 T h e n it o ccu rre d to th is m o n k ; I t is la id d o w n b y th e L o r d th a t an o ffe n d er sh o u ld n o t in v ite , a n d I h a v e fa lle n in to a n offence- N o w w h a t lin e o f co n d u ct sh o u ld b e fo llo w ed b y m e ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s , w h ere a m o n k , as h e is h im self in v itin g , rem em bers an offence. M onks, th is m o n k sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to th e m o n k n e x t to h im : f I, y o u r re ve ren ce , h a v e fallen in to such a n d su c h a n o ffe n ce; re m o v in g from h e r e ,2 X w ill m a k e am ends for th a t o ffe n c e / W h e n he h as sp o k en th u s, he m a y in v ite , b u t no o b s ta c le sh o u ld be p u t in th e w a y o f th e I n v ita tio n from su c h a cause* || 2 |( " T h is is a case Tm o n k s, w h ere a m o n k as he is h im se lf in v itin g , b eco m es d o u b tfu l a b o u t a n offence. M onks , . * (cf. M V , I L 27. 5 3) * . - W h e n he h as sp ok en th u s h e m a y in v ite , b u t no o b sta cle sh o u ld be p u t in th e w a y o f th e I n v ita tio n fro m su ch a t$ cause. !l 3 1 1 6 II T o ld is th e F ir s t P o rtio n fo r R e p e a tin g . N o w a t th a t tim e s e v e ra l resid en t m o n k s, five o r m ore, c o lle c te d to g e th e r in a c c rta in residen ce on an I n v ita tio n d a y .4 T h e y d id n o t k n o w th a t th e o th e r resid en t m o n k s h a d n o t a rriv e d . T h in k in g o f th e rule, th in k in g of d iscip lin e, th in k in g th a t t h e y w ere co m p le te , th e y in v ite d w h ile th e y w e re in com p lete. W h ile t h e y w e re in v itin g , o th e r resid en t m o n k s, a la rg e r n um ber, arrived - T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . ]| r | | H e s a id : " T h i s is a case, m o n k s, w h ere se\F eral resid en t m o n k s * . . [ 164] , , . (as in |[ r | | above) . . , W h ile th e y are in v itin g , o th e r resid en t m o n ks, a la rg er n u m b er, a rriv e . M o n k s, those m o n k s sh o u ld in v ite a g a in ; th e r e is n o offen ce fo r th o se w ho h a v e in v ite d .6 |[ 2 |[ " T h is is a case, m o n k s ,. . . o th er re sid e n t m on ks, a lik e n u m b er _ . . a sm alle r n u m b er, arrive* T h o se w h o h a v e in v ite d h a v e
1 C f . M V . I I , 2 7 . 4. * O r, h a v i n g r is e n u p f r o m h e r e . * B o th O ld& nborg, V in * j* 164,. an d V in , T e x is i. 336 c o m p a r e th is p a r t to M V . I I . 2 7 - 4-&f w h ic h w o u ld m ean t h a t a m tm k a lso in v ite d t h e O rd er

collectively*
< C f. M V . II. 28 , w . irtidnattt^ fo r th e ia v ite r a , co rresp o n d in g to t h e

reciters " o i M V ,

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d u ly in v ite d j th e re m a in d e r sh o u ld invite* an d th e re is no offence fo r th o se w h o h a v e invited* || 3 || MT h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere se v e ra l resid en t m o n ks, five or m ore, c o lle c t to g e th e r in a certa in resid en ce o n an In v ita tio n d a y . . * W h en th e y h a v e ju s t finished in v itin g , o th e r resid en t m on ks, a la rg er n u m b e r, a rriv e. M on ks, those m o n ks sh o u ld in v ite a g a in ; th e re is no offence fo r th o se w h o h a v e in v ite d . T h is is a ca se, m o n k s, * . . a lik e n u m b e r . . . a sm aller n um ber, a rriv e . T h o se w h o h a v e in v ite d h a v e d u ly in v ite d ; th e y 1 sh o u ld in v ite in th eir p resen ce, a n d th ere is n o offence fo r th o se w ho h a v e in v ite d , |[ 4 || T h is is a case, m o n ks, . * . W h e n t h e y h a v e ju s t finished in v itin g b u t th e a ss e m b ly h as n o t risen . , , ( = H 4 ||) * * . no o ffen ce fo r th o se w ho h a v e in vited . " 'T h is is a case . . . a n d p art o f the a ss e m b ly has risen . * . (= | | 4 ||) . * * no offen ce fo r those w h o h a v e in v ite d " T h is is a case* m o n k s, w here , . . th e w h o le a ss e m b ly has risen, an d o th e r re sid e n t m onks, a la rg e r n u m b er . P . a lik e n u m b e r . * * a sm a lle r n u m b e r, a rriv e . T h o se w h o h a v e in v ite d h a v e d u ly in v ite d ; t h e y sh o u ld in v ite in th e ir presence, a n d th ere is n o o ffen ce fo r th o se who h a v e in v it e d / ' [| 5 | | T o ld are th e F ift e e n C a ses in w h ich th e re is N o O ffen ce. j| 7 || " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w here in a ce rta in residen ce severa l resid en t m on ks, five o r m ore, co llect to g e th e r on a n I n v ita tio n d a y .3 T h e y k n o w th a t o th e r resident m o n ks h a v e n o t a rriv ed . T h in k in g o f th e ru le , th in k in g o f d iscip lin e, th in k in g th a t th e y are in co m p le te t h e y in v ite w hile th e y are in co m p lete. W h ile th e y a r c in v itin g , o th e r resident m o n k s, a la rg e r n um ber, a rriv e . M onks, th ese m o n k s sh o u ld in v ite a g ain , a n d there is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g for th o se w ho h a v e in v ite d . || 1 |f ri T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, . . . [165] - . a lik e n u m b er * * . a sm aller n u m b er, a rriv e . T hose w ho h a v e in v ite d h a v e d u ly in v ite d : th e rem a in d er sh ould in v ite an d th ere is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g fo r those w h o h a v e in v ite d . || 2 ]| " T h is is a case* m o n k s, . * W h en th e y h a v e ju s t finished in v itin g . . . an d th e a sse m b ly h as n o t risen * * . p a r t o f the a ss e m b ly has risen . . . th e w hole a ss e m b ly h as risen, a n d o ther
1 I.c* t h e resid en t m o n k s w h o arriv e 3ate* * C f. M V . I I - 29 .

8 .3 1 1 . 1]

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IV

resid en t m o n ks, a la rg e r n u m b er , , * a lik e n u m b e r . . . a sm aller n um ber, a rriv e. T h o se w h o h a v e in v ite d h a v e d u ly in v ite d ; th e y sh o u ld in v ite in th e ir presence, a n d th e re is an offen ce o f wrong-doing* fo r th o se w h o h a v e in v ite d . \ \ 3 || T o ld are th e F ifte e n C a ses on b e in g A w a r e th a t a n A s s e m b ly is in c o m p ie te w h e n it is in co m p le te. ]| 8 || *f T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere se v e ra l re sid e n t m o n k s, five or m ore, c o lle c t to g e th e r on an I n v ita tio n d a y .1 T h e y kn o w th a t o th er resid en t m o n ks h a v e n o t a rriv e d . T h in k in g : ' N o w , is it a llo w a b le fo r us to in v ite o r is it n o t a llo w a b le ? ' th e y in v ite (a lth o u g h t h e y are m d o u b t). W h ile t h e y are in v itin g , o th e r residen t m o n k s, a la rg e r n u m b e r, a rriv e . M onks, th e se m o n k s sh o u ld in v ite again, an d th e re is an offen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g fox th o se w h o h a v e in v ite d | ]1 | | " T h is is a case, . . ( c f I V . 8. 2, 3} . . . th e y sh o u ld in v ite in th e ir p resen ce, a n d th ere is an offen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g fo r th o se w h o h a v e in v ite d , ]| 2 |j T o ld are th e F ifte e n C ases on B e in g in D o u b t. || 9 ||

" T h is is a c a s e p * . , . (as in || 9 ]| 1 jj) . . . T h in k in g , ' In d eed , it Is a llo w a b le for us t o in v ite , it is n ot u n a llo w a b le fo r us J, t h e y F a c tin g b a d ly , invited* W h ile th e y are in v itin g . . * o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g fo r th o se w h o h a v e in v ite d . | ] 1 [| 4 1 T h is is a case*3 , . - (cf. IV- S- 2,3} . _ . th e y sh o u ld in v ite in th eir presence, an d th e re is a n offen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g fo r th o se w h o h a v e in v ite d . \ \ 2 || T o ld are th e F ifte e n C ases on A c t in g B a d ly , ]| tO ]|

* * T h is is a c a s e / - . . [16G] * . , T h e y know th a t th ere a re o th e r residen t m o n ks w ho h a v e n o t a rriv e d . S a y in g : ' T h ese are p e rish in g , th ese are b e in g d e stro ye d , wp h a t g o o d are th e s e to y o u ? ' th e y in v ite , a im in g at a sch ism . W h ile t h e y are in v itin g , o th er resid en t m o n k s, a la rg e r n u m b er, a rriv e . Monks* those m on ks sh o u ld in v ite ag ain , a n d th ere is a g r a v e offence fo r th o se w h o h a v e in vited * | | 1 j|
1 C f. * C f. c f. * Cf* M V . I I . 30 . I I . S I . T. i i ps i. '

I I . 33.

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" T h is is a ca se , , * . {cf. IV . 8 3, 3 ; R ead g ra v e offence instead o f offen ce o f w ro n g-d o in g j in the case o f a lik e n u m b e r> a sm a lle r n u m b e r read those w ho h a v e in v ite d h a v e d u ly in v ite d , the rest sh o u ld in vite) * . , th e y sh o u ld in v ite in th e ir p resen ce, an d th ere is a g ra v e offence for th o se w h o h a v e in v ite d / ' || 2 |[ T o ld a re the F ift e e n C ases on a im in g a t a S ch ism . |] 11 [ | T o ld are th e S e v e n ty -fiv e Cases. T h is is a c a s e / * . . T h e y kn ow th a t o th e r residen t m o n k s are e n te rin g w ith in th e boundary* T h e y k n o w th a t o th e r residen t m o n ks h a v e en te red w ith in th e b o u n d a ry . T h e y see o th er resid en t m o n ks en terin g w ith in th e b o u n d a ry . T h e y see o th e r resid en t m o n k s en tered w ith in th e b o u n d a ry . T h e y h ear o th e r residen t m o n ks en te rin g w ith in th e boundary* T h e y h ear o th er re sid e n t m onks w h o h a v e en te red w ith in the b o u n d a ry, " F r o m a h u n d re d an d se v e n ty -fiv e triad s referrin g to residen t (m onks) w ith residen t (m onks) ; to in com in g (m onks) w ith resid en t (m onks) ; to residen t (monks) w ith in co m in g (m onks) ; to in com in g (monks) w ith in co m in g (m onks), th ere com e to be se v e n h u n d re d triad s b y m ean s o f (these) sets.
ii

1 ii 1 2 1 1

" T h is is a ca se , m o n ks, w here th e fo u rte e n th is (the I n v ita tion d a y ) for residen t m o n k s, the fifte e n th fo r in co m in g m onks * - - ( = IT, 34r. x - 35. 5. Read th e y sh o u ld invite* th e y in v ite , on an I n v ita tio n d a y instead o f O b se rv a n c e sh o u ld be carried o u t, th e y c a r ry out the O b serva n ce, on an O b se rv a n c e d a y ) * * > if he kn ow s, * I am abLe to a rriv e th is v e r y d a y \ f] X j| 13 [j M onks, one sh o u ld n o t in v ite in a sea ted a ss e m b ly before a nun . + / 167] . . . || 1 - 3 || _ rf M on ks, one sh o u ld not in vite b y g iv in g th e I n v ita tio n o f one on p ro b a tio n unless th e a ssem b ly h a s n o t rise n ,3 A n d P m o n ks, one sh o u ld not in v ite 011 a n o n - in v ita tio n d a y unless th e O rd er be u n a n im o u s/ ' |[4 [J1 4 ||
1 C f. 11. 33. S e e 1U 3 6 . 1-3. 1 C f. I i . 36 , 4,

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N o w at th a t tim e in a ce rta in resid en ce in th e K o s a la c o u n tr y tfr^re cam e to b e a m en ace from s a v a g e s on an I n v it a tion d a y .1 T h e m o n k s w ere u n a b le to in v ite b y u sin g th e th re e fo ld form ula..2 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I allo w y o u , m o n k s, to in v ite b y u sin g a tw o fo ld fo r m u la ," T h e m en ace fro m th e s a v a g e s b e c a m e e v e n g re a te r. T h e m o n k s w ere u n a b le to in v ite b y u sin g the tw o -fo ld fo rm u la. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : *' I a llo w you* m o n ks, to in v ite b y u sin g a o n efo ld fo r m u la / ' T h e m e n a ce from th e s a v a g e s b e ca m e e v e n g re a te r. T h e m o n k s w ere u n a b le to in v ite b y u sin g th e onefold fo rm u la . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to in v ite th o se w h o k eep th e ra in s (all) to g e th e r , |j x | ] N o w a t th a t tim e in a c e rta in resid en ce p e o p le w ere giving; g ifts on a n I n v ita tio n d a y u n til th e n ig h t w a s a lm o st end ed . T h e n it o ccu rred to th o se m o n ks : ' c P e o p le are g iv in g g ifts u n til th e n ig h t is a lm o st ended. I f th e O rd er in v ite s b y th e th re e fo ld fo rm u la , th en th e O rd er w ill n o t be in v ite d b efo re d a w n b reak s. N o w w h a t lin e of co n d u c t sh o u ld be fo llo w e d b y u s ? T h e y toJd th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . [ I2 [ | H e said : T h is is a case, m o n ks, * * . (as in |[ 2 |[) . , > b efo re d a w n b re a k s \ T h e O rd er sh ould be in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e r i en ced , co m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : ' H o n o u red sirs. Jet th e O rd er listen to me, P e o p le [ 168] are g iv in g g ifts u n til th e n igh t is alm o st en d ed . I f the O rd er in v ite s b y th e th re e fo ld fo rm u la , th e n the O rd er w ill not b e in v ite d b efo re d a w n b reak s. I f it seem s rig h t to the O rd er, th e O rd er m a y in v ite those w h o k e e p th e ra in s to g e th e r b y a tw o fo ld fo rm u la, b y a o n efo ld form ula,* 1 1 3H " T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere in a ce rta in resid en ce on an In v ita tio n d a y m o n ks are sp e a k in g dkam m a, th o se ve rse d in th e d iscou rses are c h a n tin g a discou rse, th e d iscip lin e e x p e rts are p ro p o u n d in g d iscip lin e, th e ta lk e rs on dham m a are d iscu ssin g dkam m a, m o n k s a re q u a rre llin g 3 u n til th e n ig h t is a lm o st
C f. f t , i5 , 3.
* S e c I V . 1 . 1 4- A s B v , a t , 10 7 7 &ocms to im p ly th e iHcjtiotl c o u ld bi'1 sh elv ed if th-c O rd er a p p r o v e s . T h en the in v it in g m oult h a d m e r e ly th ree tim e s t o r e p e a t b is re q u est t o in v it e th e Order* A b o v e , h-e is allo w ed t o c u r t a il t h e n u m b er d f tim e s he m a k es t h e request. C f. dvcv&tika an d tettdciha a b o v e M V . I. +. 5, I. 7 . to* a " Q u a r r e llin g *' r e a lly m e a n s a r g u in g a n d d is p u tin g a b o u t p o in ts of dhamma a.nU d iscipline.

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ended. I f it th e n o c cu rs to these m o n k s : * M onks a re q u a rre l lin g u n til th e n ig h t is a lm o st en d ed . I f th e O rd er in v ite s b y th e th re e fo ld fo rm u la , th e n the O rd er w ill n o t be in v ite d before d a w n b re a k s *r th e O rd e r sh ould b e in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t m o n k , s a y in g : f H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. M o n k s are q u arrellin g . . . th e O rd er w ill n o t be in v ite d b e fo re d a w n b re a k s. I f it seem s rig h t to th e Order* th e O rd er m a y in v ite those w h o k eep th e ra in s to g eth e r b y a tw o fo ld fo rm u la , b y a o n e fo ld fo rm u la / J* II 4 II N o w a t th a t tim e in a c e rta in resid en ce in th e K o s a la c o u n tr y a la rg e O rd e r o f m o n ks ca m e to h a v e co lle cted to g e th e r on an I n v ita tio n d a y , a n d (only) a sm all (place) w a s sh eltered fro m th e rain a n d a g re a t clo u d h ad com e tip. T h e n it o ccurred to th e se m o n k s ; " N o w th is la rg e O rd e r o f m o n k s h as co lle c te d to g e th e r, a n d (only) a sm all (place) is sh eltered from th e rain a n d a g re a t clo u d h a s co m e up* Ii th e O rd er in v ite s b y th e th re e fo ld fo rm u la , th e n th e O rd er w ill n o t be in v ite d befo re th is c lo u d pours d o w n rain- N o w w h a t line o f co n d u c t sh o u ld be fo llo w ed b y us ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord - If 5 |[ H e sa id : T h is is a case, m onks, w here in a ce rta in residen ce a la rg e O rd e r o f m o n k s has co llected to g e th e r on a n I n v ita tio n d a y , a n d (only) a s m a ll (place) . . . a s i n || 5 [ J above) . . . I f it th e n o c cu rs to th e se m o n k s : ' N o w th is la rg e O rd er o f m o n ks . , * p o u rs d o w n ra in ', th e O rd e r sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y an e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e ten t m o n k, s a y in g : - H onoured sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n to m e. T h is la rg e O rd er o f m o n k s . . . p o u rs d ow n rain . I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er m a y in v ite those w h o k e e p th e ra in s to g e th e r b y a tw o fo ld fo rm u la , b y a o n e fo ld fo rm u la / j| 6 |j ** T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h ere in a ce rta in resid en ce on an I n v ita tio n d a y th e re co m es to be a d a n g e r fro m k in g s , , . from th ie v e s . . . fro m fire . , , from w a te r . _ _ fro m h u m a n beings * * * fro m n o n -h u m an bein gs , . . fro m b e a sts o f p re y * * , from cree p in g th in g s T . to life . . , to th e B ra h m a -fa rin g .1 I t th e n o ccu rs t o th ese m o n k s : c N ow th is is [ 169] a d an g er to th e B ra h m a -fa rin g , I f th e O rd er in v ite s b y th e th re e fo ld fo rm u la , th e n th e O rd e r w ill n o t be in v ite d b e fo re th ere is a d a n g e r to th e B ra h m a -fa rin g / T h e O rder sh o u ld be in fo rm ed b y an
* C / + a b o v e p . 14S,

15 .7 1*-3]

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e x p e rie n ced , co m p e ten t m o n k , s a y i n g : ' H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r listen to m e. T h is is a d a n g e r to th e B ra h m a fa rin g. I f the O rd er in v ite s b y th e th re e fo ld fo rm u la , th en th e O rd e r w ill n o t b e in v ite d before th e re is a. d a n g e r to th e Brahm a^fajring, I f it seem s rig h t t o th e O rd er, th e O rd e r m a y in v ite th o se w h o k e ep th e rain s to g e th e r b y a tw ofoJd fo rm u la , b y a o n e fo ld fo rm u la .J \ \ 7 || IS [[ N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s in v ite d (while th e y w ere) offenders. T h e y told th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : M on ks, an o ffen d er sh o u ld n o t in vite* W h o e v e r (such) sh o u ld in v ite , th e re is an o ffcn ce of w T ong-doing. I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g o b ta in e d le a v e from w h a te v e r offend er is In v itin g , to re p ro v e him for the o ffe n c e ." 1 || 1 [ | N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, (alth o u gh ) o b ta in * in g le a v e , d id n o t w ish to g iv e leave. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e s a i d : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, t o su sp en d th e in v ita tio n 3 of one n o t g iv in g le a v e . A n d th u s , m on ks, sh o u ld i t b e su sp en d ed ; I f on an I n v ita tio n d a y , w h e th e r th e fo u rte e n th o r th e fifte e n th , one should -say in th e p re se n ce o f th a t in d iv id u a l, in th e m id st o f th e O rd e r ; 1 H o n o u red sirs, le t the O rd er listen to m e. T h e in d iv id u a l so-an d -so is an o ffen d er ; I am su sp e n d in g his in v ita t io n ; one sh o u ld n o t in v ite in his p re s e n c e J, th e in v ita tio n c o m e s to be su sp e n d e d / ' ii^ii . N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p of s ix m o n k s, s a y in g : B e fo re w e ll b e h a v e d m o n ks su sp en d our in v ita t io n th e m se lv e s su s p en d ed b efo reh an d , w ith o u t g ro u n d , w ith o u t reason, the in v ita tio n o f pu re m o n k s w h o w ere n o t o ffend ers, an d th e y also suspend ed th e in v ita tio n of those w h o h a d (alread y) in v ited . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : M on ks, one sh ould n o t suspen d w ith o u t gro u n d , w ith o u t reason , th e i n v it a tio n of p u re m o n k s w h o are not o ffen d ers. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) su sp en d it, th ere is an offen ce of w ro n g -d o in g . N o r, m on ks, sh o u ld o n e su sp en d th e in v ita tio n o f th o se w h o h a v e in v ite d . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) su sp en d it, th e re is a n o ffcn ce o f w ro n g d oin g, | |3 | |
1 C/, M V . I L 16 h r.

* - pavdtanam h-apciunt, c/.


3 C/* M V , I I +

16 - 3.

V in .

ii. 5* 22, 3^.

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M onks, an in v ita tio n com cs t o b e (duly) su sp en d ed th u s, n o t (duly) su sp en d ed th u s . A n d h o w , m o n ks, does an in v ita tio n c o m e to b e n o t (duly) su sp en d ed ? If, m o n k s, one su sp en d s an in v ita tio n w hen th e in v ita tio n h a s been sp oken , u tte re d an d b ro u g h t to a close b y th e th reefo ld form u la, th e in v ita tio n com es to b e not (duly) suspend ed. If, m onks, o n e su spen d s an in v ita tio n w hen th e in v ita tio n has been sp oken , u tte r e d a n d b ro u g h t t o a close b y a tw o fo ld fo rm u la . . , b y a o n e fo ld fo rm u la . . . b y th o se k e e p in g th e ra in s to g eth e r, [ 170] a n in v ita tio n com es to b e n o t (d uly) su spen d ed. It is th u s r m o n k s, th a t a n in v ita tio n com es to b e not (duly) suspended* *c A n d h o w , m o n k s, does an in v ita tio n com e to be (duly) su sp e n d e d ? If, m o n k s, one su sp en d s an in v ita tio n w h e n th e in v ita tio n h as been sp o k en , u ttered , b u t n o t b ro u g h t to a c lo se 1 b y th e th re e fo ld fo rm u la , the in v ita tio n com es to h e (duly) suspended* If, m onks* o n e suspends - - . b u t not b ro u g h t to a c lo se b y th e tw o fo ld fo rm u la * , , b y th e o n efo ld fo rm u la . * . b y th o se k e e p in g th e ra in s to g eth er, th e in v ita tio n com es to be (d uly) su spen d ed. I t is thus, m o n k s, t h a t an in v ita tio n com es to be (duly) suspended* |[ 5 | | " T h is is a case, m o n k s, w hen on a n In v ita tio n d a y a m o n k su sp en d s (another) m o n k 's in v ita tio n . I f o th er m o n ks know co n c e rn in g th is m o n k : ' T h is ve n e ra b le one is n o t p u re in th e c o n d u c t o f his b o d y , he is no: pure in the co n d u c t of his sp eech, h e is n o t p u re in his m od e of live lih o o d ; he is ig n o ra n t, in e x p e rie n c e d ; he is not co m p eten t w h en b ein g him self question ed to g iv e an e x p la n a tio n 2/ an d if h a v in g snubbed^ him , th e y s a y : T h a t 's e n o u g h , m o n k , le t th ere be no strife , let th ere be n o q u a rrel, le t th ere b e no d isp u te, le t th e re be no co n te n tio n th e O rd er m a y in v ite . || 6 j| " T h is is a case, m o n k s, . . . {as in |l 6 | | above) * . . . is pure in th e c o n d u c t of h is b o d y , bu t h e is n o t p u re in th e co n d u ct o f h is sp eech , h e is n o t p u re in his m o d e of liv e lih o o d . . . to g iv e an e x p la n a tio n \ . . . th e O rd er m a y in v ite . |j 7 [1 T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, , - . (as in || f> J j above) * . * . is p u re in L 342,, 3. 9 <inuy&gar?t datum*
1 C o rrect in th e P a li t e x t P&riy&sitaya t o a p a ri-t a s n o ted i t ciu& hed. VA* 1078 s a y s t h a t it V ia . Texts.

II 4 II

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is h ere a v e r b a l

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th e c o n d u c t of h is b o d y , he is pure in th e c o n d u c t o f his sp eech , b u t he is n o t p u re in his m o d e o f liv e lih o o d . , / . , th e O rd er m a y in v ite . | |S J | ** T h is is a ca se , m o n k s , , . (as 'in || 6 ]| above) \ , is p u re in the c o n d u c t of his b o d y , pu re in th e co n d u c t o f his sp eech , p u re in h is m o d e o f liv e lih o o d ; b u t he is ig n o ra n t, in e x p e ri en ced ; he is n o t c o m p e te n t w h e n h im s e lf b e in g q u e stio n e d . . / . . . th e O rd er m a y invite* || Q || " T h is is a case, m on ks. . . . (as in [| 6 || above) ' * + . is pu re in th e c o n d u c t o f his b o d y . , , pure in h is m ode o f liv e lih o o d ; he is lea rn ed , e x p e rie n ced ; h e is co m p e te n t w h en b ein g h im self q u e stio n ed to g iv e an e x p la n a tio n ", one sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to him : ' I f y o u , y o u r rc v e rc n c e , suspen d th is m o n k 's in v ita tio n , w h y d o y o u su sp e n d it ? D o y o u su sp e n d it on a c c o u n t of a fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ral h a b it 1 ? D o y o u su sp e n d it on a c c o u n t of a fa llin g a w a y fro m good h a b its 2 ? [171] D o you su sp e n d it on a c c o u n t of a fa llin g a w a y fro m (right) v ie w 3 ? J ii 10 H " I f h e sh o u ld sp e a k th u s : f I su sp e n d it on a c c o u n t of a fa llin g a w a y from m o ra l h a b it . . . a fa liin g a w a y from (right) view ' one sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to him : * B u t d oes y o u r reveren ce k n o w w h a t is a fa llin g a w a y fro m m oral h a b it . . . a fa llin g a w a y fro m (righ t) v ie w ? J If h e sh o u ld s p e a k th u s : 4 I k n o w , y o u r reveren ce, w h a t is a fa llin g a w a y from m o ral h a b it . + a fa llin g a w a y from (right) v ie w one sh o u ld sp e a k th u s t o h im : 1 B u t w h ich , y o u r re veren ce, is a fa llin g a w a y fro m m o ra l h a b it, w h ich is a fa llin g a w a y fro m g o o d h a b its, w h ich is a fa llin g a w a y from (right) v ie w ? ' | | 11 | | J r r I f he sh o u ld s p e a k th u s : f T h is is a fa ilin g a w a y fro m m o ral h a b it : th e fo u r offcnces in v o lv in g d e fe a t, the th irte e n offen ces e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f the O rder, T h is is a fa llin g a w a y from go od h a b its : a g ra v e offence, a n offen ce o f e x p ia tio n p an offence w h ich o u g h t to be con fessed , an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g , a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g sp eech. T h is is a fa llin g a w a y fro m (right)
1 D e fin e d a t A . i* 268 a s o n s la u g h t on cre a tu re s, ta k in g w h a t is n o t g iv e n , w r o n g c o n d u c t in senae-pleasar-es, ly in g , sla n d e rin g , u s in g harsh w ords* b a b b lin g . T h e s e th re e tf fa llin g a w a y s 1 1 o r fa ilu res are m en tio n ed a b o v e p . S i f. 1 A * ip h a s eittavipatti for Q.caravipt*tii of a b o v e , * D e fin e d a t A . i, 26S in t h e term s o f A jit a K c s ik a m b ^ J m 's a n o ih ila tio n is t v ie w s {cf. i. 55).

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v ie w ; a w ro n g v ie w , ta k in g u p an e x tre m e v ie w 1 \ o n e sh o u ld sp e a k th u s to him : * B u t if y o u , y o u r re veren ce, su sp e n d th is m o n k 's in v ita tio n , d o y o u suspen d it on a cco u n t o f w h a t w a s seen, d o y o u su sp en d it on a c co u n t o f w h a t w as h ea rd , d o y o u su sp en d it on a c c o u n t of w h a t w as su sp e c te d ? * (| i s || Ff he sh o u ld sp e a k th u s : f I am su sp en d in g it on a c co u n t o f w h a t w a s seen* or, I am su sp en d in g it on a c c o u n t o f w h a t w a s h e a rd , or, I am su sp en d in g it on a c co u n t o f w h a t w a s su s p e c te d \ o n e sh o u ld sp ea k to h im th u s : ' B u t, if y o u , y o u r re v e ren ce , are su sp en d in g this m o n k 's in v ita tio n on a cco u n t o f w h a t w as seen > how- h a v e y o u seen, w h en h a v e y o u seen , w h ere h a v e y o u seen ? H a v e y o u seen h im c o m m ittin g an offence in v o lv in g d e fe a t ? W a s he seen c o m m ittin g an ofTcnce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g of th e O rd er ? W a s h e seen co m m ittin g a g r a v e o ffen ce, a n offence o f e x p ia tio n , a n offen ce w h ich o u g h t to be co n fessed , a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g , an offence of w ro n g sp eech ? A n d w h ere w ere y o u ? A n d w h ere w as th is m o n k ? A n d w h a t w ere y o u d o in g ? A n d w h a t w a s th is m o n k d o in g ? r || 13 |[ df I f he sh o u ld sp e a k th u s ; ' B u t I * y o u r reveren ces, am n o t su sp en d in g th is m o n k 's in vitatio n . 011 a c co u n t o f w h a t w as seen j b u t I am su sp en d in g th e in v ita tio n on a c c o u n t o f w h a t w a s h e a rd \ o n e sh o u ld sp ea k to him t h u s : f B u t, if y o u , y o u r re veren ce, su sp en d th is m o n k's in v ita tio n on a c co u n t of w h a t w a s h e a rd , w h a t h a v e y o u heard, h o w h a v e y o u h e a rd , w h en h a v e y o u h eard , w h ere h a v e y o u h e a rd ? D id y o u h ear th a t he h a d c o m m itte d a n offen ce in v o lv in g d e fea t ? D id y o u h ear th a t h e h a d c o m m itte d an offence e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er ? D id y o u hear th a t he h ad c o m m itte d a g ra v e
1 nntaggdhiki* ditthi. S e e Morris* S .r iS 8 ^ p. 11 th e (heretical) d o c tr in e o m a in ta in in g o r hol-ding the th r e e an ias or j^oaLs, w h ich , a c co rd in g to th e S-ftngitl S u t t a n t a (D , iii, aiG) a r e id kbdyCf awio, sxkkdyttsrtrtiiiddc rtMto, sakkayanirodhtj an to W it h D * iii. -2iG> cj. A . iii. 401, and see P .E .L > . w hich q u e stio n s M orris' in te rp re ta tio n o f nnta i s g o a l. A ntuggdhikd iiJ'/Ai algo o C d u it a t D . iii. 45, A . i. 154, ii * 240, iii. 130, Vbh, 367. V a r io u s such " e x tr e m e v ie w s " are m en tio n ed at S . ii+ 17, i g p 63., i. 1 5 1 ff, D A * iii. S39 e x p la in s ; ,f th is v ie w is t a ile d 4 ta k in g up a n e x tr e m e " th r o u g h U kL iig u p t h e e x tr e m e (artitt) o f th e ^(irtihila.tionists.*1 , A A . iL 254 e x p la in s ,T a v i t w estAbLishcd h a v in g ta k e n u p t h e e x tr e m e {ania} c f w h a t is fo u n d ed on the- ten. '* 4" d o c tr in e s o f t h e a n a ih iia tio n is t \ G . S +i* e 1)+ * iiL 2 7 9 e x p la in s : e sta b lish ed h a vin g ta k e n u p (tbo p o sitio n of) th e etern a l ist or th e a n n ih ila tio n is t." T e n d iv e r s v ie w s F are m en tio n ed a t 5 , iii- 25s* whiJe ten H i e x tr e m e v ie w s * ' a r e d iffe r e n tia te d fro m t e n J d w ro n g v ie w s " a t U d A . i. 162. T h e s e tw o sets o f ten are m en tio n ed a t N d . i. 1 1 3 . w ith tore-ntv sxiAkdyadiithi IN d , L T12I.

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offence, an offence of e x p ia tio n , an offen ce w h ich o u g h t to be c o n fe sse d > a n offen ce o f w ro n g-d o in g, a n offence o f w ro n g sp eech ? D id y o u h ear fro m a m o n k ? D id y o u h e a r fro m a n u n * . . a p ro b a tio n e r , . , a n o vice . . . a w o m a n n o v ic e * . a la y fo llo w e r . . , a w o m a n la y fo llo w e r * , . k in g s * . * k in g 's m in isters * . . fro m le a d e rs o f (other) s e c ts , . , fro m d isc ip le s of (other) s e c ts ? 1 || 14 |j I f he sh o u ld sp e a k th u s : * B u t I, y o u r re veren ces, a m not su sp e n d in g th is m o n k 's in v ita tio n on a c co u n t o f w h a t w a s h eard , b u t T am su sp e n d in g th e in v ita tio n on a c c o u n t o f w h a t w a s su sp ected ", one sh o u ld s p e a k to h im th u s ; * B u t, i f y o u , y o u r reveren ce, are su sp e n d in g th is m o n k 's in v ita tio n on a cco u n t of w h a t w a s su sp e cted , w h a t d id y o u su sp e ct, ho w d id y o u su sp ect, w h en d id y o u su sp ect, w h e re d id y o u su s p e c t ? [ t 72] D id y o u su sp ect t h a t he h a d c o m m itte d a n offence in v o lv in g d e fe a t ? D id y o u su sp ect t h a t he h a d c o m m itte d a n offence e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rd er ? D id y o u su sp ect th a t he h a d co m m itte d a g ra v e offence, an o ffen ce o f ex p ia tio n , an offence w h ic h o u gh t to be co n fessed , a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g , an offence of w ron g sp cech ? D id y o u su sp e ct, h a v in g h e a rd from a m o n k . . , from d iscip les o f (other) se c ts ? * [1*5 II " I f he sh o u ld sp e a k t h u s : 1 B u t I, y o u r re ve ren ce s, am n o t su sp en d in g th is m o n k 's in v ita tio n on a c c o u n t o f w h a t w a s su sp ected , m o re o v er I d o n o t k n o w on a c c o u n t o f w h a t I am su sp en d in g th is m o n k 's in v ita tio n a n d if, m o n k s, th e re p r o v in g m o n k does not s a tis fy his in telligen t fe llo w s m th e B ra h m a fa rin g wp ith h is e x p la n a tio n , it is su fficien t to s a y th a t th e rep ro ve d m o n k is b lam eless. B u t if th e r e p ro v in g m o n k satisfies his in tellig e n t fellow s in th e B ra h m a -fa rin g w ith his e x p la n a tio n , it is su fficien t to s a y th a t th e re p ro v e d m o n k is b la m e w o rth y . || 16 [ | " I f th a t re p ro v in g m o n k , m onks, a d m its t h a t he h a s d e fa m e d {an other m onk) w ith a n u n fo u n d ed c h a rg e of a n offen ce in v o lv in g d e fea t, th e n th e O rd er, h a v in g c h a rg ed him w ith an offence e n ta ilin g a form al m eetin g o f th e O rd e r,L m a y in viteI f, m onks, th a t re p ro v in g m o n k a d m its th a t he has d e fa m ed (another m onk) w ith an u n fo u n d e d c h a rg e o f an offence e n ta ilin g
1 See For. Meet. V F II.

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a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rder, th e O rd er, h a v in g h a d h im d e a lt w ith a cco rd in g to th e ru le,3 m a y in v ite . I f, m o n ks, th a t re p ro v in g m o n k a d m its th a t he h a s d efam ed {an other m onk) w ith an u n fo u n d ed ch a rg e in v o lv in g a g ra v e offence, an offence o f e x p ia tio n , a n offence w hich o u g h t to be confessed, a n offence o f w ro n g d o in g , an o ffen ce of w ro n g sp eech, th e O rd er, h a v in g h ad h im d e a lt w ith a cco rd in g to th e ru le ,2 m a y in v ite , ff 1 7 | | " I f, m o n ks, th a t rep ro ved m o n k a d m its t h a t he h a s co m m itte d an offence in v o lv in g d e fe a t, th e O rd er, h a v in g ex p e lle d h im , m a y invite* Tf, m onks, th a t re p ro ve d m o n k a d m its th a t h e h a s co m m itte d a n offence e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f the O rd er, th e O rd er, h a v in g ch arged h im w ith a n offen ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm a l m e e tin g o f th e O rder, m a y in v ite . Tf, m o n ks, th a t re p ro v e d m o n k a d m its th a t he h a s c o m m itte d a g r a v e offence * * - a n offen ce o f w ro n g speech, th e O rd er, h a v in g h a d him d e a lt w ith a c co rd in g to th e rule, m a y in v ite , ||lS J | ft T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k com es to h a v e c o m ' m itte d a g ra v e offence on an I n v ita tio n d a y . Som e m o n ks v ie w it a s a g ra v e offence, o ther m o n k s v ie w it as a n offence e n ta ilin g a fo rm al m eetin g o f th e O rd er. M onks, those m o n k s w h o v ie w it a s a g ra ve offen ce, h a v in g led th a t m o n k to one side, h a v in g h a d him d e a lt w ith a c co rd in g to the rule, h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d th e O rder, sh o u ld sp e a k to it th u s : 1 Y o u r reveren ces, the m on k w ho has fallen in to th a t o ffen ce has m ade am en d s fo r it a c co rd in g to rule. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rder, th e O rd er m a y in v it e / ]| 19 |[ T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k com es to h a v e co m m itte d a g ra v e offence on an In v ita tio n d a y . Som e m on ks v ie w i t as a g ra v e offence, other m o n k s v ie w it a s an offence o f e x p ia tio n . Som e [173] m onks v ie w it as a g ra v e offen ce, o th e r m o n ks v ie w it as an offence w h ic h o u gh t to be confessed . Som e m o n ks v ie w it a s a g ra ve offence, o th e r m o n k s v ie w it as a n offen ce of w ro n g-d o in g. Som e m o n k s v ie w it a s a g ra v e offence, o th er m o n ks v ie w it as an offence o f w ro n g sp eech . M onks, th o se m o n k s w h o view it as a g ra v e offence . . . (*= J | 19 ||) * . . . th e O rd er m a y in v ite ** | | 20 |j T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, vrhere a m o n k com es to h a v e com 1 S F 3 c+ l x x v h

* C/L Sa 4 gh. I X (Vin. iii. 170). V A . 1078 says th at offences incurred in all these are those of wrong-doing.

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m itte d a n offence o f e x p ia tio n on an I n v ita tio n d a y . . . an offence w h ic h o u g h t to b e co n fessed , * . an o ffen ce o f w ro n g d o in g . . . an offence o f w ro n g speech. S o m e m o n k s v ie w it a s an offen ce o f w ro n g sp eech , o th er m o n k s v ie w it as a n o ffe n ce e n ta ilin g a fo rm al m e e tin g o f th e O rd er. M onks, th o se m o n k s w h o v ie w it as a n offen ce o f w ro n g sp ee ch . _ . ( = |[ 19 |j) * . * . th e O rd er m a y in v ite || 21 || T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h ere a m o n k co m es to h a v e co m m itte d a n offen ce o f w ro n g sp eech o n a n I n v ita tio n d a y . Som e m o n k s v ie w it a s a n offence o f w ro n g sp eech , o th e r m o n k s v ie w i t a s a g r a v e offen ce ; so m e m o n ks . . . a s a n offen ce o f w ro n g speech^ o th e r m o n k s - . o f e x p ia tio n ; som e m o n k s , . . offence o f w ro n g sp eech , o th e r m o n ks . , . w h ich o u g h t to be con fessed ; som e m o n ks v ie w it as a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g sp eech , o th e r m o n k s v ie w it as a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g . M on ks, th o se m o n k s w h o v ie w i t a s a n offence o f w ro n g sp eech * - . ( - u 19 ii> * * th e O rd er m a y in v ite \ || 22 | | T h is is a case, m o n k s, w h e re if on a n I n v ita tio n d a y a m o n k sh o u ld sp ea k in th e m id st o f th e O rd er, s a y in g : * H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er liste n t o m e. T h is m a tte r is k n o w n b u t n o t th e in d iv id u a l 1 \ I i it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er, h a v in g se t asid e th e m a tte r , m a y i n v it e 3 a n d h e sh o u ld be sp ok en to t h u s ; ' Y o u r re ve ren ce , I n v ita tio n is la id d o w n b y th e L o rd fo r th o se w h o are pure. I f th e m a tte r is k n o w n b u t n o t th e in d iv id u a l, s p e a k a b o u t th a t n o w a t o n c e / || 23 j| " T h is is a ca se , m o n k s, w h ere if on a n I n v ita tio n d a y a m o n k sh o u ld sp ea k in th e m id st o f th e Order* s a y i n g : HH o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd e r listen to m e. T h is in d iv id u a l is kn o w n b u t n o t th e m a tte r . I f it seem s r ig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er, h a v in g set a sid e th e in d iv id u a l, m a y in v ite ; a n d he sh ould be sp o k e n t o th u s : * Y o u r re v e re n c e . I n v ita tio n is la id d o w n b y th e L o rd fo r th o se w h o a re c o m p le te .1 I f th e in d iv id u a l is k n o w n b u t n o t th e m a tte r, s p e a k a b o u t th a t now a t o n ce/ |j 24 || " T h is is a case, m o n k s, . _ . ' H o n o u red sirs, le t th e O rd er listen to m e. T h is m a tte r is k n o w n a n d th e in d iv id u a l. I f
1 le .j t h e p erso n w h o c o m m itte d t h e offen ce or m a tte r vaiihu. V A . 10 78 s a y s ff When w e k n o w th e person, th e n w e w ill r e p r o v e him , b u t le t t h e O r d e r in v ite n o w M . 1 A c o m p le te O rd er.

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it seem s rig h t to th e O rd er, th e O rd er, h a v in g set asid e th e m a tte r a n d th e in d iv id u a l, m a y in v ite a n d h e sh o u ld be sp o k en to th u s : f Y o u r reveren ce. I n v ita tio n is la id d o w n b y th e L o rd lo r th e p u re a n d for th o se w h o are co m p le te . I f th e m a tte r is k n o w n a n d a lso the in d iv id u a l, sp e a k a b o u t th a t n o w a t o n c e / || 25 || " I f , m o n ks, th e m a tte r is k n o w n b e fo re a n I n v ita tio n d a y r th e in d iv id u a l a fte rw a rd s , it is rig h t to s a y so* If, m o n ks, [ 174] t h e in d iv id u a l is know n befo re a n I n v ita tio n d a y , th e m a tte r a fte rw a rd s , it is rig h t t o s a y so . I f j m o n ks, b o th th e m a tte r a n d th e in d iv id u a l are k n o w n before a n I n v ita tio n d a y , a n d {a m o n k) op en s u p (the cases) a fte r th e I n v ita tio n is fin ish ed , th e re is a n offence of e x p ia tio n for o p e n in g u p . 1 J l 26 || 16 || N o w a t t h a t tim e s e v e ra l m o n ks, frien d s a n d asso cia tes, e n te red on th e rain s in a ce rta in resid en ce in th e K o s a la c o u n try . In th e ir n eigh b o u rh o o d o th e r m o n ks, m a k e rs o f strife, m a k e rs o f q u a rrels, m akers o f d isp u te , m a k e rs of co n te n tio n , m a k e rs o f le g a l q u estion s in a n O rd er, en tered on th e rain s, s a y i n g : " W h e n th ese m o n k s h a v e k e p t th e rain s w e w ill su sp en d th e in v ita tio n on a n In v ita tio n d a y , B u t th o se m o n k s h e a rd : " I t ls sa id th a t in o u r n eig h b o u rh o o d o th e r m o n k s . . . e n te re d on th e rains, s a y in g : * W h e n th e se m o n k s - _ . on an I n v ita tio n d a y / N o w , w h a t lin e o f c o n d u c t sh o u ld be fo llo w ed b y us ? " T h e y told th is m a tte r to the Lord* H1 J ] H e s a id : T h is is a case, m o n ks, w h ere se ve ra l m o n ks, frien d s a n d a sso cia tes, e n te r on th e ra in s in a c e rta in residence* I n th e ir n eig h b o u rh o o d , . . (as in || 1 ||) f . * * on an I n v ita tio n d a y \ I allo w y o u , m o n k s, to c a r r y o u t tw o o r th ree O b ser v a n ce s w ith these m o n k s o n th e fo u rte e n th {day}*, t h i n k i n g : ' H o w c a n w e in v ite befo re those m o n k s (invite) ? * If, m o n k s, those m o n k s w h o are m a k e rs of strife . . . m akers o f le g a l ques tio n s in a n O rd er, a r r iv e a t a resid en ce, th e n , m o n ks, those
1 S e e F*ic, 63* w h ere i t is. an ofTence t o open u p fo r fu r th e r discussion a. m a tte r a lr e a d y settled . * V A * *0 79 say s, " here, t h e fou rth a n d fifth are t h e tw o 1 fo u rteen (days) *r b u t th e r e is u s u a lly a th ird - fo u r te e n th .J ; therefore th e th ir d a n d fourth* or t h e th ir d , fo u r th a n d fifth a r e t h e tvro or th r e e ' fo u r te e n th s ' t h a t sh ou ld be ca rrie d o u t. T h u s th e r e co m e t-o he tw o * fo u r te e n th s \ P r o c e e d in g th u s t h e th ir te e n th or fo u rteen th lo r t h e m a k e r s ai strife th e s e w ill in v ite 00 an I n v i t a t io n d a y tha.1 is a fifteen th (day)

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resid en t m o n ks, h a v in g g a th e re d to g e th e r q u ic k ly , m a y in v it e ; a n d h a v in g in v ite d , t h e y sh o u ld s a y (to th e o th ers) : * W e , y o u r reverences* h a v e i n v i t e d ; le t th e v e n e ra b le o n es d o w h a t seem s fittin g / ]| 2 || " ff, m o n k s, th o se m o n k s w ho are m a k e rs o f Strife . . . m a k e rs o f le g a l q u e stio n s in th e O rd er, a r r iv e u n e x p e c te d ly a t th a t resid en ce, th o se resid en t m on ks sh o u ld m a k e r e a d y a se a t, th e y sh o u ld b rin g fo rw a rd w a te r fo r w a s h in g th e fe e t, a fo o t s to o l, a fo o ts ta n d , h a v in g gon e t o m e e t th e m t h e y sh o u ld r e c e iv e th e ir b o w ls a n d ro b es, th e y sh o u ld offer th e m d rin k in g w a te r ; h a v in g lo o k e d a fte r th e m , (then) h a v in g g o n e o u tsid e th e b o u n d a ry , t h e y m a y in v ite ; h a v in g in v ite d , t h e y sh o u ld s a y (to th e o th ers) : * W e , y o u r re v e re n c e s, h a v e in v ite d j le t th e v e n e ra b le ones do w h a t seem s fit t in g / 3 |[ I f t h e y sh o u ld th u s m a n a g e th is, i t is good* B u t i f t h e y d o n o t m a n a g e it , th e resid en t m o n k s sh o u ld be in fo rm e d b y a n e xp e rie n ced , co m p e ten t residen t m o n k , s a y in g : 4 L e t th e v e n e ra b le ones w h o are re sid e n ts liste n t o m e. I f it seem s rig h t to th e v e n e ra b le s ones, w e m a y now c a r r y o u t th e O b se rv a n c e , w e m a y re c ite th e P a tim o k k h a , [175] w e m a y in v ite on th e n e x t new -raoon d a y 1 \ I f, m onks, th o s e m o n k s w h o are m a k ers o f strife . . * m a k e rs o f le g a l q u e stio n s in th e O rd e r, sh o u ld s p e a k th u s to th e se m o n ks : ' A ll rig h t, y o u r re v e ren ce s, b u t le t us in v ite n o w a t on ce \ th e y sh o u ld b e sp o k e n t o th u s * B u t y o u , y o u r re veren ces, are n o t m a ste rs o f our I n v ita tio n (-d ay), w e w ill n o t in v ite y e t % j| 4 | | I f, m o n k s, these m o n k s w ho a re m a k e rs o f s tr ife . . . m a k e rs o f le g a l q u e stio n s in th e O rd er, sh o u ld s t a y o n u n til th a t n e w -m o o n d a y , th e n , m o n ks, th e resid en t m o n k s sh o u ld be in fo rm ed b y a n e x p e rie n ced , c o m p e te n t re sid e n t m o n k _ _ , f . . . le t u s in v ite on th e n e x t fu ll-m oo n day * . , . (#5 jz [( 4 ||) r * . , w e w ill n o t in v ite y e t \ | j 5 || I f, m o n k s, those m o n k s w h o a re m a k e rs o f strife . . . sh o u ld s t a y on u n til th a t fu ll-m oo n d a y , th e n m o n k s, th ese m o n ks, ea ch a n d e v e r y o n e, m u st in v ite on th e n e x t fu ll-m oo n d a y o f th e kontudi cd tu m d sin l^ (even if) t h e y a re u n w illin g . |] 6 [I ir Tf, m o n k s, w h ile th e se m o n ks are th e m se lv e s in v itin g , an * ha}*.
* fu fth e ; cfj above* p S e e a bove, p. 205, e l .

185* 3.

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ill one suspend s th e in v ita tio n o f one w h o is not ill, he sh o u ld be sp o k en to th u s : J T h e ven erab le one is ill, a n d it is sa id b y the L o rd th a t one w h o is ill is n o t a b le to end ure b e in g ques tio n ed . W a it , y o u r reverence, u n til y o u are w ell, w h en yo u are w e ll y o u c a n re p ro v e him if y o u desire to do so .J Tf b ein g sp oken to th u s, he (nevertheless) rep ro ves h im , in d isrespect th ere is a n offen ce o f e x p ia tio n -1 || 7 || " I f , m o n k s, w h ile these m o n ks are th em selves in v itin g , one w h o is n o t ill su spen d s an ill o n e's in v ita tio n , he sh o u ld be sp o k en to th u s : r Y o u r reverence, th is m o n k is ill, an d it is s a id b y th e L o rd th a t one w h o is ill is n o t able to en d u re b ein g q u estio n ed . W a it, y o u r reveren ce, u n til th is m o n k is w e ll ; w h en h e is w e ll y o u c a n rep ro ve h im if y o u d esire t o do so \ I f b e in g sp o k en t o th u s , he (nevertheless) re p ro v e s h im , in d isresp ect th ere is an offence o f e x p ia tio n . |j 8 jj " If, m o n ks, w h ile th ese m onks are th e m selve s in v itin g , an ill one su sp en d s a n ill o n e's in v ita tio n , he sh o u ld be sp oken to th u s : f T h e v e n e ra b le ones are ill . - . b e in g questioned* W a it, y o u r re ve ren ce , u n til yo u are (both) w ell ; w h en h e is w e ll y o u can rep ro ve him if y o u desire to do so If, b ein g sp o k en to th u s , he (nevertheless) re p ro v e s him , in d isresp ect th ere is an offence o f exp iatio n . ]| 9 ff " If, m o n ks, w h ile th e se m onks are th e m selv e s in v itin g , one w h o is n o t ill su spen d s th e in v ita tio n o f (another) w h o is n o t ill, th e O rd er h a v in g q u estion ed b o th c lo se ly an d cross q u e stio n ed th e m , h a v in g h ad th em d e a lt w ith a cco rd in g to th e rule, m a y in v ite ." || 10 || 17 1 ] N o w a t th a t tim e s e v e ra l m on ks, friends an d co m p an ion s, [176] e n te re d on th e rains in a certa in residence in th e K o s a la c o u n try . W h ile th ese w ere sta y in g to g e th e r on frie n d ly term s a n d h a rm o n io u s, a c e rta in co m fo rt w a s a rriv ed a t. T h e n it o ccu rre d to th ese m o n ks : " W h ile w e are s ta y in g to g eth e r . . . a rriv e d a t. B u t i f w e sh ould in v ite n o w , it m a y be th a t (some) m on ks, h a v in g invited* m a y set fo rth on to u r, a n d so we will com e t o lo se 2 th is co m fo rt. N o w w h a t lin e o f co n d u ct sh ouM b e fo llo w ed b y us ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . || r ||
* C f. a ls o P i c . L I V , * paribdkira^ e x te r n a l to , o u tsid e ; as a n oun , outsiders*

18-2 5]

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H e sa id : " T h is is a c a se , m o n k s, w h ere s e v e ra l m o n k s, frien d s a n d co m p an io n s, e n te r on the rain s in a c e rta in resid en ce. W h ile th e se a re s ta y in g to g e th e r , * a r r iv e d at. I f i t th e n o ccu rs to th e se m o n ks : * W h ile w e a re s ta y in g to g e th e r * * * so w e w ill co m e to lose th is co m fo rt \ I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a p ro te c tio n o f a n I n v ita tio n d a y .1 | |2 | ] A n d th u s, m o n k s, sh o u ld it b e m a d e ; E a c h a n d e v e r y one sh o u ld g a th e r to g e th e r in th e sa m e p la c e ; w h en t h e y h a v e g a th e re d to g e th e r, th e O rd er sh o u ld b e in fo rm ed b y an e x p e r i e n ced co m p e te n t m on k, s a y in g : ' H o n o u red sirs, let th e O rd er listen to m e. W h ile w e w ere s ta y in g to g e th e r . . . s o w ill w e com e to lo se th is co m fo rt. I f it seem s rig h t to th e O rd e r, th e O rd er m a y m a k e a p ro te c tio n of an I n v ita tio n d a y , it m a y c a rry o ut th e O b se rv a n ce , it m a y re cite th e P a tim o k k h a n o w ; the O rd er m a y in v ite on th e n e x t k om u d l ca tu m a sin l day* T h is is th e m o tion . || 3 || " - H o n o u red sirs, let th e O rd er liste n to m e. W h ile w e w ere s ta y in g to g e th e r + . , s o w ill w e c o m e to lose th is c o m fo rt. T h e O rd er is m a k in g a p ro te c tio n o f th e I n v ita tio n d a y ; it w ill c a rry o u t th e O b se rv a n c e , it w ill re cite th e P a tim o k k h a now ; it w ill in v ite on th e n e x t kowiudi catum asint d a y . I f the m a k in g a p ro te c tio n o f th e In v ita tio n d a y (b y th e O rder) is p le a sin g to the v e n e ra b le ones (so th a t) i t w ill c a r r y o u t th e O b se rv a n c e , w ill re cite th e P a tim o k k h a n o w , a n d w ill in v ite on th e n e x t kom udt cd tum a sin l d a y , y o u sh o u ld be sile n t ; he to w h o m it is not p le a sin g sh o u ld sp e a k . A p ro te c tio n o f th e I n v ita tio n d a y is m a d e b y th e O rd er, it w ill c a r r y o u t th e O b se rv a n c e , it w ill re cite th e P a tim o k k h a n ow , a n d i t w ill in v ite on the n e x t kom udt cdtumasinT d a y . I t is p le a sin g to th e O rd er, th e re fo re it is silen t. T h u s d o I u n d e rsta n d th is / || 4 I I " If* m o n k s, w h en th ese m o n ks h a v e m a d e a p ro te c tio n o f an I n v ita tio n d a y , a n y m o n k sh o u ld sp e a k th u s : r I want., y o u r re veren ces, to set fo rth on a to u r of th e c o u n tr y , I h a v e bu sin ess to do in th e c o u n tr y \ h e sh o u ld be sp o k en to th u s ; * V e r y
A faDdraztasatpgaha. V A . 1080 s a y s t h a t " w h en th e has- been g iv e u , th e r e c o m e s t o b e a s it w ere an a v o id a n c e d u rin g t h e rain s j in co m in g monies c a n n o t t a k e th e ir (th e r esid en t o n e s ) lo d g in g s, n o r sh ou ld t h e rain s b e c u t sh o r t b y th e m , for, h a v in g in v ite d , t h e y g e t t h e ch a n ce t o s e t o u t on t o u r eve n d u rin g (th e rains} **. T h e m o a k s p r o t c c t th e ir h a r m o n y b y p o s tp o n in g t h e I n v it a t io n d a y t o t h e end o f t h e r a in y season.

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w e ll, y o u r re v e ren ce , y o u can g o w h en y o u h a v e in v ite d / A n d [ 177] if, m on ks, t h a t m o n k , w h ile he Is in v itin g , su sp e n d s a n o th e r's in vitatio n * h e sh o u ld b e sp o k en to th u s : ' Y o n , y o u r re v e re n c e , are n o t m a ste r o f m y I n v ita tio n d a y , I w ill n o t in v ite y e t \ A n d if, m on ks, a n y m o n k su sp en d s th a t m o n k 's in v ita tio n w h ile th a t m o n k is in v itin g , th e O rd er, h a v in g q u e stio n e d b o th c lo se ly a n d cros^ -questioned th em , s h o u ld h a v e th e m d e a lt w ith a c co rd in g to th e ru le , jj 5 || I f, m o n k s, th a t m o n k , h a v in g co n clu d ed h is business in th e c o u n try , re tu rn s a g a in to th a t resid en ce b efo re th e kom udt cd tu m a sin l d a y a n d if, m o n ks, w h ile th o se m o n k s are in v itin g , a n y m o n k su spen d s t h a t m o n k 's in v ita tio n , he sh o u ld be sp o k en to th u s : 1 Y o u >y o u r reveren ce, are n o t m a ste r o f m y I n v ita tio n d a y , I h a v e in v ite d (alread y) \ If, m o n k s, w h ile th o se m o n k s are in v itin g , th a t m o n k suspends a n y m o n k 's in v ita tio n , th e O rder, h a v in g q u e stio n e d b o th c lo se ly a n d h a v in g cro ss q u estio n ed th e m , a n d h a v in g h a d th e m d e a lt w ith a cco rd in g to th e rule,, m a y in v ite . [j 6 |j 18 || T h e F o u r th S e ctio n : th a t on I n v ita tio n In th is S e ctio n a re fo rty -six item s. T h is is its k e y :

H a v in g k e p t th e ra in s t h e y w e n t to see th e te a ch e r in K o sa la , co m m u n io n th a t w a s u n co m fo rta b le (and) lik e b e a sts, s u ita b le m re g a rd to one another, I n v itin g on a s e a t,1 a n d tw o , (form al) a ct, ill o n e, relatio n s, k in g sJ a n d th ie v e s, a n d m en of a b a n d o n ed life , lik e w ise m o n k s w h o are enem ies o f m onks. F iv e , fo u r, th re e , tw o , one, fallen , h e d o u b te d , he rem em b ered , th e w h o le O rd er, b e in g in d o u b t, g re a te r, lik e , sm a lle r (num ber). R e sid e n t m onks* th e fo u rteen th , th e tw o co m m u n io n s b y m a rk , sh o u ld a rriv e , n o t in a se a te d (assem b ly), g iv in g le a v e of a b se n ce , n o n -in v ita tio n , A b o u t sa v a g e s, a lm o st ended, g re a t cloud , an d a n o b sta cle , in v ita tio n , th e y d o n o t g iv e (leave), ' in case o u r \ a n d n o t (duly) suspended* fo r a m o n k ,
1 pAvdrtrttdpa&d, I fo llo w th e reading pavarenl a s s u g g e s te d b y O ld e n b e r g a t Vin* i 3 7 9 (see || 2 J). o f C in g , cd n ., a n d

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t f O r on w h a t ? *, a n d w h ic h in re g a rd to w h a t is seen , heard, su sp ected , re p ro v in g a n d re p ro v e d , g ra v e offence* m a tte r , strife . A n d a p ro te c tio n o f a ji I n v ita tio n d a y , n o t m a ste r, m a y in v ite . [ 178]

S3 6

THE

GREAT

D IV IS IO N

(M A H A V A G G A )

A t one tim e th e a w aken ed one, th e L o rd , w a s s ta y in g a t R a ja g a h a on M o u n t V u ltu re P e a k . N o w a t th a t tim e K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M ag ad h a ru le d w ith su p rem e a u th o r ity o v e r e ig h ty th o u sa n d villages* N o w at th a t tim e, a t C a m p a, a m e rc h a n t's so n c a lle d S o n a K o liv is a 1 w a s d e lic a te ly n u rtu red a n d d o w n ca m e to h a v e grow n on th e soles of h is feet* T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra of M agad ha, h a v in g h a d th o se e ig h t y th o u s a n d v illa g e o verseers2 co n ven ed , sen t a m essen ger to S o n a K o liv is a on som e bu sin ess, s a y in g : " L e t S o n a co m e, I w a n t S o n a t o com e/* [| i |j 1 T h e n S o n a K o liv is a s p a ren ts sp o k e th u s to S o n a K o liv is a : r' T h e k in g , d ear S o n a , w a n ts to see y o u r feet. D o n o t y o u , d e a r S a n a , stre tc h o u t y o u r fe et to w a rd s th e k in g ; s it d o w n cro ss-legged in fron t o f th e fcingj a n d as y o u are s ittin g dow n th e k in g w ill see y o u r fee*# h T h en th e y sent S o n a K o liv is a a w a y in a p a la n q u in . T h e n S o n a K o jiv is a a p p ro a ch e d K in g S e n ty a B im b is a ra o f M a gad h a, h a v in g a p p ro a ch ed , h a v in g g ree te d K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra of M a gad h a, he s a t d o w n cro ss-tegged in fron t o f th e king. So K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra of M a g a d h a saw th e d ow n th a t w a s g ro w in g on th e so les o f S o n a K o liv is a J s fe e t. || 2 | | T h e n K in g S e n iy a B in b isa ra o f M a g a d h a , h a v in g in stru c te d th o se e ig h ty th o u sa n d villa g e o verseers in m a tte rs co n cern in g th is w o rld , d ism issed them,, s a y in g : " Y o u , g o o d sirs, are n o w in s tru c te d b y m e in m a tte rs C oncerning th is w o rld ; go alo n g, p a y h o m a g e to th is L o rd , and our L o rd w ill in stru c t y o u in tra n sc e n d e n ta l m a t t e r y " T h en th o se e ig h ty th o u sa n d v illa g e o verseers a p p ro a ch e d M ount V u ltu re P e a k . J j3 | | N o w a t th a t tim e the v e n era b le S a g a t a 3 w a s th e L o rd 's a tte n d a n t. T h e n th o se e ig h ty th o u sa n d v illa g e o verseers
1 T h is So^a ep iso d e recurs, in a shorter (arm, a t .d. iii, 3^4-9*
a t Thug* in T ha gA fo r e m o s t * VA. 634-64+. L e g e n d o f how he ca m e t o b e c a lle d Soria , [see P $ s. FirctA* p . 1 7 5 M , an d A A . i. 333 f* A t A io f th o s e w h o p u t fo rth e n e r g y ; h is c la n n am e is th eye i c S i sp e a k s o f th e s e a s sons o f (respectable) fam ilies

S o la 's verses (golden) g iv e n 24 h e is ca lle d s p e lt K ojivisa., liv in g in th ese

villages-,
C f . Vivt, iv, jd S . w h ere S a g a U J s b e h a v io u r g a v e rise t-o t h e offen ce of d r in k in g fctroag drrnk* S e e 11 3.^2, n. 6_

1.4 7]

MAHAVAGGA

*37

a p p ro a c h e d the v e n e ra b le S a g a ta ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , [ 179] t h e y sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le S a g a ta : " H o n o u red sir, th e se e ig h ty th o u s a n d v illa g e o verseers are a p p ro a c h in g here to see th e L o rd . I t w ere g o o d , h o n o u red sir, if w e m ig h t h a v e a ch an ce to see th e L o r d / ' " W e ll, th e n , d o y o u , ve n e ra b le o n es, re m a in 1 h ere fo r a m om ent u n til I h a v e Jet th e L o rd k n o w / ' || 4 || T h e n th e ve n e ra b le S a g a ta , h a v in g ste p p e d d o w n a fro m th e m oonstone (step )3 in fro n t o f the e ig h ty th o u sa n d w a tc h in g v illa g e o verseers, h a v in g step p ed u p 3 in fro n t o f th e L o rd , sp o k e th u s to the L o rd : " L o rd , th ese e ig h t y th o u sa n d v illa g e overseers are a p p ro a c h in g here to see th e L o rd . L o rd , does th e L o rd th in k it is n o w th e righ t tim e fo r th is ? *r < f W e ll, th en , d o y o u , S a g a ta . m ake a se a t r e a d y in th e sh a d e o f th e d w e liin g -p la c c / J || 5 | | V e r y w el], L o r d ," an d the ve n e ra b le S a g a ta h a v in g an sw ered th e L o rd in a ssen t, h a v in g ta k e n a c h a ir, h a v in g step p ed d o w n fro m in fro n t o f the L o rd , h a v in g ste p p e d up on the m o o n sto n e (step) in fro n t o f th e e ig h ty th o u s a n d w a tc h in g v illa g e o verseers, m a d e re a d y a seat in th e sh a d e o f th e d w ellin g -p la ce. T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g issu ed from th e d w e llin g -p la ce , sat d ow n on th e sea t m a d e r e a d y in th e sh ad e o f th e d w cllin g -p ia ce. || 6 \ \ T h e n th o se e ig h ty th o u sa n d v illa g e o verseers a p p ro a ch e d th e L o rd j h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , h a v in g g ree te d th e L o rd , th e y s a t d ow n a t a re sp e c tfu l distance- T h e n th o se e ig h ty th o u sa n d v illa g e o verseers p a id resp ect o n ly to th e ve n e ra b le S a g a ta , not lik e w ise to th e L o rd , T h en the L o rd , k n o w in g b y reaso n in g o f m ind the m in d s o f th o se e ig h ty th o u sa n d v illa g e overseers, a d d ressed th e v e n e ra b le S a g a ta , s a y i n g : W ell th e n , d o y o u , S a g a ta , a b u n d a n tly sh o w a s ta te o f fu rth e r-m e n ,4 a w ond er of p s y c h ic p o w e r/ '
1 hoiha.
1 in to an'd 1 n im u jjitva * , . utnntvjjitva> T h e s e tw o v e r t s are o fte n u se d of p i tin gin g a n d ^merging^ fro m w a te r . H e r e th e y see in t o m ead g e tt in g off one stepo n to a n other.

pa tik d , such as is (in tht old citics of CeyEon) a n architectural feature placed a t the bottom cf a. short flight of steps leadin g u p to a inhHra of & " temple f\ See AfAui. 31. 6 1 * N o w a d a y s it is called 4 1 moonstone step " , although in shape it is h a lf a drctc. It is ca.llc<3 1,1 half-m oon stone

a$$hacandapasdnat a

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S e e B .H . i., In tr . p . x x j v fl*

33

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" V e r y well* L o r d , an d th e v e n e ra b le S a g a ta , h a v in g a n sw e re d th e L o rd in assent, h a v in g risen a b o v e th e g ro u n d ,1 p a c e d u p a n d d ow n in th e air, in th e a tm o sp h ere, a n d h e sto o d , a n d h e s a t dowrt, a n d he la y dow n* a n d h e sm o k ed 1 a n d he b la ze d *3 an d th e n h e va n ish ed . U7 || T h e n th e v e n e ra b le Sagata* h a v in g sh o w n in th e a ir t in th e a tm o sp h e re, v a rio u s s ta te s o f fu rth e r-m e n a jid w o n d ers o f p s y c h ic p o w er, h a v in g in clin ed h is h e a d to w a rd s th e L o rd 's feet, sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : T t L o rd , th e L o rd is m y te a ch er, I am a discipJe ; L o rd , th e L o rd is m y te a ch er, I am a d iscip le J\ T h e n th o se e ig h ty th o u s a n d v illa g e o verseers, s a y in g : ** In d e e d it is m arvellous* in d ee d , it is w o n d e rfu l, th a t e v e n a d iscip le c a n b e o f su c h g rea t p sy ch ic p o w er, o f su c h g r e a t m ig h t. W h a t m u st th e te a c h e r be ? " p a id re sp e c t o n ly to th e L o rd , n o t lik e w ise to th e v e n era b le S a g a ta . J jS \ \ T h e n th e L o rd , k n o w in g b y reaso n in g o f m in d th e m in d s o f th o se e ig h t y th o u s a n d v illa g e o verseers, ta lk e d a pro g re s siv e t a l k / th a t is to s a y ta lk o n g iv in g , ta lk on m o ra l h a b it, [ 180] t a lk on h e a v e n , he e x p la in e d th e p eril, th e van ity,, th e d e p r a v it y o f p le a su re s o f th e senses, th e a d v a n ta g e in re n o u n c in g (them ). W h e n th e L o rd k n ew th a t th e ir m ind s w e re re a d y , m a lle a b le , d evo id o f th e h in d ra n ces, u p lifte d , p le a se d , th e n h e e x p la in e d to th e m th a t te a c h in g on dhamma w h ic h th e a w a k e n e d ones h a v e th e m selve s d is c o v e r e d : ill, u p risin g, sto p p in g , th e w a y . A n d as a clean c lo th w ith o u t b la c k sp e c k s w ill e a s ily ta k e d y e , e ve n so as th o se e ig h ty th o u s a n d v illa g e o verseers w ere [sitting) on th a t v e r y seat, dhamma-wisioiit d u stless, stain less, a r o s e ; th a t, fl w h a te v e r is o f th e n a tu re to u p rise, all th a t is o f th e n a tu re to s t o p ." || g || T hese* h a v in g seen dhamma,* a tta in e d dhamma, k n o w n dhamma,, p lu n g e d in to dham m a , h a v in g cro ssed o v e r d o u b t, h a v in g p u t a w a y u n c e rta in ty , h a v in g a tta in e d w ith o u t a n o th e r's h e lp to f u ll co n fid e n ce in the te a c h e r's in stru c tio n , sp o k e th u s to th e L o r d : E x c e lle n t, L o rd , it is e x c e lle n t. L ord* J u s t as.

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L o rd , o n e sh o u ld se t u p rig h t w h a t h a s been u p set o r sh o u ld u n c o v e r w h a t is c o v e re d o r sh o u ld p o in t o u t th e w a y t o o n e w h o is a s tr a y o r sh o u ld b rin g a la m p in to th e d a rk n e ss s o th a t th o se w ith e y e s m ig h t see form s, e v e n s o is dhamma e x p la in e d in m a n y a figure b y th e L o rd . W e , L o rd , a re th o se g o in g t o th e L o rd fo r refu ge, to dhamma a n d to th e O rd er o f m onks* M a y th e L o rd re ce ive u s as la y fo llo w e rs g o n e fo r re fu g e on th is d a y fo r as lo n g a s life l a s t s . J j 10 j| T h e n it o ccu rred to S o n a K o liv is a : " In so fa r a s I u n d e r sta n d dhamma ta u g h t b y th e L o rd it is n o t e a s y fo r th o se w h o liv e in a house to le a d th e B r a h m a -fa r in g t h a t Is w h o lly co m p le te , w h o lly p u re , a n d p olish ed lik e a co n ch -sh elL W h a t n o w if l r h a v in g c u t o ff h a ir a n d b e a rd , h a v in g d on n ed y e llo w robes, sh o u ld go fo rth from hom e in to ho m elessn ess ? Then th o se e ig h t y th o u sa n d v illa g e overseers, d e lig h te d w it h th e L o r d s sp eech , h a v in g g iv e n th a n k s fo r it* h a v in g risen fro m the se a t, h a v in g g ree te d th e L o rd , d e p a rte d k e e p in g th e ir rig h t sid es to w a rd s him_ [\ 1 1 ]| T h e n S o n a K o liv is a , soon a fte r th o se e ig h t y th o u s a n d v illa g e o verseers h ad d e p a rte d , a p p ro a c h e d th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch ed , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , he s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c t fu l dListance. A s he w a s s ittin g d ow n a t a re sp e c tfu l distance* S o n a K o jiv is a sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : " In so fa r as I , L o rd , u n d e rsta n d dham?n& ta u g h t b y the L o r d i t is n o t e a s y fo r th o s e w h o liv e in a house to le a d th e B ra h m a -fa rin g th a t is w h o lly co m p le te , w h o lly p u re a n d p o lish ed 3 ik e a con ch -sh elL I w a n t. L o rd , h a v in g c u t o ff h a ir a n d beard, h a v in g d o n n ed y e llo w robes, to g o fo r th fro m h o m e in to hom elessness. L o rd , m a y th e L o r d le t m e g o fo r th / ' So S o n a K o liv is a r e c e iv e d th e g o in g fo r th in th e L o rd 's p resen ce, h e re c e iv e d ord in atio n * A n d soon a fte r h e w a s o rd a in e d [181] th e ve n e ra b le S o n a s ta y e d in th e C o o l G ro ve- \ \ r 2 j| B e c a u s e o f h is g re a t o u tp u t o f e n e rg y in p a c in g u p a n d d o w n his fe e t b ro k e , th e p la c e fo r p a cin g u p a n d d o w n in b e c a m e sta in e d w ith b lo o d a s th o u g h there h a d b een s la u g h te r o f cattle* T h e n a s th e ve n e ra b le S o n a w as m e d ita tin g in p r iv a te a reaso n in g arose in his m in d t h u s : " T h o se w h o a re th e L o r d 's discip les d w e ll p u ttin g fo r th e n e r g y ; I am one o f th e se, y e t m y m in d i& n o t freed fro m th e c a n k e rs w ith n o g ra sp in g , a n d m o reover th ere are m y fa m ily 's possessions. I t m ig h t be

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p o ssib le to e n jo y th e possessions a n d to do good- Suppose th a t I , h a v in g re tu rn e d to th e lo w life , sh o u ld e n jo y th e possessions an d sh o u ld d o good ? " ]| 13 [ | T h e n th e L o rd , k n o w in g b y m in d th e v e n e ra b le S o n a 's reaso n in g o f m in d , as a stro n g m an m ig h t stre tc h o u t his b en t arm , o r m ig h t b en d b a c k hts o u tstre tc h e d arm , so d id he, v a n ish in g from M o n n t V u ltu re P e a k , a p p e a r in th e Cool G ro v e .1 T h e n th e L o rd , to u rin g th e lo d gin gs to g e th e r w ith s e v e ra l m o n k s, a p p ro a c h e d th e ve n e ra b le S o n a 's p la ce fo r p a c in g u p a n d d o w n in. T h e L o rd sa w th a t th e ve n e ra b le S o n a 's p la c e fo r p a c in g u p an d d ow n in w a s sta in e d w ith b lood , an d se e in g (th is), h e a d d ressed th e monks* s a y in g : N o w w h y , m o n ks, is th is p la ce fo r p a c in g u p a n d dow n in Stain ed w ith b lo o d a s th o u g h th ere h a s been sla u g h te r of c a ttle ? " ** L o rd , because o f th e ven era b le S o n a 's g re a t e n e rg y in p a c in g u p a n d d o w n his fe et b ro k e , a n d th is p la c e fo r p a c in g u p a n d dow n in is sta in e d w ith his b lo o d as th o u g h th e re h ad b een sla u g h te r o f c a t t le / ' H14 || T h e n th e L o rd a p p ro a ch e d th e v e n e ra b le S o n a 's d w ellin g p la ce , a n d h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d he s a t d o w n on an a p p o in te d s e a t. A n d th e v e n e ra b le Son a, h a v in g g ree te d th e Lord* sat d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n ce. T h e L o r d sp oke th u s to th e v e n e ra b le S o n a a s h e w a s sittin g a t a resp ectfu l d ista n c e : " S o n a , a s y o u w ere m e d ita tin g in p r iv a te d id not a reasonin g arise in y o u r m in d lik e t h i s : * T h o se w h o are th e L o rd 's d iscip les d w e ll p u ttin g fo rth e n e rg y + (as in [ | X3 ||) , . * S u p p o se t h a t I, h a v in g retu rn ed to th e lo w life, sh o u ld e n jo y th e possessions a n d sh o u ld d o g o o d * ? ,J " Y e s, L o rd /' " W h a t d o y o u th in k ab o u t th is, S o n a ? W ere y o u cle v e r a t th e lu te 's strin g e d m u sic w hen fo rm e rly y o u w ere a house* h o ld er ? " Y e s , L o r d .'7 " W h a t do y o u th in k a b o u t th is, S o n a ? W h en th e strin g s of y o u r lu te w ere to o ta u t, was y o u r lu te a t th a t tim e tu n e fu l a n d fit fo r p la y in g ? " l f N o , in d eed , L o r d / ' || r5 | J
* iii. 374. adds, after Cool Grove, " in front of the venerable So BA This, w ould balance end oi || 1 7 ( J below-

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W h a t d o y o u th in k a b o u t th is, S o n a ? W h e n th e strin g s o f y o u r lu te w ere to o s la c k , w a s y o u r lu te at th a t tim e tu n e fu l a n d fit for p la y in g ? " " N o , in d eed , L o rd /* * W h a t d o y o u th in k a b o u t this, S o n a ? W h en th e strin g s o f y o u r lu te w ere n e ith e r to o t a u t nor to o sla c k , b u t w ere k e y e d to an e v e n p itc h 1, w a s y o u r lu te a t t h a t tim e tu n e fu l a n d fit fo r p la y in g ? " Y es, L o rd /' " E v e n so, S o n a , does to o m uch o u tp u t o f e n e rg y c o n d u ce to restlessness, [182] d oes to o feeb le e n e rg y co n d u ce t o s lo th fu ln ess. [J 1 6 fj T h e re fo re d o y o u , S o n a , d eterm in e u pon e v e n n e ss2 in e n e rg y a n d p ierce th e even n ess o f th e fa c u ltie s 3 a n d reflect u p o n it.4 " Y e s , L o rd / * th e v e n e ra b le S o n a a n sw e re d th e L o rd in assent. T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g e x h o rte d th e v e n e ra b le S o n a w ith th is e x h o rta tio n ,* a s a stro n g m a n m ig h t stre tc h o u t his b en t arm o r m ig h t ben d b a c k his o u ts tre tc h e d a rm , so d id he, v a n ish in g fro m in fro n t o f th e ve n e ra b le S o n a in th e C o o l G ro v e , a p p e a r on M o u n t V u ltu re P e a k . || 1 7 \ \ A fte r th a t* th e ve n e ra b le S o n a d e term in e d u p o n even n ess in e n e rg y a n d he p ierced th e even n ess of the fa c u ltie s a n d re fle cte d u pon it. T h e n th e ve n e ra b le S o n a , d w e llin g a lo n e, a lo o f, e a rn est, a rd en t, self-reso lu te, h a v in g soon re a lised h ere a n d n o w b y his ow n su p er-k n o w led g e th a t su p rem e g o al o f th e B ra h m a -fa rin g fo r the sa k e o f w h ich y o u n g m en o f fa m ily r ig h tly go fo r th fro m h o m e in to hom elessness, a b id e d in it* a n d he u n d ersto o d ; D e s tro y e d is b irth , ]iv e d is th e B ra h m a -fa rin g ,
1 same gu^te paiitthiia. 1 O n t h e r e a d in g s samataifi (its here) an d sam athani. see G tS. tiL 267, n- 3* T h e form er is p erh a p s t h e m o re lik e ly to b e m e a n t, a n d w o u ld c a r r y o u t t h e idea o f t h e *' eve n p itc h * ittdriy&nam ca samatam ptttivijjh a. V A , s a y s : " p ie rc e th e ev e n n e ss, tti& e ven n a tu r e 0i t h e f a c u lt y of fa ith an d so on , th e even n ess of t h e fa c u ltie s t h a t are c o n n e c te d : &o fa ith w ith w isd om a n d w is d o m w ith fa ith , e n e rg y 'with c o n te m p la tio n and c o n te m p la tio n w ith en ergy-*' 4 t&ttha ca nimittarn gajzhdhi. N itniitani gan hd ii c a n m ean t o g ra sp a sign, a sa lie n t f e a t u r e ; o r t o r e fle ct on a m e n ta l o b je c t , V A - 10S1 s a y s ; m in d fu ln e ss as t o th is e v e n n e ss sh o u ld arise ; s e iz e o n t h a t c h a r a c te r is tic of (or, reflect on) t r a n q u illity , in s ig h t, th e w a y s , th e fr u its, a n d p r a c tis e these, * Referred- t o a t A A . i. -237 a s vln&vi}dat t h e e x h o r ta tio n on th e lu te ; cf. P&s. jBreth. p . 2 76 , * aparena satnaytna,,

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d o n e is w h a t w a s to be done, th e re is no m ore o f b e in g su ch a n d such. A n d so th e v e n era b le S o n a b e ca m e o n e o f th e p e r fe c te d ones. |] 18 || W h e n th e v e n e ra b le S o n a h a d a tta in e d p erfe ctio n , it o ccu rred to him : S u p p o se T w ere to d e cla re p ro fo u n d k n o w le d g e 1 in th e L o r d 's p resen ce ? T h en th e ve n e ra b le S o n a a p p ro a ch e d th e L o rd ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , h e sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l distance* A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n ce, th e ven era b le S o n a sp o k e th u s to th e L o rd : ]| X9 | | " L o rd , t h a t m o n k w h o is one p e rfe c te d , w h o h a s d e stro y e d th e c a n k e rs, liv e d th e life* done w h a t w a s to be d o n e, sh ed th e b u rd e n , w o n his o w n g o al, d e stro y e d u tte r ly th e fe tte r o f b ecom in g, an d is w h o lly freed b y p ro fo u n d k n o w led g e, he co m es to b e in te n t u p o n 2 six m a tte rs ; h e com es to b e in te n t u p o n renunciation* h e cotnes to b e in te n t u p o n aloofn ess, he com es to be in te n t u p o n n on -h arm in g, h e com es to b e in te n t u p o n th e d e stru c tio n o f gra sp in g , h e co m es to be in te n t upon th e d e stru c tio n o f cravin gs he com es to be in te n t upon n o n c o n fu sio n . || 20 [ | P e rh a p s, L o rd , o n e o f th e v e n e ra b le ones h ere m ig h t th in k ; C o u ld it b e t h a t th is v e n e ra b le one is in te n t u pon re n u n cia tio n d e p e n d in g u pon m ere fa ith alon e ? 1 B u t th is, L o rd , is n o t to be re g a rd e d th u s . L o rd , the m o n k w h o h a s d e stro y e d th e ca n k e rs, h a s liv e d th e life, done w h a t w as to b e d one, n o t seein g a u g h t in h im se lf to be d on e or to be a d d e d to w h a t h a s been d o n e, b e in g passionless com es to be in te n t on re n u n cia tio n b e cau se o f th e d e stru c tio n of passio n , b e in g w ith o u t h a tre d com es to be in te n t on ren u n ciatio n because o f th e d e stru ctio n o f h a tre d , b e in g w ith o u t confusion com es to b e in te n t on re n u n c ia tio n b ecau se o f th e d e stru c tio n o f con fu sion , j j a t || P e rh a p s, L o rd , one o f th e ve n e ra b le ones here m ig h t th in k 1 ' C o u ld it b e th a t th is ve n e ra b le one [1S 3] is in te n t on alo o fn ess w h ite h a n k e rin g a fte r g a in s, h onour, fam e ? 1 B u t th is. L o rd , is n o t to b e regard ed th u s. L o rd , th e m o n k w h o h as d e stro y e d th e ca n k e rs , o r to be a d d e d to w h a t h as been donej b e in g passion less com es to be in te n t on aloofness b ecau se 1 gnosis.

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o f th e d e stru c tio n o f p assio n , b ein g w ith o u t h a tr e d - . b ein g w ith o u t con fu sio n co m es t o b e in te n t on a lo o fn e ss b e c a u s e o f th e d e s tru c tio n o f co n fu sio n . [| 22 || F e rh a p s, L o rd , o n e o f th e v e n e ra b le ones h ere m ig h t th in k : j 4 C o u ld it b e t h a t th is v e n e ra b le one is in te n t on n o n -h a rm in g , is b a c k s lid in g fro m th e cssen ce to th e c o n ta g io n of h a b it a n d c u sto m 1 ? ' B u t th is, L o rd , is n o t to b e re g a rd e d th u s. L o rd , th e m o n k w h o has d e stro y e d th e can kers . * o r to b e a d d e d to w h a t has been d on e, b e in g passion less co m es to be in te n t on n o n -h a rm in g because o f th e d e stru c tio n o f p a ssio n , b e in g w ith o u t h a tr e d . , - b e in g w ith o u t co n fu sio n co m es to be in te n t on n o n -h a rm in g becau se o f th e d e stru ctio n o f confusion* | | 33 \ \ B e in g passionless h e co m es to b e in te n t on th e d e stru c tio n o f g ra sp in g b ecau se o f the d e stru c tio n o f passion* b e in g w ith o u t h a tre d he com es to b e in te n t on th e d e stru c tio n o f g ra sp in g b ecau se o f th e d e stru c tio n o f h a tre d , b e in g w ith o u t con fu sio n h e com es to be in te n t on th e d e stru c tio n o f g ra sp in g b e ca u se o f th e d e stru c tio n o f co n fu sio n ; b ein g p assio n less he co m es to b e in te n t on th e d e stru ctio n -of c r a v in g b ecau se o f th e d e stru c tio n o f passion, b e in g w ith o u t h a tre d h e com es to be in te n t on th e d e stru ctio n o f c ra v in g b e c a u s e o f th e d e stru c tio n o f h a tre d , b ein g w ith o u t confusion he co m es to be in te n t on th e d e stru c tio n o f c r a v in g b ecau se o f th e d e stru c tio n o f c o n fusion ; b e in g p assio n less he com es to b e in te n t on non co n fu sio n b ecau se o f th e d e stru c tio n o f passio n , b ein g w ith o u t h a tre d h e co m es to be in te n t on n o n -co n fu sio n b e cau se o f th e d e stru c tio n o f h a tre d , b e in g w ith o u t con fu sio n he com es to be in te n t on n o n -con fu sion b ecau se o f th e d e stru ctio n o f c o n fusion. || iz4 j| " T h u s , L o rd , e v e n i f 2 sh apes c o g n isa b le b y th e e y e co m e v e r y s tr o n g ly in to th e field o f vision o f a m o n k w h ose m in d is w h o lly freed , th e y d o n o t obsess his m in d fo r h is m in d co m es to be undefiled,* firm , w o n to co m p o su re, a n d h e n o te s its 1 sllabbatapar&m*Lsa+ '
V A . 10S2 e x p la in s ; si Ia n ca v&laii ca pardm aH tvd

ru a n d c u s to m " (as t h o u g h tills w ere enough), * A s also a t A . iv* 404.

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* atnissikafA. V A * 10 8 2 e x p la in s th is t o mean, u n m b ced w ith (or, tsndefiled b y ) th e k iU sas (o b stru ctio n s).

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p a ssin g h en ce,1 I f so u n d s co gn isab le b y th e e a r * * * i f scen ts co g n isab le b y th e nose * . . if ta ste s co gn isab le b y th e to n gu e * * . if to u ch e s co g n isab le b y th e b o d y P * if m e n ta l objects* co gn isab le b y th e m in d 3 com e v e r y stro n g ly in to th e field o f th o u g h t o f a m o n k w h o se m in d is w h o lly freed j t h e y d o n o t obsess h is m in d fo r h is m in d co m es to be u n d efiled , firm , w a n to co m p o su re , a n d h e n o te s its p a ssin g h en ce, |j 25 ]| ** I t is a s i f t L o rd j th e re w ere a r o c k y m o u n ta in slo p e w ith o u t a c le ft, w ith o u t a h o llo w , o f one m a ss, a n d a s i f w ild w in d an d ra in sh o u ld com e v e r y s tr o n g ly fro m th e eastern q u a rte r it w ould, n e ith e r tre m b le n o r q u a k e n o r sh ake v io le n tly ; an d a s if w ild w in d a n d ra in sh o u ld co m e v e r y s tr o n g ly from th e w e ste rn q u a rte r . * . fro m the n o rth ern q u a rte r 4 . . from th e so u th ern q u a rter i t w o u ld n eith er tre m b le n o r q u a k e n or sh a k e v io le n tly . E v e n so. L o rd , if sh ap es co gn isab le b y th e e y e com e v e r y s tr o n g ly in to th e field of visio n o f a m o n k w h ose m in d is w h o lly freed * . - if m e n ta l o b je c ts co gn isable b y th e m in d com e v e r y stro n g ly in to th e field of th o u g h t o f a m o n k w h o se m in d is w h o lly freed, t h e y d o n o t obsess his m in d , fo r h is m in d com es to b e ur. defiled* firm , w on to com p o su re, a n d h e notes, its p a ssin g h e n ce / ' || 26 || I f one is in te n t u p o n ren u n ciatio n a n d m in d 's aloofness*, I f one is in te n t u pon non -harm in g an d d estru ctio n o f g ra sp in g , [ 184] _ _ I f o n e is in te n t u p o n d e stru ctio n o f c ra v in g a n d m in d 's non-confusion, H a v in g seen sensations* rise, his m in d is w h o lly freed . F o r th a t m o n k w h o se m ind is ca lm e d a n d w h o lly freed T h e re is n o th in g to ad d to w h a t has been d o n e, there is n a u g h t to b e d one. A s a ro c k o f one mas& b y w in d is n e v e r m o v e d ,* S o sh a p es, ta ste s, so u n d s, scents, to u ch e s a n d all
* V A . 1083 s a y s th is m e a n s i- " h e sees th e a risin g a n d p a s s in g a w a y o f t h a t m in d " , ciftassa x*ppdda*n p i uayam p i passcrti.

1 matto. * T h e s e lin es, to t h e end,, fo rm th e co n clu sio n o f t h e verses ascrib ed t o S01,1a K o liv is a a t Thag, 6406-4^* T h e y a ls o o c c u r a t A * Hi. 378 f. M e tr ic a l t r a n s la tio n s are a t Pss+ fireth. 2 7 7 an d 6 ,5 . iii. 369 f. V ersio n a b o v e , a n d t h a t a t V in . T exts ii. 12 a r e r a th e r m ore lite r a l in p la ce s ; b u t n o n e o f t h e oth ers r e co g n ise s t h a t dkamma m e a n s m e n ta l o b je c ts (last lin e b a t oueJp a n d a lr e a d y referred to b y S o g a (as th e s ix th *' se n se-d a tu m J *) T h is lin e o ccu rs a t D h . -Si.

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P le a sa n t an d u n p lea sa n t m e n ta l o b je c ts 1 s tir n o t a m a n lik e this* H is m in d is firm , w e ll fr e e d ,2 an d h e notes its p assin g hen ce. *27 II T h e n th e L o rd ad dressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g : T h u s , m o n k s, d o y o u n g m en o f fa m ily d eclare p ro fo u n d kn o w led ge- T h e g o a l is sp o k en o f b u t th e se lf is n o t o b tru d e d . B u t th e n it seem s to m e th a t th e re are som e fo o lish m en here w h o d e cla re p ro fo u n d k n o w led g e fo r f u n ; th e se a fte rw a rd s c o m e to d is a s te r / '3 | ] 28 || T h e n th e L o r d a d d ressed th e v e n e ra b le S o n a , s a y in g ; * * Y o u , S o n a , h a v e been d e lic a te ly nurtured* I a llo w fo r y o u , Son a, sa n d a ls w ith one lining/* " B u t I , L o rd , g a v e tip e ig h ty c a rtlo a d s o f g o ld 4 w h e n I w e n t fo r th from h o m e in to hom elessness, a n d a h e rd o f seven e le p h a n ts ,5 B e c a u s e o f th is there w ill b e sp ea k e rs a g a in s t me, s a y i n g : * S o n a K o liv is a g a v e u p e ig h t y c a rtlo a d s o f g o ld w h en he w e n t fo rth from h o m e in to h o m elessn ess, a n d a herd o f seven e le p h a n ts ; a n d n o w th is v e r y (person) is clin g in g on t o fl sa n d a ls w ith one lin in g / || 29 || ,f I f th e L o rd w ill a llo w th em to th e O rd er o f m o n k s, I too w ill m a k e u se o f them , b u t if th e L o rd w ill n o t a llo w th e m to th e O rd er of m on ks, n e ith e r w ill I m a k e use o f th e m / ' T h e n th e L o rd on th is occasio n , h a v in g g iv en reaso n ed ta lk , ad d ressed th e m o n k s , s a y in g : ** M onks, X a llo w sa n d a ls w ith one lining* M onks, d o u b ly lin e d : san d als sh o u ld n o t be w orn , t r e b ly lin e d 7 san d als sh o u ld

1 S e e n o te a t M V I, It. z (a b o v e) fo r fu r th e r references. * Thag. 644 reads vis^nnuiiaTp in ste a d o f v ip pa m u ttam (&s a b o v e a n d &t A . in* 3 j$ ) . ' * T h is p a r a g r a p h o ccu rs a t A * iii. 359. C f. A . i. -213 ; G . S . i. 19* n. * ; M i ln , 396, V A + 10S3 e x p la in s " t h e go^.1 is s p o k e n o f p t b y s a y in g " if b e is c a lle d a n a r a h a n t, t h a t is t h e g o a l sp oken of. J iu t p r o p e r ly {euo} i t should, b e ta k e n a s * th e m e a n in g o i a sutta. from t h e e x p la n a tio n o f a s u t t a n t a 1 *' (aHAa m e a n s b o th g o a l a n d m ean in g)* I t ejtp la in s H ' th e self is n o t o b tr u d e d " a s " if (th e p ro fo u n d k n o w le d g e ) is declared th u s, 1 I a m an a r a h a n t rf t h e self is n o t o b tr u d e d '* (or m en tio n ed or b r o u g h t fo rw ard , na upanttu). 4 M is p rin t a t V in + i. 1 S 5 h a s b een co r r e cte d a t Vin* T e x ts iL 13,. n, 3 t o asitisakiitiivdhz hiraiinaift. * V A . i o f l j s a y s t h a t here th is h e rd (retinu e, a r r a y , anika) is c a lle d s ix c o w -e le p h a n ts a n d o n e b u ll-elep h a n t* * saiio {w ith in stru m e n ta l), or f is en a m o u red o f \ * digufta * . * . tigunn.

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n o t b e w o rn , sa n d a ls w ith m a n y lin in gs1 sh o u ld n o t b e w o rn . W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (a n y of th ese), th ere is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' || 30 || 1 \ \ N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s w o re sa n d a ls th a t w ere e n tir e ly d a rk g re e n 2 . - - th a t w ere e n tire ly y e llo w . . . th a t w e re e n tir e ly re d . * * th a t w ere e n tir e ly crim so n - , th a t w ere e n tir e ly b la c k . , , th a t w ere d y e d e n tir e ly o ra n g e 3 . * th a t w e re d y e d e n tir e ly m u lti-c o lo u rcd .4 P e o p le lo o k e d d ow n upon , c riticise d , sp read it ab o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e senses. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : r- M onks, sa n d a ls th a t are e n tire ly d a rk green a re n o t to b e w orn p - , sandaJs th a t are d yed e n tir e ly m u lti-co lo u red a re n o t to b e w o rn . W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (a n y o f th ese), th ere is an offen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' |j 1 | [ N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s [185] w ore sa n d a ls w ith d a r k green stra p s 5 . . * w ith y e llo w stra p s , . . w ith red s tra p s , . . w ith crim son stra p s * . . w ith b la c k strap s _ . . w ith d y e d o ra n g e stra p s , * . w ith d yed m u lti-co lo u red stra p s. P eo p le . * * sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g 1 " L i k e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e senses *\ T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd , H e sa id : M onks, sa n d a ls w ith d a rk g ree n stra p s T _ , sa n d a ls w ith d y e d m u lti-c o lo u re d stra p s are not to b e worn* W h o e v e r sh ould w e a r (a n y o f these), th ere is an offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' j[ 2 |j N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m o n k s w o re san d als w ith heel^ ooverings0 - * . sa n d a ls th a t w ere k n e e -b o o ts 7 . * , sand als

1 gcrpafptganupdhana V A . 083 Say& " s a n d a l s w it h u p w a r d s o f fou r lin in g s niliba . See ii. 407, n, 2, 408, n. 2, 2. * ntahdrangaratta, V A * io & jj 4 1 the co lo u r oi a c e n tip e d e s back \ * m ahan&m araZU i . V A - 1083 says, -i i t i s w h en t h e c o l o u r s a r e m i x e d ,
p a le f o lia g e , b u t t h e J u r u iid iy & c a l l s i t t h e c o lo u r s o f t h e f l o w e r s ,J* T h e s e c o u ld b e re d o r w h ite , A fa ftd n d n ta m a y b e t h e n a m e o 1 a p la n t , h o w e v e i* th e C o lo u r s of

p a d u m a ^ o tu s

a V A , 10 84 r e a d s v a g $ h ik a t a n d e x p la in s b y * khvUakabiiddhO'. C f. 2*v A < lz y . See n o te a t V in . T e x ts iL 1 5 on d o u b tfu l m ea n in g o f th e n a tu r e of a ll the&e form s of fo o t-c o v c r m g , so c u r io u s ly called upahatta, s a n d a ls or slippers. 7 pu fabaddha. V A , J084 s a y s it 19 caUcd a G r e e k tytfnaAtf) s a n d a l; it covcrs- th e w h o le f o o t a s faT as t h e k n e e *'

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th a t w ere to p -b o o ts1 * * * sa n d a ls t h a t w e re filled w ith c o tto n 3 , , * sa n d a ls of (m a n y h u e s like) p a rtrid g e s' w in g s 3 . . . sa n d a ls p o in te d w ith ra m s' horn s * * . sa n d a ls p o in te d w ith goats* h o m s * * * sa n d a ls (ornam ented) w ith sc o rp io n s' ta ils , , sa n d a ls sew n ro u n d w ith peacocks* ta il fe a th e rs . . . em b ro id ered * sa n d a ls. P e o p le lo o k e d d o w n upon, c ritic is e d , sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p leasu res o f th e sen ses T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a id : " M onks, sa n d a ls w ith h e el-co v erin g s sh o u ld n ot b e w o rn * . * em b ro id ered sa n d a ls sh o u ld n o t b e worn* W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (a n y o f these), th ere is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' || 3 \ \ N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m o n k s w ore sa n d a ls d e co ra te d w ith lio n -sk in s5 , ** w ith tig e r-sk in s * . , w ith p a n th ersk in s * . . w ith b la c k a n telo p e-sk in s , . . w it h o tte r -sk in s . . . w ith ca t-sk in s , . . w ith sq u irrel-skin s . . w ith o w l-s k in s7. P e o p le . - , sp read it about* sa y in g : " L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p lea su res o f the se n s e s / 1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d : " M onks, sa n d a ls d e co ra te d w ith lio n -sk in s * . * w ith ow l* sk in s are n o t to b e w o rn . W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (a-ny of these) th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g .'" II 4 II 2 J | T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g dressed in th e m o rn in g , ta k in g h is b o w l an d ro b e, en te red R a ja g a h a for a lm sfo o d w ith a c e rta in m o n k a s h is a tte n d a n t. T h e n th a t m o n k w e n t lim p in g a lo n g b e h in d th e L o rd - A c e rta in la y fo llo w er, h a v in g p u t on san d als w ith m a n y lin in gs, sa w th e L o rd co m in g fro m a la r ; seein g h im , h a v in g ta k e n o ff h is san d als, he a p p ro a c h e d th e L o rd ;
1 pdliguyfhima. These covered th e upper pdda* loot or leg, b u t n o t the knee, VA. 10S4. * iufapunfiika- O n th e three kinds of cotto n , taiezt see B .D . iii. 9-2., and n- s there* * tittirapattika* V A , *084 explains b y ttiiirapattasadisa vioi!tavaddha3 -which is followed in a b o v e translatioc, alth ou gh ** dyed m ulti-coloured w * hiLS already been dealt -with,
* citra ; o fte n m eans v a r io u s ly c-oloorod or gaiE y coloured . a t D . i. j . C f. cifr& pdkana

* V A , 10S4 M th e y are m ade havin g joined th e lion-akin to th e edges, as to a scam of a. robe IJ * u44&. M eanin g uncertain., see Vim, T exis ii* 16* n. 5 . B o th Ccom arasw am y, Svtne F a li Words^ H J A S t V ol. IV , no. 2, p . 133, and DPJPN art. JDabbapuppba J& takar ta k e u-dda as otter. C/. -ttddapoia a t Op. X, X* 2 1 1084 explains uiak&r owl, b y pak&hibifafa,. flyin g fox.

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h a v in g a p p ro a ch ed , h a v in g greeted th e L o rd , he a p p ro a ch e d th a t m o n k ; h a v in g a p p ro ach ed , h a v in g g re e te d t h a t m o n k , h e sp o k e th u s : || r | | " W h y , h o n o u red sir, d o es the m a ste r lim p ? " M y fe e t are sp lit, sir/* " S ee, honoured sir, here are s a n d a ls . [186] N o , sir, sa n d a ls w ith m a n y lin in gs are o b je c te d t o 1 b y th e L o r d / ' " T a k e th e se sa n d a ls, m o n k / '3 T h e n th e L o r d in th is co n n ectio n h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , ad d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : , " I a llo w y o n , m o n k s, sa n d a ls w ith m a n y lin in g s th a t h a v e b een ca st off. M onks, n ew san d als w ith m a n y lin in gs are not t o b e w orn . W h o e v e r should w ea r (these), th ere is an offen ce of w ro n g -d o in g ," |[ 2 || 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e L o rd w as p a c in g u p a n d d o w n w ith o u t Sandals in th e open air. M onks w h o w ere eld ers, th in k in g : ** T h e te a c h e r is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n w ith o u t sa n d a ls " , also p a ce d u p a n d d o w n w ith o u t sandals* T h e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, w h ile th e te a ch e r w a s p a c in g u p a n d d o w n w ith o u t sa n d a ls a n d w h ile m o n k s w h o w ere elders w e re p a c in g u p a n d d o w n w ith o u t sa n d a ls, p a c e d u p and d o w n w ith sa n d a ls on. T h o se w h o w ere m o d est m o n k s * . . sp read i t a b o u t, s y a in g : " H o w can th is g ro u p o f six m o n ks, w h ile th e te a ch e r is p a c in g u p a n d d o w n w ith o u t sa n d a ls, an d w h ile m o n k s w h o are elders are p a c in g u p a n d d o w n w ith o u t sa n d a ls, p a ce u p a n d dow n w ith san d als o n ? " || 1 |] T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord- H e s a i d : '* J s it irue^ as is said* m onks, t h a t th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, w h ile th e te a ch e r . . . w ith san d als on ? " Tt is tru e . L o r d .1' T h e a w aken ed one, th e L o rd , re b u k ed them* s a y in g ; " H o w m on ks, can th ese foolish m en , w h ile th e te a c h e r w as p a c in g u p a n d d o w n w ith o u t sandals* a n d w h ile m o n ks w h o a re eld ers w ere p a c in g u p a n d d ow n w ith o u t sa n d a ls, p a ce u p
1 pa^ikkhittd^ N o te t h a t h e d oes not s a y n o t allow ed * A s p o in te d o u t a t V in . T exts ii n 1. t h is m u st t>e u n d ersto o d as en b y G o t a m a . A la y m a n d id n o t a d d ress a m o n k as fJ m o n k * \ b u t o ta m a is c o n s ta n t ly recorded to d o so*

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a n d d o w n w ith sa n d a ls on ? F o r , m o n k s , e v e n th e se w h ite fro c k e d h o u seh o ld ers, on a c co u n t o f p ro c u rin g a c r a ft fo r th e ir liv e lih o o d , w ill b e re sp e c tfu l, d e fere n tia l, c o u rte o u s1 to w a r d s t h e ir te a ch e rs, |f 2 H " H e rein , m o n k s, le t y o u r lig h t sh in e fo r th so th a t y o u w h o h a v e th u s g o n e fo r th in th is dhamma a n d d iscip lin e w h ic h are w e ll ta u g h t m a y be* re s p e c tfu l, d e fere n tia l, c o u rte o u s to w a rd s te a ch e rs ,3g ra d e s o f te a c h e r s ,1 p recep tors, g ra d e s o f p r e c e p to r s .5 I t is n o t, m o n k s, fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o are n o t (yet) p lea sed - . / ' a n d h a v in g reb u ked th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , he ad d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : M o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t p ace u p a n d d o w n w ith sa n d a ls on w h ile te a ch e rs, g ra d e s o f te a ch ers, p re cep to rs, g ra d e s o f p re cep to rs are p a c in g u p a n d dow n w ith o u t sa n d a ls. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) p a ce u p a n d d o w n , th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g d o in g . A n d , m o n k s, y o u sh o u ld n o t w e a r san d als w ith in a m o n a ste ry . "W hoever sh o u ld w e a r th e m (there), th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' |j 3 j| 4 ? || N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to h a v e a n a fflictio n o f co rn s on h is fe e t .3 H a v in g ta k en h o ld o f th a t m o n k , th e y m a d e him g o o u t to r e lie v e him self* A s th e L o rd w a s to u rin g th e lo d g in g s h e sa w th o se m o n k s w h o , h a v in g ta k e n h o ld o f th a t m o n k, [ 187] w ere m a k in g h im go o u t to re lie v e h im self, a n d seein g (th is), he a p p ro a c h e d th o se m o n k s, h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h e sp o k e th u s to th o se m o n k s : \ { 1 |[ " W h a t, m o n ks, is th is m o n k 's d isease ? f J " L o rd , th is v e n e ra b le one h as an a fflic tio n o f co rn s on th e fe e t, a n d h a v in g ta k e n h o ld o f h im , w e are m a k in g him go
1 T h e s e ttiTee w o rd s -also a t V in . i. 45 ; A * iii* 15 ,

* C f: M V. X , 2 * 20* * The four teachers meant here, according to 10-85, those fof the going forth, for ordination, for the resources, for the recitation (oi the P^tintokkha). Cf. Vism^ 94.
* cariyatnata. V A . T0S5 t h a t o n e o f s ix y e a r s ' s ta n d in g is for one (i.e. t o t e a c h one) o f no (full) y e a r 's s ta n d in g ; so o n e o f s e v e n y e a r s ' s ta n d in g w ill b e fo r o n e o f o n e y e a r 's standing-, one o f e ig h t fo r on e of tw o , o n e o f nine for o n e o f th r e e , o n e o f t e n fo r o n e o f fou r y e a r s ' s ta n d in g .

v p a p h d y a m a tta , V A , ioS_5 : these are m onks w ho are friends and companions of a preceptor,, or of a n y who are ten years ones senior (in th e Order).

* padakhtidbadha^ KhU& m ay here mean an eruption. V A , 10&5 : tb .e= flesh comes to have stood out from (or left. niFtkhania) the foot, like a stake (reading hhilai cf* v 204 hhiid*tit v Tl khilani, meaning *f sharp stakes ")

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o u t to re lie v e h im s e lf/ ' T h e n th e L o rd in th is co n n ectio n h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , a d d ressed th e m o n ks, s a y i n g : *4 I a llo w , m o n k s, h e w hose fe et a re p a in fu l o r he w h o se fe e t a re s p lit o r he w h o has an a fflictio n of co rn s on th e feet, to w e a r s a n d a ls / j| 2 | |5 [ ] N o w a t t h a t tim e m o n k s got u p on to co u ch es a n d ch airs w ith u n w a sh e d fe et, a n d robes a n d lo d g in g s w e re so ile d .1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : r I a llo w y o n , m o n k s, w hen y o u th in k : - I w ill g e t u p now on to a couch o r a c h a ir \ to w e a r s a n d a ls / ' | ] x jj N o w a t th a t tim e , m o n k s, g o in g to a n O b se rv a n c e -h u t2 an d to a m e e tin g -p la c e a t n ig h t, in th e d a r k tr o d u p o n stu m p s o f tre es a n d on th o rn s, a n d th e ir fe et b e ca m e p a in fu l. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . He sa id : f< I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to use sa n d a ls w ith in a m o n a ste ry , a to rc h , a lig h t, a s ta ff.8 " ||2 |[ N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p of s ix m o n k s, g e ttin g u p in th e n ig h t to w a rd s d aw n , h a v in g p u t on w o o d en shoes,* paced u p a jid d o w n in th e open a ir ta lk in g in h ig h , lo u d , ra sp in g 5 to n e s a v a r ie t y o f w o r ld ly ta lk ,* th a t is to s a y ta lk o f kin gs, t a lk o f th ie v e s, ta lk o f g re a t m in isters, t a lk o f arm ies, t a lk o f d an gers, t a lk o f b a ttle s, t a lk o f food, ta lk o f d rin k , t a lk o f clo th es, t a lk o f b ed s, t a lk o f g a rla n d s, ta lk o f scen ts, t a lk o f rela tio n s, t a lk o f v e h icle s, t a lk o f v illa g e s, ta lk o f little to w n s, ta lk o f to w n s, t a lk of th e co u n try* ta lk o f w o m en , ta lk o f h e ro e s ,7 ta lk o f stre e ts, t a lk o f w ells, ta lk o f those d e p a rte d before* ta lk o f d iv e r s ity , sp ecu la tio n a b o u t th e w o rld , sp ecu la tio n a b o u t th e sea, ta lk o n b eco m in g a n d n o t b ecom in g th u s or th u s ; a n d t h e y b o th k ille d insects, h a v in g tro d d en on them , a n d a lso m ad e m o n k s fa ll nvay fro m c o n te m p la tio n .8 || 3 | | T h o se w h o w ere m o d e st m onks lo o k e d d o w n upon , c ritic iz e d ,
* C f, V in iL 174 , * uposathagga / c/* F in . iii* 66* T h e re is also upQsathdgdta, tra n s la te d a b o v e , e .g . I I , 9 , l a s " O b s e r v a n c e -h a il *\ * hoitsrada'nda ; c f * V in . iL 76, 2 1 7 , iii. 36 c. T h e Last p a r t o f th e rule * I I* I I3 I E a p p e a rs t o b e n ullified b y th is ru le a t 6. s . * hatthapad * kK&taithataadd&, so u n d s o f clearin g th e th r o a t, * tira ccK d n & k a tk d / c f J3 .ZX iii. S3 f o r n o te s . 7 s&rakaka h ere ; see B . D , ill. 83, n* 5* * C f, A . ir i 343, iv . 343.

6.4

m a h

v a g g a

25 *

sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th is g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, g e ttin g u p in th e n ig h t to w a rd s d a w n , h a v in g p u t on w o o d e n sh oes p p a c e u p a n d d o w n in th e open a ir ta lk in g in h ig h , lo u d , ra sp in g to n e s a v a r ie t y o f w o r ld ly ta lk . . * a n d b o th k ill insects* h a v in g tro d d e n on th e m , a n d also m a k e m o n k s fa ll a w a y fro m c o n te m p la tio n ? " T h e n th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : ** Ts it tru e , a s is said , m onies, th a t th e g ro u p o f s i x m o n k s, g e ttin g u p in th e n ig h t to w a rd s d a w n * * * a n d m a d e m o n k s fa ll a w a y fro m c o n te m p la tio n ? [ 188] " I t is tru e , L a r d .P J H a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , h e a d d ressed the m o n k s, s a y in g : " M on ks, w o o d en sh oes are n o t to b e w o rn . W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (them ), th e re is a n offence o f w r o n g -d o in g / ' (j 4 [{ 6 \ \ T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d a t R a ja g a h a fo r a s lo n g a s h e fo u n d su itin g , set o u t on to u r for B en a re s. In d u e co u rse, w a lk in g on to u r, h e a rriv e d a t B en ares. T h e L o rd s ta y e d th e re n e a r B e n a re s a t Is ip a ta n a in th e d e e r-p a rk . N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n ks, th in k in g , " W o o d en sh o es are o b je c te d to b y th e L o rd h a v in g h a d y o u n g p a lm y r a p a lm s1 c u t, w o re shoes o f p a lm y ra p a lm le a v e s ; th o se y o u n g p a lm y r a p a lm s w h ich w e re c u t, w ith ered - P e o p le . * , s p re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : ** H o w c a n these reclu ses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s , h a v in g h a d y o u n g p a lm y r a p a lm s c u t, w e a r shoes o f p a lm y ra p a lm le a v e s ? T h ese y o u n g p a lm y r a p a lm s w h ic h w e re c u t, are w ith e rin g . T h e se recluses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, are h a rm in g life th a t is o n e -fa c u ltie d a J | r || M onks h e a rd th ese p e o p le w h o lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic ise d , sp read it about* T h e n th e s e m o n ks to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e sa id r I s it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, t h a t th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s, h a v in g h a d y o u n g p a lm y r a paLms cut* w e a r sh oes o f p a lm y r a p a lm le a v e s, a n d t h a t th o se y o u n g p a lm y r a p a lm s w h ic h w ere c u t are w ith e rin g ? J'
* ta la ta r u n a . possibly m eaning th e shoots oi th e p alm trees ; b u t I think not, for it was prob ab ly th e yo u n g trees them selves th a t withered once th e monks h a d iia.4 som e o i their leaves c u t off, and n o t ju st tho c u t leaves or sprouts or shoots. * C/. ii* 326, iii* 320.

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" Tt is tru e . L o r d . T h e a w a k e n e d one, th e L o r d re b u k ed th e m , s a y in g : " H o w , m o n k s, c a n th e se fo o lish m e n , h a v in g h a d y o u n g p a lm y r a p a lm s c u t, w e a r shoes o f p a lm y r a palm le a v e s (so th a t) th e y o u n g p a lm y r a p alm s w ith e r ? F o r , m o n k s, p eo p le th in k t h a t th ere are liv in g th in gs in a t r e e .1 Tt is n o t, m on ks, for p le a sin g th o se w h o are n o t (yet) p le a se d . . a n d h a v in g re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , h e a d d ressed th e m o n k s , s a y in g : " M on ks, y o u sh o u ld n o t w ea r shoes o f p a lm y r a p a lm le a v e s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (them ), th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g d o in g ." || 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e grou p o f s i x m o n k s, th in k in g : * Sh oes o f p a lm y r a p a lm le a v e s are o b je cted to b y th e L o rd , h a v in g h a d y o u n g b a m b o o s c u t, w o ie sh oes o f b a m b o o le a v e s ; th o se y o u n g b a m b o o s th a t w ere cu t w ith e re d * . . {as i n |[ i t 2 |j. R ead b a m b o o instead 0/ p a lm y ra p a lm ) . , * * . . M on ks, yo u sh o u ld n o t w e a r shoes o f bam b o o le a v e s. W h o e v e r sh ould w e a r (th em ), th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g / 7 I S 3 II 7 II T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g sta y e d a t B e n a re s fo r a s lo n g as h e fo u n d su itin g , s e t o u t on to u r for B h a d d iy a . In d u e course, w a lk in g on to u r, he a r r iv e d a t B h a d d iy a , T h e L o rd s ta y e d th ere a t B h a d d iy a in th e J a tiy a G rove*2 [ 189] N o w a t th a t tim e th e m o n k s o f B h a d d iy a w ere a d d ic te d to th e p ra c tic e o f o rn a m e n tin g th e ir sh o es in a v a r ie t y o f w ays- T h e y m ade tiipa -grass shoes a n d h a d th em m a d e - . - m unja-gr&ss shoes a n d h a d th e m m a d e . . shoes of re e d s a n d h a d th e m m a d e * , , m a rsh y d a te -p a lm 3 shoes a n d h a d th e m m a d e . kam alagrass* sh oes a n d h a d th em m ad e, t h e y m ade w o o llen shoes a n d h a d th e m m a d e ; th e y n e g le c te d th e r e c ita tio n , th e
1 C f. B .D * ii. 223, 227 ^omitted b y m istak e : foolish m en . . ,J,) P 1 M entioned a t Vin, i* 241. iii* 37 : A . iii. 36, insert before *p I t is not,

1 Mntdia. Monier Williams gives r '* the marshy date tree, a species oi palm,. Phoenix or Elate Paludosa." VA. 10S5 says they are shoes made of the leaves of khajjitri (not in P.T,D** but Childers gives ^ the wild date palm tree, Phoenix Sytvestris "), but not the leaves of the hintdia itself. 4 Aa-maJa seems not to be 4 4lotus " here. V A . 1085 says, there Is a grass (ii-pd) called kam&lavattna (Aamafa-coloured, with vJ. oi -iiptt lor therefore they call the made-up shoes khus-khus shoes. For khus-khus, usira+ see iL 228, n. 1 *

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in te rro g a tio n , th e h ig h e r m o r a lity , th e h ig h e r th o u g h t, th e h ig h e r w isd o m .1 |j x || T h o se w h o w ere m o d est m o n k s Jooked d o w n u p o n , criticiscd * sp rea d it a b o u tr s a y in g : r* H o w c a n th e s e m o n k s o f B h a d d iy a be a d d ic te d to th e p ra c tic e o f o rn a m e n tin g sh o es m a v a r i e t y o f w a y s , an d m a k e tiqta-grass shoes a n d h a v e th e m m a d e .* . * a n d n c g le c t th e re c ita tio n , the in te rro g a tio n , th e h ig h e r m o ra lity , th e h ig h e r th o u g h t, th e h ig h e r w isd o m ? " T hen th e se m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " Is it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n k s, th a t th e m o n k s o f B h a d d iy a a re a d d ic te d to th e p r a c tic e o f * , a n d n e g le c t th e re c ita tio n . . . th e h ig h e r w isd o m ? " I t is tru e , L o r d / ' T h e a w a k e n e d o n e, th e L o rd re b u k e d th em s a y in g : " How* m o n k s, can th ese fo o lish m e n b e a d d ic te d t o th e p ra c tic e o f o rn a m e n tin g shoes . * * a n d n e g le c t th e re c ita tio n . . , th e h ig h e r w isd o m ? I t is n o t, m o n k s , fo r p le a s in g th o se w h o a re n o t (yet) p le a se d , , || 2 j] H a v k ig re b u k e d th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed t a lk , h e a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : J- M o n k s, tin a -grass sh oes sh o u ld n o t b e w o rn , m unja-grass sh o es . . , sh o es o f reed s . * * m a r s h y d a te -p a lm sh o es t . kam ala-grass shoes _ _ _w o o lle n shoes sh o u ld n o t be w o rn , shoes m ad e w ith g o ld . . * sh oes m ad e w ith s ilv e r * , * sh o es m ad e w ith gem s* * * , sh oes m a d e w ith la p is la z u li 3 . . , sh o es m ad e w ith c r y s t a l1 * * * w ith b ro n ze * . w it h g la s s 5 . . * w ith tin * * * . w ith le a d 7 . . . sh oes m a d e w ith co p p er sh o u ld n o t b e w orn. W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (a n y o f th ese), th ere is a n o ffen ce o f
1 C f. B .D ,
* A t D t p re c io u s o i a n y

ii. 94,
7 it is s a rd t h a t G o ta m a .a b s t a in s fr o m c r y s t a l. A t u s in g m a p i, u g e m s o r m a d e S o m e t im e s m a t e r ia ls b e r y l* a r e S e e a n d o n m e a n in g n o t

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* phalika, or quart?. * See Texis iii. 83* n. i + tipu. A t ii. 112 tin and lead supports for boivls are allowed* A t S t v. 9.2 tin a n d lead are am ong th e five corruptions (alloys) of gold, jatarupa. VbAA. 63 classifies gold (suvamta as above), tin, lead, .and th e n ext, copper (iatnbuloha) under j<UiI&hat {seven) natural m-etals. It' calls tip v w h ite tip h, and sisa dark tipv.

1 jfjca.

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w ro n g -d o in g . A n d a n y shoes, m o n ks, th a t ca n b e hand ed o n 1 sh o u ld n o t b e w o rn . W h o e v e r sh o u ld w e a r (a n y o f th ese), th e re is an o ffen ce o f w ro rg -d o in g , I allo w , m o n k s, th re e (kin d s of) shoes th a t are in fix ed p la c e s a n d t h a t ca n n o t be h a n d e d on :* p r iv y sh oes, u rin a l sh oes, rin sin g sh o e s .5 ]| 3 || 3 ]\ T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d in B h a d d iy a fo r as lo n g as h e fo u n d su itin g , se t o u t on to u r fo r S a v a tth L I n due course, w a lk in g on to u r , h e a rriv e d a t S a v a tth L T h e L o rd s ta y e d th ere in S a v a t t h i in th e J e ta G ro v e in A nathapin< JikaJ s m o n a ste ry . N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f [ 190] s ix m o n k s ca u g h t h o ld o f co w s, w h ic h w ere cro ssin g th e r iv e r A c ir a v a ti, b y th e ir ho rn s, a n d t h e y c a u g h t h o ld o f th e m b y th e ir ears, a n d t h e y c a u g h t h o ld o f th em b y th e ir d ew la p s, a n d th e y c a u g h t h o ld o f th e m b y th e ir ta ils , a n d t h e y m o u n te d on th e ir b a ck s, a n d t h e y to u c h e d th e ir p r iv y p a r ts w ith lu s tfu l th o u g h ts, a n d h a v in g d u c k e d y o u n g calves, t h e y k ille d th e m , [j 1 ]| P e o p le - . , sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w c a n th e se reclu ses, sons o f th e S a k y a n s, c a tc h h o ld o f co w s, w h ic h are cro ssin g th e r iv e r A c ir a v a ti, b y th eir h o rn s * . * lik e househ old ers w h o e n jo y p leasu res o f th e s e n s e s ? '' M onks h e a rd these peo p le w h o . . * sp re a d it a b o u t. T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e said : I s it tru e , as is sa id , m o n k s, th a t th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s c a u g h t h o ld o f co w s , . , an d h a v in g d u ck ed y o u n g c a lv e s, k illed th e m ? J " I t is tru e , L o r d / 1 || z | J H a v in g re b u k ed th e m , h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , he ad d ressed th e m onks,, s a y i n g : " M onks, y o u sh o u ld n o t c a tc h h o ld o f co w s b y th e ir horns, n o r sh o u ld y o u c a tc h h o ld of th em b y th e ir ears, n o r sh o u ld y o u c a tc h h old o f th e m b y th eir d e w la p s, n o r sh o u ld y o u c a tc h h o ld o f th e m b y th e ir ta ils, n o r sh o u ld y o u m o u n t on th e ir backs. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) m o u n t, th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g . N o r sh o u ld y o u to u c h th e ir p r iv y p a rts w ith lu s tfu l th o u g h ts. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) to u c h th e m , th ere is * had samkxmaniyd p&du&d.
* K /I. 1085 s a y s ; w e ll fix e d t o the groun d * im m o v a b le , n o t t o b e fa id ed up (or p u t a w a y , coO ectedj g a th e r e d up, asar?ih5 riy<t}. * F o r fu r th e r references* see V in . T exts ii, * 4 , iu 3.

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a g ra v e offence. N o r sh o u ld y o u k i ll y o u n g c a lv e s . W h o e v e r sh o u ld k ill th e m sh o u ld b e d e a lt w ith a c c o rd in g to th e ru le .1 " II3 II + ^ ^ N o w a t th a t tim e* th e g ro u p o i s i x m o n k s w e n t in a v e h ic le , a n d th e re w a s a b u ll in th e m id d le y o k e d w ith c o w s a n d th e re w a s a c o w in th e m id d le y o k e d w ith bulls. P e o p le - . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : " A s a t the fe s tiv a l o f th e G a n g e s an d M a h i4 \ T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d ; " M onks, y o u sh o u ld n o t g o in a v c h ic le . W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) g o , th e re is a n offen ce o f w ro n g-d o in g*5 ,J || 4 || 9 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k , g o in g th ro u g h th e K o s a la c o u n tr y to S a v a tth i in o rd er to see th e L o rd , b e ca m e ill o n th e w a y . T h e n t h a t m o n k , ste p p in g a sid e fro m th e ro a d , s a t d o w n a t th e ro o t o f a c e rta in tre e . P e o p le , se e in g th a t m o n k , sp ok e th u s : W h ere , h o n o u re d sir, w ill th e m a s te r g o ? * ** I w ill go to S a v a tth i, sirs, in o rd e r to see th e L o r d ." || 1 || " C a m e , h o n o u red sir, w e w ill g o a lo n g * ** I am n o t a b le to , sirs, I a m i l l . fl C o m ej h o n o u red sir, g e t in to a v e h ic le / ' *4 N o , sirs, a ve h icle is o b je c te d t o b y th e L o r d , a n d b ein g scrupulous* h e d id n o t g e t in to a v e h icle . T h e n th a t m o n k , h a v in g a rriv e d at S a v a tth i, to ld th is m a tte r to th e m o n k s. T h e m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id : I allo w , m o n k s, a v e h ic le to o n e w h o is ill/* |[ 2 \ \ T h e n i t o ccu rred t o th e se m o n ks : J N o w , sh o u ld (the v e h ic le be) y o k e d w ith co w s o r y o k e d w ith b u lls* ? " T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord - [ 191] H e s a id :

1 Pc. LXI_ * F r o m h ere t o en d o f || 10 (| 3 |[ cf. Vin* ii* 2 7 6 , w h ich refers t o t h e g r o u p o f sue n un s. * A s F i * T e x ts ii. 25, n. 2 rem ark s : R u , e x p la in s t h is p a s s a g e in a d ifferen t w a y . " H e saya, V A . 1085 ; itthiyutten& ti dhem iyutiena (y o k e d w ith m ilch co w s) ; piivisaninrAnd ti p j*ri a rah 1n & (w ith a m a le c h a r io te e r o r d rive r) ; purisayuttend ti g&rtayuttena ( y o k e d with, oxen ) j iithantarcTtd ti itthisdrathina. {w ith a fe m a le charioteer^. 4 Ganga-m akiy&ya. Y in . T e x ts ii. 15 , n. 3 s a y s t h a t b y M a h l is p i o b a b ly m e a n t " t h e v r lt - k n a w n a fflu e n t o f th e G a u g e s ' 1. V A . 1083 e x p la in s b y G & n g a -M a h ik llik a (ir.i. * A t h . iv . 339 { B .D . iii. 403) a n y n un w h o w a s n o t ill fell in to A n oFFenC* o f e x p ia tio n i f sh e w e n t in a v e h ic le . " V e h ic le ,f is d efin ed e,g . a t V in . iii.

4g* iv* 201*


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OF

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I a llo w y o u , m o n k s , a h a n d c a rt y o k e d w ith a b u ll.1 N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k b e ca m e e x tr e m e ly u n co m fo rta b le o w in g to th e jo ltin g of a vehicle* T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e s a id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a palanquin, a se d a n -c h a ir3/* |[ 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s used h ig h a n d b ro a d th in g s to reclin e upon,* th a t is to s a y : a s o fa 5, a d iv a n ,* a lo n g -h a ire d c o v e r le t ,7 a m a n y -c o lo u re d c o v e r le t8P a w h ite coverlet , a w o o l c o v e r le t besprent w ith flo w ers1 , a c o tto n q u ilt11, a w o o l c o v e r le t d e co ra te d w ith anim als* fo rm s, 14P a w o o l c o v e rin g w ith h a ir on the u p p e r s id e 13, a w o o l co v e rin g w ith h a ir a t o n e sid e 1*, a silk en sh eet stu d d e d w ith je w e ls1 a sh e et m a d e w ith s ilk th re a d s a n d stu d d e d w ith je w e ls 1*, a
1 pvrisayuttatft hatthavaffij&ntp. V A W10 S 5 s a y s : iie r e y o k e d w ith m e n {or a m a n o r b u lls or a bull* a w o m a n (itf At) or a m a n (purtsa} m a y b e t h e d r iv e r. F o r a h a n d c a r t rolls a lo n g w h e th e r ilthiyo or p u risa m o v e it, * sivikd* V A 1065 ; pitaka-siviha, b a s k e t p a la n q u in . * p d fa n k f. V A . 1085 : a w o v e n clo th (? p a ta p a $ a lib a t vJ. -paialika) m a d e u p h a v in g h u n g it o u t on b a m b o o s ; p e r h a p s w h a t in S . I n d ia is ca lle d a dooly* 4 uccdsayanatPtahasayana. L i s t recu rs a t V in * ii* 1G3, D+ i* 7* A * i. iS r 5 so m e o f th e ite m s o n ly a t JVf. i. 76 & i 4 , i, 1 37. C f. a ls o M A * ri- 39VA. xo&6 s a y s uccdsayana is a c o u c h exceed in g t h e (right) m easu re " (th e h e ig h t o f t h e leg s o f a C ou ch Is g iv e n as e ig h t fin g e r -b r e a d th s a t V i n , iv* i 63 )J a n d " makdsayawa is a sh e e t (pat-nrftfarapa) t h a t is n o t (made) a llo w a b le dsartdt, see ?.>* u L 326* n. I B Dia* i. 1 1 , n. . T h e u s e o i t h is a n d o f a divsua is fo r b id d e n t o n u n s a t F t . i v . 299 {B.D. iii_ 326 f.)_ * pedlaftka. see Z f.iX iii. 2 7 1 , n. 3, D ia l. 1. 1 I, n. 5. * gcttaha (also sp elle d go&aka), VA * 10&6 s a y s a lo n g -h a ire d w id e kojava (fleecy c o u n te r p a n e o r c o v e r w ith lo n g hair). O n kcjatw, see b-elowP p* 397 * n . 5. (iiak&r V A . 1086 s a y s a c o v e r le t {attharaka) m a d e o f w o o l o f v a r io u s co lo u rs (citta) (em bro id ered w ith ) w ild b e a s ts {vafa> v+l+ . S 6 reads vdtt&r w it h vM . ta n a , vaia). p a f iM . V A . 10S6 t a w h ite (^ fa) c o v e r le t m a d e o f wool* 16 pei&Hka* I fo llo w W o o d w a r d 's tr a n s la tio n a t G,-S* i, 16 4 . V A . 1086 g iv e s t i e m e a n in g a s " a c o v e r in g m a d e o f w o o l, a m a ss o f flo w ers and fu r th e r c a lls it a fJ c lo th o f t h e G reek s (Y o n a k a ) a n d T a m ils w ith v ,L aa a t A A . iL 2^5) y o dtnalakapattz ti p i vuctati* P e r h a p s a b e t t e r re a d in g o r &ntalaka fe m b lic m y r o b a la n ) occu rs a t & A . in 8 7 ; antil&ba ['* a w oollen c o v e r in to w h ic h a oral p a t t e r n Ls w oven ,." P . E . D . ) . 11 titiik i. V A . i o 36 s a y s ju s t a n o r d in a r y taiibd w h ile L>A . 87 a n d A A . ii* 2^3 s a y " a tuiika. stu ffed with. a c e r ta in one o f t h e th r e e k in d s of co tto n T h e s e th r e e k in d s are g iv en a t V in , ii. 150 , iv . 17 0 a s c o t t o n fr o m tree s, fr o m creepers a n d fr o m t h e p e t a k i s r a s s ; see B + D . iii. 93, n + 2. 11 vika(ik. V A * 3aS6 says* " a c c -v e iin g m a d e o f w ool, o rn a m e n te d (yiciita) w ith fo r m s o f lions, timers* e tc . . u W b , i. 1 9 2 an d V A , 10 S 6 b o th read uddha~ (upper) lom in as a g a in s t udda(bo th ) o f -D- l. 7, A . i. 3S i.

14 kztfhissa. Comys. s a y * ' a fJieet (paccaUJtara^ta) m a a e of ftdffkissa. (?j an d s ilk an d sew n ro u n d w it h je w e ls *J ** ko^cyya. I ta k e a b o v e ren d erin g Ifo m V A . 10S6.

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d a n cer's c a r p e t1 , a n e le p h a n t rug, a h o rse ru g, a c h a rio t r u g ? n ig s o f b la c k a n te lo p e s k in s , a sp le n d id sh e e tin g o f th e hide o f th e kadali- d eer,* a sh e et w ith an a w n in g a b o v e 3, a c o u c h w ith a red cu sh io n a t e ith e r end_4 P e o p le , en g ag ed in to u r in g th e d w e llin g -p la ce s, h a v in g seen (all th is), lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c riticise d , sp rea d i t a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y pleasu res o f th e se n s e s ." T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , || 4 |] H e sa id : M M o n k s, h ig h a n d b ro a d th in g s to re clin e u p o n sh o u ld n o t b e u sed , th a t is to s a y : a s o fa , , . a c o u ch w it h a re d cu sh io n a t e ith e r end. W h o e v e r s h o u ld u se (a n y o f these) th e re is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g /* |[ 5 |[ N o w a t t h a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s i x m o n k s th in k in g , '* H ig h a n d b ro a d th in g s to re clin e u p o n are o b je c te d to b y th e L o rd u sed la r g e h id e s : a lio n 's hid e, a tig e r 's hid e, a p a n th e r s hide. T h e se w e re c u t to th e m e a su re m e n t o f a co u ch a n d th e y w e re c u t to th e m e a su re m e n t o f a ch air, a n d th e y w ere la id inside th e co u ch es a n d t h e y w ere la id o u tsid e th e co u ch es a n d t h e y w e re la id in sid e th e ch a irs a n d t h e y w e re la id o u tsid e th e chairs. P e o p le , to u rin g th e d w e llin g -p la ce s, h a v in g seen (this), lo o k e d d ow n u p o n , c riticise d , sp re a d i t a b o u t, s a y i n g : " L i k e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y pleasu res o f th e s e n s e s " . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " M o n k s, la rg e h id es s h o u ld n o t b e u se d : a lio n 's hid e, a tig e r 's hid e, a p a n th e r's hid e. W h o e v e r sh o u ld u se (an y o f th ese), th e re is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g / ' | | 6 |[ N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m o n k s , th in k in g : " L a r g e hides are o b je c te d to b y th e L o rd u se d cow-hides* T h e se w ere cu t to th e m e a su re m e n t o f a c o u c h . . . (as in || 6 \ ] above) - . * an d th e y w e re la id o u tsid e th e ch a irs. A c e rta in d e p ra v e d m o n k ca m e to be d e p en d e n t u p o n a c e rta in d e p r a v e d l a y follow er* T h e n th a t d e p ra v e d m o n k , h a v in g d ressed in th e
1 V A . io S 6 p a sh e e t m ade o f w ool s u ita b le Sot t h e dances of s ix te e n dajicm g girls " , * kadalimigapatoatapacCattharafta. V A - io 8 $ P " i t is called th e Iiide oi th e hadttfi-dttz ; a splendid sheet is made from this. I t means th e b est {uttamu} k in a of sheet. T h e y say th e y m ake i t h a v in g spread out th e deerhide and sewn it a b o ve w h ite hangings (vaithaw also m eaning clothes),
* SaU ttO raecJiadji. V A * 10 8 6 -7 e x p la in s as to g e th e r w ith a d y e d (o r r e d , r a iia ) a w n in g a t t a c h e d al>ove J\ a n d m en tio n s s h e e t (p a cc a tth a r a in a ) in t h is conciection-

t*&h&tol o h i t i } s & p a t h & V A .

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m o rn in g , ta k in g h is b o w l an d ro b e, a p p ro a c h e d th e d w e llin g o f th a t d e p ra v e d la y fo llo w e r ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , he sa t d o w n o n th e a p p o in te d seat* T h e n [192] t h a t d e p ra v e d la y fo llo w e r a p p ro a c h e d th a t d e p ra v e d m onk; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h a v in g g re e te d th a t d e p ra v e d m o n k, h e sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l distance* || y || N o w a t t h a t tim e t h a t d e p ra v e d la y fo llo w e r h a d a y o u n g c a lf, b e a u tifu l, g o o d t o lo o k upon, c h a rm in g ; it w a s m a rk e d 1 lik e a p a n th e r cub- T h e n th a t d e p ra v e d m o n k g a ze d lo n g in g ly a t a n d th o u g h t about th a t c a lf. T h e n th a t d e p ra v e d la y fo llo w e r sp ok e th u s to t h a t d e p ra v ed m o n k : ' r W h y , h o n o u red sir, does th e m a ste r g a z e lo n g in g ly a t a n d th in k a b o u t th is c a lf ? " S ir, th is c a lf's h id e is o f use to m e , T h e n t h a t d e p ra v e d la y fo llo w e r, h a v in g slau g h tered th a t c a lf, h a v in g sk in n e d it, b e sto w e d th e h id e u p o n th a t d e p ra v e d m o n k . T h e n th a t d e p ra v e d m o n k , h a v in g hidden th e hid e in his o u te r clo a k , w e n t a w a y . || S || T h e n th a t c o w , lo n g in g fo r her caJf3, fo llo w ed close a fte r th a t d e p ra v e d m o n k. M o n k s spoke th u s ; ,f W h y , y o u r reveren ce, is th is c o w fo llo w in g close a fte r y o u ? " " I d o n 't k n o w , y o u r reverences, w h y th is co w is fo llo w in g close a fte r m e / N o w a t t h a t tim e th is d e p ra v e d m o n k 's o u te r c lo a k becam e sta in e d w ith b lood . M onks sp o k e th u s : ir B u t th is o u te r c lo a k o f yo u rs, y o u r reveren ce w h a t h a s h a p p en ed t o it ? ** T h e n th a t d e p ra v e d m o n k to ld th is m a tte r to th e m onks. T h e y sa id : *' B u t d id y o u , y o u r reveren ce, in c ite (som eone) to o n slaugh t on cre a tu re s ? " Y e s , y o u r re v e re n c e s / 1 T h o se w h o w ere m o d est m o n ks * . * s p re a d it a b o u t, s a y i n g : H o w can th is m o n k in cite (som eone) to o n sla u g h t on crea tu res ? Is n o t o n slau g h t on c re a tu re s co n d em n ed in m a n y a figu re b y th e L o rd , re stra in t fro m o n sla u g h t on crea tu re s e x to lle d ? " T h e n th e se m onks to ld th is m a tte r t o th e Lord^ || 9 |[ T h en th e L o rd on th is occasion, in th is co n n e ctio n , h a v in g
1

titrayvariegated, beautiful.

1 Cf.* jEMJ. ii* and 3 there. * vac^hagiddhmit cf. S , iv . 1S1*

10. ro 11,i ]

M A H A V A G G A

2-59

h a d th e O rd e r o f m o n k s co n v e n e d , q u e stio n e d t h a t d e p r a v e d m onk, s a y in g : ** Is it tr u e , a s is sa id , th a t y o u , m o n k , in c ite d (som eone) to o n sla u g h t o n c re a tu re s ? " " I t is tru e , L ord /* H o w c a n you,, fo o lish m a n , in cite {som eone) to o n sla u g h t on c re a tu re s ? F o o lis h m a n , h as n o t o n sla u g h t on c re a tu re s been c o n d em n ed b y m e in m a n y a fig u re , re s tra in t fro m on s la u g h t on c rea tu re s e x to lle d ? I t is n o t, fo o lish m a n , fo r p le a sin g th o se w h o are n o t {yet) p lea sed . . .J* H a v in g re b u k e d him , h a v in g g iv e n re a so n ed ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y in g ; " M onks, th e re sh o u ld b e no in c itin g (an yon e) to o n sla u g h t o n c rea tu re s. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) in c ite , sh o u ld b e d e a lt w ith a c co rd in g to th e ru le .1 Nor* m o n k s, sh o u ld a c o w -h id e be used. W h o e v e r sh o u ld u se one, th ere is an o ffen ce o f w ron g* d oin g. N o r, m o n k s, sh o u ld a n y h id e be used* W h o e v e r sh o u ld use one, th ere is a n offen ce o f w r o n g d o in g / ' |J i o )] 10 || [193] N o w a t th a t tim e p e o p le 's co u ch es a n d c h a irs ca m e to be c o v e re d up* w it h h id e s, co ve red o v e r3 w ith h id es. M onks b e in g scru p u lo u s, d id n o t s it dow n on th e m . T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd , H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to s it d o w n on w h a t is d is p la y e d b y h o u seh o ld ers3, b u t n o t t o lie d o w n on i t . " N o w at th a t tim e d w e llin g -p la ce s w ere la sh e d to g e th e r 4 w ith th o n g s o f hide. M on ks, b e in g scru p u lo u s, d id n o t s it d o w n (in th em ). T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a id :

1 F a r . I , w h e re it is a s b a d t o in c ite som eon e to c a u se t h e d e a th o f a h u m a n b e in g as o n e se lf to m u rd er ones. C f . also F a c . i t , <ji, 62* ona d d h a . . vin a d tfh a * C fL V in ii. 15 0 w h e r e cn a d d h a m a H c a a n d o n a d d h a p lth a axe a llo w e d . C f. aJso V iH . ii. 3 7 0 ; a n d tiHonaddka. a t V i n . ii, 1-63*

1 e ih iu ifta ta t H <Tt> d is p la y *" is o-ne o f th-e m e a n in g s o f v ik a r tu tn g iv e n b y M o rtier-W iiliam s. S a m e p * a llo w a n c e '* m a d e a t V in . IL 163, * a g u m p h iy ttn ti. VA< 1087 ( r e a d i n g o g u p p h i^ a n tit 3 . v + l, n o t n o t i c e d in
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*4 I a llo w yoUj m o n k s, t o sit d o w n a g a in s t1 w h a t is used o n ly fo r la s h in g 2 (things to g e th e r)/ ' [ \ I || 11 ]| N o w a t t h a t tim e th e grou p o f s ix m o n k s e n te re d a v illa g e w ith th e ir sa n d a ls on . P e o p le lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , criticise d sp re a d it a b o u t, s a y in g : L ik e h ouseh old ers w h o e n jo y p le a su re s o f th e se n se s/ ' T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e s a id : " M onks, y o u sh o u ld n o t e n te r a v illa g e w ith y o u r sa n d a ls on. W h o e v e r sh o u ld (so) e n te r it, th ere is a n offence o f w r o n g d o in g / ' N o w a t t h a t tim e a ce rta in m o n k b ecafn e ill ; h e w as n o t a b le t o e n te r th e v illa g e w ith o u t h is san d als. T h e y to ld this m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : I a llo w , m o n k s, a m o n k if he is ill to e n te r a v illa g e w ith his sa n d a ls o n / ' J ] i|| 12 |f N o w a t t h a t t im e 3 th e v e n era b le K a c c a n a th e G reat* w as s ta y in g a m o n g th e p e o p le o f A v a n t f s a t O sp re y 's H a u n t* on S te e p R o c k m o u n ta in slope,* N o w a t t h a t tim e th e la y fo llo w er, S o n a K u tik a n n a .fl, w as a su p p o rter o f th e ve n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G re a t. T h e n the la y fo llo w e r, S o n a K u tik a n n a , a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G re a t ; h a v in g
1 V A * 1087, to stt leaning against, * bandkanamcdta, C f L V i*r L 254* W o rd occurs also at ii. 133, b u t there se^ms to have a different m eaning. See also its use a t M V . V I I . 1, 5, only by ta ck in g " , * To- end of V . 1 3 . 10, cf. Ud, V , vi* D h A , iv . i q i ff. * A t A * i. 23 ca lle d fo r e m o s t o f tb o e x p o u n d e rs in fu ll o i w h a t w a s sp o k en in b r ie f. V e r se s a t Thug. 454-501, O n e o f th e e le v e n or t w e lv e leaditig

ike 1 \f &*4 113.

th e r a s ;

c f * V in T exts, ii. 317* 359. B .D . ii. 295, G.S~ iii. a i j -

See Gotam a

1 See N D u t t , Burly H ist. c f the Spread o f Buddhism, V o l. I p p. 18 7 F , H e p oin ts o u t th a t A v a n ti " under th e guidance of M ah^kaccayana helped b y S oija K u tik a n p a , P . . becam e an im portant centre of B u d d h ism M (p. 189}*. On A v a n ti see also B . C. Law* Geog. o f Early Buddhism, p. 3, n- a* z f lv 61,

* Kutaraghara, the name of a town (nagaro) or village where Kaccana went for alms a), P/i* 10^7^

* H e is recorded t o sta y here also a t S . iii, ^ 12, tv* 1 1 5 , A - v K4 6 , U d , 57* Our t e x t reads p&pate pabbale r the others. pavail9 (with v,^.) pabbate. A t V A * 1037, papain is aid to be th e name oi a m ountain slope. C fr how ever S A . ia* 258., which, recognises th e tw o reading's, pap&le and pftv&tte, and. says oi pap&t& pabbaU th a t M it w a s steep (or had a precipice) on one side ; it was 05 th o u g h one dank had been hewn off > J . * C h ie f o f t h o s e of c l e a r u tt e r a n c e , A . i. 24. V e r s e s a t Thag* 3 6 5 -9 . VA. t o Syr A A , I* 23 y s a y h e w o r e o r n a n e o ts w o r t h a c r o r e (koti) in b i s e a r s , a n d a ls o g i v e t h e r e a d in g kotikafL.^.ar w h ic h c a n m e a n e q u a l ly Sl C r o r e -e a r e d " or 4 1 P o in t e d - e a r e d , P r ic k - e a r e d " ; se e V in . T e x ts ii. 32* n . 3 , P s s . B rsih.

p* 20a, G+ , i. 18, n- 4*

0/ U plift* p. 6S*

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M A H A V A G G A

a p p r o a c h e d h a v in g g re e te d th e v e n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G re a t, he s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n ce. A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d is ta n c e , th e la y fo llo w e r, S o n a K u tik a n n a , sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G r e a t : 4t I n so fa r as I , h o n o u re d sir, u n d e rsta n d dkamma ta u g h t b y th e m a ste r, K a c c a n a t h e G re a t, it is no e a s y m a tte r fo r one liv in g in a house to le a d th e B ra h m a -fa rin g w h ic h is u t t e r ly co m p lete, u tte r ly p u re a n d p o lish ed lik e a co n ch -sh elh I w a n t, h o n o u red sir, h a v in g c u t o fl h a ir a n d b e a rd , h a v in g d o n n e d y e llo w ro b es, t o g o fo r th from h o m e in to hom elessness. H o n o u red sir, m a y th e m a s te r K a c c a n a th e G re a t le t m e go fo r th ." | [ i |S H e s a i d : " D ifficu lt, S o n a , fo r a s lo n g a s ]ife la s ts a re th e so lita r y sleep in g -p la ce1, th e one m e a l (a d a y ), th e B ra h m a faring* P le a se d o y o u , S o n a , b ein g a h o u se h o ld e r a s b e fo re ,2 p ra c tise th e in stru c tio n o f th e a w a k e n e d o n es fo r a sh o rt tim e 3 : th e s o lita r y sleep in g*?]ace, th e one m e a l (a d a y ), th e B r a h m a ' fa r in g / ' T h e n t h a t a b a te d w h ic h h a d b e e n th e la y fo llo w e r S o n a K u t ik a n n a s stro n g a sp ira tio n for th e g o in g fo r th .4 B u t a seco n d tim e d id th e l a y fo llo w er S o n a [194] K u tik a n n a . . . B u t a th ird tim e d id th e l a y fo llo w er S o n a K u tik a n n a a p p ro a c h th e ve n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G r e a t . , - (as in || x 1 |) r* . . * H o n o u red sir, m a y th e m a s te r K a c c a n a th e G re a t le t m e g o fo r t h / ' T h e n th e ve n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G fe a t le t th e la y fo llo w e r S o n a K u tik a n n a g o fo rth . H o w a t th a t tim e th e so u th e rn regio n o f A v a n t i 5 cam e to be sh ort o f m onks* T h en d id th e
1 ekaseyyA, e x a c t s ig n ific a n c e o b s c u r e . A t ii. a m o n k Is a llo w e d to li e d o w n in a s le e p in g p ] a c e f o r t w o o r t h r e e n ig h t s w i t h o n e w h o is n o t o r d a in e d . I t se e m s a s i f h e m i g h t a ls o do- s o w i t h a n o r d a in e d m o n k , f o r o q t h i s o c c a s io n t h e r e is n o o ffe n c e i f h e t h in k s a p e r s o n i s o r d a in e d a n d h e is. At iL -2 oi t h e r e i s a n o f fe n c e i f a. m o n k s o lie s d o w n w it h a w o m a n .

* tatih*

* h&layutta. T h i s is t o s h o w h o w d if f ic u lt t h e s e t h in g s a r e . K&layutta c a ttld a ls o s ig n if y c o n n e c t e d ^ i t h t h e r ig h t t ir a e (fo r d o in g t h in g s ] , a n d w o u ld t h e n e n r o h a s is e t h a t n o w is n o t a r ig h t t i m e f o r S o n a t o g o f o r t h , b e in g n o t s u f f ic ie n t ly r e a d y s p ir it u a lly t o d o So, * p a b b a fj& b h is n > 1h h a r a * C f . g u fn ik d b h is & lt k h a r a a t V i n . i. 3 3 3 . 1 A v a n t i d a k k h m l p a t h a , a s a t K ifl, ii, 98, J d - iii. 4 6 3 . S e e D P P N u n d e r P a i c k h m 3p a t h a p R h y s D a v id s * B u d . I n d i a , p* 30, a n d B f C* L a w , G e o g r a p h y o f E a r ly B tt d d h is m * p . 2 2 . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e C o u n c il o f Y e s a l l, a b o u t e % h t y - e i^ h t m o n k s o f A v a n t i d a k k h i ^ a p a t h a , s o m e o f t h e m fo llo w e rs , o f a s c e t ic p r a c t ic e s * d h u ta n g a , a r e sa id t o h a v e c o lle c t e d o n t h e A h o g a n g S . m o u n t a in s lo p e , F t * . ii* at*9* T

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v e n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G re a t a t th e e n d o f th ree y e a r s , w ith d iffic u lty , w ith t rou ble t h a v in g h a d co n ve n e d from here a n d th e re a n O rd er o f m o n k s c o n sistin g o f te n 1, o rd ain th e ve n e ra b le S o n a . j] 2 || Then, a s th e v e n e ra b le S o n a w a s k e e p in g th e ra in s an d m e d ita tin g in seclusion,, a reaso n in g arose in his m in d th u s ; I h a v e o n ly h e a rd t h a t th is L o rd is su ch a n d such a one, b u t I h a v e n o t seen h im fa ce to fa ce. I w o u ld g o a n d see this L o rd , th e p e rfe cte d , th e a ll-a w a k e n e d one, if a p re cep to r w o u ld a llo w m e / 1 T h e n th e ve n e ra b le Son a, e m e rg in g fro m seclu sio n to w a rd s th e e ven in g, a p p ro a c h e d th e v e n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G r e a t ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e ven era b le K a c c a n a th e G re a t, h e sa t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d istan ce- A s h e w a s s ittin g dow n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n ce, th e ven e rab le S o n a sp o k e th u s to th e v e n era b le K a c c a n a the G r e a t : |[3 ]| N o w , a s I , h o n o u red sir, w a s m e d ita tin g in seclu sio n , a reaso n in g arose in m y m in d th u s : ' 1 h a v e o n ly h e a rd th a t th is L o r d is su ch a n d su c h a one, b u t 1 h a v e n o t seen h im fa ce to fa ce. I w o u ld g o to see th is L o rd , th e p e rfe c te d , th e a ll-a w a k e n e d one, if a p re c e p to r w o u ld a llo w m e.' I* h on oured sir, w o u ld go to see th is L o rd , th e p e rfe cte d , th e a ll-a w a k e n e d one, if th e p re c e p to r a llo w s m e / ' " G o o d , it is g o o d , Son a- D o y o u , S o n a , g o to see th is L o rd , th e perfected* th e a il-a w a k en e d one, | J4 J | " Y o u , S o n a , w ill see th is L o rd , w h o is p le a sa n t an d inspires one to b e p le a se d ,3 w h o is calm ed in h is sense-organs, ca lm e d in m in d , w h o h a s a tta in e d the u tte rm o st ta m in g a n d p ea ce, th e hero3 tam ed* guarded* co n tro lled in h is sense-organs. W e ll th en , d o y o u , S o n a , in m y nam e sa lu te the L o rd 's feet w ith y o u r h ead , sa y in g : * L o rd , m y p re cep to r, th e ve n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G re a t, sa lu te s th e L o r d 's fe e t w ith h is head a n d th en sp ea k th u s : ' L o rd , th e so u th ern regio n o f A v a n t i
3 Vin+ i, 319 says t h a t a n O rder m a y consist o f lour, five, te n , t w e n t y or m o re th.an t w e n t y m o n k s, a n d th a t v a r io u s m a x im u m n u m b ers are req u ired lo r ca r ry in g o u t va r io u s specific form al a c ts , ten m on ks b e in g a b le to perform th e m a ll, e x c e p t r e h a b ilita tio n ; b a t fiv e m o n k s w ere n o t a b le t o o cd a m m t b e M id d le D is tric ts , * p a sd d a M y a , i.e. to b e p lea sed w ith his teach in g* * ndgar ejtp-lained a t V A - 10 8 7 as *" e m p t y o f g u ilt (og'tt}, e m p t y o f th e o b s tr u c tio n s (At/tsa) C /. J n , 5 22 7 dgu Jsarcti . * . itdgo, a n d JV<. I I . 337* * Uddtuz versio n o m its fro m here t o end o l U 7 j| a n d th e n p r o ce e d s m u cb a& V in . version, t o c a d o f || 10 ||,

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is sh o rt o f m o n k s. A t th e e n d o f th ree y e a r s (he), w ith d iffic u lty , w ith tro u b le , h a v in g h a d c o n v e n e d fo r m e fro m h e re a n d th e re a n O rd er o f m o n k s c o n sistin g o f te n , I r e c e iv e d o rd in a tio n . P e rh a p s th e L o rd w o u ld a llo w o rd in a tio n b y a s m a lle r g ro u p in th e so u th ern region o f A v a n ti- || 5 || ** * L o rd , in th e so u th ern regio n o f A v a n t i th e su rfa ce-so it is d a rk , h a rd , tra m p le d b y th e h o o v e s o f c a ttle .1 P e rh a p s th e L o r d [195] w o u ld a llo w san d als w ith m a n y lin in g s in th e so u th ern regio n o f A v a n ti- L o rd , in th e so u th ern region o f A v a n t f p eo p le a tta c h im p o rta n ce to b a th ia g , to p u rific a tio n b y w a t e r .5 P e rh a p s th e L o rd w o u ld a llo w c o n s ta n t b a th in g 3 in th e so u th ern regio n o f A v a n ti. L o rd , in th e so u th e rn region o f A v a n t i h id es (are u sed as) c o v e rin g s : sheep-hirfe, g o a t-h id e , d eer-h id e. A s , L a r d , in th e m id d le d is tr ic ts ,4 eragu, tnoragu? ntajjhdru, ja n k t* (are u sed ), so, L o rd j in th e so u th e rn regio n o f A v a n t i h id es (are u sed as} c o v e rin g s. P e rh a p s th e L o rd w o u ld a llo w hides (to be u sed as) c o v e rin g s in th e so u th e rn regio n o f A v a n t i : sh eep -h id e, goat~ h id e( d eer-h id e. |[6 || ** * A t p re se n t, L o rd , p e o p le g iv e ro b e -m a te ria l t o m o n k s w h o h a v e gon e o u tsid e th e b o u n d a rie s, s a y i n g : " W e are g iv in g th is ro b e -m a te ria l fo r so a n d s o / ' W h e n th e se h a v e co m e b a c k (th e others) an n o u n ce : Y o u r re v e ren ce s, robem a te ria l w a s g iv e n fo r y o u b y th e p e o p le so a n d s o " * B u t these, b e in g scru p u lo u s, d o n o t con sen t t o it, th in k in g : *' L e t th ere n o t be an offence in v o lv in g fo rfe itu re for u s . P e r h a p s th e L o rd w o u ld e x p la in th e p ro ce d u re Tin re g a rd to ro b e -m a te ria l/ Y e s , h o n o u red sir " , an d the v e n e ra b le S o n a h a v in g sp o k en in a sse n t to th e ve n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G r e a t, risin g fro m h is
* k h a ra goka rtta ku h a id ; c f. A * . L 136. * udakatuddhika* C f , * u i S * {K ,S. i. 7,3 1) ; also Vin. iv, 162, vrhere h o w e v e r 14 p u r if ic a t io n b y w a t e r '* is n e t a rite * b u t a n c c e s s a r y a b lu t io n . * C f . PsLc. L V I 3 , w h e r e i t is a n offence- f o r a m o n k t o b a t h e a t in t e r v a l s o i le s s t h a n a f o r t n ig h t e x c e p t ,f a t a r ig h t t im e s p e c ifie d , * N o t M a jr h im a d e s a h e r e , b u t t r t u jjh im e s v jo n a p a d e s t t * 1 V A , i o o s a y s these a re fo u r k i n d s o f g r a s s e s , tirta> f r o m w h ic h a x e m a .d e k a t& $ a ra k a (?, p a r t o f a m o n k 's lo d g in g o r b e d d in g , s e e V A . x o S & u n d e r s e n & s a n a ijt p a-n -K d p csi) a n d s t r a w n m t i. E r a g U is a ls o c a lle d e r a k a t i& a 9J id 5 c o a r s e . M o r a g u i* c o p p e r c o lo u r e d A t t h e h e a d , fin e , p li a b le a n d p le a s a n t to touch, a n d s t r a w m a ts a r e m a d e fr o m it . T h e y m a k e u p p e r c l o a k s i r o m m&jjh&ru ( V A * 108S r e a d in g majjaru], Tire c o lo u r o f jantu is l i k e p e a r ls . * C f * N is . I,* w h e r e if a m onk's h a t h ift a p r i v i le g e s h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d h e m a y u s e a n e x t r a r o b e f o r t e n day& . O n e o f t h e g ro u n d s io r rem o va l o f t h e p r i v i le g e s d e p e n d s o n a m o n k s h a v i n g a o n c o u t s id e t h e b o u n d a r y , Vin+ i. 155-

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se a t, h a v in g g ree te d th e ven era b le K a c c a n a th e G re a t, h a v in g k e p t h is rig h t side to w a rd s h im , h a v in g p a c k e d a w a y h is lo d g in g , ta k in g his b o w l an d ro b e, set o u t fo r S a v a tth i. [f 7 || In d u e cou rse h e a p p ro a ch e d S a v a tth i, th e J e ta G ro v e , A n a th a p in d ik a s m o n a ste ry , th e L o r d ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e L o rd , h e *at d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d istan ce. T h en th e L o rd ad d ressed th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a , s a y i n g : " A n a n d a , m a k e re a d y a lo d g in g fo r th is in co m in g m o n k T h e n th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a th o u g h t : T h e L o r d d esires to s ta y in th e sam e d w e llin g -p la ce to g eth e r w ith th is m o n k , th e L o rd d esires to s t a y m th e sa m e d w e llin g -p la ce to g e th e r w ith th e ve n e ra b le S o n a ; i t is he in re g a rd to w h o m th e L o rd en join ed m e , s a y in g : 'A n a n d a , m a k e r e a d y a lo d g in g fo r th is in co m in g m o n k Y * a n d h e m ad e re a d y a lo d g in g fo r fh e ven erab le S o n a in th a t d w e llin g -p la ce w h ere th e L o rd w a s s ta y in g , [f 8 j| T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g sp en t a g r e a t p a rt o f t h a t n ig h t m th e o p en a ir, en te red th e dw elling-place* T h e v e n e ra b le Son a a lso , h a v in g sp en t a g r e a t p a rt o f th a t n ig h t in th e open a ir, en te red th e d w e llin g -p la ce . T h e n th e Lord* g e ttin g u p in th e n ig h t to w a rd s d a w n , req u ested th e ve n e ra b le S o n a , s a y in g : " M a y (some) dkam m a o ccu r to y o u to sp e a k , m o n k / 11 4 4 V e r y w ell, L o rd " , an d th e v e n e ra b le Sona, h a v in g rep lied in a ssen t to th e L o rd , sp o k e from m e m o ry e v e ry th in g b e lo n g in g to th e D iv is io n s in th e Eights* T h e n th e L o rd a t th e en d
1 paiibkatu- tani bhikkhu dhammo b has it tint, as at U d A . 312, A A . i. 241* W oodw ard, Kerses o f Uplift^ p. 71, ts* i t would translate th is as " let dham m a arise in youT m ind for recital " , H e notes th a t paHbh&to* 15 let it occur to you, placeat " , b u t ow ing to dhamma being in th e nom in ative th e sentence cannot mean 1 4 let it occur to you to speak d ha mma fr. V A . io sa y sP m a y there b e {or becom e, bh&vafa) an inclination {abhimu&ha.) to speak ol knowledge, of ivhat is called u n d erstan d in g". U d A _ 3 13 says "M o n k * majr dhamma to speak ariae in you, let it co m e to th e forefront of knowledge, recite dhamma as yo u h ave heard ct< as you h a v e t o u t it r\ Cf- Vin. ii. -zoo-, Ud+ , S . j. J55, 1 V.B+ T h e L ord addresses So^ta as tnonk *p and not b y his name, * Atthaka.vaggikii.ui. A tth a k a v a g p a is th e nam e of th e fourth V a g g a in th e S n , Cited a t S. iH* in , U d * 39* T h is latter (and also I lh A . iv. 101-2) h ave th e " specific am plification that So n a recited (or ' intoned *) * all the sixteen > A tt-hakavaggika S u tta s '% as Chalm ers remarks, Buddha's Teachings^ p. .xvi, 1 ; and 31 the still further am plification th a t th e sixteen S u tta s begin with the K am asu tta, A A , i- 241 read& A tthaia-vaggJyani, one M S. ad din g See / P T , 1^95^ p. 93 on Identification of T>ivyr s (p* 20) arthavadgiyani (roclted b y Sona.) with the " six tce a poems **t afthakavaggikclnij of th e A tth a k a v a g g a . T h e work is also m entioned a t Divy. 33. For references to Chinese v-ersions see A nesaki, J P T S * 1906-7, p. 50 ; and E t . L am otte, L * Trait# dv la Grande Vertu de Sagtsse, V ol. I, p, 39, n*

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o f th e v e n e ra b le S o n a J s r e c ita l1 e x p re sse d his a p p ro b a tio n , s a y in g : " G o o d , it is g o o d , m o n k , th a t b y y o u , m o n k , th e D iv is io n s in th e E ig h ts are w e ll le a rn t, [ 196] w e ll a tte n d e d to , w e ll re fle cte d u p o n , a n d t h a t y o u are en d o w e d w ith lo v e ly sp e e c h , d is tin c t, w ith o u t hoarseness, so as t o m a k e th e m e a n in g clear.* O f h o w m a n y y e a rs ' s ta n d in g are y o u , m o n k ? #l " I , L o rd , am o f one y e a r 's s ta n d in g / |[ 9 j| " B u t w h a t h a v e y o u , m o n k , d o n e th u s lo n g ? " " F o r lo n g , L o rd , I h a v e seen p eril in p le a su re s of th e senses, b u t h ouseh old liv e s a re c ro w d e d ,4 th e re is m u c h to be d one, m u c h b u sin e ss/ ' T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g u n d e rsto o d th is m a tte r , a t t h a t tim e u tte re d th is u tte ra n c e : " H a v in g seen p e ril in th e world* h a v in g k n o w n dhamma w ith o u t a tta c h m e n t, / th e n o b le one d e lig h ts n o t in e v il, th e pu re o n e d e lig h ts in in s tr u c tio n / 1* || IO |[ T h e n th e ve n e ra b le S o n a , th in k in g ; " T h e L o rd is m u c h pleased w ith m e, th is is th e tim e fo r t h a t fo r w h ic h th e p re c e p to r p rep ared * m e/* risin g from his seat, h a v in g a rra n g e d h is u p p er ro b e o v e r one s h o u ld e r h a v in g in clin ed h is h e a d t o th e L o rd 's fe et, sp o k e th u s ; ** L o rd , m y p re c e p to r, th e v e n e ra b le K a c c a n a th e G re a t, salu tes th e L o r d 's fe et w it h h is h ead , a n d sp ea k s th u s : 4 T h e so u th ern regio n o f A v a n t i, L o rd * . (as i n j| 5, 6 | j ) . . . p erh a p s th e L o rd w o u ld e x p la in th e p ro ced u re in. re g a rd to ro b e-m a te ria l T h e n th e L o rd , on th is occasio n , in th is con n ectio n , h a v in g g iv e n reason ed ta lk , ad d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g : " M o n k s, th e so u th ern region o f A v a n t i is sh o rt o f m o n k s.
1 sarabhartna^ c a lls t h is intoning, a. p a r tic u la r m o d e o f r e c itin g C f t V in , ii. 108* w here t h e L o r d " a llo w s*' sarabha&naP b u t n o t t h e s in g in g o f dhamma in a s in g in g vo ice . O ld e o b e r g q u o te s V A . a t Vin* ii. 3 1 6 ; sarabhatltlan ii sarena bhananattt, w h ic h m ean s M sarabhafltla is c a lle d r e p e a tin g (or recitin g ) b y in to n a tio n (sara) T h e r e is p e r h a p s in t h e t e x t a p l a y u p o n th e w ord sawa^ w h ic h a lso m e a n s rem em b erin g. 1 S t o c k a s a t D * i. 1 14 , S + 1. 189, ii, aSo, ii. 51* iii- 1 1 4 * I .e . h o w m a n y y e a r s s in c e h is o rd in ation . C /, ab o ve* p , ^6f,

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I allo w , m o n k s, in a ll bo rd er d istric ts o rd in atio n b y a g ro u p 1 w ith , a s fifth , a n e x p e rt on discipline- j | r i || " F o r th is purpose*, th e se are th e b o rd e r d is tric ts3 : th e little to w n 4 ca lled K a ja r ig a la 6 is in th e eastern d ire ctio n , b e y o n d it is Mahasala, fu rth e r th a n th a t are b o rd er districts* on th is side a re th e m id d le (districts). T h e riv e r called SaU avati* is in th e so u th -ea stern d ir e c tio n fu rth e r th a n th a t are b o rd er d is tric ts , on th is side are the m id d le (districts). T h e little to w n ca lle d S e ta k a n n ik a is in th e so u th ern d irectio n , fu rth e r th a n th a t are bo rd er d is tric ts , on th is side a re th e m id d le {districts}* T h e b ra h m in v illa g e ca lle d T h u n a s is in th e w estern direction* fu r th e r th a n th a t are bo rd er d is tric ts , on th is sid e are th e m id d le (d istricts). T h e m o u n ta in slope called U sira d d h a ja * is in th e n o rth ern d ire ctio n , fu rth e r th a n th a t are b o rd e r d istricts, on th is sid e are th e m id d le (districts). I a llo w , m o n k s, in su ch b o rd er d istric ts as th ese, o rd in atio n b y a group w ith , a s fifth, an e x p e r t on d iscip lin e. || r s || In th e so u th ern re g io n of A v a n ti, m on ks, th e surface^soil is d a r k , h a r d htra m p le d b y the h o o v e s o f c a ttle . I a llo w , m o n k s, in a ll bo rd er d is tric ts , sandals w ith m a n y lin in g s. I n th e so u th ern regio n o f A v a n t i, m onks, p eo p le a tta c h im p o rta n ce to b a th in g , to p u rifica tio n b y w a te r. I allo w , m o n ks, in all b o rd er d istric ts, c o n s ta n t b a th in g . I n th e so u th ern regio n o f A v a n ti, m o n k s, h id es (are u sed as) c o v e r in g s ; sh eep-h id e.
1 U s u a lly tw o t o lo u r m o n k s. * ta in * . r * T h is p a s s a g e is q u o te d a t J d . L 4-9, D A . 1 7 3 , KHA+ 13 2 . M A , ii. 200, A A * a. 7 in order to d efin e t h e bou n d aries o f M a jjh im a tp .a jd c sa , th e M id d le C o u n tr y * i*e. t h e m id d le o f J a m b u d tp a (In dia). S ee B . C. L a w Oeog. o f K a tly B u d d h ism , p . %, for so m e o f th e p la ce -n a m e s m e n tio n e d b elo w , * see B .D . ii* 63* n* 2. * O c c u r r in g a t A _ v. 54* M . 1L1. ^98,. D A , 429^ A ls o J d iii. 2 2 6 -7 , T h e s ch o lia st te lls us (Jd+ iv . 3 1 1 ) t h a t it w a s a to w n w h ere m a teria ls w ere e a s ily g o t, da.bb&samb&dt'd suiabhd, n o t w h ere t h e y *4 w ere h a rd t o be g o t {Jd. tra-nsln. iv , X95, n, 1), * C a lle d AJffASsaia a t J d . i t 49, 9 S p e lle d S a la la v a t l a t J d . i. 49, D A * 1 7 3 , K h A . 133* S a la .la v a tl a t JITA , ii. 200 (w ith v.ft.) a n d in D . P . P . ^ . S e e v.ll. i t D A . 1 7 3 ; th e s e d o not in clu d e S & lla r a tti as a t A A * i. 9 7, * M e n tio n e d a t U d - 78. U d A , 3 7 7 as. b e lo n g in g t o t h e M aH as ; also a t J d . v i- 6 s (w ith 1\J. D h u n n a), C * C. L a w . In d ia a ^ s described in E a rly Texts o f B u d d hism and J a in ism , p . 2 1, n. 1 &&ys " C o n s u lt C u n n in g h a m , vlnewjnf Geography c f I n d i a , Jntr* x lu i, n. z as to t h e id e n tifica tio n of T h u ^ a w ith Sth^ncsv-ara p \ * A c c o r d in g t o B . C* L a v , In d iz a s described irt E a rly T& tte, p* i i , n, 2 I t m a y b e said t o t c id e n tic a l w ith U sifa g ix i, a m o u n ta in t o t h e n o rth o i K a & k h a L h A * * 2905,. 1 7 9 " ,

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[197] g o a t-h id e , deer-hide- ASj m o n ks, in th e m id d le d is tric ts , eragur m oragur majjhara., ja titu (are u sed ), so , m onks* in th e so u th ern re g io n o f A v a n t i h id es (are used as) c o v e r in g s : sh eep -h id e, g o a t-h id e , deer-hide*1 I a llo w , m o n k s, in a ll b o rd er d is tric ts , h id e s (to be u sed as) c o v e rin g s : sh eep -h id e, g o a t-b id e , d eer-h id e. A n d m o re o v e r, m o n k s, p e o p le g iv e ro b e-m a te ria l fo r m o n k s w h o h a v e g o n e ou tsid e th e b o u n d a ries, s a y i n g : * W e are g iv in g th is ro b e-m a te ria l fo r so a n d so \ I a llo w y o u , m on ks, to co n sen t (to It}, T h a t re ck o n in g is n o t n ecessa ry u n til i t reach es th e h an d *2 ** j| 13 || 13 j} T h e F if t h S e ctio n : t h a t on H id es In th is S e ctio n th e re a re s ix ty -th re e item s. T h is is it s k e y : T h e K in g o f M a g a d h a , S o n a , a n d e ig h ty -th o u s a n d c h ie fta in s , S a g a ta sh o w e d m u ch t h a t w a s fu rth e r on V u ltu r e P e a k , / T h e y w e re b ro k en b y h is o u tp u t (of e n e rg y ) on g o in g fo rth , th e lu te , w ith one lin in g , d a r k g re e n , y e llo w , red , crim so n , a n d in d ee d b la c k , / O ran ge, m u lti-co lo u red , a n d he o b je c te d to e d g in g s heels, k n ee -b o o ts, to p -b o o ts, co tto n , p a rtrid g e s, ra m s, g o a ts , / S co rp io n s, p e a c o c k s, a n d e m b ro id ered , d e co ra te d w ith lio n s, tig e rs a n d p a n th e rs, a n telo p es, b e a v e rs an d ca ts, sq u irrels, o w ls, / S a n d a ls fo r sp lit (feet), c o rn s, u n w ash ed , tre e-stu m p s, ra sp in g , p a lm , b a m b o o , an d in d ee d gra ss, m u n ja t babbaja, m a r s h y d a te-p a lm , / K a m a la t w o o llen , g o ld en , silv e r, g em s, la p is la z u li, c ry s ta l, b ro n ze, a n d g la ss, an d tin , le a d , co p p er, /
1 V A . 1088 here g iv e s a lis t o f s ix k in d s o f deer, a n d s a y s th e ir h id e s m a y be used.* b u t n o t t h e h id es o f o th e r k in d s o f deer, in c lu d in g th e k&dailmiga, nor (w ith a p la y on w ords) th e hides, o f b e a s ts o f p t e y , vdfam iga, w h ich it d etin es a s [ions, tig e r s, p a n th e rs, b ea rs an d h y e n a s . S k in s o f cow s, bu ffaloes, h ares a n d c a ts m a y n o t b e used eith er. 1 n& t&va tarn ganan& pagayi y&va na hatthatfi g a cth eti. T h is refers t o N is . I, w h ere a n e x t r a ro b e m a y b e w o r n for a t m o s t te ii d a y s . T h e a b o v e phrase m e a n s t h a t a m o n k need n o t b ^ g in to c o u n t th e s e te n d a y s u n t il h e h a s a c tu a lly r eceived t h e r o b e -m a te ria l. V A * io 8 g s a y s r ** S o lo n g a s h a v in g c o n v e y e d b u t n o t g iv e n , or (so lo n g as) h a v in g s e n t b u t n o t a n n o u n ce d t h a t * T h is r o b e -m a te ria l h as a c cru e d fo r yo u . h o n o u re d sirs" ; h e d o es n o t b^ gin t h e r e c k o n in g tta upeti)^ it {i-e. t h e r o b e-m a teria l) is n o t a llo tte d , one d o e s n o t be g in t o t a k e u p w h a t is n o t allo tted * B u t when* h a v in g conv-ey-ed it it fis g iv e n , o t w h en h a v in g s e n t i t i t is a n n o u n ce d , or w h en h a v in g h e a rd t h a t it h a s accru ed * from th e n o n th e r e is o cc a s io n for a t te n tio n t o t h e te n days O n upaga, see . 15. iL 7 , n . 4 ; a n d o n anadhisthita* ** n o t a llo tte d **r see ibid., ru I ,

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C o w s, a v e h ic le a n d ill, y o k e d w ith b u lls, a p a la n q u in , th in g s to reclin e on , la rg e hides, a n d th e d e p ra v e d one w ith a co w h id e, / O n w h a t b elo n g s to h ouseh old ers, w it h th o n g s o f h id e, th e y e n te r, on o n e b e in g ill1* K a c c a y a n a th e G re a t, S o n a (recites) fro m m e m o ry w h a t belo n gs to th e D iv isio n s in th e E ig h ts , / A g ro u p o f fiv e for o rd in a tio n , m a n y lin in g s, c o n sta n t b a th in g,* he a llo w ed h id es {to b e u sed as) c o v e rin g s, re ck o n in g n o t n e c e s sa ry u n t i l : T h e le a d e r g a v e th e se fiv e boons to th e E ld e r S o n a . [198]

1 eilayctno \ Cing. ed- gildnakd. * CujU- ed n , upasatnpadatft pa&eafii gaparflgapd dhttvasittdyand*

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GREAT

D IV IS IO N

(M A H A V A G G A )

VI

A t t h a t tim e th e L o rd w a s s ta y in g a t S a v a t t h i in th e J e t a G ro v e in A nath ap infjteka's m o n a ste ry- N o w a t th a t tu n e m o n k s, a fflic te d b y a n affectio n occu rrin g in th e a u tu m n , b ro u g h t u p th e c o n je y t h e y h a d d ru n k a n d b ro u g h t u p th e rice t h e y h a d e a te n ; b e ca u se o f th is t h e y b e c a m e le a n , w re tc h e d , o f a b a d co lo u r, y e llo w is h , th e v e in s sta n d in g o u t on th e ir limbs* T h e L o rd sa w th e se m o n ks w h o w ere lean , . . sta n d in g o u t o n th e ir lim b s ; seeing: th e m , he a d d re sse d th e v e n e ra b le A nanda, s a y in g : N ow * h o w is i t A n a n d a , t h a t a t p re se n t m o n k s a re lean * - . s ta n d in g c u t on th e ir lim b s ? " " A t p resen t, L o rd , m o n k s, afflicted b y a n a ffe c tio n o ccu rrin g in th e a u tu m n , b rin g u p th e c o n je y t h e y h a v e d ru n k a n d b rin g u p th e rice th e y h a v e e a ten ; b e c a u se o f th is t h e y a re lean , , sta n d in g o u t on th eir lim b s ," |j i J J T h e n a s th e L o rd w a s m e d ita tin g in seclu sion , a reaso n in g arose in h is m in d th u s : " A t p resen t m o n k s, a fflic te d b y an a ffe ctio n o c cu rrin g in th e a u tu m n , b r in g u p * * * sta n d in g o u t on th e ir lim b s. W h a t n o w if I sh o u ld a llo w m ed icin e fo r m o n k s w h a te v e r is m e d icin e a s w ell a s w h a t m a y b e a g re e d u p o n as m ed icin e'-and a lth o u g h i t m a y se rv e a s n u trim e n t fo r p e o p le 1 y e t co u ld n o t b e re ck o n ed as s u b s ta n tia l fo o d ? " T h e n i t o ccu rre d to th e L o rd : T h e s e fiv e m e d icin e sJ th a t is to s a y gh ee, fresh b u tte r, o il, h o n ey, m o la sse s, a re m ed icin es* a n d are also ag reed u p o n a s m ed icin es, a n d a lth o u g h t h e y serve a s n u trim e n t fo r p e o p le y e t t h e y c a n n o t b e re ck o n e d as su b s ta n tia l food* W h a t n o w i f I s h o u ld a llo w m o n ks to m a k e use o f th ese five m e d icin e s a t th e rig h t tim e , if t h e y h a v e a c c e p te d th em a t a rig h t tim e ? || 2 || T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g em erged fro m seclu sio n to w a rd s th e e v e n in g , h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed t a lk on th is o cca sio n , ad d ressed th e m onks* s a y i n g ; * ioA&ssa,
1 C f* N is s a g . X X I I I P w h e re 3 m on k, h a v i n g a c c e p t e d th e s e fiv e m ed icin es m a y k e e p th e m in sto re fo r a t m o s t seven d a y s . T h e y are d efin ed a t Vin* iii* 2 5 1-

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" N o w , m o n k s, a s I w a s m e d ita tin g in seclu sion y e t co u ld n o t be re ck o n ed as su b s ta n tia l fo o d \ M onks, co n cern in g th is , i t o ccu rred to m e : * T h e se fiv e m ed icin es, t h a t is to s a y [1&9] - * . Sup pose I w ere to a llo w m o n k s to m a k e u se o f th e se five m ed icin es a t th e rig h t tim e, if t h e y h a v e a c c e p te d th e m a t a r ig h t tim e ? * I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e u se of th e se fiv e m ed icin es a t th e rig h t tim e , if y o u h a v e a c c e p te d th e m a t a r ig h t t im e / ' || 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s, h a v in g a c ce p te d th ese fiv e m ed icin es a t a r ig h t tim e , m a d e u se o f th em a t th e r ig h t tim e . B u t e v e n w ith th ese th e y d id n o t d igest o rd in a ry coarse m ea ls, m u ch less g re a s y ones- A n d b ecau se o f th is th e y w ere a fflic te d b y th e a ffe ctio n occu rrin g1 in the a u tu m n , a n d in consequence th e re w a s a lso a loss o f a p p e tite , a n d a s a re su lt o f b o th th ese (factors) t h e y b e c a m e in crea sin g ly le a n , w retched* o f a b a d co lo u r, y e llo w is h , w ith th e vein s sta n d in g o u t on th e ir lim bs. T h e L o r d s a w th e se m o n k s w h o w e re in c re a sin g ly le a n * - * standing: o u t on th e ir lim b s ; seein g th em , he addressed th e v e n e ra b le A n a n d a , s a y in g ; " N o w , w h y is it, A n a n d a , th a t a t p resen t m o n k s are in c re a s in g ly lea n , . . sta n d in g o u t on th e ir lim b s ? j] 4 j| A t p re se n t, L o rd , m o n ks, h a v in g a c ce p te d th o se five m ed icin es a t a rig h t tim e , m a k e use o f th em a t th e rig h t tim e , . . a n d a s a re su lt o f b o th o f th ese (factors) t h e y are in c re a sin g ly lea n * - * sta n d in g o u t on th e ir lim b s / ' T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g g iv en reaso n ed ta lk on th is o cca sio n , a d d ressed th e m o n k s, s a y in g r ** I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g a c ce p te d these fiv e m ed icin es1, t o m a k e use o f th e m b o th a t th e rig h t tim e a n d also a t the w ro n g tim e/ *8 II 5 II 1 I I N o w a t th a t tim e ill m o n k s h a d need o f ta llo w s as m ed icin es. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : rr I a llo w yo u , m on ks, to m a k e use o f ta llo w s a s m ed icin es b y u sin g th em

* N . B . ** a t a rig h t t im e ** d o es n o t o c c u r here. * T h is m u s t refer t o th e r ig h t tim e a n d tft-e w ro n g tim e fo r e a t m g solid fo o d s and soft foods. W h e n " so lid food is d efin ed a.t Wimiv. 83 b y e x c lu d in g fo o d t h a t m a y b e e a te n d u r in g a w a tch of t h e n ig h t, d u rin g s e v e n d a y s , d u rin g life th e r e is reason to su ppose t h a t th e s e exp ressio n s refer t o m ed icin es, seo ii. 330, n. it 2, 3*

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w ith oil : ta llo w fro m b e a rs , ta llo w from fish, ta llo w from alligators* ta llo w from sw in e, ta llo w fro m d o n k e y s,1 (if each ) is a c ce p te d a t a rig h t tim e , co o k ed a t a rig h t tim e , m ixed a t a rig h t tim e.* |j i f| e- If, m o n k s, one sh o u M m ake use o f th a t w h ic h is a c c e p te d a t a w ro n g tim e, co o k ed a t a w ro n g tim e , m ix e d a t a w ro n g tim e , th e re is a n offence o f three w ro n g -d o in g s. I f, m o n k s, o n e sh o u ld m a k e u se o f t h a t w h ich is a c c e p te d a t a r ig h t tim e, c o o k e d a t a w ro n g tim e , m ix e d a t a w ro n g tim e , th e re is an o ffen ce o f tw o w ro n g -d o in g s. If, m o n k s, o n e sh ould m a k e use o f th a t w h ic h is a c c e p te d a t a r ig h t time* c o o k c d a t a rig h t tim e , m ix e d a t a w ro n g tim e , th ere is a n o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g . If, m o n k s, one sh ould m a k e use o f th a t w h ic h is a c c e p te d a t a rig h t tim e , co o k ed a t a rig h t tim e , m ix e d a t a r ig h t tim e, th e re is no o ffe n ce/'* \ [ 2 |[ 2 J f N o w a t t h a t tim e ill m o n k s h a d n eed o f ro o ts a s m ed icin es. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : [200] " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, ii th e re is a reason, to m a k e use o f ro o ts as m e d ic in e s : tu r m e r ic / g in g e r, o rris root* w h ite o rris ro o t, g a rlic , b la c k h ellebore, k h u s-k h u s, n u t-g ra ss, o r w h a te v e r o th e r ro o ts th ere are t h a t a re m ed icin es, if t h e y do n o t serve, a m o n g so lid fo o d s, a s a so lid fo o d , if th e y d o n o t se rv e , a m o n g so ft foods, a s a s o ft fo o d ; a n d h a v in g a c c e p te d th em , to preserve th em fo r as lo n g a s life la s ts .0 I f th e re is no reason, th e re is a n offen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g fo r one w h o m a k e s use o f (a n y o f th ese m e d icin e s}/ ' |[ 1 || N o w a t th a t tim e ill m o n k s h ad n eed , a s m ed icin es, o f w h a t w a s p o u n d ed o ff ro o ts. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd ,
1 Q u o te d a t F> 3+ 7 1 4 . T h is p a s s A g - e x p la in s t h a t ta llo w fro m th e flesh o i ail a o jm a ls w h ich i t is a llo w a b le to e a t is a llo w e d , a n d aiso, w ith t h e e x c e p tio n o f h iim a a ta llo w , t h e ta llo w o f t h e te n a n im a ls w h ic h i t is n o t a llo w a b le t o e a t. T h e s e t e n a r e p r o h ib ite d a t K in . i. rarS ff. _ Q u o te d a t V A * 7 1 4 , "which, in reierence t o U llo w p r e g a r d s P ' t h e r ig h t t im e P J as b efo re a meal* " t h e w ro n g tim e M a$ aiter< * Q u o te d a t VA+ 7 1 4* * T h is lis t o f r o o ts also g iv e n a t Vin* iv . 3 5 . F o r notes* see B .D . 1 L 337 f* C f. also V A . 833*

pariharitttm.
* P a s s a g e q u o te d a t V A * 833. S ee S . D . Li. 330^ n* 3, on th is expression , *' a s lo n g a s life lasts T h e m ed icin es m e n tio n e d in N is s a g . X X I I I m a y , u n lik e t h e r o o t m ed icin es w h ic h m a y 'be sto red for life* b e sto red fo r a t m o s t seven d ay*.

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H e s a id : I allo w y o u , m onks, a (low er) g rin d s to n e , a (sm all) g rin d sto n e ,1 " J | 2 || 3 j| N o w a t th a t tim e ill m o n k s h a d n eed o f a strin g e n t d eco ctio n s a s m ed icin es. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : 1 a llo w y o u , m o n k s, i f there is a reason, to m a k e use o f a strin g e n t d eco ctio n s a s m ed icin es : a strin g e n t d e co ctio n s from th e m m b -tre e, a strin g e n t d eco ction s fro m th e kutaja*, a strin g e n t d e co ctio n s fro m th e fia kk a v a * a strin g e n t d e co ctio n s fro m th e nattam ala* o r w h a te v e r other a strin g e n t d e co ctio n s th e re are t h a t a re m ed icin es i f t h e y do n o t s e rv e , am o n g solid fo o d s, a s a so lid fo o d , if t h e y d o n o t s e r v e , a m o n g so ft foods* a s a s o ft f o o d ; a n d h a v in g a c ce p te d th e m , to p reserve th e m for a s lo n g a s life la sts. I f th e re is n o reason , th ere is a n offence o f w ro n g -d o in g fo r a n y one w h o m a k e s use o f (a n y o f th e se m ed icin es) |[ 1 || 4 || N o w a t th a t tim e ill m o n k s h a d n eed o f le a v e s as m ed icin es. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, if th ere is a reason , to m ake use o f le a v e s as m ed icin es : n im b -le a v e s, kutaja- le a v e s , cu cu m b erM eav eS j b a sil M e a ve s, c o tto n -tre e le a v e s , or w h a te v e r o th e r le a v e s th e re a re th a t are m e d icin e s i f th e y d o n o t serve . * - (a n y o f th ese m e d ic in e s )/ '7 ii1 1 1& 1 1 N o w a t th a t tim e ill m o n k s h a d n eed o f fru its a s m ed icin es. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, if th ere is a reaso n to m ake u se of fru its a s m ed icin es : vilaiiga,* pepper, b la c k p ep p er,30 y e llo w m y r o b a la n / 1 b e leric 1 n is a d d n isad a p ota .. V A . 109c says pim & anaiiitS c u pim $an<2pcta& 0 ca, a stone for grinding an d a small (thing) for grinding. T h is latter m ust be a pounder to -use in t b c hand on th e large? grindstone. 1 W rig h tia antidyscnterica. or Nericum. antidy&entericum H olaxxbcaa antidysenterica (W att's C otn m & rcia l P r o d x itts o f I n d i a ) . * A creeper, V A * 1090 (reading paggcata as a t J d . ti. 105, where it is called a creeping plant). _ < A t V A . lo go called karaUja which, according to . P ^ D ^ is th e tree Pongam ia glabra. * a kind of cucum ber, Tiict.osanthes Dioeca * suZast ; c f. Skrt. su r a s if given by B htlb agt*R o th as " basilienkraut T h e word translated as " basil " a t B .D , ii. 2S is ajjuJta. * Q u o ted a t VA - 835. * E r y c ib e panicu!ata. * p'ippala, see Vin^ Texts ii. 46, n* 6. ^ marica* J 1 ht*rit&ka 4c f . & M - iii* 24J, n* 4 (Ftn. iv . 259).

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m y r o b a la n 1, e m b lic m y ro b a la n , gothar-f r u i t 3 o r w h a te v e r o th e r fru its th e re are th a t a re m ed icin es if t h e y d o n o t se rv e - * . . {a n y o f th e se m e d ic in e s)/ ' jj i |] 6 |j N o w a t th a t tim e ill m o n k s h ad n eed o f resin s a s m e d icin e s. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to the L o rd . H e s a i d ; " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, if th ere is a reaso n , to m a k e use o f resins a s m ed icin es ; hiA gur* hingu-Tesm^ fttngu-gnm ^ g u m ,5 g u m -paiUt 0 [2Q1J g u m -pan# t,* o r w h a te v e r o th e r resin s th ere are th a t a re m ed icin es if th e y do n o t s e rv e . * * (any o f th ese m ed icin cs) ' \ 7 ii x n 7 n N o w a t th a t tim e ill m o n k s h a d n e e d o f sa lts a s m ed icin es. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd . H e s a i d : ** I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, if th e re is a reason, to m a k e use o f sa lts a s m ed icin es : sea{-salt), b la c k salt, rock-salt, c u lin a ry -sa ltj re d -sa lt10 o r w h a te v e r o th e r sa lts th e re a re th a t axe m e d icin e s i f t h e y do n o t se rv e , a m o n g so lid fo o d s, as a so lid fo o d , if t h e y d o n o t se rve , a m o n g so ft fo o d s, a s a so ft food ; a n d h a v in g a c ce p te d th e m , to p re se rv e th e m fo r a s Long a s life la sts . I f th e re is n o re aso n , th ere is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g -d o in g fo r o n e w h o m a k e s use o f (a n y o f th e se m e d ic in e s)/ ' J J i |[ 8 || N o w a t th a t tim e11 th e v e n c r a b le B e la tth a s Is a ,32 th e v e n e ra b le
1 vibhitakat also a t J s , vi. 529. W att, Commercial Products o f In d ia t under Tertninalia beleriia, says it h a s various m edicinal qualities ascribed t o it ; and the oil expressed Iroan th e seed is used b y th e N atives p \ U dder Phyllanihus crrrbiica W a t t says f< th e fresh ripe fruits are largely em ployed as astringent and la x a tiv e medicines p \ 1 gothaphala. P .E . D . say s ' mcdicinaJ seed Moxiier W ill Earns, under goiratrriksha com pares to dhaftvane.t. T his he g iv e s as tho if p la n t A lh a gi M auroram which grows in a d ry soil * A ssafoet Lda. * hing?t-$ipdfik<3+ P.E*F>. say s th a t tbFs is a sipatikd (pod pericarp) yieldin g gurn. M onier W illiam s says i t is th e same as vmftsa-pattrt. T h is he calls a " particu lar kind o i grass = natfl-'hiAgu V A . t o j o sayg th a t hiifrgu, hiiigu-jatit, hiihg-u-sip&ik< 5 are ju s t kinds o f h\ng-u, * iakar a medicinal gum , * V A - 1090 say s th a t taka ajid these tw o varieties are all of th em kinds of lac or resin, Q u o ted at V A . 835, a VA * 1090 calls th is com m on salt. T h is is w h ite in colour, V A . 1090. V A * 10 9 0 : cooked together w ith all kinds of ingrcdrertts, it is- red in colour. 11 O pening p a rt of this story = Vin.. i, 295l * See ii, 338, n. j,

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A n a n d a Js p re cep to r, h a d a n afflictio n o f th ic k s c a b s ,1 B e c a u s e o f th e d isch a rg e his ro b e s stu c k to his body* M o n k s, h a v in g r e p e a te d ly m o isten ed th e se w ith w a te r , loosened th em . A s th e L o rd w a s to u rin g th e lo d g in g s h e sa w these m o n ks loosen in g th e ro b es, h a v in g 1 re p e a te d ly m o isten ed th em w ith w a te r ; a n d seein g (this) h e a p p ro a c h e d these m o n k s ; h a v in g ap p ro a ch ed , h e sp ok e th u s t o th ese m o n ks ; ** W h a t, m o n k s, is th is m o n k 's a fflictio n ? , f L o rd , th is v e n e ra b le one h a s a n a fflictio n o f th ic k s c a b s ; b e c a u se o f th e d isc h a rg e , h is ro b es s tic k to h is b o d y ; h a v in g r e p e a te d ly m o isten ed th em w ith w a te r, w e are loosen in g th e m . H i I! T h e n th e L o rd in th is co n n ectio n h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , a d d re sse d th e m o n k s, s a y i n g : I allow,, m o n k s, fo r one w h o h a s itch * o r a sm all boil* or a ru n n in g sore1 o r an a fflictio n o f th ic k scabs* o r fo r one w hose b o d y sm ells n a s ty , ch u n a m s a s m e d icin e s ; fo r one w h o is n o t ill d u n g , c la y , b o iled c o lo u rin g m a tte r ,3 I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, a p e stle a n d m o rta r.4 ,p [| 2 J ] 9 || N o w a t th a t tim e ill m o n ks h a d n e e d o f sifte d ch u n am s a s m ed icin es. . . . " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, a ch u n am -sifter*B " T h e y h a d need o f v e r y fine ones, " I a llo w yoU j m onkSj a d o t h s if t e r ." |f 1 |f N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k h a d an n o n -h u m an afflictio n . T e a c h e rs a n d p re cep to rs, a lth o u g h n u rsin g him , w e re u n ab le to g e t h im w ell. H e , h a v in g gone to th e sw in e's slau g h ter-p lace, a te ra w fle^h an d d ra n k r a w blood, a n d h is n o n -h u m an afflictio n s u b s id e d .8 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , [202] H e sa id : M I a llo w , m onks* w hen one h a s a n o n -h u m an afflictio n , raw flesh a n d raw b lo o d / ' || 2 {[ 10 |j
* C f.
1 A t

x c . a.
F t i* . iv *

1 7 2 ( B . O . H i* 9 7 ) it c h - c t o t h " is d e fin e d a s : io r c o v e r i n g an yone who- has a n y o f these afflictions. * ra ja n a -n ipa h ko r. V A * 1090 says rajana-AaraJa, a c r i d colouring m atter or dye-stuffh B u t ku sa fa can also mean dregs or leavings, an d this sense ts more lik e ly here. V A 1090 explains : '* h avin g ground ordinary chunam* h a v in g moistened it with w ater, one m a y wash (or b ath e w ith it ) ." These three things were for a p p ly in g to the b o d y and not for tak in g as a medicine. * udu kkhata tnusula, different from the grinding stones oi 3

* There seems a t V A . 1090 th e idea th a t a non-hum an b r in g possessed # p th e monk. F or i t explains th a t it was net th e m onk who ate and drank th e raw things, but the non-hum an being I on its departing* his (the m on ks} noa-truman affliction is said to b#ve subsided.

i l

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N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k ca m e to h a v e an illn ess a ffe c tin g h is eyes. H a v in g ta k e n h o ld o f th a t m o n k , th e y m a d e h im go o u t to ease him self. A s th e L o r d w a s to u rin g th e lo d g in g s, h e sa w th o s e m o n ks w h o , h a v in g ta k e n h o ld o f th a t m o n k , w ere m a k in g h im g o o u t to ease h im s e lf ; seein g (this) h e a p p ro a c h e d th o se m o n k s ; h a v in g a p p ro a c h e d , he sp o k e th u s to th o se m o n k s : W h a t, m o n k s, is th is m o n k 's a fflic tio n ? J * || 1 {j " L o rd , th is v e n e ra b le one h as a n illn e ss a ffe ctin g h is e y e s ; w e , h a v in g ta k e n h o ld o f h im , are m a k in g h im g o o u t to ease h im s e lf/ ' T h e n th e L o rd in th is co n n e ctio n h a v in g g iv e n reaso n ed ta lk , a d d ressed th e m o n ks, s a y in g ; " I a llo w , m o n k s , th e s e o in tm en ts1 : b la c k collyrium ^* ra sa -o in tm e n t,3 .sofa-ointm ent,4 y e llo w -o c h r e ,5 la m p - b la c k / '* T h e y h ad n e e d o f o in tm en t-p o w d e rs,* . . . " I a llo w , m o n k s , th e use o f sa n d a l-w o o d , ro se b a y , b la c k g u m ,s talisa,* n u tgrass/** if 2 1 1 | | N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s u sed to p la c e p u lv e rise d o in tm e n ts in sm all b o w ls an d saucers- T h e y w e re litte re d w ith p o w d e re d g ra ss a n d d u st. - * * if I a llo w , m o n k s , an o in tm e n t-b o x / '11 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s u sed v a rio u s k in d s o f o in tm e n t-b o x e s, m a d e o f g o ld , m a d e o f silv e r. P eo p le lo o k e d d o w n u p o n , c ritic is e d , sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : 4* L ik e h o u seh o ld ers w h o e n jo y p leasu res o f th e senses J\ T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd , H e said : " M o n k s, v a rio u s k in d s o f o in tm e n t-b o x e s sh o u ld n o t be used. W h o e v e r sh o u ld use (one)* th e re is a n ofEence o f
1 aiijana i s h e r e a g e n e r i c t e r m , a s i s c l e a r f r o m t h e f i r s t t h r e e to t e s p e c i f i e d r

kafaftja.na t a s a n ja n a s d a n ja r ta *
all

VA

- IG 9 0 a ls o

says of

a ilja n a ,

f* c o m p r is in g

* V A . loQo S&ys

one kind of anj'eMCi, Cooked w ith a ll ingredients "

s V A . 1090 s a y s m a d e fr o m a v a r ie t y o f in g r e d ie n ts J\ B O h t lin g k -R o th s a y i t is m a d e w ith v itrio l. * V A 10 90 -91 s a *' a n o i n t m e n t o r i g i n a t i n g i n r i v e r s a n d s t r e a m s " ,


B tfh tlin g k -R o th s a y i t is m a .d e w i t h a n t i m o n y . P t * D * s a y s kap&ila,

6 geruha, or red c h a lk . * kapaSia t a k e n f r o m t h t f l a t t i e o f & l a m p , V A . i c g i *


is h e re - in e r r o r f o r

Majjaia-. 9 atljatiitfiapisana, as a t Virt^ ii. aJa. S e e G .S . v , 1 7 , a . 1 . * Fl&CourtiSL cataphracta-. I * A s I n M V , V I* 3 . a n d V i n . Sv, 35. See I I an j a m . S e e B.E) i i i , S g > n . 3* A llo w e d a ls o

s it

i i , 3 3 8 , n , a. V in . ii. 13 5 *

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w ro n g -d o in g . I a llo w {them ), m o n k s, (to be) m a d e o f b on e,1 m a d e o f iv o r y ,1 m a d e o f h o rn ,1 m ad e o f reed , m ad e o f b a m b o o , m a d e of a p ie ce o f stic k , m a d e o f la c , m a d e o f cry sta l,* m a d e o f co p p er, m ad e o f th e cen tre o f a co n ch *sh ell/' |i X [| N o w a t th a t tim e o in tm en t-b o x e s w ere n o t co ve red . T h e y w ere litte re d w ith p o w d ered g rass a n d d u st, . . , I allo w , m o n k s, a 'lid / * 3 A lid fell o ff. . , . " I a llo w y o u , m onks, h a v in g tie d it w ith th rea d , to tie it to th e o in tm en t- b o x / 1 A n o m tm e n t-b o s sp lit o p e n .4 , * * f< I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to Sew it ro u n d w ith th read /* || z || N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s p u t on o in tm en t w ith (their) fingers, (Their) eye s b ecam e p a in fu l, * . . " I allow , m o n k s, an o in tm e n t* s tic k / J* N o w a t t h a t tim e th e gro u p o f s ix m onks used va rio u s k in d s o f o in tm en t-stick s, m ad e o f g o ld , m ad e o f silv er. [203] P e o p le lo o k ed dow n u p o n , criticised , sp read it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L i k e h ou seh old ers w h o e n jo y pleasures o f th e sen ses/' , . . " M onks, v a rio u s k in d s o f o in tm en t-stick s Should n o t b e used.* W h o e v e r should use one, there is an o ffen ce o f w ro n g-d o in g. I a llo w (them ), m on ks, (to be) m ad e o f bone - . , m ad e o f th e cen tre o f a co n ch -sh elL " | | 3 || N o w a t th a t tim e an oin tm en t-sticky fa llin g to th e ground, b ecam e ro u gh . * , . I a llo w , m o n ks, a case fo r th e s t ic k s / '7 N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s ca rried a b o u t o in tm cn t-b o xe s and o in tm e n t-stick s in th e ir h an d s . , * " T a llo w , m o n k s, a b a g fo r th e o in tm e n t-b o x / ' T h ere w a s no s tra p a t th e edge* , . 1 A t V in t iv* 16 7 these three materials are allowed for m aking needle-cases. '* B on e M is there deAocd as w hatever is bone* 3 ut V A - 1091 says " made of bon e ** means of every kind o bone w ith th e exception of human bone* T h is list recurs a t ii. 317. a suggests th a t phaiamaya stands in all p rob ab ility for phalikei-

maya *\

9 AUowed also a t Ftn. ii. 122 for a well. * R eading phalati 'with C m g+ eda- instead of Oldenberg's nipat&ti. * Allowed again, w ith olntm ent-box, a t Vtw. ii. 135- A t iv- 168 there is 11 n o offence '* if an. ointm ent'Stick is used as a needle-civse* C f. abo ve VT- 12. 1. 1 VA * 1091 says, " b e c a u s e th e y p u t dovro the sticks* I allow a piece of boUow wood or a b ag for them F \ * ainsa-bandhaJttz (l\ U vadkakat PVJ* loq t 5ays this is for (or, on) th e ointm cnt-bag. T h e same thing allowed at Vin. ii. rr4 for a bowl* A t M V, V I . 13 , there is a similar " allowance " f o r a b ag for tubes for stea m . T h u s th e monks had different bags for different portable articles* I t would Mem as if each b a g had a strap attached to its -edge, rather than th a t monks carried th e bags b y means of straps going over th e shoulder {also called

12.4 i - 2]

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' I a llo w , m o n k s, a stra p a t th e e d ge, a th re a d fo r ty in g 1/ ' II 4 II12 II

N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n era b le P ilin d a v a c c h a * h a d a h e a d ' ache* * . - r* I a llo w , m onks* a sm all q u a n t it y o f oil fo r th e head:'* H e d id n o t g e t b e tte r . - , Jf I allo w , m onkSj (m edical) tre a tm e n t th ro u g h th e nose J\ 4 H is nose ra n , . . " I a llo w , m onks, a n o se-sp oo n . 5 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s used va rio u s k in d s o f n ose-sp oon s, m a d e o f g o ld , m a d e o f silv er. P e o p le * . . sp rea d it a b o u t, s a y in g : " L ik e h ouseholders w h o e n jo y pleasures o f th e se n s e s / ' T . " M o n k s , v a rio u s k in d s o f nose-spoons sh o u ld n o t b e used. W h o e v e r should use one, th e re is a n offence o f w ron g-d oin gI a llo w (them ), m o n k s, (to be) m a d e o f bone . * . m a d e o f th e ce n tr o f a c o n ch -sh ell/ ' || x (| T h e y p o u red i t u p th e nose in u n even quantities, allo w , m o n k s, a d ouble n o se -sp o o n / '7 H e d id n o t g e t b e tte r . * * I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to in h a le s t e a m / '8 So t h e y in h a led it a fte r t h e y h a d lit a wick. I t b u rn t th e ir th ro a ts. . . . 141 a llo w y o u P m o n k s, a tu b e fo r th e ste a m .10 N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f six m o n k s u sed a ll kind^ o f tu b e s fo r th e s te a m * . * (as in |[ I [|). fi I a llo w (them ), m o n k s, (to be) m ad e o f bone . * , m ad e o f th e c e n tre o f a c o n c h -sh e ll/ ' N o w a t- th a t tim e tu b e s fo r th e ste a m w ere n o t co v e re d , a n d sm a ll crea tu res g o t in. I a llo w , m o n k s, a li d / J N o w a t t h a t tim e
1 probably tor ty in g th e b o x to th e strap. C /. V i n * ii. 114. * See B .D . 1 . 1 i z r n. -z. J A " certain m onk 1 1 1 had this, stsdbhitapa, a t Yin* iii- 83 i. 143). * natthuhamftta* Cf* naithvtn adafnsu a t V in iii. S3 (see B.Z*. i . 343* 2), Mentioned, also a t Af- i. 511* * n^rthu-kurafit, I translate as a t Te*t$ ii* 54. -PE H , gives " p o ck e thandkerchief " F b u t n e xt sentence m akes th is unlikely. * * ia tth u * n v is a m a m a s i/ ic - a n t i. In pouring th e m edicam ent u p th e nose, monks probably pouted more up one uostril than th e other. T h e spoon, therefore,, was not to catch the discharge irom th e nose b-ut w as to hold it up so t h a t th e medicinal oil does n o t run out Texts ii. 54, n. 1) ; it was an instrum ent w ith which to pour up th e m edicinal oil itself, 7 J-*. one givin g an e q u a l stream in respect oi its tw o measures, V A . xo gi. 1 dhumatp paiumt lit. to drink steam, or smoko. Below* M V - V I . 14 , 5* cf 1 dhUtttaqt hdiu.^%. Of. *' drinking '* (not smoking) a huqqa, b y reason of th e w ater in it_ 4 C f , Vin+ Texts ii* 54, n. 3, w hich states th a t th ey smeared a w ick w ith the drug's and then burnt them, dhamamttn. Also a t JS, iv . 3 6 3 ; transld. J d . Trttvisln-^ iv* 229 as ** sm oking-pipe

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m o n ks ca rried a b o u t tu b e s for th e steam in th eir hands* I allow* m on ks, a b a g fo r th e tu b e s fo r th e ste a m . T h e y g o t ru b b ed to g eth e r. . * . r I a llo w , m o n ks, a d o u b le bag* T h e re w a s no s tra p a t th e e d ge ,1 , * . I a llo w , m on ks, a stra p a t th e ed ge, a th re a d fo r t y in g / ' || 2 || 13 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a [204J h a d an affliction o f w in d . P h y s ic ia n s sp oke th u s : " O il m u st be boiled/* - . , " I a llo w , m o n k s, a d e co ctio n o f o il." N o w stro n g clrink h a d to b e m ix e d in th a t d eco ctio n o f o il. " T a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to m ix stro n g d rin k in a d ecoction of o il/ J N o w a t th a t tim e th e g ro u p o f s ix m o n k s b o iled oils m ixed w ith to o m u ch stro n g d rin k. H a v in g d ru n k th ese, t h e y w ere in to x ic a te d .2 " M on ks, oil m ix e d w ith to o m u c h stro n g d rin k sh o u ld n o t b e d ru n k . W h o e v e r should (so) d rin k sh o u ld be d e a lt w ith a cco rd in g to th e ru le .3 I a llo w y o u , m on ks, if n eith er th e co lo u r n o r th e sm ell n o r th e ta ste o f stro n g d rin k 1 ap p ears in a n y d e co ctio n o f o il, to d rin k oil m ix ed w ith stro n g d rin k i f i t is lik e th is . | | 1 ]| N o w a t th a t tim e m o n k s cam e to h a v e m u ch b o iled o il m ixed w ith to o m u ch stro n g d rin k . T h e n it o ccu rred to these m o n k s : MN o w w h a t course o f co n d u ct sh o u ld be fo llo w ed w h en th ere is o il m ix e d w ith to o m u ch stro n g d rin k ? " I a llo w y o u , m on ks, tp e m p lo y it as a n u n g u e n t / N o w a t th a t tim e the v e n era b le P ilin d a v a c c h a cam e to h a v e a q u a n tity of b o iled oil, b u t there w a s no re ce p ta cle for oilI a llo w y o u , m onks, th ree k in d s o f vessels : a copper vessel* a w ood en v e s s e l a vessel (m ade of) f r u i t / r [ | 2 || N o w a t th a t tim e th e ve n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a had rh e u m a tism in th e lim b s, " I a llo w , m on ks, th e sw e a tin g -tre a tm e n t/ '* H e g o t no b e tte r, , . . rj I allo w , m o n ks, sw e a tin g b y the use o f a ll k in d s o f h e r b s / '7 H e g o t no b e tte r. " I allow , monks*
1 A s in V L 13 . 4. * Ttiajjattti, or ** w ere elated. p \ 1 F a c. L I, * C f. Pftc. L I . 2 , 3. * abbhahjanat an o i l i n g C f t h e s a m e w ord in th e " k e v 'Ha t V in . iii. 79, u sed in referring t o abbhaAjtTjt&tt, t h e y oiled or ru b b ed (an ill m on k), on p, S3. * seda^amma. 7 s&ntbk&r&sed&. oi le a v e s ,p. V A . to ^ y , " s w e a tin g b y th e u se o h e m p an d a v a r ie t y

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*79

th e g re a t s w e a tin g / '1 H e g o t n o b e tte r . " I a llo w , m o n k s , {the u se of) h e m p -w a te r/ 1* H e g o t no better* I a llo w , m o n ks, (the use of) a w a t e r - v a t ." 3 || 3 |j N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a h a d rh eu m a tism in th e jo in ts , " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to le t b lo o d ." 4 H e g o t no b e tter- " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, h a v in g le t b lo o d , t o cu p w ith a h o r n / '5 N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a 's fe e t c a m e to be s p lit. " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, an u n g u e n t fo r th e f e e t / J H e g o t n o b e tte r, " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to p re p a re a fo o t-s a lv e / '* N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k c a m e to h a v e boils* w t I allo w , m o n k s, tre a tm e n t w ith a la n c e t / '7 T h e re w a s n eed o f a strin g e n t w a te r. **I a llo w , m o n k s, a strin g e n t w a t e r / 1 T h ere w a s n e e d o f sesam u m p a ste . /c I a llo w , m o n k s, sesam u m p a s t e / ' || 4 |[ T h e re w a s n eed o f a compress. " I a llo w , m o n ks, a co m p re ss / ' T h e re w a s n eed o f a p iece o f clo th fo r ty in g o v e r th e sore, " I a llo w , m o n k s, a p iece o f c lo th fo r ty in g o v e r th e sore/* T h e sore itch e d . " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to sp rin k le it w ith m u s ta rd -p o w d e r/ '& T h e sore festered . [205] I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e a fu m ig a tio n / '10 T h e flesh o f th e sore11 sto o d u p , I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to c u t it o ff w ith a p iece o f s a lt- c r y s ta l/ 1 T h e sore d id n o t heal. I a llo w , m o n k s, o il fo r th e s o re / ' T h e o il ran. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r t o th e L o rd , H e s a i d : I a llo w , m o n ks, a linen b a n d a g e 1* (and) e v e r y tr e a tm e n t for c u rin g a s o re / ' || 5 |]
1 mah&scda. V A . 1091 e x p la in s t h a t t h e y h e a p c h a r c o a l in to a p it th e s it e o f a m a r , co v e r rt w ith d u s t, s a n d a n d le a v e s , a n d th e p a t ie n t lie s d o w n th e r e w it h h is lim b s sm eared w ith oi) a n d sw e a ts b y ro llin g routid. 1 bha&godaka, i.e. h em p le a v e s b o ile d in w a ter. T h e p a t ie n t should, s w e a t b y r e p e a te d ly s p r in k lin g h im s e lf w ith t h is prep ara tion * V A . 10 9 1. S ee Krtt. T e x ts EL 57, n. 1* * wdahakotthaka, ** I a llo w th e a p p lic a tio n o f th e sw e a tin g - t r e a t m e n t {sedakammakarap.il)' h a v in g g o t in to a, v e s s e l or v a t filled w ith h o t w a t e r ," V A . i o q i . Kotth&ba is u s u a lly a s to c e -fo o m . 4 B y using: a k n ife (o f la n cet), V A . 10 9 1. 4 See V in . T e x ts ii. 3 7 , a. 3, w h ic h , q u o tin g W ise , says^ ** b a d b lo o d m a y b e r e m o v e d b y m ea n s o f c u p p in g , w h ic h is p erfo rm ed b y a h o rn p a jji i* cf, O ii. 240. 1 $atthaka*n*na. 1 habalika. * sasapaMtifa* C f, V in . ii. 1 5 1 sdsapakutftfa, a s a t V A * w here exp-lam ed as " groun d (pittha) m u sta r d ' r, 10 dhiltnaTfi C f * M V . V I . 1 3 . 3. t l vanama*nsat V A . to g s r e a d in g t*adghamai*tsar an d s a y i n g th a t th e u p p e t or co v e r in g (mfhifca} flesh sto o d u p lilt-e a. peg. l * vikjisika ; V A - i o g s , " a p ie c e o f c lo th for c o v e r in g ttp t h i sore

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N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k w a s b itte n b y a snake*1 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L ord* H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to g iv e th e fo u r g re a t irre g u la r th in g s3 : (a d e co c tio n of) d u n g, u rin e, ashes, d a y / ' 3 T h e n i t o ccu rre d to th e m o n k s : " (M ay t h e y be used) e v e n i f t h e y a re n o t (form ally) received , or sh o u ld t h e y b e (form ally) r e c e i v e d ? " 4 T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e sa id : " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to m a k e u se o f th e m i f som eone to m a k e th e m a llo w a b le 5 is there (form ally) to offer th em to y o u ; h a v in g ta k e n th em y o u r selves, if th e re is n o one to m a k e th e m a llo w a b le / ' N o w a t th a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k ca m e to h a v e d r a n k poison. T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e L o rd . H e s a i d ; " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, t o m a k e him d rin k (a co n co ctio n of) d u n g / T h e n i t occurred to th e m onks ; " (M ay it be drunk) even if i t is n o t (form ally) re ce iv e d , or sh o u ld it be (form ally) offered ? T h e y to ld th is m a tte r to th e Lord* H e s a i d : *' Z allo w , m o n k s, th a t if h e receives (fo rm ally) th a t w h ich (someone) is m a k in g a llo w a b le ,8 w h en he h a s once (form ally) received it th a t it n eed n o t be (fo rm ally) o ffered a g a in / ' || 6 || N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in m o n k h a d an a fflictio n re su ltin g from d rin kin g so m eth in g p o iso n o u s.9 Y f I a llo w y o u , m onks, to m a k e him d rin k (a d eco ctio n of) m u d tu rn ed u p b y the p lo u g h / '10 N o w a t t h a t tim e a c e rta in m o n k w a s co n stip a te d . *l I a llo w y o u , m o n k s, to m a k e h im d rin k ra w ly e / J N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in m onk h a d ja u n d ic e . ,r I allow y o u , m onks, to m a k e h im d rin k (a co m p o u n d o f c o w 's 11) urine a n d y e llo w m y r o b a la n / '1*
1 C f. K in . iv. i66> * ma&dvi&atd*ti. M en tio n ed a t Kin* iv . go, w here a m o n k m a y h im self t a k e th ese e v e n i f th e r e is no o n e t o m a k e them. 4 4 a llo w a b le J\ for t h e y do n o t c o u n t a s " n u tr im e n t A lso a t A f, i. 79, D . 1. 167. * T h e s e th in g s are, or are b y In d ia n s , regard ed a-3 g r e a t purifiers. 4 fiafiggaketiibbani. O ld c n b e r g proposes t o read paligg&hapGiabfy&m, V in , i. 3 S * . ' * * C f, ii. 34 6 , n- i P % *

paiiggahap&tum. *

7 patiggahdpetabbo / see B . U . iL 123 .

ftarcmto p&tigg&xih&ti.

* V A , 1092 ta k e s th is to m ean h e w a s su fferin g from th e resu lts o f sorcery^ i.e. from a d isease arisin g from d r in k in g u n d er th e m a s te r y o f an o th er. 10 e x p la in e d a t V A . I0Q2 as '* I a llo w y o u t o m a k e Tttm d rin k, m ix e d w ith w ater, th e c l a y c lin g in g t o th e plou gh sh are w hen tillin g w itb a p lo u g h * l S o V A , 1092, 14 C f. V in . i. 3 7 6 w here J J v a k a g a v e ghee as a cu re io t ja u n d ice.

1 4 ,7 15*2]

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VI

N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in m o n k h a d a sk in d isease, " I a llo w y o u , m o n ks, to m a k e a p e rfu m e -p a ste / ' N o w a t th a t tim e a ce rta in m o n k 's b o d y ca m e to b e fu ll o f (bad) h u m o u rs.1 I a llo w h im , m o n k s, to d rin k a p u rg a t i v e / ' T h e re w a s n eed o f c la rifie d c o n je y . " I a llo w , m o n k s, cla rified c o n je y / ' T h e re w a s n e e d o f u n p rep a red broth. ' r I a llo w , m o n ks, u n p rep a red b r o th . T h e re w a s n eed o f p re p a re d a n d u n p re p a re d ,3 " I a llo w , m o n k s, p re p a re d a n d u n p re p a re d / ' T h e re w a s n eed o f m e a t-b r o th .4 " I a llo w , m o n ks, m e a tb r o t h / ' || 7 i l l * II N o w a t th a t tim e th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a ,5 d e sirin g to m ake a cave* h a d a (m ountain) slop e clea red n e a r R a ja g a h a . T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a a p p ro a c h e d th e ven erab le P ilin d a v a c c h a ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , [206] h a v in g g re e te d th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a , he sa t d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l distance* A s he w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l d ista n ce. K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a sp o k e th u s to th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a : " W h a t, h o n o u re d sir, is th e eld er h a v in g m ad e ? J' * ** S ire, desiring t o m a k e a c a v e , I am h a v in g a (m ountain) slop e c le a re d / ' ** H o n o u red sir, d o es th e m a ste r req u ire an a tte n d a n t for a m o n a ste ry ? J' ** S ire, an a tte n d a n t for a m o n a ste ry is n o t a llo w ed b y th e L o rd /' *4 W e ll, h on oured sir, h a v in g in q u ire d o f th e L o rd , y o u sh o u ld tell h im o f m e-" 4 4 V e r y w e ll, s ir e / ' th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a an sw ered K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a in assen t. f| i ]| T h e n th e ve n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a g la d d en ed , roused , rejo iced , d e lig h ted K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a w ith ta lk o n dhamma. T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a ,
* abhisann-akaya. C f , V in ii. t r g , a l s o M V . V I I I ., 1 * 30, haya 1 akafay&sa, V A . 1092 s a y s " a b e v e r a g e c o o k c d w ith b e a n s b u t n o t o ily " , * kaidka}ia* V A . 1092 read s so w va {v ,L dhota) siniddho* th is 15 o n ly a litt le o ily . * paiizvhadnniya. C f * b e lo w , M Y - V I , 2 3 . 3. VA. 1092 e x p la in s b y matn$anzsa+ fla vo u r o f m ea t, * F r o m here to w a rd s en d o f 1 5 . 10 t t V in . iii. 24-8231* S ee LL 126 fF. lo r n otes.

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g la d d en e d . . . d e lig h te d b y th e ve n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a 's ta lk on dhamma, risin g fro m h is se a t, h a v in g g re e te d the ven erable P ilin d a v a c c h a , d e p a rted k e ep in g h is rig h t side to w a rd s h im . T h e n th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a sen t a m essenger to th e L o rd to s a y : " L o rd , K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a d esires to p resen t a n a tte n d a n t fo r a m o n a ste ry . N o w , L o rd , w h a t lin e o f co n d u ct is t o be follow ed ? " T h e n th e L o rd on th is occasion h a v in g g iv e n reason ed ta lk , ad dressed th e m onks s a y in g : " I a llo w , m o n k s, a m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t/ ' || 2 || A n d a secon d tim e d id K in g S e n iy a B im b isa ra o f M a g a d h a a p p ro a c h th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch ed , h a v in g g reeted th e v e n era b le P ilin d a v a c c h a , he s a t d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d ista n ce. A s h e w a s s ittin g d ow n a t a re sp e ctfu l d istan ce K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a spoke th u s to the ve n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a : " H o n o u red sir, h as th e L o rd a llo w ed a m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t? ,J -- Y e s , s ir e ." " W e ll th e n , honoured sir, I w ill g iv e th e m a ste r a m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t/ ' T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a , h a v in g prom ised th e v e n e ra b le P ilra d a v a c c h a a m o n a ste ry a t t e n d a n t fbut) h a v in g fo rg o tte n , h a v in g re ca lled it a fte r a tim e , a d d ressed a c h ie f m in ister w h o w a s co n cern ed w ith a ll th e affairs, sa y in g : " M y g o o d sir, h a s th a t m o n a ste ry -a tte n d a n t w h o m I prom ised to th e m a ste r been g iv e n ? " ** Y o u r m a je s ty , a m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t h a s not been g iv e n to th e m aster/* " M y good sir, h o w lo n g is it since it w a s considered ? || 3 j| T h e n th a t c h ie f m in ister, h a v in g co u n ted u p the d a y s , sp ok e thus to K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M agad h a : " I t is five h u n d re d d a y s, y o u r m a je s ty / ** W e ll th e n , g iv e fiv e h u n d re d m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n ts to th e m a s te r / ' ** Y e s , y o u r m a je s t y ," a n d th e c h ie f m in ister h a v in g an sw ered K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a in assen t, b esto w ed fiv e h un dred m o n a s te ry a tte n d a n ts on th e ven e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a , an d a d is tin c t v illa g e esta b lish ed itself. T h e y ca lled i t ** T h e V illa g e o f th e M o n a ste ry A tte n d a n ts " [207] a n d t h e y also c a lled it " P ilin d a V illa g e N o w a t th a t tim e th e ve n e ra b le

15*4 ^3

m a h

v a g g a

v i

P ilin d a v a c c h a fre q u e n te d fa m ilie s in th a t v illa g e . T h e n th e ven e ra b le P ilin d a va cch a * h a v in g dressed in th e m orning* ta k in g h is b o w l a n d robe, en tered P ilin d a V illa g e fo r alm sfood. ||4 ff N o w a t th a t tim e th e re cam e to be a fe s tiv a l in th is v i l l a g e ; y o u n g girls w e a rin g o rn am en ts, a d o rn ed w ith g a rla n d s, w ere c e le b ra tin g it. T h e n th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a as h e w as w a lk in g for alm sfo o d o n u n b ro k e n round1 in P ilin d a V illa g e , approach ed th e d w e llin g o f a c e rta in m o n a ste ry a t t e n d a n t ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , he sa t d o w n on th e a p p o in te d se a t. N o w a t t h a t tim e th e d a u g h te r o f th e jn o n a s te ry a tte n d a n t's w ife , h a v in g seen o th e r little g irls w e a rin g ornam ents* a d o rn ed w ith garlan d s, cried a n d said : " G iv e m e a g a rla n d , g iv e m e an o rn a m e n t/ ' T h e n th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a s a id to th a t m o n a s te ry a tte n d a n t's w ife : " W h y is th is little girl c r y in g ? r* H o n o u red sir, th is little g irl is c r y in g b ecau se, h a v in g seen o th e r little g irls w e a rin g o rn a m e n ts, ad orn ed w ith g a rla n d s, she s a y s : * G iv e m e a garland* g iv e m e an o rn a m e n t/ W h en ce is th e re a g a rla n d fo r us w h o are p o o r, w h e n ce an o rn a m en t ? " II 5 II , T h e n th e ven erab le P ilin d a v a c c h a , h a v in g ta k e n a r o ll o f g rass, sp o k e thus to th a t m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t's w ile : " N o w set th is roil o f g ra ss on th is lit tie g irl's h e a d / ' T h e n th a t m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t's wife* h a v in g ta k e n th a t ro ll o f g ra ss, set it on th a t little g irl's h e a d . I t b ecam e a go ld en c h a p le t, b e a u tifu l, g o o d to lo o k u p o n , ch a rm in g ; th e re w a s no g o ld en c h a p le t lik e it e v e n in th e k in g s w o m e n 's q u a rters. P e o p le spoke th u s to K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a : " Y o u r m a je sty , in th e house o f a ce rta in m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t th e re is a g o ld en c h a p le t, b eau tifu l* g o o d to lo o k u p o n , ch arm in g ; th ere is n o go ld en c h a p le t lik e it e v e n in y o u r m a je s t y s w o m e n 's q u a rters. A s he is p o o r, w h ere (co u ld he h ave g o t it) from ? U n d o u b te d ly it w a s ta k e n b y t h e f t / ' T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a h a d th a t m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t's fa m ily im p riso n ed . (1 6 jj
1 sapad&tt&m, d e r iv a tio n u n c e r ta in . E n jo in e d a t S e k h iy a 33. E x p la n a t io n s given a t V A . 35 3 {cited i\L 1 * 9 , n* 3 ) : i* i o 5 : th e houses reach ed , one w a lk in g t o th em s u cce s s iv e ly (in su ccession , in order) ; S ttA . 1 1S : o n e w h o w a lk s su cce ssiv e ly , n o t h a v in g r e je c te d (d ep arted iroiu ) th e order (succession) o f th e houses, e n te rin g a r ic h h ou seh old a n d a p o o r h ou seh old w ith o u t in terru p tio n (w ith o u t a b rea k , 11 ju s t a s Lt co m e s " ) p for alm sfood-

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A n d a second tim e d id th e v e n era b le P ilin d a v a c c h a , h a v in g d ressed in th e m orning, ta k in g his b o w l a n d robe, en ter P ilin d a V illa g e fo r alm sfoo d . A s he w a s w a lk in g in P ilin d a V illa g e on u n b ro ken ro u n d for a lm sfo o d h e a p p ro a ch ed th e d w e llin g o f th a t m o n a s te ry a t t e n d a n t ; h a v in g ap p ro a ch ed , he a sk e d th e neigh bo u rs : ** W h e re h a s th is m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t's fa m ily gone ? ** H o n o u red sir, th e y h a v e been im p riso n ed b y th e k in g on a c c o u n t o f th a t golden c h a p le t." T h e n th e ven e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a a p p ro a ch e d th e residence o f K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a ; h a v in g ap p ro ach ed h e sa t d o w n o n th e a p p o in te d seat. T h e n K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a a p p ro a ch e d th e ve n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a ; h a v in g a p p ro a ch e d , h a v in g g re e te d th e ve n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a h e sa t d o w n a t a re sp e ctfu l d istan ce, [ 208] T h e v e n era b le P ilin d a v a c c h a spoke th u s to K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a a s h e w a s s ittin g d o w n a t a re sp e c tfu l d istan ce : |[ 7 || H o w is it, sire, th a t th e m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n ts fa m ily is im p riso n ed ? J 3 h H o n o u red sir, in th a t m o n a s te ry a tte n d a n t's house there w a s a go ld en c h a p le t, b e a u tifu l, good to lo o k u p o n , ch a rm in g ; th ere is no golden ch a p le t lik e it even in o u r w o m e n 's quarters. W h ere (could h e h a v e g o t it} from , as he is p o o r ? U n d o u b te d ly it w a s o b ta in e d b y t h e ft ." T h e n th e ven e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a exercised v o litio n a l force, a n d said : " T h e p a la ce of K in g S e n iy a B im b is a ra o f M a g a d h a is g o ld e n / ' a n d it b ecam e m ad e all o f go ld . H e sa id : " N o w , sire, from w h ere h a v e y o u g o t so m u ch go ld ? S a y in g : r< I u n d e rsta n d , h on oured sir, th is is th e m a ste r's m a je s ty o f p s y c h ic p o w e r," h e set free th e m o n a ste ry a tte n d a n t's fa m ily . || 8 || P e o p le , d e lig h ted , fu li o f sa tisfa c tio n becau se t h e y h eard th a t a sta te o f fu rth e r m en , a w o n d e r o f p sy c h ic p o w er h a d been show n b y m a ste r P ilin d a v a c c h a to th e k in g a n d his retin u e, p resen ted th e five (kinds of} m ed icin e to th e v e n e ra b le P ilin davaccha^ th a t is to sa y g h e e , fresh b u tte r, oil, h o n e y a n d m olasses. N o w th e v e n e ra b le P ilin d a v a c c h a w a s c u sto m a rily a receiver, so w h en ev er he received th e five (binds of) m edicine he g a v e them a w a y a m o n g h is co m p an y- A n d his co m p a n y cam e to liv e in a b u n d a n ce ; w h a te v e r th e y received , fillin g p o ts

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and p itc h e rs, t h e y p u t th e m a w a y , a n d fillin g w a te r stra in e rs a n d b a g s, th e y h u n g th em u p in th e w in d o w s. T h e se {pots, e tc .) le a k e d , a n d th e d w e llin g -p la ce s b e ca m e b e se t a n d o v e rru n b y ra ts. P eo p le, h a v in g seen (this) as t h e y w ere to u rin g th e d w ellin g -p la ces, loolced d o w n u p o n , c ritic ise d , sp rea d i t a b o u t, s a y in g : ** T h ese reclu ses, son s o f th e S a k y a n s , a re sto rin g u p good s indoors, lik e K in g S e n iy a B im b is a r a o f M a g a d h a / ' 1 1 9 1 1 _ M o n k s h eard th e se p eo p le w h o w ere , - * sp rea d in g it a b o u t. T h o se w h o w ere m o d est m o n k s . . . sp rea d i t a b o u t, s a y in g : " H o w can th ese m o n k s s tr iv e a fte r a b u n d a n c e lik e th is ? " T h e n th ese m o n k s to ld th is m a tte r to th e I>ord- H e sa id : " Is it tru e , a s is sa id , m o n ks, t h a t m o n k s are s tr iv in g a fte r ab u n d an ce such as th is ? " " I t is true, L o rd /* H a v in g re b u k e d th e m / h a v in g g iv e n reasoned ta lk , h e a d d re sse d th e m o n ks, s a y in g : " T h o se m ed icin es w h ic h m a y be p a rta k e n o f b y ill m o n k s, t h a t is to s a y ghee* fresh b u tte r , o il, h o n e y , m olasses-h a v in g a c c e p te d th e se, t h e y m a y be u sed a s a sto re fo r a t m o st se ve n d ays. H e w h o e x ce e d s th a t (period) sh o u ld be d e a lt w ith ] a c c o rd in g to th e ru lc/*a ]J l& [115 | T h e F ir s t P o r tio n for R e p e a tin g : th a t on M ed icines t h a t a re A llo w e d . T h e n th e L o rd , h a v in g s ta y e d found su itin g , [209] set o u t on th e w a y th e v e n e ra b le K e v a t a th e h a v in g step p ed a sid e, (he sa w th e a t S a v a tth l fo r a s long a s he to u r fo r R a ja g a h a . A n d on D o u b te r 3 s a w a su g a r-fa cto ry ; m en) p u ttin g flo u r a n d s y ru p 4

1 Vin. iii. 251 (5 ,1). iL J 31 ) reads ; Th& lord rebuked them, sayin g ; " , _ * this rale of training should be set forth.. _ . .M * Nissag. X X I I I . * K ankharevata* A t A * i, .24 called " chief oi musers M ; verses a t Thug. 3, Ap> ii- 491. M entioned a t Ud. V . 7 . M . i. 212* 463. H e was scrupulous a b o u t and doubted w h a t was allowable, kappiya* C f. ThagA, 37, TJdA- 314* A A . i, 430, AT/i ii. 247, G.S. i. 18, n. . * chdnkatn cannot here be ashes, w hich is its m ost usual meaning. B u t cf. SJcrt. k$arar treacle, molasses. Perhaps some confused reference b a c k to th e "'fou r irregular th in g s of , fi is intended here. T h e a llo w a b ility