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Partially Graded vs Fully Graded?

I'm looking for good technical definitions to explain the difference between fully graded and partially graded, star connected (Y) primary winding of a standard YNd1 transformer used extensively by the power utility in South Africa. Any offers? 9 days ago

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ShamaunUnfollow Follow Shamaun Shamaun Hakim Star point or neutral of the winding can have one of three type of connections to ground/earth 1. Solidly Grounded (very low, almost zero impedace) : Transformer winding shall withstand full insulation level at the line end whereas neutral end of the winding can withstand lower insulation level depending on the applicable standard IEC or IEEE or CSA etc..... Usually insulation level of the neutral is 95 KVp lightning impulse level and 28 KV rms 1 minute power frequency. The winding can have a graded insulation meaning insulation level can gradually reduce from full insulation at line end to reduced level at neutral end. 2. Impedance Grounded (with a resistor or reactor) : Neutral end of the winding can have either full insulation as that at line end or reduced. For insulation level of the neutral, refer applicable standard and customer's specification. Customer specification can be higher than the standard and overrules. Again, winding can have a graded insulation meaning insulation level can gradually reduce from full insulation at line end to reduced level at neutral end. 3. Ungrounded (Open, not connected to ground in any way): Transformer winding shall have uniform insulation throughout, that of the line. The winding is called to have uniform insulation. Coming to your question of fully graded or partially graded, general terminology is graded or

uniform insulation. However there is another term called as fully interleaved or partially interleaved types of winding used in winding typically of 145 KV and above voltage class. 7 days ago Unlike Like

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BarendUnfollow Follow Barend Barend van Jaarsveld Good day Rob Just a comment on the partial an fully interleaved terminology; This does not pertain to the insulation grading of the winding per se, and is more an electromagnetic matter rather than electrostatic. At the end of the day the grading of your insulation boils down to the basic insulation level BIL at the line end vs. that at the neutral end of the winding. Shamaun gave a very good example of the reasoning behind this. Kind regards, Barend. 6 days ago Unlike Like

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SubramoneyUnfollow Follow Subramoney Subramoney M I agree with Mr.Hakim that there can be only two type of insulation,uniform or graded. Wherever star wdg neutral is earthed on 66 K.V.and higher voltage class,graded insulation is being used.

The advantage of graded wdg in H.V.Star Trs. is that if taps are to be provided on H.V. wdg, the same can be provided at neutral end which saves cost on OLTC.Also the neutral bushing will be of a lesser voltage cost than the line. M.SUBRAMONEY 6 days ago Unlike Like

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RobUnfollow Follow Rob Rob Maitland-Stuart Thanks Shamaun. You have provided an explanation on the types of grounding that can be applied to the star point of the winding, but the actual term "partially grade" vs "fully graded" is still ambiguous in my view. Both refer to a grading of the insulation between the line end and the neutral/star point of any limb in a star connected winding, but in technical terminology, what does that actually mean, i.e. for "fully graded" does it mean that the insulation covering at the line end of the winding is sufficient to withstand full line voltage, which is gradually reduced along the length of the winding limb to such an extent that the insulation covering at the star point end is sufficient to withstand the virtual zero voltage that would be measured but also for mechanical protection? Would "fully graded: then apply to your item 1 explanation? If so, where does partially graded fit in and what does it mean in terms of the insulation covering along the winding limb? The standard YNd1 transformers used by the power utility in South Africa come with a partially graded Y winding that is either connected direct to ground or lifted via a neutral point surge arrester, depending on the protection philosophy applied at any particular installation 6 days ago Unlike Like

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BarendUnfollow Follow Barend Barend van Jaarsveld Good day Rob. The problem with these terminologies is that they in essence specify how the insulation should be designed which is realy a matter to be left to the manufacturer. The 2013 draft of the IEC 60076-3 no longer refers to graded and partialy graded insulation. It only distinguishes between uniform, and non uniform insulations. This simplifies matters. Uniform insulation means that the line end and neutral end has the same withstand capability, non uniform means that your neutral has a lower withstand capability than the line end of the winding. The utility should only specify the withstand capability of the neutral and does not need to worry about the grading of the insulation structure since this is driven by the required BIL. 5 days ago Unlike Like

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ShamaunUnfollow Follow Shamaun Shamaun Hakim Rob, I am not familiar with terms fully graded or partially graded in the design of winding. Perhaps, in some regions or companies, fully graded is used for solidly grounded neutral and partially graded for impedance grounded. Neutral cannot be lifted (at higher potential) by surge arrestor, it can be protected though, when impedance grounded or ungrounded. I am in agreement with Barend. 3 days ago Unlike Like

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RobUnfollow Follow Rob Rob Maitland-Stuart Thanks Barend. I wasn't aware of the proposed changes in the draft spec, IEC 60076-3, which does simplify the whole matter. Thanks for the feedback, which has clarified the ambiguity inherent with the old terminology in my view. Much appreciated. 3 days ago Unlike Like

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KevinUnfollow Follow Kevin Kevin Newman As far as I can make out the term 'graded' insulation dates back to the da ys of BS 171. In the 1970 version there are actually 4 classes of graded insulation. 1 is for when the neutral is solidly grounded with a test voltage of 38 kV (this is the minimum level in the current version of IEC 60076-3). 2 is a special case where the neutral is connected to a separate regulating transformer, this is obviously only valid for single phase transformers or 3 phase transformers where the neutral is made externally, here the insulation level depends on the insulation level of the neutral of the regulating transformer, the insulation level of the line end of the main winding and the p.u. regulation, again with a minimum of 38 kV. 3 is for the neutral grounded through a resistor or other impedance and protected by a suitable voltage limiting device (surge arrester or similar), here the test voltage is between 36% and 65% of the insulation level of the line end depending on the characteristics of the apparatus and the system. Lastly 4 is another special case where the neutral is grounded via an arc suppression coil and again protected by a surge arrester or similar here the range of test voltage is between 58% and 65% presumably this is because with these types of system phase to earth voltage can exist at the neutral for extended periods and so a higher rated voltage of surge arrester is required. The terms partially or fully are not used but colloquially full graded would apply to category 1 and partially to categories 3/4. The term 'graded' disappeared from BS 171 when it was aligned with IEC 76. As stated above we now only have uninform and non-uniform insulation in IEC. The recommendation for a minimum test level of 38 kV for the solidly grounded case still exists otherwise it is up to the user to specify the test level for the neutral based on system characteristics. Armed with this information it is up to the transformer manufacturer to design the transformer accordingly. The user may also specify an impulse voltage test for the neutral. In uniformly insulated transformers the separate source test proves the insulation to ground of the whole winding, the induced voltage test proves the turn to turn and phase to phase insulation ideally at 2x rated. In non-uniformly insulated transformers the separate source test proves only the insulation of the neutral. Two induced tests are required, one with the neutral grounded at

approximately 2x rated to prove turn to turn and phase to phase insulation and a second test to prove the phase to ground insulation of the line terminal. This is usually done with the neutral terminal raised above ground to reduce the turn to turn voltage, in some cases the designer may elect to artificially increase the internal withstand of the transformer (including the tap-changer, if any) beyond what is specified to minimise the turn to turn voltage, this may also require a temporary test bushing to be fitted to the neutral. In rather latest FDIS of IEC 60076-3 this test is called the LTAC (line terminal AC) test. For the higher voltages it is replaced by a switching impulse test unless specified as a special test by the user 2 days ago Unlike