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Greek Gods - The Sanskrit Connection

The myths of Greece and Rome have inspired the people and literature of the West from
time immemorial. Though the Gods are originally Greek, their latin (Roman) names have
been used more frequently in art and poetry. For example:

Roman name Greek name

Jupiter Zeus
Juno Hera
Minerva Athena
Diana Artemis

Also it is now widely accepted that the classical languages Latin, Greek and Sanskrit
have a common source in a much older language, which is extinct today. To illustrate this
point it is customary to demonstrate the similarity of the most common words. For
example, the word "father" is:

Sanskrit, pitri Latin, pater

Gothic, vader Greek, pätair

Thousands of such words are there.

Mythologies of ancient India and Greece have some similarities here and there. Some of
the vedic gods have counterparts in Greek mythology. Thus Uranus in Greek mythology
is Varuna in the vedic literature. Mars is Marut in Indian mythology. But what is not
generally known is the astonishing fact that the names of Greek gods and heroes have in a
great measure been found to correspond with Sanskrit names of physical things! It is
important to emphasize the fact that some of these names are not related to gods or heroes
in Indian mythology itself, but merely names of just physical things, though Dyaus is the
Vedic creator and sky god and father of Surya the sun god and Agni the god of fire.

A simple list follows:

Greek God/Hero Sanskrit word meaning

Zeus dyu, Dyaus shine, sky, day; sky god
Hera soar bright sky
Uranus var conceal, cover
Daphne Dahana dawn
Ixion Akshanah one bound to a wheel
Paris Panis night demons
Athene ahana the light of daybreak
Prometheus Pramanthas Stick used to kindle Fire(Agni)

These are some obvious connections. An expert in the field will be able to find many
Why this is not known?

Though many linguists have accepted the common origin of Indo-European Languages
(Sanskrit, Greek, Latin) when it comes to Indo-European race we find less agreements
(rightly so). Also Indo-Greek connection has been a less explored area than the general
Indo-European language link. One reason the Greek-Sansrit connection was under-
explored is because of the political prominence of the Roman Empire in the later
European and Christian history. Even the Greek Gods were better known by their Roman

Once the Romans took political control, Greek Mythology never got the status which
Vedic Mythology got in India. "The role of the Mysteries is hard to define since much of
their ritual was secret, and at a later date information about them was suppressed by
Roman and Christian alike, but we do know that the Mysteries proliferated and
dominated Hellas spiritually for more than a millennium , and were the most effective
mass religious cult in the Greco-Roman world." [Ref

The Greek Link to India, though accepted, has been sidelined by the later Western
Researchers. Internet is giving valuable information in this regard. "Perhaps it was not
there in the first place, perhaps a basic folk-memory encompassing historical data
ranging back some thousands of years was recast in Greece in the mould of myths which
had emanated from India along with a handful of the Indo-European sky god
personalities. There may even have been other influences from India early in the first
millennium BC. ,which we are not aware of, just as there were later influences from India
bearing on the philosopher, and the appearance, in the generation of Socrates if not
before, of "Aesopicß tales", which are obviously recast from the materials of the Sanskrit
Hitopadeça and Pançatantra." [Ref

Some Proofs emerging

In this internet era, more information is out there for public eyes. It's impossible to hide
anything now. So recently I came across (2002 Jan) some information underlying what I
wrote almost five years ago. But the following was in fact written 125 years ago, though
not known to many people!

Alexander Murray, Manual of Mythology (London, 1874), 326-40.

For example, many names unintelligible in Greek are at once explained by the meaning
of their Sanscrit equivalents. Thus, the name of the chief Greek god, Zeus, conveys no
meaning in itself. But the Greek sky-god Zeus evidently corresponds to the Hindoo sky-
god Dyaus, and this word is derived from a root dyu meaning "to shine." Zeus then, the
Greek theos, and the Latin deus, meant originally "the glistening ether." Similarly other
Greek names are explained by their counterparts, or cognate words in Sanscrit. Thus the
name of Zeus's wife, Hera, belongs to a Sanscrit root svar, and originally meant the bright
sky: the goddess herself being primarily the bright air. Athene is referred to Sanscrit
names meaning the light of dawn, and Erinys is explained by the Sanscrit Saranyn.


DYAUS was, as we have already indicated, the god of the bright sky, his name being
connected with that of Zeus through the root dyu. As such Dyaus was the Hindoo rain-
god, i.e., primarily, the sky from which the rain fell. That the god-name and the sky-name
were thus interchangeable is evident from such classical expressions as that "Zeus rains"
(i.e., the sky rains), and meaning a damp atmosphere. In such expressions there is hardly
any mythological suggestion: and the meaning of the name Dyaus, — like those of the
names Ouranos and Kronos in Greek, — always remained too transparent for it to
become the nucleus of a myth. Dyaus, however, was occasionally spoken of as an
overruling spirit. The epithet, Dyaus pitar, is simply Zeus pater — Zeus the father; or, as
it is spelled in Latin, Jupiter. Another of his names, Janita, is the Sanscrit for genetor, a
title of Zeus as the father or producer. Dyaus finally gave place to his son Indra.


Even the question whether Sanskrit is the mother of all languages (Indo-Euroepan) has
been speculated, but negatived by the same author.

In the Sanscrit language the myths common to the Aryan nations are presented in,
perhaps, their simplest form. Hence the special value of Hindoo myths in a study of
Comparative Mythology. But it would be an error to suppose that the myths of the
Greeks, Latins, Slavonians, Norsemen, old Germans, and Celts were derived from those
of the Hindoos. For the myths, like the languages, of all these various races, of the
Hindoos included, are derived from one common source. Greek, Latin, Sanscrit, etc., are
but modifications of a primitive Aryan language that was spoken by the early "Aryans"
before they branched away from their original home in Central Asia, to form new
nationalities in India, Greece, Northern Europe, Central Europe, etc.

The Sanscrit language is thus not the mother, but the elder sister of Greek and the kindred
tongues: and Sanscrit or Hindoo mythology is, in like manner, only the elder sister of the
other Aryan mythologies. It is by reason of the discovery of this common origin of these
languages that scholars have been enabled to treat mythology scientifically.

The Greek Myths

William Harris, Prof. Em. Middlebury College

Chapter 7: Man the Tool Maker

The ability to invent new devices, techniques and ideas is one of the most basic
characteristics of Mankind. Other animals, especially some of the most advanced
primates, do invent new approaches to problems which confront them, but nothing in the
biological world that we are aware of has the almost compulsive drive to invent which
Man displays. As Sophocles foretold , sometimes this turns to good, sometimes to ill, but
the trait of inventive thought continues through the ages. Greek mythology records Man's
talent for inventiveness, but there often appears a strange twist which leads to a bad end.
Men had relatively recently evolved from the older hunter-gatherer stage, and many
innovative notions which we take for granted must have seemed new and dangerous. It is
of such a transitional world that the Greek stories speak.

Daedalos is the earliest Greek example of 'homo faber', the contriver, artificer and
craftsman who invents, rather than inherits, the techniques of his craft. He is said to be
descended from Hephaistos, who is his parallel person among the gods. At some point,
when threatened by the achievements of a nephew who invented the potter's wheel and
the saw, he killed him and had to flee from Athens under the curse of murder. The potter's
wheel is of much older Near Eastern origin, certainly as old as the lathe of which it is a
vertical adaptation; or possibly the woodturning lathe was developed from the potter's
wheel. The saw also has an ancient pedigree, the Egyptians had copper saws with
hammer hardened teeth at an early date, and neolithic men embedded animal teeth in
wood with a hardsetting resin to make saws at am earlier date. Connecting Daedalos and
his nephew with Mycenean Athens is completely out of kilter with the history of
technology. Leaving Athens, Daedalos went to Crete where he designed the labyrinthic
maze for Minos, when himself locked in the maze, he decided to fly out and glued onto
his son Icaros wings, which melted in proximity to the sun with well known results, this
being the earliest attested splash-down. Daedalos is mentioned several times in Homer as
being the designer of all sorts of objects and garments, his name apparently is used to
cover the work of several millennia of steadily advancing craftsmen. In later Greek times
various shrines possessed roughly made statues of wood, which were said to be the work
of this master craftsman; the wooden statues point to a very early date for Daedalus, since
proficiency with working marble, as well as the increasing scarcity of wood since Minoan
times, soon turned artists toward stone which was readily available everywhere. Even the
palace-gates at Cnossos point to a scarcity of wood, since gatesways plastered over a
wood armature in the l4th c. are replaced by an all plaster structure a hundred and fifty
years later, as Evans noted in the descriptions of his work on the site.

It has been stated that the hand is the cutting edge of the mind, if so Daedalos clearly
marks the earlier level of Greek society's awareness of this proverb. Strangely in Greece
as it developed after the Dark Age, the handcrafts were downplayed as abstract thought
developed and asserted itself, with the result that in the Classical Period "homo faber"
became a low-ranking servant of the rich, and much of his work was done by slaves.

Prometheus is the semi-divine personage who was said to have fabricated mankind out of
clay. When Zeus became enraged with men and deprived them of fire, Prometheus stole
fire from Hephaistos in heaven and gave it to men, thus incurring Zeus' eternal wrath.
Since clay can become pottery only by the application of fire (l500-2200 degrees F.),
Prometheus' work would be meaningless without fire. Clay like man, is earthly and
available everywhere, but fire comes from heaven in the form of lightening, hence it is
the property of Zeus, and its use must be regulated by the priestly guild of Zeus' temple,
not by mere craft-oriented potters! Prometheus needs more than clay if he is going to
make durable pottery, and since fire is obtainable only through appropriate channels, he
"steals" fire, which means he gets it in an unauthorized way, and therefore must be
punished. A society like the Minoan-Mycenean,which early in the second millennium
B.C. had created the complexities of organized administration, would understand the
meaning of this punishment.

It was noticed long ago on linguistic grounds that the name Prometheus cannot come
from Gr. 'pro + meth (manthano)' "knowing aforehand" (as Classical scholar had long
believed) but it must be connected with the Sanskrit proper name Pramanthas, which
belongs to a Vedic family of fire-worshipping priests of Agni, god of fire (cf. Lat. 'ignis').
The fake brother Epi-metheus ("hindsight", as against "foresight") is a later transparent
addition to the myth. Vedic and Greek thought have a way of coinciding on unexpected
levels, we must become a great deal more aware of the role of Indic thought in our
interpretation of Greek ideas. It is not only in the early period that this is important, since
Heracleitos, Pythagoras and even Plato leave questions which the Indic evidence may
help to understand.

As punishment Zeus ordered Prometheus to "make" out of clay a woman into whom the
gods would breathe every necessary charm and skill, including Hermes' gift of lying and
flattery. She was sardonically destined not to be a wife for Prometheus but for his brother
Epimetheus. Her name was Pandora (Gr. 'pan + dora' "all gifts") and she brought to her
mate the infamous box which contained all mankind's' ills, flying like insects from the
box as soon as it was opened. Hope alone remained in the container as the sole, sad
solace for mankind. Knowing but refusing to reveal the secret about the marriage of
Peleus and Thetis, Prometheus was chained to a rock forever, with an eagle tearing at his
liver daily, as Aeschylos portrays him in the Prometheus Bound. (This has been discussed
under Medicine in Chapter 5).
In this story a Pygmalion-like artificer "makes" a woman out of inert material, but she
becomes alive to confer terrible woes upon the world. If Pandora were a woman from
another country, turned into an acceptable proto-Hellenic lady by Prometheus, the
artificer who could make anything (in the manner of Wendy Hiller's film conversion at
the hands of Rex Harrison), her final gift to her newly adopting country could easily be
an epidemic resulting from new pathogens,. This would explain all the flying things that
issue forth when her "brides' box" is opened, and it is most interesting that diseases are
imagined as vicious "bugs", much in the manner of colloquial 20th century parlance.
Combined with this may be the ancient notion, expounded in the story of Adam and Eve,
that women are curious at discovering new things, which (like the fructose-laden "apple"
with its resultant dietary imbalance to hunter-gatherers) always lead to trouble. It may be
that women's thought is in some modes different from men's', recent work on brain
function points to some general mental differentiations between the sexes; if this were
intuitively recognized by men, some sense of dangerous difference might well arise. One
cannot simplify complex situations of this sort, but more is certainly involved in the story
of Prometheus that initially meets the investigating eye, since there must be a moral in the
fact that Pygmalion gains a wife from a marble model, while Prometheus loses
everything fashioning a woman out of clay. The difference in luck between the two may
be the difference in the social standing of the medium. At the time of Prometheus'
fabrication, clay is an ubiquitous and a cheap material, out of which you can not make
anything valuable. (The same notion is found in the proverb about not being able to make
a silk purse out of a pig's ear.) But by Pygmalion's time, marble is already being carved
with realistic detail, it is considered valuable, and so the sculptor gets the prize of a fine
wife. (In a similar way blacksmithing was an honorable and necessary profession in
Colonial America, yet it was considered old-fashioned and completely bypassed in the
l920's by electric and oxy-acetylene welding. But by l970 it was restored to an honorable
position among the historically minded cognoscenti as an ancient and revivable craft.
Woodworking and cabinet making have faced a similar turnaround in their social prestige
since l970.) Different crafts occupy different prestige niches at different times, as a
society develops and then discards the new in favor of still newer technology.

Gordius, a Phrygian peasant, was chosen king of Phrygia in Asia Minor when he was the
first man to drive his wagon up to the temple of Zeus, this being the condition proposed
by the oracles for selecting a new king. But the knot by which the yoke was connected to
the draw-pole of the wagon was tied by a curiously intricate knot in a rope of cornel bark,
and another oracle declared that whosoever could untie this knot would be king over all
Asia. (Many years later Alexander the Great is supposed to have sliced the knot with his
sword, thus generating the proverb about "cutting the Gordian knot". But the story is not
well attested, and in any case would be an histrionic act made up for a celebrity on a well
known situation.)

As in the case of Gyges, who was also a shepherd and hence socially a nobody, Gordius
appears with but a one asset, his special knot. He tied the knot and presumably could
untie it, but the oracle-priests were impressed by the fact that none of them could
comprehend its construction, so their amazement and respect must have come from an
intellectual rather than practical base. The story marks the superiority of the mind of a
man who can devise a knot that nobody else can untie, and this knot is taken to be of such
original inventive quality, that the simple shepherd immediately is made king.. There can
be only one reason for this: Gordius represents a new level of thinking, which is
symbolized by the invention of the special knot, which the state cannot comprehend, and
hence accepts as proof of leadership.

Knots seem a simple exercise in BoyScout ingenuity to most of us, for l9 th century
sailors they were more complicated and more interesting, and to many other peoples they
have developed into an art involving difficult mathematical craftsmanship. Asian
decorative knot tying of ritual religious objects and Greek makrame represent a special
class of ingenuity, and one most not forget the Incas' use of knots tied in complex string
arrangements to serve as tallies and ledgers for the extensive administrative procedures of
their large empire. Perhaps Gordius' knot symbolizes something of immediate use to his
society, which we are totally unaware of.

The choosing of the Dalai Lama from the children of the people at large, the test being
coordinated with a proof of special thinking capabilities, is too similar to this story to be
dismissed as historical coincidence. This process avoids the consequences of what might
be called intellectual, as against genetic inbreeding. As we find more threads of
connections between East and West which go back into the second millennium B.C., we
will find is more natural to consider the possibility of historical connections of this kind.
Note that Gordius' son was Midas, whose inventive touch turned everything to gold, the
story demonstrates the utility as well as the intellectual worth of the family's intelligence.

At this point we turn to cases in which inventiveness produces evil results for the
inventor, or point to the evil machinations which twisted although inventive minds seem
so adept at concocting. Ixion, whose name has been connected with the mistletoe (Gr.
iksos),since oak was Zeus the sun god's tree and mistletoe grew on it, has also been
connected with a blazing wheel carried by peasants over lands needing the sun's warmth,
and finally he has even been considered to be a byform of Zeus ! A fresh start can be
made by examining the myth-history of Ixion's life. Having married, he murdered his
father in law when he came to claim the usual bridal presents, by arranging that he should
fall into a pit in which a charcoal fire was burning. Zeus apparently pardoned him and
accepted him as a member of his society, upon which Ixion tried to seduce Hera and
subsequently, by a phantom called Nephele ("cloud") substituted in her place, he fathered
the Centaurs. Enraged, Zeus punished him by having him tied forever on a revolving
wheel in Hades, which is how Ixion's name goes down in Classical mythology.

One can see in the history of Ixion the evolution of man from Neolithic hunter to clever,
mechanical artificer. To kill his father in law, Ixion uses a device known for tens of
thousands of years for its effectiveness with animals, the pitfall covered with carefully
camouflaged greenery. Putting a charcoal or wood fire in the pit effective since it both
makes sure that the animal is killed and at the same time starts the singeing process. But
traps for animals are not considered proper when used for humans, as is witnessed by the
severe laws which most modern countries have enacted against "man-traps" of every sort.
After this episode, Ixion "produces" (actually he is said to beget) Centaurs, horsemen
riding so closely connected with their mounts in swift motion, that unsuspecting peasants
believe this is a new cross-bred animal of fearsome proportions. proceeding from
Neolithic pitfall trapping, Ixion has appeared again on the forefront of the a new art, the
taming and breeding of horses, and he presumably uses them for aggressive chase
hunting. He replaces the passive-technology of pitfall traps with aggressive horse-borne
hunters, and this provides a far greater range of operations.

By this time Ixion had advanced again by an innovative quantum leap to the invention
and construction of the wheel, with which his story is connected in an unfortunate
manner. What would be more natural for an angered Zeus to devise for punishment than
tying Ixion to his own infernal contraption, rotating forever in Hell? We thus see Ixion on
several levels,, spanning the pre-historical period from ice-age hunting traps, as a natural
inventor, then taming the wild horse, and finally constructing the wheel, which when
linked to the horse, would make possible the great emigration of exploding populations
out of the wheatlands of Southern Russia southwards into India, and then westwards
across Europe. The wheel must have been developed at a very early time in the Indo-
European spectrum since the same root word persists from India to the British Isles: Skt.
'cakras' "wheel" on through Gr. 'kuklos' and Lat. 'circus/ circulus' to the Old Engl. 'hweol',
all perfectly cognate forms. The same word consistency through a long period of time is
also true of the companion invention, the cart, e.g.. Skt. vahati "he carries", Gr.
'(w)ochos', Lat. veh-iculum', Engl. waggon.

We must remember that the wheel is a very complicated piece of machinery, involving
intuitive engineering of the hub, spokes, rim and (sooner or later) metal tire, all which
parts are made separately but must work as a unit. This is difficult because of the
different shrinkage rates of the various parts, and we may be sure there were many
wheels broken under load before men learned to make a really serviceable unit. The
wheel was so well developed over the millennia, that ashwood wheels only disappeared
in US automotive manufacture after l924 when the industry was faced with a shortage of
suitable wood, and the pressed steel wheel was hurried into service to fill the need.

The fact that Ixion may be associated with these three levels of invention would, at least
in our eyes, make him a hero. This is certainly the kind of thing which Euhemerus was
considering in the third century B.C. when he propounded his myth-historical scheme. It
is interesting that as society moves ahead, it generally faces a counter-cultural-motive
force, which attacks with violent rage the inventor as purveyor of social disruption if not
outright evil. Early in l9th century England, Mary Shelley fabricated the long-lived
"Frankenstein" myth to warn the public of the dangers of surgical organ replacement.
Soon after, the Luddites broke into factories with sledgehammers to smash English power
driven machinery. Historians of the Industrial Revolution explain this rage as coming
from fear for lost jobs, and this may have been partly true. But a more critical factor
seems the apprehension of the dangers of the new, which will break up the old ways,
introduce unwanted social change and anarchy. If this counter-reaction to innovation
occurs as early as the prehistoric time of Ixion, then it may turn out to be part of inherited
human nature, and not the warning voice of thoughtful men foreseeing social danger and
economic disaster.

Philoctetes, whose story has been treated elsewhere, was a master- archer, perhaps
inventor of some new type of bow, such as the bow with bent -back curvature at the tips
for a secondary spring effect, which is a kind of bow that Homer mentions. But he is
rejected by the army storming Troy, left on a desert island on the weak excuse that he had
a badly infected foot which represented a curse, and only when the military realize that
they need his weapon, is there any attempt to make a reconciliation with him. In
Sophocles' masterly treatment of this story in his play, many other things are introduced
which enrich the play but obscure the original story: The plot revolves not about honor
and honesty, as Neoptolemos thought, but about ways to deal with the inventor of new
tools (bow and arrows) which render the old ones (pitfall and club) obsolete. Inventors of
new processes always seem to meet the same kind of angry opposition, which stems from
the society's great satisfaction with what it has achieved, coupled with a guilty suspicion
of what it has not been able to develop. Even the direst need for new solutions to pressing
problems does not alleviate this ancient fear and hostility.

And then there are the genuinely evil uses of what in another situation would be clever
and ingenious devices, things which man has always been eager to develop, from the
medieval "maiden" and the thumbscrew, to this century's mechanical monstrosity at
Auschwicz. Theseus, son of Aegeus the legendary king of Athens, can be tentatively
dated by the style of his first three feats: he killed Sinis who tied men to bent pine trees,
tearing them to pieces when the trees were untied and sprang back; he killed Sciron who
had visitors wash his feet on a high precipice, upon which he kicked them into the sea to
drown; and he finally dispatched Procrustes who on his famous mechanical bed stretched
men to make them taller or lopped them off if they were too big. These episodes must
come from a period of brigandage, which permits them to take place locally on a
whimsical,sadistic impulse. The actors are not important kings or tyrants, but local minor
criminal-barons, whose actions would seem most suited to the kind of unsupervised and
isolated communities of Greece which flourished after the 9th century B.C. up to
Hesiod's time in the 7th century B.C.

Ingenuity has always been associated with the Greeks, whether the intellectual cleverness
of the philosophers or the less well known inventiveness of the technical writers, such as
Euclid, Archimedes and the Hippocratic medical writers. With so much intellectual force
working for them, the Greeks did not accomplish as much in the millennium and a half in
which their thought was the only advanced thought available to dwellers on the north side
of the Mediterranean Basin. Perhaps one of the reasons was a certain distrust of mind and
what it can accomplish, coupled with a satisfaction with achievements of the past, and an
unwillingness to face new ways of doing things. Greek society early became static, and
the longer that it remained unchanging, the more faith people had in the tried and true
ways of doing things. This is always the danger which presents itself to cultures which
are content with their record, and the Greeks, amazing as they were in many respects, are
no exception to this rule.
Return to Greek Myth index

William Harris
Prof. Em. Middlebury College

Nibiruan Symbols
Símbolos Nibiruanos

In Darkstar16 I looked at the depiction of Leo at Nimrud

Dag in Turkey, and analysed the celestial positions of the
stars on the frieze. It quickly became evident that the star
shown within the upturned crescent moon could not be
Regulus, as had previously been assumed. Instead, the
placement of a star within a crescent presented us with a
new possibility, that of the projected arrival of Nibiru in Leo.
The positioning of the other planets in the constellation
allowed us to date this event to 2BC. What was unclear
was whether this frieze was designed to predict an event, or to record one.
Given the construction of a 'star shaft' at a different point in the mountain (1), it
seemed likely that this Anatolian complex, dating back to about 60BC, was aimed
at pinpointing the date of a future event.

That event, I proposed, was the expected appearance of Nibiru, a brown dwarf in
an elongated elliptical orbit around the Sun, that was one and the same as the
Messianic Star.

The Coin
In Darkstar9 we looked at two pieces of historical evidence that contained Dark
Star symbolism. A 2nd Century Roman coin, dating to the reign of Emperor
Pertinace, showed a goddess pointing to a celestial sphere with an unusual
arrangement of 4 rays (2). That this depiction might show the winged disc near
Sirius is strengthened by the fact that a temple at Sippar contains a 'sun-disc'
with 4 rays:
""During the Assyrian period many of the same Old Babylonian symbols for
celestial objects persist on commemorative stelae, on temple walls, in cylinder
seal impressions, and in formal contexts. A tablet that marks the restoration and
refoundation of the temple of Shamash at Sippar displays the three main
symbols - sun, moon, and Venus (Andy: I suspect that Dr Krupp's 'Venus' is the
Sun, and the wavy-lined 'sun' is actually Nibiru in this trinity)- as a celestial stamp
of approval upon the enterprise. Shamash is seated inside on a throne, and a
large version of his wavy-lined, four-pointed sun disk rests upon a table." (3)
[my emphasis]

The Symbol of Shamash

Given that the 1st Century Romans had inexplicably re-launched the Persian cult
of Mithras, a 'sun-god' whose ritual practices had much in common with Early
Christianity, then it may be equally possible that this coin carries forward the very
ancient tradition of the Mesopotamian winged disc. However, I would question
the bland assumption that all these symbols represent the Sun.

For instance, the shrine at Larsa devoted to the 'sun-god'

Utu/Shamash is represented by quite different symbolism,
that of 'the crescent-with-sun-disc on top of an altar or tower
temple with water at its base' (4). This symbol includes two
stars above the upturned crescent. The Egyptologist David
Rohl notes that these depictions were often rotated to
become more recognisable cuneiform symbols.

Thus, if we rotate this Shamash's early symbol from Larsa

180 degrees, we obtain a disc within a crescent,
accompanied by two stars. We seem to have the
archetypal Mesopotamian and ancient Egyptian winged
disc, complete with its two uraei. These uraei are two
'divine cobras' that are often shown as smaller discs attached to the central disc
by two wavy lines. All of these symbols, then, appear to have a common
framework, and this is in keeping with the Roman coin.

The Amulet
The second piece of evidence was the Talisman of Orpheus, a 3rd Century
amulet showing the crucified form of 'Orpheus Bacchus', representing the dying
and rising god Osiris-Dionysus (5). Atop this Pagan Crucifix can be found seven
stars in a crescent form and an upturned crescent in their centre. This evidence
lends credence to my proposal that the Early Christian cults had at their core a
remarkable celestial imagery which was later eradicated by the Roman Church.

For the remainder of this page I will discuss the diverse symbolism associated
with Nibiru. This will act as an introduction to Darkstar18 where I present a
selection of Jewish and Pagan amulets from the Graeco-Roman period that, to
my mind, definitively prove that Nibiru appeared during that era.
The Gem
This brings us to a new piece of evidence that consolidates further aspects of this
diverse imagery. It takes the form of a Gnostic gem showing a lion-headed
serpent. This strange image is connected with both Pagan and Early Christian
imagery, being equivalent to the kosmokrator of the Roman cult of Mithras, of the
Egyptian cosmic serpent Kematef, and the Hermetic deity Chnoubis. Its form
includes symbolism clearly indicative of its celestial nature, linked with the First
Decan of the Lion, and more generally with the Zodiac (6).

This particular gem has a set of rays eminating from the lion's
head, and there is the familiar set of seven stars forming a semi-
circle around Chnoubis. This allows us to compare this motif
directly with that of the Talisman of Orpheus. This cosmic serpent
was connected with the 'birth of the child of the aeon' and the
unborn child, and was a form of an important Graeco-Roman
goddess called Kore. Kore's festival in Alexandria fell on 6th
January, an important date in the Early Christian calendar. This is
the 'Day of Lights' of the Baptism of Christ, the early Birthday of Christ and, these
days, the Epiphany. So we can clearly see that this lion-headed cosmic serpent
was associated by the Early Gnostic Christians with the celestial birth of a child,
that took place within the First Decan of Leo.

This information all corroborates the theory that an anomalous 'star' first
appeared in or near Leo and moved to its full brightness near Sirius (Kore). The
head of the lion could be associated with its birth constellation, as well as
indicating the regal nature of the 'star'. The wrapping of its body by a cosmic
serpent showed how it was emerging from the darkness of the Primordial Deep.
This Messianic Star, worshiped in various forms by the Egyptians, Early
Christians, Hermeticists and Graeco-Romans alike, was Nibiru-Marduk, the 'Lost
King' of the Jews and the 'Celestial Lord' of the Mesopotamians. It was
symbolised as a dying and rising god, and ushered in the amalgamation of
Jewish and Pagan beliefs that became Early Christianity.

Seven Monkeys
The seven stars were sometimes symbolised in other
ways. An Egyptian portrayal of Horus, the falcon god,
that appears on a papyrus dated to c.1350BC, shows a
prominent red disc encircled by a cosmic serpent. This
disc is surmounted by the familiar winged form. What
is unusual is the inclusion of seven monkeys seemingly
worshiping the disc of Horus (7). The Roman god
Vulcan rode a celestial chariot pulled by two monkeys,
and accompanied by a total of seven of these celestial primates (8). One of the
monkeys was 'hidden' within the Hermetic imagery, possibly (although i suspect
not) alluding to the loss of one of moons (the North Wind) during the Celestial
Battle (9). The fiery deity Vulcan was closely linked with the earliest alchemical
studies, and I have begun my exploration of Nibiruan symbolism within Alchemy
and Hermeticism in my paper 'The Secret Knowledge of Nibiru'.

The Winged Disc often contains two small discs forming the heads
of the uraei. Does this allude to these two monkeys? I think this
may be an important clue. Of the seven moons described in the
Enuma Elish, it may be that two of them are more prominent
visually than the others. Perhaps these two are terrestrial-sized
worlds in orbit around the dark star Nibiru, dwarfing their planetoid-
sized siblings. One of them would presumably be the homeworld
of the Anunnaki, the 'Seventh Star' or Seventh Heaven.

The Two Suns

Zecharia Sitchin has described
the ceremonies conducted by
the Mesopotamian priests
during the advent of Nibiru in
the heavens. The Akkadian
texts that he cites note the
simultaneous presence of 'the
Sun disks' and the
'splendid/shining posts' (10).
Evidently these references
allude to the double sun discs
of the Sun and the brown dwarf
Nibiru in its perihelion excited state, while the shining posts are likely to mean the
curved line of moons accompanying Nibiru. During the ceremony 7 of the
Anunnaki line up before this heavenly spectacle:
"Anu then came into the courtyard accompanied by gods in procession. "He
stepped up to the Great Throne in the Akitu courtyard, and sat upon it facing the
rising Sun." He was then joined by Enlil, who sat on Anu's right, and Enki, who
sat on his left; Antu, Nannar/Sin, and Innana/Ishtar then took places behind the
seated Anu." (10)
Notwithstanding the normal associations of Ninnar/Sin with the Moon and
Innana/Ishtar with Venus, the inclusion of Anu and Antu as planets in their own
right (appearing in the 'constellation Wagon') indicates this ceremony has an
unusual connotation. I suspect that, in this ceremony at least, these gods are
representative of the seven moons in the presence of the dark star Nibiru. The
'planet of Great Anu of Heaven' would presumably be the homeworld of the
Anunnaki. His consort Antu creates a celestial pair. The rest of the gods bring
the total up to 7. This is what we are seeing in the other images depicting Nibiru
and its accompanying moons. A pattern is emerging.

The Garuda Bird

In my book 'Winged Disc: The Dark Star Theory', I have looked at the diverse
mythologies around the world that seem to contain hidden dark star symbolism.
The ancient religions of the Indian sun-continent seem no exception, although
the diversity of Hindu mythology potentially creates a high error margin. The
Vedic god Indra seems to have parallels with Nibiru/Marduk, at least within the
context of the Creation Myths. Another interesting piece of imagery is that of the
Garuda Bird, riding upon which can be found the god Vishnu and the Goddess
Lakshmi. In Vishnu's head-dress and held in his hands are a total of 5 flowers
and/or discs (11). Let us assume, then, that the mighty Garuda Bird represents
the Phoenix, or Nibiru the fiery dark star. We then have two central gods riging
upon this bird, equivalent possibly to Anu and Antu. Five further discs make the
total to 7...

What is most interesting is the

mythological imagery
associated with Vishnu
himself. He has 10 avatars,
meaning 'one who descends',
and these might allude to the
return of this god at the start of
each aeon. Vishnu and
Lakshmi are depicted seated
upon a Serpent of a Thousand
Heads', again befitting a cosmic
periodicity associated with the
change of Ages.

Perhaps these tie in with the Indian Yugas whose numeracy include the 3,600
year cycle of the Sumerian sexagessimal system. Most interesting of all is
Vishnu's remarkable colour; blue. If Vishnu represents the homeworld of the
Anunnaki orbiting the brown dwarf, then its terrestrial nature could be no better
indicated than by this.

The heavenly moon would thus be a blue 'star' accompanying the reddish dark
sun Nibiru. Perhaps it is the 'eye of Horus', the ancient Egyptian symbol of
unrealised perfection. Unrealised or not, it appears to be the home of the gods

Did an ancient Bronze Artifact

record Nibiru?
A ten-inch wide bronze disc recently discovered in
Germany has helped archeologists to uncover
mainland Europe's oldest-known observatory. The
disc shows celestial imagery that dates back 3600
years, including a cluster of seven stars (the
Pleiades?), the Moon and Sun, and an enigmatic
crescent that has been officially dubbed a 'solar boat'
(12). Lee Covino, who sent me a cutting from
'Archeology', the publication of the Archeological
Institute of America, wonders whether the clear trinity
of major celestial symbols might indicate Nibiru's
inclusion (as the boat-like crescent), particularly given the inclusion of seven
stars (its moons?), and the 3600 year dating. When this story first came out in
early 2002 several other researchers wondered the same thing.

Since then, 'Archeology' now reports, the celestial nature of this artifact has been
confirmed by the excavation of a wooden observatory near the Harz mountain
range in Germany that appears to have been functional for 1000 years (12).

So is the crescent-boat Nibiru? If it is, this would be confirmatory evidence that

the rogue planet appeared around 1600BC, and that its next perihelion passage
is imminent. But I think that a more likely explanation is that the seven stars are
indeed the Pleiades star cluster, and the 'solar boat' is symbolically
representative of the constellation Taurus. The Sun and Moon then indicate the
line of the ecliptic near the two. I suspect that the enigmatic crescent is neither
Nibiru nor a 'solar boat', but instead represents an early Taurean symbol used in
pre-Roman Europe.
But, on the other hand, it's perfectly possible that this ornate bronze disc was
created to celebrate a rare and significant event, and the timing 3600 years ago
is of crucial importance. Only time will tell.

Written by Andy Lloyd, author of 'The Dark Star' (2005) and 'Ezekiel
One' (2009)

Published by Timeless Voyager Press

© 17th August 2001, and revised 13th January 2001


1) A. Gilbert "Magi: The Quest for a Secret Tradition" pp125-47, Virgin 1998
2) P. Kolosimo “Not of this World” pp66-73 Sphere 1970
3) E.C. Krupp "Echoes of the Ancient Skies" p307, Oxford University Press 1983
4) D. Rohl "Legend: The Genesis of Civilisation" pp346-7 Arrow 1998
5) T. Freke & P. Gandy "The Jesus Mysteries" pp15-6, 64 Harper Collins 1999
6) A. Collins "Gods of Eden" pp205-8 Headline 1998
7) R. Willis (Ed.) "World Mythology" p38 Duncan Baird 1996
8) D. Ovason "The Zelator" pp104-5, 376 Arrow 1999
9) Z. Sitchin "The Twelfth Planet" Ch 7, Avon 1976
10) Z. Sitchin "When Time Began" pp110-4 Avon 1993
11) A. Cotterell (Ed.) "Encyclopaedia of World Mythology" p147 Parragon 1999
12) "Star-Crossed Find" Archeology, p21, Jan/Feb 2003 Thanks to Lee Covino for the cutting,
and Joni Ferris for the original story in 2002.

The Symbol of Shamash

Given that the 1st Century Romans had inexplicably re-launched the Persian cult of Mithras, a 'sun-god'
whose ritual practices had much in common with Early Christianity, then it may be equally possible that this
coin carries forward the very ancient tradition of the Mesopotamian winged disc. However, I would question
the bland assumption that all these symbols represent the Sun.

For instance, the shrine at Larsa devoted to the 'sun-god' Utu/Shamash is

represented by quite different symbolism, that of 'the crescent-with-sun-disc on
top of an altar or tower temple with water at its base' (4). This symbol includes
two stars above the upturned crescent. The Egyptologist David Rohl notes that
these depictions were often rotated to become more recognisable cuneiform

Thus, if we rotate this Shamash's early symbol from Larsa 180 degrees, we
obtain a disc within a crescent, accompanied by two stars. We seem to have
the archetypal Mesopotamian and ancient Egyptian winged disc, complete with its two uraei. These uraei
are two 'divine cobras' that are often shown as smaller discs attached to the central disc by two wavy lines.
All of these symbols, then, appear to have a common fr-In tablita de la Tartaria avem



În anul 1961 cercetatorul clujean N. Vlassa sapand cam la 20 de km de comuna Tartaria, la o colina numitã
Turdas, gaseste în stratul cel mai de jos al acesteia o groapa umpluta cu cenusa. Pe fundalul ei au fost
gasite statuetele unor idoli stravechi, o bratara de scoici marine si trei tablite de lut, acoperite cu un scris
pictografic, alaturi de corpul ars ºi dezmembrat al unui om matur. Descifrarea tablitelor ne aduce în fata unei
scrieri presumeriene si a unei enigme: "mortul copt". La vechii sumerieni, în cinstea marelui zeu Saue,
preotul principal la implinirea anilor de slujit era ars. Aruncand o privire rapida pe harta Romaniei în zona
Tartariei vom descoperi nume ciudate, fara nici un înteles pentru o persoana neinitiata, vom gasi tara zeului
Saue. Domnul P.L. Tonciulescu în cartea "De la Tartaria la Tara Luanei" publicã la pagina 22 ºi o harta
intitulatã "Urmele zeului Saue" din care citez localitati si rauri cu rezonanta care aminteste de acest zeu
stravechi, local: satul Saulesti pe valea Muresului, la sud de Turdas, langa Tartaria putin mai la Nord si tot pe
malul stang al Muresului, satul Seusa, ceva si mai la Nord întalnim Seulia de Mures, undeva mai sus de
paraul Saulia, afluent al raului Ludua, la confluenta celor de mai sus avem comuna Seulia si satul Saulita, în
judetul Bihor, comuna Nojorid avem satul Saua-eu. Si dacã continuam calatoria pe harta Romaniei pe
Somesul Mare, pe apele Zalaului gasim zeci de statuete cu nume derivate din ale marelui zeu: satul Ili-Sua,
raul Sieu, comuna Siuet, Sieu-Magherus, Christur-Sieu, Sieu Odorhei, pana si Sieu-Sfant. De acum 7,000
de ani cam atata a mai ramas.Oare în strafundul acestor asezari, daca arheologii ar sapa, ar mai cauta, nu
s-ar mai descoperi nimic?
Oare singurele vestigii lasate de stramosii iubitori ai zeului Saue sa fie numai cele de la Tartaria?


Din lucrarea D-lui Tonciulescu:idoli străvechi

alaturi de corpul ars ºi dezmembrat al unui om matur.

Descifrarea tablitelor ne aduce în fata unei scrieri presumeriene si a unei enigme: "mortul copt".

La vechii sumerieni, în cinstea marelui zeu Saue, preotul principal la implinirea anilor de slujit era ars.