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electorates. Thus, those said problems observed by the informants led them to formulate possible solutions to lessen those problems. It can also be noted that responses of informants related to electionrelated problems are expressed in a manner of accommodation and utter acceptance of such a social reality. Thus, this qualifies for the prevalence of a culture of election in the municipality of Mlang, North Cotabato.


The study revealed that election-related problems are a social, political, and cultural reality in the municipality of Mlang, North Cotabato. The researcher concludes that the presence of some candidates who have their own personal interests and the persistence of lack of voting knowledge among electorates on which candidate they will choose provide an actual culture of a problematic election process. However, the idea that informants express intense desire for solutions manifests their concept of an ideal culture of election. From such implicitly conflicting perceptions, it can then be argued that the culture of election is dual-faceted, one that is real and ideal.



The constituents of the municipality of Mlang, North Cotabato must be aware on problems that occurduring elections. Through seminars or programs related to election problems,they will be provided with ideas on how to deal with the things that are happening around them. Uneducated electorates should be educated so that they will not be deceived by candidates propagandas and so that they will choose the right candidate to hold the office. Vote buying is something that should be condemned as treason. The seemingly collective acceptance of the community to this practice should be deliberately stopped in order to create a free and fair attitude towards election. As part of an educated community we should be aware of the theory of rational choice, which was first developed in the influential book, An Economic Theory of Democracy by Anthony Downs (1957). He said in the political market place, a voter will cast his or her vote to the party that is most likely given information available to serve the ends of the voter. Social position or party loyalty are less important factors than the rational search for the party or candidate that will serve the individual interest often defined in economic terms of each voter. In the Philippines, the voter chooses the candidates who will serve the voters ends. But unfortunately the ends sought by uneducated voter are


usually; money in exchange for his vote and an appointment in the civil service, so that he can have a job. The uneducated majority are merely seeking their selfish individual interest, particularly in economic terms. Hanggang may nagpapauto may umuuto I am not saying that illiterates and poor people are our enemies. But greedy candidates will continue to exploit these weaknesses. Promoting smart voting is a wise choice, even though its quite obvious that its quite obvious that its affect wouldnt span all the electorates. But right now, its the best option weve got. In the study of Prevention of Electoral Fraud, there are many ways of preventing electoral fraud: (1) A vigilant citizenry. Citizens are the best guardians of the ballot, because it is they who stand to lose in case of dishonest elections; (2) Churches, schools and media to uphold electoral honesty. Churches, schools and media can ensure clean and honest elections without becoming involved in partisan politics; (3) An independent body to supervise elections. Governments usually have independent bodies to supervise elections. The Philippines has also developed a unique group to monitor elections composed of volunteer citizens in the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL); (4) Laws and procedures to contest election results. If all else fail before and during elections to prevent electoral fraud, there are usually procedures in democratic countries to contest the results as embodied in electoral laws; and (5) An international panel of observers. International observers have been used to ensure clean elections or referenda


in various countries and various times, but these can only take place with the consent of the host country (De Leon, H.S & De Leon, H.M, 2011).