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O A K RIDGE N A T I O N A L LABORATORY

operated b y U N I O N CARBIDE CORPORATION for the

U . S . A T O M I C ENERGY C O M M l S S l O N

ORNL- TM- 1 6 6 / g ' /

'I

COLLAPSE OF TUBES BY EXTERNAL PRESSURE C. R. KENNEDY

1. T. VENARD

NOTICE
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Contract No. W-7405-eng-26 Metals and Ceramics D i v i s i o n

COLLAPSE OF TUBES BY EXTERNAL PRESSURE


C. R. Kennedy and J. T. Venard

D A T E ISSUED

'APR 1 ? 1962

O A K RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee o p e r a t e d by UNION CARBI D 3 CORPORATION for the U. S. ATOMIC EJVERGY COMMISSION

COLLAPSE OF TUBES BY EXTERNAL PRESSURE C. R. Kennedy and J. T. Venard ABSTRACT The problem of tube c o l l a p s e by e x t e r n a l pressure has been i n v e s t i gated experimentally. results.

A graphical s o l u t i o n developed t o s i m p l i f y

i n e l a s t i c c o l l a p s e design problems was shown t o agree with t h e t e s t The von Karman reduced modulus was used i n t h e g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n t o c o r r e c t f o r t h e s t r e s s r e d i s t r i b u t i o n caused by yielding. The e f f e c t s of t h e geometric imperfections of o v a l i t y and wall-thickness v a r i a t i o n s on c o l l a p s e p r e s s u r e were shown t o b e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r e s s s t r a i n behavior of t h e m a t e r i a l . The concept of a " c r i t i c a l time" was

discussed i n regard t o creep-buckling phenomenon. INTRODUCTION

A s a r e s u l t of t h e i n t e r e s t i n tube c o l l a p s e by e x t e r n a l pressure,
d a t i n g from t h e f i r s t experiments of ~ a i r b a i r n ' i n 1858, s e v e r a l theor e t i c a l and empirical s o l u t i o n s have been obtained. The code methods

derived from t h e s e s o l u t i o n s i n general c o n t a i n s a f e t y f a c t o r s of unkncwn magnitude which allow f o r geometric imperfections, m a t e r i a l imperfections, and a confidence f a c t o r . The use of such code methods

i s overly r e s t r i c t i v e under conditions where optimum design i s r e q u i r e d


f o r e f f i c i e n t operation, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e a c t o r design a t e l e v a t e d temperatures, where neutron economy d i c t a t e s a minimum m a s s i n t h e flux field. This i n v e s t i g a t i o n a p p l i e s previous s o l u t i o n s f o r instantaneous c o l l a p s e of p e r f e c t tubes t o experimental r e s u l t s obtained a t e l e v a t e d temperatures. The e f f e c t of geometric imperfections i n reducing t h e The confidence f a c t o r i s not discussed c r i t i c a l p r e s s u r e f o r c o l l a p s e was determined s o t h a t more a p p r o p r i a t e s a f e t y f a c t o r s could be used.

' w .
(1858).

F a i r b a i r n , Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 1 4 8 ( ~ ) , 38-13

s i n c e it must be determined independently f o r each design by balancing operating e f f i c i e n c y and i n i t i a l cost against f a i l u r e and replacement costs. Time-dependent or creep collapse experiments have not yet been performed, but t h e problem i s considered i n view of i t s importance i n design a t t h e elevated temperatures.

Specimens Tube specimens were f a b r i c a t e d from seamless type 304 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l pipe and tubing t o give radius t o wall thickness r a t i o s ranging f r m 10 t o 25. These r a t i o s were obtained by honing t h e i n s i d e diameter The r e and grinding t h e outside diameter t o c l o s e l y held tolerances. Deliberate wall-thickness v a r i a t i o n s of up t o by off-center grinding i n a number of specimens.

quired range of r a t i o s necessitated t h e use of several h e a t s of material. ?lo$ were produced Specimens were a l s o A l l specimens

deformed i n a press t o obtain tubes of an oval shape. operat ions.

were annealed a t 1900F ?or 1 h r i n hydrogen a f t e r machining and forning The f i n i s h e d and annealed specimens were provided with s l i p - f i t end plugs welded with an edge fusion weld, with a r e s u l t i n g unsupported length of 11.0 in. i n most cases. End d e f e c t s required t h a t two f r e e length and two
A schematic drawing

0.025-in. -wall specimens be shortened t o a 9.0-in. 0.015-in. -wall specimens t o an 8.0-in.


. i n Fig. 1

f r e e length.

of a t y p i c a l specimen showing end plugs and l/4-in. Tensile d a t a were obtained by p u l l i n g 3.0-in.

vent tube i s shown s e c t i o n s of t y p i c a l

specimens f i t t e d with s p e c i a l end plugs f o r gripping. Capsule The experimental capsule consisted of a length of 2-in. i n Fig. 2. sched-40

Inconel pipe with welded pipe-cap end closures; a cutaway view i s shown The t o p cap was d r i l l e d t o receive t h e specimen vent tube,

UNCLASSIFIED ORNL-LR-DWG 6 4 8 8 2

. VENT TUBE

12 in.

H
F i g . 1. Tube Collapse Specimen

PHOTO

UNCLPSSIFIED 56339R

VENT

I ir/i
THERMOCOUPLES % 4 1AI2o3

VENT TUBE

INSULATION ON PROBE

SPECIMEN

PREHEATER LOOP

PROBE

>a1203
I:

INSULATION ON PROBE

2 - ~ n .SCHED-40 INCONEL PIPE

Fig. 2. Cutaway View of Tube Collapse Capsule.

t h r e e swaged thermocouples, and a p r e s s u r e l i n e .

The t o p cap assembly

was wel@d t o g e t h e r and i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e capsule, and then t h e closure weld was made.

An i n l e t gas p r e h e a t e r loop around t h e o u t s i d e of t h e capsule p r e vented t h e specimen from cooling during p r e s s u r i z a t i o n . Test temperatures, a s determined by t h e top., middle, and bottom thermocouples, were maint a i n e d within '9OF over t h e specimen l e n g t h during t h e t e s t .

The capsule was placed i n a furnace and brought t o 1200F, t h e t e s t temperature. When equilibrium was reached, t h e capsule was p r e s s u r i z e d

a t approximately 300 p s i g of argon p e r minute u n t i l c o l l a p s e occurred. The capsule p r e s s u r e was recorded on a s t r i p c h a r t recorder reading t h e output of a strain-gage f l u i d - p r e s s u r e c e l l .
A r e l a y system which was

a c t u a t e d by t h e probe s h o r t i n g a g a i n s t t h e specimen w a l l and which simultaneously energized an event marker on t h e p r e s s u r e time c h a r t and a l i g h t on t h e c o n t r o l panel was i n i t i a l l y used t o i n d i c a t e f a i l u r e o r specimen collapse. The probe system was abandoned, however, when it

became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y obtained on t h e p r e s s u r e vs time recording p l u s t h e d e f i n i t e and q u i t e a u d i b l e snap of t h e c o l l a p s e were s u f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t i o n s of f a i l u r e . Time of t e s t , maximum p r e s s u r e , and loading r a t e f o r each t e s t were obtained by examination of t h e p r e s s u r e vs time c h a r t .

The experimental r e s u l t s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n Table 1, which gives m a t e r i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , information on t h e specimen dimensions, c o l l a p s i n g p r e s s u r e , and time of t e s t . S t r e s s - s t r a i n curves obtained f o r m a t e r i a l s 23999X and 24555 a r e shown i n F i g s . 3 and 4, r e s p e c t i v e l y .

It i s important t o note t h e agreement between t h e two curves shown i n


Fig. 3 d e s p i t e t h e s t r a i n r a t e s d i f f e r i n g by a f a c t o r of 30. p r e s e n t s some t y p i c a l specimens a f t e r t e s t . Figure 5

It was i n t e r e s t i n g t o

observe t h a t specimens having wall-thickness v a r i a t i o n s of l e s s t h a n 5% e x h i b i t e d a uniform two-lobe c o l l a p s e , while t h o s e having 10 t o 13% v a r i a t i o n s f a i l e d i n a t w i s t e d and uneven manner along t h e i r l e n g t h .

Table 1 .

instantaneous Tube Collapse Data f o r Type 304 S t a i n l e s s S t e e l a t 1200F ( A l l specimens annealed a t 1900F f o r 1 h r i n hydrogen) Average Outside Diameter (in. ) Mean Radius Average Wall Thickness
Wall-

Test No.

Heat No.

Average Wall Thickness (in. )

Thickness Variation

(k)

Initial Deflection Average Specimen Wall Length Thickness (in. )

Collapse Pressure (psi)

Test Time (min)

23999X 23999X 23999X 23999X McJunkin M cJ u n k i n 23999X 23999X 24555 24555 24555 McJunkin 24555 24555 24555 24555 24555 24555 24555 24555 24555 24555 24555 24555

UNCLASSIFIED ORNL-LR-DWG 64883

0.1

0.2 0.3 STRAIN ( % )

0.4

0.5

Fig. 3 .

at 1200 O F

- Heat

T e n s i l e Curves for Type 304 S t a i n l e s s S t e e l Specimens 23999X.

UNCLASSIFIED ORNL- LR-DWG 64884

0.025 in./in./min 0.2 % YIELD STRENGTH = 44,900 p s i

I
0
0.1

0.2

0.3 STRAIN (7%)

0.4

0.5

0.6

F i g . 4 . T e n s i l e Curve f o r Type 304 S t a i n l e s s S t e e l Specimen a t 1200 O F - Heat 24555.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The a t t e n t i o n given t o t h e problem of t h e collapse of long, t h i n , c i r c u l a r , c y l i n d r i c a l s h e l l s by e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e during t h e p a s t hundred y e a r s has r e s u l t e d i n a number of t h e o r e t i c a l and empirical s o l u t i o n s which form t h e b a s i s f o r t h e design of such v e s s e l s . The s o l u t f o n f o r e l a s t i c c o l l a p s e of p e r f e c t tubes can be accomplished by using t h e von ~ i s e r se ~ lationship:

where P
= t h e c r i t i c a l pressure f o r c o l l a p s e ( p s i ) , cr a = t h e mean r a d i u s of t h e tube ( i n . ) ,
0

h E

average o r nominal wall t h i c k n e s s of tube ( i n . ),

= reduced modulus of e l a s t i c i t y ( p s i ) , r 7 = P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o 0.3,

tube l e n g t h between supports ( i n . ) ,

n = number of lobes i n collapsed tube. The r e s u l t s of c a l c u l a t i o n s using Eq. (1)a r e shown i n Fig. 6, where a/a i s p l o t t e d vs value of a/h values of n.
0

@.It

i s seen t h a t a s i n g l e curve f o r a given

i s formed by combining p o r t i o n s of curves f o r i n t e g r a l The c r i t i c a l pressure f o r any given tube may be obtained

through F i g . 6; however, t h e tube geometry necessary t o r e s i s t a given pressure cannot be obtained without t h e use of unwieldy t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r procedures. As a means of e l i m i n a t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r such procedures t h e following g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n was developed.
2 ~

von . Mises, Z. Ver. deut. I n g r . (VDI

2.)

58, -

750 (1914).

UNCLASSIFIED ORNL-LR-DWG 58722R


1
-

1 - 1

T I

I 1 x 1

1 -I

--I---

[9-v2)~ 0

(9-"2)

EQUATION
7

=
Eho

Fig. 6. Master Curve f o r C r i t i c a l External Pressure To Collapse C y l i n d r i c a l Vessels.

Equation (1) may be modified t o

where ( f ) = t h e r a t i o of @ f o r a given .l/a and @ f o r a n i n f i n i t e - l e n g t h tube, obtained from F i g . 6.


I t i s observed i n Eq. ( 1 ) and more c l e a r l y

shown i n Eq. (2) t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l p r e s s u r e i s a l i n e a r f u n c t i o n of t h e reduced modulus f o r f i x e d values of .l/a and a/h whether t h e deformation i s e l a s t i c o r p l a s t i c . however, i s given by
0

The s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s t h e tube w a l l v a r i e s depending on The average s t r e s s ,

where u

= s t r e s s i n t a n g e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n ( p s i ) and P = p r e s s u r e ( ~ s i ) .

combining Eqs. (2) and (3)

where

8y s u b s t i t u t i n g values of (f ) and a/ho i n Eq. (4) , a s e r i e s of


s t r a i g h t p a r a l l e l l i n e s may be generated on a logarithmic p l o t of s t r e s s vs reduced modulus. Since t h e designer i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with t h e tube geometry necessary t o r e s i s t a p a r t i c u l a r pressure, Eq. ( 3 ) i s used t o c o n s t r u c t s t r a i g h t p a r a l l e l i s o b a r s superimposed on t h e previously obtained p l o t . Each i s o b a r i n t e r s e c t s t h e c o n s t a n t ( f ) and a/h
0

lines

a t a s t r e s s s a t i s f y i n g Eq. ( 3 ) .

A p l o t a s described above i s shown i n

F i g . 7 f o r i n f i n i t e - l e n g t h tubes [ (f) =

11.
This

The a d d i t i o n of a m a t e r i a l l i n e t o Fig. 7 w i l l now y i e l d conditions of s t a b i l i t y and i n s t a b i l i t y f o r tubes under e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e . m a t e r i a l l i n e should i d e a l l y be obtained from compression t e s t s ; however, t h e use of t e n s i l e d a t a t o t h e s t r a i n s of i n t e r e s t w i l l not i n t r o d u c e significant error.

The reduced modulus, defined by von r e d i s t r i b u t i o n due t o y i e l d i n g :

arma an,

considers t h e s t r e s s

:<here E

= reduced modulus ( p s i ) , E = Young's modulus ( ~ s i ) and , Eu = r tangent modulus ( p s i ) . The m a t e r i a l l i n e s , represented a s a l o g a r i t h m i c

p l o t of s t r e s s vs reduced modulus, a r e given i n F i g s . 8 and 9 f o r two h e a t s of type 304 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Figures 10


1 show t h e s e m a t e r i a l l i n e s superimposed on t h e geometric p l o t s and 1

previously developed. I n t e r s e c t i o n s of a/h


0

l i n e s with i s o b a r s which occur on, above, o r

t o t h e r i g h t of t h e m a t e r i a l l i n e s i n F i g s . 10 and 1 1are situations which w i l l r e s u l t i n instantaneous c o l l a p s e . Combinations of a/ho and

p r e s s u r e l i n e s i n t e r s e c t i n g below t h e m a t e r i a l l i n e s w i l l not r e s u l t i n instantaneous c o l l a p s e . V e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e s e r e s u l t s with t h e e x p e r i -

ments f o r t h e two h e a t s of m a t e r i a l i s given i n Fig. 12.

It should be recognized t h a t t h e e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g temperature


i s a lowering of t h e e l a s t i c l i m i t of t h e m a t e r i a l and t h a t i n e l a s t i c
c o l l a p s e becomes p o s s i b l e a t lower p r e s s u r e s . t h e e l a s t i c l i m i t of t h e m a t e r i a l . The c r i t i c a l s t r e s s necessary f o r c o l l a p s e i n a l l t e s t s shown i n F i g . 12 was g r e a t e r t h a n Thus, without t h e g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n 1 , it would be necessary t o design t o t h e a s shown i n F i g s . 10 and 1 e l a s t i c l i m i t and accept t h e e x i s t e n c e of an unkndwn s a f e t y f a c t o r o r t o use a t e d i o u s t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r s o l u t i o n t o o b t a i n e x a c t answers. The use of t h e graphic s o l u t i o n i n F i g s . 10 and 1 1 allows d i r e c t solution of t h e tube c o l l a p s e problem with any d e s i r e d s a f e t y f a c t o r . The p l o t s shown a r e a p p l i c a b l e f o r i n f i n i t e - l e n g t h tubes only; f o r t ~ b e s with smaller ~ / a r a t i o s , ( f ) must be determined from Fig. 6. The d i r e c t

81,20 -

3~h. von Karman, Forsch. Gebiete Inenieurw. VDI (1910).

- Forschungsheft

UNCLASSIFIED ORNL-LR- DWG 6 4 8 8 5

'Dg~-wO

--,02.\m,,t
A0

1-

A FROM TENSILE CLIRVE El


-

I FROM TENSILE CURVE C

4o

4 x lo7

MODULUS ( p s i )
Fig. 8. Logarithmic Plot of Stress vs Reduced Modulus for Q-pe 304 Stainless Steel Specimen at 1200F - Heat 23999X.

UNCLASSIFIED ORNL-LR-DWG 64886

lo7

MODULUS ( p s i )
Fig. 9. Logarithmic Plot of Stress vs Reduced Modulus for Type 304 Stainless Steel Specimen at 1200'~- Heat 24555.

UNCLASSIFIED ORNL-LR-DWG 64889

\\

.\
DATA

\\
\\
\

MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION 0 23999X 24555


A

McJUNKlN

>'\

"

i0

42

14

18 20 mean radius h, (average wall thickness


i6
CI

22

24

26

Fig. 12. Instantaneous Collapse Pressure vs a / h o calculated from tensile data.

Curves

p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y of ( f ) and c r i t i c a l pressure i s no longer v a l i d f o r i n e l a s t i c collapse since t h e reduced modulus v a r i e s with s t r e s s . The

f a c t o r ( f ) f o r a given ,4/a r a t i o a l s o v a r i e s s l i g h t l y with t h e a/ho r a t i o , and t h e r e f o r e t h e same ( f ) cannot be used t o s h i f t a l l t h e a/ho l i n e s i n Figs. 10 and 1 1 . A method which may be used t o determine t h e e f f e c t of reducing t h e ,4/a r a t i o i s t o make an appropriate s h i f t of t h e m a t e r i a l l i n e t o t h e r i g h t f o r a given ,4/a r a t i o . For design purposes the minimurn expected m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s of type 304 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l a t 1200F should be used. The graphic s o l u t i o n

based on these minimum values i s shown i n F i g . 13 and includes t h e e f f e c t of lowering t h e ,4/a r a t i o . This was done by s h i f t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l l i n e

t o t h e r i g h t through t h e use of Fig. 6. This s o l u t i o n does not imply t h a t tubes under a pressure l e s s t h a n t h e c r i t i c a l pressure f o r prolonged periods of time w i l l not c o l l a p s e , since creep i s important a t 1200F. I n f a c t , time-dependent liehavior

may be important even under r a p i d increases i n pressure f o r c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s and temperatures. For t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case of type 304 s t a i n -

l e s s s t e e l a t liOClF, t h e t e n s i l e d a t a were unaffected by s t r a i n - r a t e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e t e s t i n g range, and time dependency i s t h e r e f o r e f e l t t o be n e g l i g i b l e i n these r e s u l t s . S e l e c t i o n of a s u i t a b l e s a f e t y f a c t o r i s dependent upon s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a , f o r example, a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f e c t i o n of t h e tube, minimum expected s t r e n g t h of t h e m a t e r i a l , and c o s t of f a b r i c a t i o n and operation vs c o s t of f a i l u r e and replacement. The major imperfections i n tubing,

o v a l i t y , and wall-thickness v a r i a t i o n w i l l now be evaluated. The most severe reduction i n collapse pressure r e s u l t s from tube o v s l i t y o r out -of -roundness. ~ i m o s h e n k ohas ~ shown t h a t t h e maximum

s t r e s s a c t i n g on t h e tube w a l l of an oval specimen i s given by

umax

- - Pa +-

6Pa

o
9

P h 2 l - 0 P

Cr

's. Timoshenko, Theory of E l a s t i c S t a b i l i t y , McGraw-Hill, N e w York, 1936.

where
a

max
w
0

= maximum s t r e s s i n tube w a l l ( p s i ) ,
=

maximum i n i t i a l d e f l e c t i o n of tube

P cr

- ODmin ) ( i n . ) , (OD max = c r i t i c a l pressure f o r collapse of p e r f e c t tube ( p s i ) .


= l/4

I n h i s discussion of t h e above f o m ~ l a Timoshenko i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e maximum s t r e s s which could be r e s i s t e d i s t h e y i e l d s t r e s s of t h e material. With m a t e r i a l s which do not e x h i b i t a d e f i n i t e y i e l d p o i n t ,
It was found some uncertainty e x i s t s a s t o t h e proper value f o r a max' t h a t s e t t i n g amax equal t o t h e value of t h e 0.2%-offset y i e l d s t r e n g t h

obtained from t h e t e n s i l e curve of the m a t e r i a l r e s u l t e d i n a good c o r r e l a t i o n with experimental r e s u l t s . t h e r a t i o p0/pcr a s follows:


W

Equation (6) may be solved f o r

amax w0]'

cr cr

+ 1 + h~ 6 ) [ (c T - 1 - ) h o
2

+)Apa - cr

ho

(7)

where
P
0

pressure f o r collapse of t h e oval tube ( p s i ) ,


0

Cr

= pressure f o r collapse of a p e r f e c t tube of same a/h

(~si),

= 0.2%-off s e t y i e l d s t r e n g t h of m a t e r i a l ( p s i ) , a max a = c r i t i c a l s t r e s s f o r c o l l a p s e of a p e r f e c t tube of same Cr

The c o r r e l a t i o n of t h e foregoing equation and experimental values i s shown i n Fig. 14.


It should be noted t h a t t h e e f f e c t of o v a l i t y v a r i e s

with wo/ho and with a t h e l a t t e r varying with t h e m a t e r i a l . max/ucr Wall-thickness v a r i a t i o n w i l l a l s o cause a reduction i n t h e collapse pressure; however, t h i s reduction i s r e l a t i v e l y small i n comparison with t h a t of o v a l i t y .
5 ~ P. .

~ l l i n ~ t o in n considering ~ t h i s problem proposed t h e

E l l i n g t o n , The C r i t i c a l Pressure of a Tube with an E c c e n t r i c Bore, DEG-43 ( R ) (1960) .

UNCLASSIFIED ORN L - L R - DWG 6 4 8 9 0

u , , ,

= 44,900 psi

a , , = !1,640 psi

P,,= 827 psi

-- 14.07
0

Fig. 14. Plot Showing Effect of Ovality on Instantaneous Collapse Pressure.

following r e l a t i o n s h i p :

where v = minimum wall-thickness v a r i a t i o n

hohmin)

and Pv

pressure

f o r c o l l a p s e of tubes having wall-thickness v a r i a t i o n s v . e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s independent of a/h

It i s i n t e r 0

and ~ / a .

A comparison of E l l i n g t o n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e t e s t r e s u l t s i s given

i n Fig. 15.

It can be seen t h a t a :LO$ v a r i a t i o n i n w a l l t h i c k n e s s pro-

duces only a 3% r e d u c t i o n of t h e c r i t i c a l p r e s s u r e , a n e f f e c t which i s considered t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e most vendors can r e a d i l y produce t u b i n g w i t h i n such a t o l e r a n c e and s i n c e t h e s c a t t e r i n t h e experimental r e s u l t s exceeds 3%. The foregoing d i s c u s s i o n s e r v e s t o demonstrate how t h e c r i t i c a l p r e s s u r e f o r i n s t a n t a n e o u s c o l l a p s e may be obtained and what t h e e f f e c t s of tube imperfections a r e . Therefore, w i t h t h e minimum expected s t r e n g t h of t h e m a t e r i a l and t h e e-xpected imperfections known, it i s p o s s i b l e t o design with any d e s i r e d confidence f a c t o r tubes t o r e s i s t c o l l a p s e . Time-Dependent Collapse Although no experimental work has been performed on time-dependent c o l l a p s e , it i s f e l t t h a t t h i s phenomenon warrants d i s c u s s i o n .

An e x a c t s o l u t i o n of t h e creep-buckling problem i s l i m i t e d by t h e
l a c k of proper and e x a c t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of t h e t e n s i o n - c r e e p s t r e s s s t r a i n r e l a t i o n s t o m u l t i a x i a l s t r e s s w i t h changing p r i n c i p a l s t r e s s directions. d ~ , ~ S e v e r a l t e n t a t i v e s o l u t i o n s have been p r ~ ~ o s e which a r e approximate because of t h e many necessary s i m p l i f y i n g assumptions made.
6 ~ J. . Hoff, W. E. Jahsman, and W. Nachbar, A Study of Creep Collapse of a Long Cylinder Under Uniform E x t e r n a l P r e s s u r e , LSMD-2360 (March 28, 1958).

7 ~ P. . E l l i n g t o n , Creep Collapse of Tubes Under E x t e r n a l P r e s s u r e , DEG-162 ( R ) (1960)

LL a
cn 3 cna
JLL O J

An approximate s o l u t i o n which may be more e a s i l y handled than those r e f e r r e d t o above can be obtained by using an a n a l y s i s of t h e "deformation t h ~ o r y "type. Such an approach t o i n e l a s t i c buckling assumes t h a t t o t a l s t r a i n a t a given time i s described by t h e equation r e s u l t i n g from p r i n c i p a l s t r a i n s being always p r o p o r t i o n a l t o p r i n c i p a l s t r e s s e s with no r o t a t i o n of t h e p r i n c i p a l a x i s occurring. When t h e l a t e r a l d e f l e c t i o n of t h e tube w a l l , o r buckling, begins t o occur because of i n c r e a s i n g s t r e s s e s , t h e magnitude of t h i s d e f l e c t i o n i s computed a s though t h e new increased s t r e s s had been a p p l i e d throughout t h e e n t i r e loading period. This method should then provide a lower l i m i t t o t h e i n e l a s t i c Applibuckling l o a d of members with l i m i t e d geometric imperfections.

c a t i o n of t h e i n e l a s t i c - b u c k l i n g s o l u t i o n t o p i n - j o i n t e d c o l m s has demonstrated t h e conservatism of such a p r e d i c t i o n of time t o f a i l u r e . I n e l a s t i c - b u c k l i n g s o l u t i o n s f o r tube c o l l a p s e a r e obtained by r e p l a c i n g t h e reduced modulus i n t h e previously developed equations with an e f f e c t i v e modulus. Two such e f f e c t i v e moduli ($ and E ) have

been proposed f o r s o l u t i o n of column buck ling^:

which was proposed by ~ o b o t n o v *and defined a s t h e tangent s l o p e of t h e constant s t r a i n - r a t e s t r e s s vs s t r a i n curve; and

proposed by shanleyg and defined a s t h e tangent slope of t h e isochronous s t r e s s - s t r a i n curves. Expressions f o r both moduli may be obtained from t h e creep e q u a t i o n

where

creep s t r a i n ( i n . / i n . ) ,

t; = time ( h r ) , and A,a,m

= material

'G. N. Robotnov and S. A. Shesterikov, J . Mech. and Phys. S o l i d s 27 (1957).

6, -

9 ~ F. . Shanley, " P r i n c i p l e s of Creep Buckling," Chap. 19 i n WeightS t r e n g t h Analysis of A i r c r a f t S t r u c t u r e s , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952.

c o n s t a n t s , and from t h e t o t a l s t r a i n e q u a t i o n

where

= total strain.

The r e s u l t i n g e x p r e s s i o n s a r e t h e n
Ee =

[A $1-1
+
&

and

It should be noted t h a t i f m were t o become e q u a l t o 1,

would

go t o z e r o f o r a l l values of s t r e s s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e m a t e r i a l s t r e n g t h . Since it i s n o t uncommon t h a t m = 1 f o r many m a t e r i a l s , it i s f e l t t h a t t h e Robotnov e f f e c t i v e modulus i s not s u i t a b l e f o r use i n tube-buckling equations. been shown1' The s t r e s s - s t r a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o be considered i n t u b e t h a t f o r capped end t u b e s
E = - E

c o l l a p s e a r e t h o s e o c c u r r i n g i n t h e t a n g e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n , and it has

4 - c '

(15)

where
F

= t a n g e n t i a l creep s t r a i n under t a n g e n t i a l s t r e s s

a8 ' and

= u n i a x i a l creep s t r a i n under a u n i a x i a l s t r e s s e q u a l t o

8'

S u b s t i t u t i n g i n Eq. (14) y i e l d s

"c. R. Kennedy, W. 0 . Harms, and D. A . Douglas, Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs J . Basic Engr . 81 ( s e r i e s D) 599 (1959).

The r e s u l t i n g tube collapse r e l a t i o n s h i p from Eq. (2) i s then


P
= (f)

cr

4 ( l"t

r2)

(5).

As was previously pointed out, Eq. (19) does not y i e l d an exact s o l u t i o n f o r t h e c r i t i c a l time of collapse but y i e l d s , i n s t e a d , t h e c r i t i c a l time f o r t h e l o s s of s t a b i l i t y i n t h e c l a s s i c a l sense. should r e s u l t i n d e f l e c t i o n s which increase with time. s t a b i l i t y c a l c u l a t e d by Eq. (19).
A simple r e l a t i o n s h i p o r p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y w i l l p o s s i b l y e x i s t f o r

After

t h e c r i t i c a l time has elapsed, any small disturbance applied t o the tube Collapse may then be expected a t some time g r e a t e r than t h e c r i t i c a l time f o r l o s s of

c r i t i c a l time vs a c t u a l collapse time but it must be determined experiC mentally. U n t i l such experiments have been performed, t h e conservative p r e d i c t i o n i n Eq. (19) should be used.
An important r e s u l t of t h e above a n a 1 y s i s . i ~ t h a t t h e previously

developed g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n may again be u t i l i z e d .

The s u b s t i t u t i o n

of a m a t e r i a l curve of E vs a corresponding t o t h e design l i f e t i m e t e of t h e v e s s e l f o r t h e m a t e r i a l curve of Er vs a w i l l produce t h e s o l u t i o n of Eq. ( 1 8 ) . CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions on tube collapse a t 1200F f o r type 304 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l have been reached:
1.

The use of t h e von &man reduced modulus i n c o l l a p s e equations

adequately accounts f o r i n e l a s t i c behavior of t h e m a t e r i a l under r a p i d l y applied loading. 2. The g r a p h i c a l method developed, which superimposes m a t e r i a l behavior on tube geometry, allows t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of known s a f e t y f a c t o r s i n design t o r e s i s t instantaneous c o l l a p s e .

3.
4.

The e f f e c t of o v a l i t y , a s e r i o u s imperfection which g r e a t l y

reduces t h e p r e s s u r e f o r instantaneous c o l l a p s e , can be p r e d i c t e d . The reduction of c o l l a p s e pressure due t o wall-thickness

v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n normal manufacturing t o l e r a n c e s may be neglected.

5.

A c r i t i c a l time, a f t e r which c o l l a p s e may occur, e x i s t s f o r

a tube under a n e x t e r n a l pressure l e s s t h a n t h e c r i t i c a l pressure f o r instantaneous c o l l a p s e .

The a u t h o r s wish t o thank F. L. Beeler and C . W. Walker f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e experimental program.

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