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Question 1 A Buck converter is driven by a constant input voltage 30V.

The switching frequency is 10kHz, the L and C of the converter are 1mH and 10F. Calculate the output ripple voltage when duty ratio of the transistor is 0.5. Answer fs 10 kHz 10 10 10 10 10 10 L 1 mH 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 10 uF 10 10 10 10 10 10 Vin 30 V 30 30 30 30 30 30 D 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Ripple Delta iL Vo Ripple Delta Vo D 1.5 A 15 V 0.9375 V 2.7 3 0.3375 0.1 2.4 6 0.6 0.2 2.1 9 0.7875 0.3 1.8 12 0.9 0.4 1.5 15 0.9375 0.5 1.2 18 0.9 0.6

1 0.9 0.8
0.7

Ripple Voltage

0.6

0.5 0.4
0.3 0.2

0.1 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Duty Ratio

10 1 10 30 0.7 0.9 21 0.7875 0.7

10 1 10 30 0.8 0.6 24 0.6 0.8

10 1 10 30 0.9 0.3 27 0.3375 0.9

Question 2 The parameters of a Buck converter are: Vs=48V, Vo=10V, L=0.5mH, C=10F, fs=20kHz Calculate the load resistor R for discontinuous mode operation. Answer: Boundary for discontinuous mode is K < (1-D) and K = 2L/RT and R=2Lfs/K Vs 48 V Vo 10 V L 0.5 mH C 10 uF fs 20 kHz Assume at the boundary: D 0.208333 1-D 0.791667 R 25.26316 Ohm Therefore R > 25.26316 will have discontinuous mode

Question 4 A Boost converter has an L=10H, input voltage = 30V, output voltage = 60V and switching frequency fs = 100kHz. Calculate the value for minimum load current such that the converter is always operated in continuous inductor conduction mode for all conditions.. Answer For continuous mdoe, K>=(1-D)^2D L 10 uH Vin 30 V Vo 60 V fs 100 kHz Vo/Vin =M= 1/(1-D) D=1-1/M 0.5 K= 0.125 R=2L/(KT) 16 Ohm Io_min 3.75 A

Question6 Design a Buck/Boost converter such that the specification is: Vo=12V, Vin=5V, Io=10A, Vo=0.5V, iL=0.5, f=100kHz Answer Vo 12 V Vin 5V Io 10 A Del_Vo 0.5 V Del_iL 0.5 A fs 100 kHz Vo/Vin = D/(1-D)=M 2.4 D=M/(1+M) 0.705882 Del_iL=VinDTs/L L=VinD/(fs*Del_iL) 70.58824 uH R=Vo/Io 1.2 Ohm The ripple voltage of the capacitor or output is: Del_Vo/Vo=DTs/(RC) C=VoD/(R*fs*Del_Vo) 141.1765 uF

Question 7 A Buck/Boost converter is operated in the following condition/parameter: Vin=48V, Vo=24V, fs=100kHz, L=10H, C is large (i) How much is the load resistance dropped to for discontinuous inductor conduction mode to happen. (ii) Derive the expression of the ratio of output voltage ripple when discontinuous mode happens to when load current is large Hence calculate the ratio. (iii) Calculate the ratio of the rate of change of output voltage ripples for boundary case of discontinuous mode to continuous mode when load current is large. Answer For Discontinuous mode K < (1-D)^2 Vin 48 V Vo 24 V fs 100 kHz L 10 uH M 0.5 (i) At boundary Vo/Vin=D/(1-D) D=M/(1+M) 0.333333333 (1-D)^2 0.444444444 R=2L/(KT) 4.5 Ohm The load resistance should increased to

4.5 Ohm

nduction mode to happen. (ii) us mode happens to when load of change of output voltage oad current is large.

Question8 A Cuk converter is operated at 50kHz switching frequency. The on-state time of the transistor is 12s. The input voltage is 100V. The load resistance varies between 50-500. Calculate the voltage ratings of all the circuit components. Answer: Vin 100 V fs 50 kHz on time 12 us Rmin 50 Ohm Rmax 500 Ohm Ts=1/fs D Vo Io_max Io_min Iin_max Iin_min Vin+Vo Vin+Vo Max(Vin, Vo) Max(Vin, Vo) Vo+Vin Vo 0.02 0.6 150 3 0.3 4.5 0.45 250 250 150 150 250 150 ms V

Rating _T Rating_D Rating_L1 Rating_L2 Rating C1 Rating_C2

V V V V V V

Iin_max Io_max Iin_max Io_max

4.5 3 4.5 3

A A A A