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MM322-Metrology and Instrumentation

The University of the South Pacific


School of Engineering and Physics
MM 322 Metrology and Instrumentation
Lab 1: Linear Measurement Name: Jowesh Avisheik Goundar ID: S11076586

AIM

To determine the accuracy of vernier caliper and micrometer when used for linear measurement.

EQUIPMENT
Five Specimens with variable dimensions 2 different types of vernier caliper [manual and digital] 2 different type of micrometer

INRODUCTION

A measurement is an act of assigning a specific value to a physical variable and this physical system is the measured variable. Linear measurement is simply the distance between two points in a straight line which can be measured with meters, inches, millimetres kilometers. In this lab, it will be seen the accuracy of vernier caliper and micrometer when used to measure different specimens properties such as internal diameter, external diameter and the specimens length. It will also discuss the use of uncertainties and types of errors during the duration of the experiment.

Figure 1: The instruments utilized in this experiment.

Lab1: Linear Measurement

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MM322-Metrology and Instrumentation


EXPERIMENTAL SET UP

Figure 2: Measuring of a specimen using Micrometer

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Vernier Caliper 1 Table 1: Results for Internal Diameter
Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 Test 1 12.1 20.5 20.9 26.9 23.5 Test 2 11.95 20.05 20.9 26.8 23.55 Test 3 12.15 20.5 21.05 26.85 24.8 Test 4 12.05 20.5 20.9 27.1 24.8 Test 5 11.95 20.3 20.9 27.05 24.8 Mean 12.04 20.37 20.93 26.94 24.29 Standard Deviation 0.089442719 0.198746069 0.067082039 0.129421791 0.698569968 % Uncertainty 0.74 0.98 0.32 0.48 2.88

Table 2: Results for External Diameter


Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 Test 1 18.65 31.1 30.05 40 44.95 Test 2 18.6 31.05 30.05 39.85 45.44.95 Test 3 18.6 31.05 30.9 39.9 44.95 Test 4 18.6 31.1 30.9 39.95 44.95 Test 5 18.65 31.4 30.9 39.9 45 Mean 18.62 31.14 30.56 39.92 44.9625 Standard Deviation 0.027386128 0.147478812 0.465564174 0.057008771 0.025 % Uncertainty 0.15 0.47 1.52 0.14 0.06

Table 3: Results for Length


Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 Test 1 35.9 37.5 33.85 49.3 48 Test 2 35.9 37.4 34.2 49.3 47.95 Test 3 35.9 37.3 33.9 49.25 48 Test 4 35.9 37.5 34.05 49.15 48 Test 5 35.9 37.35 34.2 49.35 48 Mean 35.9 37.41 34.04 49.27 47.99 Standard Deviation 0 0.089442719 0.163554272 0.075828754 0.02236068 % Uncertainty 0.00 0.24 0.48 0.15 0.05

Lab1: Linear Measurement

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MM322-Metrology and Instrumentation


Vernier Caliper 2 [Digital] Table 4: Results for Internal Diameter
Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 Test 1 11.93 20.45 20.91 26.92 23.31 Test 2 11.78 20.44 21.02 27.18 23.28 Test 3 11.75 20.43 21.04 27.08 23.45 Test 4 11.84 20.28 21.02 27.14 23.38 Test 5 11.9 20.45 20.89 27.1 23.33 Mean 11.84 20.41 20.976 27.084 23.35 Standard Deviation 0.076485293 0.073143694 0.070213959 0.099398189 0.06670832 % Uncertainty 0.65 0.36 0.33 0.37 0.29

Table 5: Results for External Diameter


Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 Test 1 18.81 31.25 30.19 40.07 44.28 Test 2 18.78 31.23 30.17 40.08 44.29 Test 3 18.8 31.2 30.14 40.1 44.37 Test 4 18.83 31.18 30.15 40.05 44.27 Test 5 18.81 31.19 30.15 40.05 44.2 Mean 18.806 31.21 30.16 40.07 44.282 Standard Deviation 0.018165902 0.029154759 0.02 0.021213203 0.060580525 % Uncertainty 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.14

Table 6: Results for Length


Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 Test 1 36.04 37.39 34.17 49.4 48.22 Test 2 36 37.4 34.18 49.39 48.3 Test 3 36.01 37.39 34.15 49.39 48.22 Test 4 36.02 37.4 34.2 49.38 48.23 Test 5 36.02 37.42 34.2 49.4 48.16 Mean 36.018 37.4 34.18 49.392 48.226 Standard Deviation 0.014832397 0.012247449 0.021213203 0.0083666 0.049799598 % Uncertainty 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.10

Micrometer 1 Table 7: Results for Internal Diameter


Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 Test 1 21.12 20.44 27.13 23.88 Test 2 21.12 20.48 27.2 23.83 Test 3 21.09 20.47 27 23.85 Test 4 21.04 20.57 27.15 23.79 Test 5 21.13 20.45 27.13 23.9 Mean 21.1 20.482 27.122 23.85 Standard Deviation 0.036742346 0.051672043 0.073959448 0.043011626 % Uncertainty 0.17 0.25 0.27 0.18

Lab1: Linear Measurement

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MM322-Metrology and Instrumentation


Table 8: Results for External Diameter
Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 Test 1 30.15 31.17 40.06 44.3 Test 2 30.15 31.09 40.01 44.21 Test 3 30.8 31.17 40.03 44.2 Test 4 30.76 31.17 39.98 44.22 Test 5 30.78 31.14 39.98 44.53 Mean 30.53 31.15 39.98 44.29 Standard Deviation 0.34535489 0.034928498 0.034205263 0.138816426 % Uncertainty 1.13 0.11 0.09 0.31

Micrometer 2 Table 9: Results for Internal Diameter (mm)


Sample No. 3 Test 1 11.96 Test 2 11.98 Test 3 11.95 Test 4 11.96 Test 5 11.97 Mean 11.964 Standard Deviation 0.011401754 % Uncertainty 0.10

Table 10: Results for External Diameter (mm)


Sample No. 3 Test 1 17.85 Test 2 17.88 Test 3 17.9 Test 4 17.86 Test 5 Mean 17.8725 Standard Deviation 0.022173558 % Uncertainty 0.12

Sample Calculation: Vernier Caliper 2 [Digital] Mean for sample number 1:

Standard Deviation

Percentage Uncertainty (%) The value for uncertainty was derived from the standard deviation. Thus,

Lab1: Linear Measurement

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MM322-Metrology and Instrumentation


Therefore,

DISCUSSION
Standard deviation simply shows that how close or far the values of the data are from the mean value or simply the distribution of data. If it is near 0, this showed that the data obtained are accurate and precise and from the results it was seen that for some measurements the data were distributed close to each other thus the uncertainty or percentage error was not so much. The maximum error was found to be 1.52%. This showed that the data collected were good and accurate. Since the data were multilple the best estimation for error was done from the standard deviation since there were also digital instruments present, but for some instruments the accuracy was given such as for vernier caliper the accuracy was given to be Some data were not able to be collected for micrometer values since the instrument had limited measurement size thus the specimens could not be fit into the measuring size of the instrument. The values obtained had some differences and this was due to errors such as systematic error for example the sensitivity of the digital vernier caliper could not be adjusted while some were operator error to read accurate and precise results from the measuring device.

CONCLUSION

From this experiment, it could be observed the accuracy and precision of several measuring devices. The main prospective was to learn how to use the instruments correctly and derive the uncertainty or the error of the device, and this task was successfully learnt and completed. It was noted that in comparison to many device of same purpose and usage has different level of accuracy and precision but this is not only dependent on the device but the operator also. How precise and accurately the operator could read out the measurements from the device is the most important task to reduce and minimize errors and uncertainties in the results. The results differed mainly due to this error [operator error] while other means of error caused during this experiment were systematic whereby the instruments sensitivity and resistance could not be adjusted.

REFERENCE
Uncertainties & Error Analysis Tutorial. (2012). Retrieved August 06, 2013, from Physics education: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&ved=0CEA QFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fphysics.wustl.edu%2Fintrophys%2FPhys117_118%2FLab_Manual %2FTutorials%2FErrorAnalysisTutorial.pdf&ei=95MHUsXwJOuuiQf19IGYCQ&usg=AFQjCNEC-VUCxqR4etiII9Dz Figliola, R. S., & Beasley, D. E. (2011). Theory and Design of Mechanical Measurements. United States of America: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Lab1: Linear Measurement Page 5