SuperCliﬀord Gravity, Higher Spins, Generalized Supergeometry and much more
Carlos Castro August 2013
Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta; perelmanc@hotmail.com
Abstract
An extended OrthogonalSymplectic Cliﬀord Algebraic formalism is developed which allows the novel construction of a graded Cliﬀord gauge ﬁeld theory of gravity. It has a direct relationship to higher spin gauge ﬁelds, bimetric gravity, antisymmetric met rics and biconnections. In one particular case it allows a plausible mechanism to can cel the cosmological constant contribution to the action. The possibility of embedding these OrthogonalSymplectic Cliﬀord algebras into an inﬁnite dimensional algebra, coined SuperCliﬀord Algebra is described. Finally, some physical applications of the geometry of SuperCliﬀord spaces to Generalized Supergeometries, Double Field Theories, U duality, 11D supergravity, M theory, and E _{7} , E _{8} , E _{1}_{1} algebras are outlined.
Keywords : SuperCliﬀord algebras; orthogonal Cliﬀord algebras; symplectic Cliﬀord algebras; supersymmetry; Higher spins; Bimetric gravity; Biconnections; Antisymmet ric metrics; Cosmological constant; Super Cliﬀord spaces; Generalized Super Geometry; Exceptional algebras. PACS :
1 
OrthogonalSymplectic Cliﬀord Algebras 
In 
the past years it has become more clear that extensions and/or generalizations of su 
persymmetry are needed. Cliﬀord algebras are essential ingredients to attain such goals.
A classiﬁcation of Hermitian versus holomorphic complex and quaternionic generalized
supersymmetries of M theory was attained in [12], including the 12dim Euclidean gen eralized supersymmetric F algebra and the 11dim M theory superalgebra.
1
Polyvector super Poincare algebras like
{
Q _{α} ,
Q _{β} }
=
^{}
k
_{(}_{C}_{γ} ^{µ} ^{1} ^{µ} ^{2}
µ
^{k} ) αβ W
(k)
µ _{1} µ _{2}
µ
_{k}
(1)
were studied by [13]. The summation over k must obey certain crucial restrictions to
match the degrees of freedom with the terms in the left hand side and to ensure that there is symmetry under the exchange of spinorial α, β indices. C is the charge conjugation
_{k} are the polyvectorvalued momentum like generators. Polyvector
valued extensions of supersymmetry in Cliﬀord Spaces involving spinortensorial super
µ _{n} were analyzed in [15],
[16]. CliﬀordSuperspace is an extension of Cliﬀordspace and whose symmetry transfor mations are generalized polyvectorvalued supersymmetries. The superconformal algebra su(2, 21) in 4D can be realized in terms of 5 × 5 matri ces [1] and whose entries are given explicitly in terms of the gamma matrices γ _{a} . The momentum, conformal boost, Lorentz and dilation generators are realized as the entries of the 4 × 4 matrices embedded into 5 × 5 matrices by setting all the entries of the 5th column and 5th rows to zero while identifying the entries of the 4 × 4 matrices by
n and momentum polyvectors P _{µ} _{1} _{µ} _{2}
charge generators Q ^{µ} ^{1} ^{µ} ^{2}
matrix and W
(k)
µ _{1} µ _{2}
µ
α
µ
(P _{a} )
β
α
=
−
1
_{2} γ _{a} (1
−
γ _{5} )
β
α
,
(K _{a} )
β
α
=
The Lorentz and dilation generator are
−
1
_{2}
γ _{a} (1
+
γ _{5} )
β
α
,
a, b = 1, 2, 3, 4.
(2a)
(J _{a}_{b} )
β
α
=
1
_{2} γ ab
=
1
_{4}
[γ _{a} ,
γ _{b} ]
β
α
,
(D)
β
α
=
− ^{1}
_{2} (γ _{5} )
β
α
,
α, β = 1, 2, 3, 4.
(2b)
i
The axial charge A generator is represented by − _{4} times a diagonal 5 × 5 matrix whose entries are (1, 1, 1, 1, 4). The 8 fermionic generators Q _{α} , S _{α} are represented by 5 × 5 matrices with zeros along the 4 × 4 block matrices and whose only nonzero entries are along the 5th column and 5th rows as follows
(Q _{α} ) ^{5}^{β}
(S _{α} ) ^{5}^{β}
=
=
−
1
_{2}
1
_{2} (1
(1
+
−
γ _{5} )
γ _{5} )
β
α
,
β
α
,
(Q _{α} ) ^{β}^{5}
(S _{α} ) ^{β}^{5}
=
=
−
(3a)
(3b)
where C is the charge conjugation matrix obeying C = −C ^{−}^{1} = −C ^{T} , Cγ _{a} C ^{−}^{1} = −(γ _{a} ) ^{T} where T denotes the transpose. In the representation chosen above C = γ _{0} . The authors [1] have shown explicitly that the above realization of the bosonic and fermionic generators in terms of gamma matrices obey the superconformal su(2, 21) algebra graded commu tator relations. More recently, a 6 × 6 matrix realization of the osp(14) superalgebra was
2
provide by [5]. The noncompact symplectic algebra sp(2, 2) is isomorphic to so(3, 2). The (Anti) de Sitter group is so(3, 2), so(4, 1) respectively. A (4 + N ) × (4 + N ) matrix realization of the N extended superconformal algebra
su(2, 2N ) algebra (whose even part is su(2, 2) ⊕ u(N )) is also possible. In particular, a
(4+ N ) × (4+ N ) matrix realization of the N spinorial supercharges Q ^{i} _{α} , S _{α} ; i = 1, 2, can be given by a generalization of eqs(3a, 3b)
i
(Q
_{α} ) ^{A}^{B}
^{i}
(S
_{α} ) ^{A}^{B}
i
=
=
−
1
_{2}
^{1} _{2} (1
(1
+
−
γ _{5} )
γ _{5} )
B
α
_{δ} 4+i A _{,}
_{(}_{Q} i
_{α} ) ^{B}^{A}
=
1
_{2}
[ (1
B
α
δ ^{4}^{+}^{i} ^{A} , (S _{α} ) ^{B}^{A} = − ^{1}
i
_{2} [ (1
+
−
γ _{5} ) C]
B
α
γ _{5} ) C]
B
α
_{δ} ^{4}^{+}^{i} ^{A}
_{δ} ^{4}^{+}^{i} ^{A}
the other matrix components are zero, for instance
(Q
_{α} ) ^{4}^{+}^{j} ^{4}^{+}^{j}
^{i}
=
0,
(S
_{α} ) ^{4}^{+}^{j} ^{4}^{+}^{j}
i
=
0,
i, j = 1, 2,
N
,
N
(4a)
(4b)
(4c)
when i, j = 1 one recovers the 5 × 5 matrix realization of eqs(3a, 3b). We will go beyond this ordinary description of Lie superalgebras, like su(2, 21), in terms of the gamma matrices as displayed above, by incorporating both orthogonal and symplectic Cliﬀord algebras into the framework of super Cliﬀord algebras and which differs from the notion of super Cliﬀord algebras studied earlier by [3]. Orthogonal Cliﬀord algebras are well known. What is less known is the notion of symplectic Clif ford algebras [2]. A Cliﬀord analysis approach to Superspace based on orthogonal and symplectic Cliﬀord algebras was undertaken by [6]. A theory of quantized ﬁelds based on orthogonal and symplectic Cliﬀord Algebras’ can be found in [8]. Super Cliﬀord algebras with a Z _{4} grading and generalized Cliﬀord algebras, orthogonal and symplectic were con
structed by [3], [4]. We shall take a quite diﬀerent approach and extend further the work of these authors. To our knowledge the results of this work are new. We begin by introducing the ordinary orthogonal Cliﬀord algebra generators γ _{a} , a =
1, 2, 3,
the graded commutation relations
m,
and the symplectic Cliﬀord algebra generators ξ _{i} , i = 1, 2, 3,
, 
2n obeying 

, 
2n 
(5a) 
(5b) 

(5c) 
_{2} 1 { ξ _{i} ,
ξ _{j} }
=
ξ _{i}_{j}
=
ξ _{j}_{i} ,
[ ξ _{i} ,
ξ _{j} ]
=
=
=
ω _{i}_{j}
=
− ω _{j}_{i} ;
=
0
i, j = 1, 2, 3,
ω 2k _{1} 2k _{2}
ω 2k _{1} −1 2k _{2}
ω 2k _{1} −1 2k _{2} −1
− ω 2k _{2} 2k _{1} −1 = δ k _{1} k _{2}
ω _{i}_{j} is a 2n × 2n antisymmetric matrix consisting of diagonal blocks of 2 × 2 antisymmetric
ξ _{j}_{i} and its
matrices whose nonzero entries are ±1. The relation
implications was not considered by [6], [7]. The other commutators are
1
_{2}
{ ξ _{i} ,
ξ _{j} }
=
ξ _{i}_{j}
=
1
_{2} { γ _{a} ,
γ _{b} }
=
g _{a}_{b} 1;
^{1} _{2} [ γ _{a} ,
γ _{b} ]
=
3
γ _{a}_{b}
=
− γ _{b}_{a} ,
a, b = 1, 2, 3,
, m
(6)
[ γ _{a} , γ _{b}_{c} ] = 2 g _{a}_{b} γ _{c} − 2 g _{a}_{c} γ _{b}
[ γ _{a}_{b} , γ _{c}_{d} ] = − 2 g _{a}_{c} γ _{b}_{d} + 2 g _{a}_{d} γ _{b}_{c} − 2 g _{b}_{d} γ _{a}_{c} + 2 g _{b}_{c} γ _{a}_{d}
[ γ _{a} ,
ξ _{i} ]
=
0,
[ γ _{a}_{b} ,
ξ _{i} ]
=
0,
[ γ _{a} ,
[ ξ _{i} , ξ _{j}_{k} ] = ω _{i}_{j} ξ _{k}
[ ξ _{i}_{j} , ξ _{k}_{l} ] =
ω _{i}_{k} ξ _{j}_{l}
+
ω _{i}_{l} ξ _{j}_{k}
ξ _{i}_{j} ]
=
0,
+ ω _{i}_{k} ξ _{j}
+
ω _{j}_{k} ξ _{i}_{l}
[ γ _{a}_{b} , ξ _{i}_{j} ] = 0
+
ω _{j}_{l} ξ _{i}_{k}
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
We take all the generators of the orthogonal Cliﬀord algebra to be of even grade, while the ξ _{i} generator has odd grade and ξ _{i}_{j} has even grade. Afterwards we shall study the case where all the oddrank generators of the orthogonal Cliﬀord algebra have an odd grade; and all the evenrank generators have even grade. For instance, if the grade of γ _{a} is chosen to be odd, one must replace [γ _{a} , ξ _{i} ] = 0 with {γ _{a} , ξ _{i} } = 0 in eq(9). The graded commutator is deﬁned as
[ A, B } = A B − (−1) ^{(}^{g}^{r}^{a}^{d}^{e} ^{A} ^{g}^{r}^{a}^{d}^{e} ^{B}^{)} B A
where the grade of the even part of the superalgebra is 0, and the grade of the odd part of the superalgebra is 1. Denoting the grades of A, B, C respectively by a, b, c, the graded Jacobi identities are given by
(12)
(−1) ^{a}^{c} [ A,
[ B,
C } }
+ (−1) ^{b}^{a} [ B,
[ C,
A } }
+ (−1) ^{c}^{b} [ C,
[ A,
B } }
=
0
(13)
the above graded Jacobi identity can be also rewritten in terms of the superalgebra of derivations as
[ A,
[ B,
C } }
=
[ [ A,
B },
C }
+ (−1) ^{a}^{b} [ B,
[ A,
C } }
(14)
In the Appendix we show explicitly that the graded Jacobi identities corresponding to the superalgebra are satisﬁed. For simplicity let us take at the moment m = 2 and 2n = 2 and deﬁne
A _{µ}
=
A _{µ}
+
A _{µ} γ _{a}
a
+
A
ab
µ
γ _{a}_{b} + A ^{i}
_{µ}
ξ _{i}
+ A ^{i}^{j}
µ
ξ _{i}_{j} ;
a, b = 1, 2;
i, j = 1, 2
(15)
since ξ _{i} belongs to the odd part of the algebra, the gauge ﬁeld component A _{µ} ^{i} is taken to be anticommuting; i.e. it is Grassmannian odd, an anumber. The other ﬁeld components are
_{2} 1 {ξ _{i} , ξ _{j} } = ξ _{i}_{j} = ξ _{j}_{i} ,
and A ^{i}^{j} = A ^{j}^{i} µ .
the latter belongs to the even part of the algebra. Also we have A
commuting; i.e. they are Grassmannian even, a cnumber. Because
ab
µ
= −A
ba
µ
µ
4
1
The ﬁeld strength is deﬁned as F = dA + _{2} A ∧ A. One should note that due to the
anticommuting nature of the gauge ﬁeld component A _{µ} ^{i} one has A ^{i} wedge product
µ ^{A} ^{j}
_{ν} = −A ^{j}
ν
^{A} ^{i}
_{µ} so that
1
2
^{A} i
µ ^{A} ^{j}
_{ν} ξ _{i} ξ _{j} − A ^{j}
ν
^{A} ^{i}
_{µ}
ξ _{j}
ξ _{i} ^{}
dx ^{µ} ∧ dx ^{ν} =
1
2 ^{A} i
µ ^{A} ^{j} _{ν}
{ ξ _{i} ,
ξ _{j} } dx ^{µ} ∧ dx ^{ν} =
(16)
involves the anticommutator {ξ _{i} , ξ _{j} } rather than the commutator [ξ _{i} , ξ _{j} ] . Hence, the ﬁeld strength component associated to the ξ _{i}_{j} generator is given by
A
^{i} µ ^{A} ^{j}
_{ν} ξ _{i}_{j} dx ^{µ} ∧ dx ^{ν}
ij
_{µ}_{ν}
F
= ∂ _{µ} A ^{i}^{j}
ν
− ∂ _{ν} A ^{i}^{j}
µ
^{+}
kj ^{A} ^{i} k[µ ^{A} ν]
+ ^{1} _{2} (A ^{i}
µ ^{A} ^{j}
_{ν} + A ^{j}
µ
^{A} _{ν} ^{i} ), A ^{i}^{j} = A ^{j}^{i}
µ
µ
(17)
such that
ij
F _{µ}_{ν} =
−
F νµ , F µν = F
ij
ij
ji
_{ν}_{µ}
due to the Grassmannian odd character A ^{i}
µ ^{A} ^{j}
_{ν} = −A ^{j} _{µ} . The other components are
ν ^{A} ^{i}
ab
µν
F
=
∂ _{µ} A ^{a}^{b}
ν
−
∂ _{ν} A
ab
µ
+
2 A ^{a} _{c}_{[}_{µ} A ^{c}^{b}
ν]
^{+} 1 2 ^{A} a
[µ ^{A} ^{b}
ν] ,
A
ab
µ
= −A
ba
µ
(18)
(19)
i
F
_{µ}_{ν}
a
_{µ}_{ν}
F
=
=
∂ _{µ} A ^{i}
_{ν} − ∂ _{ν} A ^{i}
µ
∂ _{µ} A ^{a}
_{ν}
−
∂ _{ν} A
a
µ
^{+}
^{A} ^{i} j[µ ^{A} j _{ν}_{]}
^{+} ^{2} ^{A} ^{a} b[µ ^{A} ^{b} _{ν}_{]}
(20)
(21)
(22)
where the [µν] denotes antisymmetrization of the indices with unit weight. A YangMills like invariant Lagrangian is quadratic in the ﬁeld strengths < F _{µ}_{ν} F ^{µ}^{ν} > where the bracket < > denotes extracting the unit element of the superalgebra in the product of two generators as follows
F _{µ}_{ν} = ∂ _{µ} A _{ν} −
∂ _{ν} A _{µ}
< γ _{a} γ _{b}
>
=
g _{a}_{b} ,
<
<
<
γ _{a}_{b} γ _{c}_{d}
ξ _{i} ξ _{j}
>
ξ _{i}_{j} ξ _{k}_{l}
>
=
>
=
g _{a}_{c} g _{b}_{d}
− g _{b}_{c} g _{a}_{d} ,
<
^{1}
_{2} ω _{i}_{j} ,
1
=
<
ξ _{i} ξ _{j}_{k}
>
=
_{4} ( ω _{i}_{k} ω _{j}_{l} + ω _{i}_{l} ω _{j}_{k} )
0
γ _{a} γ _{c}_{d}
>
=
0
(23a)
(23b)
(23c)
To obtain eqs(23) one needs the initial (anti) commutators and the relations
{ γ _{a}_{b} , γ _{c}_{d} } = 2 γ _{a}_{b}_{c}_{d} − 2 g _{a}_{c} g _{b}_{d} − 2 g _{b}_{c} g _{a}_{d} ,
{γ _{a}_{b} , γ _{c} } = 2 γ _{a}_{b}_{c}
{ ξ ij , ξ k } = ξ ij,k , { ξ ij , ξ kl } = ξ ij,kl +
5
1
_{2} ( ω _{i}_{k} ω _{j}_{l} + ω _{i}_{l} ω _{j}_{k} )
(24)
(25)
[ξ kl,j , ξ i ] =
ξ ij,kl ,
{ ξ kl,j , ξ i } =
C],
ω ki ξ lj
=
+
ω li ξ kj
+
−
ω ji ξ kl
B [A,
(26) 

C] 
(27) 
(28a) 

(28b) 
obtained from the identities
[A, BC]
=
[A,
B] C
+
B [A,
{A, BC}
{A, B} C
One must introduce new generators in eqs(25,26) obeying
ξ ij,kl
=
ξ ij,k
ξ kl,ij
=
=
ξ ji,k
ξ ji,kl
=
ξ k,ij
ξ ij,lk
=
=
ξ k,ji
ξ ji,lk
=
and as a result one may enlarge the number of terms in the decomposition of the ﬁeld A _{µ} in eq(15), using these new generators ξ _{i}_{j}_{,}_{k} and ξ _{i}_{j}_{,}_{k}_{l} . The only caveat is that the super algebra will not close because the graded commutators
=
ξ lk,ji
[ ξ ij,kl
[ ξ ij,kl
,
,
ξ mn,p }
ξ mn,pq }
=
=
[ ξ ij,kl
[ ξ ij,kl
,
,
ξ mn,p ]
ξ mn,pq ]
∼
∼
ω im ξ jn,klp
ω im ξ jn,klpq
+
+
(29)
(30)
furnish the new generators ξ _{j}_{n}_{,}_{k}_{l}_{p} , ξ _{j}_{n}_{,}_{k}_{l}_{p}_{q} which were not included . The other graded commutators are ﬁne because no new generators are introduced in
[ξ _{k}_{l}_{,}_{j} , ξ _{i} } = {ξ _{k}_{l}_{,}_{j} , ξ _{i} } ∼ ω _{k}_{i} ξ _{l}_{j} +
, [ξ _{i}_{j}_{,}_{k} , ξ _{l}_{m} ] ∼
ω _{i}_{l} ξ _{j}_{m}_{,}_{k}
+
(31)
However, by just including A ^{i}^{j}^{,}^{k} ξ _{i}_{j}_{,}_{k} and excluding A ^{i}^{j}^{,}^{k}^{l} ξ _{i}_{j}_{,}_{k}_{l} , one will have another problem due to the last anticommutator relation {ξ _{i}_{j}_{,}_{k} , ξ _{l}_{m}_{,}_{n} } ∼ ω _{i}_{l} ξ _{j}_{m}_{,}_{k}_{n} which will preclude the exclusion of ξ _{j}_{m}_{,}_{k}_{n} . Therefore one will be forced to introduce an inf inite number of generators beyond ξ _{i} and ξ _{i}_{j} . The new ﬁeld A ^{i}^{j}^{,}^{k} , for example, is Grassmannian
[ξ _{i}_{j}_{,}_{k}_{l} , ξ _{m}_{n} ] ∼ ω _{i}_{m} ξ _{j}_{n}_{,}_{k}_{l} +
µ
{ξ _{i}_{j}_{,}_{k} ,
ξ _{l}_{m}_{,}_{n} }
µ
µ
∼
ω _{i}_{l} ξ _{j}_{m}_{,}_{k}_{n}
+
,
odd, it is an anumber. Its addition will also modify the expression for the terms in F
due to the anticommutator contribution of the ﬁrst terms of eq(31). In the orthogonal Cliﬀord algebra Cl(m) case the introduction of new generators stops when the number of diﬀerent factors in the antisymmetric product of the gammas equals to m, the dimension of spacetime; i.e the rank of an antisymmetric tensor cannot exceed the spacetime dimension. Concluding, by just keeping ξ _{i} , ξ _{i}_{j} one can explicitly verify that the super algebra closes with respect to the graded commutation relations and the graded Jacobi identities are obeyed as shown in the Appendix. In this case we have the orthogonal Cliﬀord alge bra generators 1, γ _{a} , γ _{a}_{b} and the ξ _{i} , ξ _{i}_{j} generators associated with the symplectic Cliﬀord algebra. In the most general case when m > 2, 2n > 2 we have a superCliﬀord valued gauge ﬁeld associated with the orthosymplectic Cliﬀord algebras of the form
ij µν ^{ξ} ij
A _{µ}
=
A _{µ}
+
A
A _{µ} γ _{a}
a
+
A
a 1 a 2
µ
^{γ} _{a} _{1} _{a} _{2}
^{i}
_{µ}
ξ _{i} + A ^{i} ^{1} ^{i} ^{2}
µ
_{ξ} i 1 i 2
_{+}
^{+}
^{A} ^{a} ^{1} ^{a} ^{2} ^{a} ^{3} ^{γ} _{a} _{1} _{a} _{2} _{a} _{3}
_{A} i _{1} i _{2} ,j _{1}
µ
_{ξ} i 1 i 2 ,j 1
_{+}
6
^{+}
_{A} i _{1} i _{2} ,j _{1} j _{2}
µ
_{+}
_{A} ^{a} ^{1} ^{a} ^{2} ^{a} ^{3}
ξ _{i} _{1} _{i} _{2} _{,}_{j} _{1} _{j} _{2}
a
+
^{m}
^{γ} a _{1} a _{2} a _{3}
a
m
+
(32)
The range of indices is a _{1} , a _{2} , a _{3} ,
, monograph [23]. The (anti) commutators of the inﬁnite number of ξ’s generators would require a computer algebra package. One expects to have analogous formulae to those in
eqs(5,10,11,25,26,29,30,31).
The inﬁnite number of terms in (32) resembles the expansion based on the framelike formalism, developed by [17], [18], describing the higher spin ﬁelds dynamics in terms of higher spin connection gauge ﬁelds that generalize objects such as vielbeins and spin connections in gravity. Constructing consistent gauge theories of interacting higher spin ﬁelds is a diﬃcult and unsolved problem. Higher spin ﬁelds [18] have been conjectured to be part of the spectrum of tensionless strings. Higher conformal spin ﬁeld currents generate the W _{∞} (super) algebras which are the higher spin extensions of the (super) Virasoro algebra in 2D. The analog of “photons” in the Extended Relativity theory in Cspaces (Cliﬀord spaces) correspond to tensionless strings and branes [11]. The quantum Virasoro algebra generators can be constructed in terms of operators of the generalized Cliﬀord algebras as shown by [24]. For these reasons the gauge ﬁeld theory proposed in this work deserves further scrutiny. For simplicity purposes and without loss of generality we shall retain the original decomposition of the ﬁeld A _{µ} displayed in eq(15). To sum up, from eqs(1722) one has for the quadratic YangMills like invariant Lagrangian the following
The (anti) commutators of the γ _{a} , γ _{a} _{1} _{a} _{2} ,
_{m} generators can be found in the
, 2n.
=
1, 2, 3,
,
m
^{γ} a _{1} a _{2}
and i _{1} , i _{2} ,
a
j
_{1} , j _{2}
=
1, 2, 3,
L
=
One can rewrite
and
^{1} _{2} ω ij F
i
_{ρ}_{σ} g ^{µ}^{ρ} g ^{ν}^{σ} µν ^{F}
j
+ ^{1} 2 ω _{i}_{k} ω _{j}_{l} F
ij
µν ^{F}
ρσ _{g} µρ _{g} νσ
kl
µν ^{F} a
F
a
µν
ab
µν
− 2 F
µν
F
ab
+
F _{µ}_{ν} F ^{µ}^{ν}
ω ij F
_{ρ}_{σ} g ^{µ}^{ρ} g ^{ν}^{σ} µν ^{F}
i
j
ω ik ω jl F
µν ^{F}
ij
_{ρ}_{σ} g ^{µ}^{ρ} g ^{ν}^{σ}
kl
=
=
µν ^{F} i
F
i
µν
−
µν ^{F} ij
F
ij
µν
_{+}
(33)
(34)
(35)
the change in sign in (35) is due to the subtle ordering of indices in the contraction
ω _{i}_{k} F ^{k}^{l} ω _{j}_{l}
=
−
ω _{i}_{k} F ^{k}^{l} ω _{l}_{j}
=
− F _{i}_{j}
(36)
the index contraction is performed among adjacent indices. One should note that δ ij F _{µ}_{ν} F ^{j}^{µ}^{ν} = 0 due to the Grassmannian odd character of F _{µ}_{ν} . For this reason one
must contract the i, j indices with ω _{i}_{j} = −ω _{j}_{i} . The contraction of the vector indices in F ^{a} F ^{b} requires the metric g _{a}_{b} and the contraction of bivector indices in F ^{a}^{b} F ^{c}^{d} requires g _{a}_{c} g _{b}_{d} − g _{b}_{c} g _{a}_{d} as displayed in eq(23a). The Lagrangian (33) is invariant under the super gauge transformations involving the super Cliﬀord algebra valued gauge parameter
i
i
Λ = λ + λ ^{a} γ _{a} + λ ^{a}^{b} γ _{a}_{b} + λ ^{i} ξ _{i} + λ ^{i}^{j} ξ _{i}_{j} ; λ ^{a}^{b} = −λ ^{b}^{a} , λ ^{i}^{j} = λ ^{j}^{i} 
(37) 
δA _{µ} = ∂ _{µ} Λ + [A _{µ} , Λ}, δF _{µ}_{ν} = [F _{µ}_{ν} , Λ} 
(38) 
7
In component form one has
i (39)
(40)
(41)
(42)
(43)
(44)
(45)
In Appendix B we show explicitly that the Lagrangian (33) is invariant under the graded gauge transformations (3945).
δA ^{i} _{µ} = ∂ _{µ} λ ^{i} + 2 A ^{i}^{j} λ _{j} + 2
µ
δA _{µ}
a
=
δA
∂ _{µ} λ ^{a}
ab
µ
=
+ 4 A
ab
µ
λ _{b}
∂ _{µ} λ ^{a}^{b}
ab
δF
µ
=
δA ^{i}^{j}
µ
=
ij
δF _{µ}_{ν}
j
k
^{j}
µ
b
µ
A
λ
j
i
λ
b
, δF _{µ}_{ν} = 2 F _{µ}_{ν}
a
jk
µν
,
δF _{µ}_{ν}
a
bc
µ
λ
c
a
=
+
ab
4 F
µν
A _{µ} λ ^{b}
a
F _{µ}_{ν} λ ^{b} −
a
i
k
i
ij
λ _{j}
λ _{b}
−
+ 2 F
b
+ 4 F
µν
b
A _{µ} λ ^{a}
j µν ^{λ} j
^{λ} b
a
+ 4 A
λ
c
b
+ 4 A
ac
µ
ac
λ
c
b
− 4 A
bc
µν ^{λ} c
4 F
µν
− 4 F
+ 2 F
=
∂ _{µ} λ,
a +
b
F _{µ}_{ν} λ ^{a}
∂ _{µ} λ ^{i}^{j} + 2 A ^{i}^{k} λ
µ
=
2 F
ik µν ^{λ} k
j
δA _{µ}
+ 2 A ^{j}^{k} λ
µ
λ
i
k
δF _{µ}_{ν}
+ A ^{i} _{µ} λ ^{j} + A _{µ} ^{j} λ ^{i}
+ F _{µ}_{ν} λ ^{j} + F _{µ}_{ν} λ ^{i}
i
j
=
0
2
Bimetric Gravity, Biconnection, Antisymmetric Metrics and Cosmological Constant
In this section we discuss the physical implications of the ﬁeld theory constructed above.
If A _{µ} ↔ e _{µ} , is identiﬁed with the vielbein then the contraction e
spacetime metric. The partner A ^{i} _{µ} ↔ e _{µ} ^{i} is Grassmannian odd so that the contraction
a
a
a µ ^{e} ^{b}
_{ν} g _{a}_{b} = g _{µ}_{ν} yields the
(47)
furnishes another symmetric rank two tensor h _{µ}_{ν} = h _{ν}_{µ} , that can be interpreted as another metric tensor typical of bimetric gravity [10]. The actual contraction should be performed
as e ^{i}
which is also Grassmannian
even. The pair of connections ω
sions of ordinary gravity [9] in the same fashion that g _{µ}_{ν} , h _{µ}_{ν} are the elements in bimetric
gravity [10]. When A _{µ} ↔ e _{µ} , A
dx ^{µ} ∧ dx ^{ν} coincides with the 2form
_{ν}_{]} ) dx ^{µ} ∧dx ^{ν} where R _{µ}_{ν} dx ^{µ} ∧dx ^{ν} is the curvature 2form. F _{µ}_{ν} dx ^{µ} ∧dx ^{ν} becomes
ij can be used in formulations of biconnection exten
h _{µ}_{ν} = e ^{i}
µ
_{ν} ω _{i}_{j} = − e ^{j}
^{e} ^{j}
ν
^{e} ^{i}
_{µ} ω _{i}_{j}
e ^{j}
ν
^{e} ^{i}
_{µ} ω _{j}_{i}
=
= h _{ν}_{µ}
_{µ} ω ij
e _{ν} ^{j} = h _{µ}_{ν} so the indices are adjacent.
ab
µ
ab
↔ ω
µ
ab
The spin connection A
has for partner A ^{i}^{j} ↔ ω
µ
µ
ab
ij
µ
µ , ω
ab
a
a
ab
_{µ}
↔ ω _{µ} , one has that F
ab
µν
(R
^{a} µν ^{+}^{e} [µ
ab
^{e} ^{b}
a
the Torsion 2form. The MacdowellMansouriChamsedinneWest (MMCW) Lagrangian in 4D is given by
L _{M}_{M}_{C}_{W} = (R ^{a}^{b} + e ^{a} ∧ e ^{b} ) ∧ (R ^{c}^{d} + e ^{c} ∧ e ^{d} )
which in component form becomes
_{} µνρσ _{(}_{R} ab µν
^{+}
^{a}
^{e} [µ
^{e} ^{b}
_{ν}_{]} ) (R
8
cd
ρσ
^{+}
^{c}
^{e} [ρ
^{e}
d
_{σ}_{]} ) _{a}_{b}_{c}_{d}
(48)
The R ∧ R terms are the topological GaussBonnet curvature squared terms. R ∧ e ∧ e is the EinsteinHilbert term and e ∧ e ∧ e ∧ e is the cosmological constant term (after one introduces a proper length scale to match units). Since the connection A _{µ} has units of
(length) ^{−}^{1} the proper correspondence is A _{µ} ↔ e _{µ} /L so there is an overall factor L ^{−}^{4} in front of the spacetime volume term L ^{−}^{4} ^{} ^{√} g d ^{4} x in the action. The length scale L can be set to the Planck scale.
_{ν} ; ω _{i}_{j} and ^{µ}^{ν}^{ρ}^{σ} is
In 4D the following contraction involving e trivially zero
a
a
a
(i
µ
_{e}
j)
ν
= e ^{i}
µ
_{ν} + e ^{j}
^{e} ^{j}
µ
^{e} ^{i}
L ^{−}^{4} ω ik
ω jl e
(i
µ
_{e} j)
ν
e
(k ^{µ}^{ν}^{ρ}^{σ}
ρ
e
l)
σ
=
2L ^{−}^{4} ^{µ}^{ν}^{ρ}^{σ} ( h _{µ}_{ρ} h _{ν}_{σ}
+ h _{ν}_{ρ} h _{µ}_{σ} ) =
0
(49)
due to the antisymmetry of the epsilon tensor density. While the actual contraction involving the metric tensor in the YangMills terms of eq(35) is nonvanishing
L ^{−}^{4} ω ik
ω jl e
(i
µ
_{e}
j)
ν
e
(k
ρ
e
l)
σ
g ^{µ}^{ρ} g ^{ν}^{σ} = 2L ^{−}^{4} g ^{µ}^{ρ} g ^{ν}^{σ} ( h _{µ}_{ρ} h _{ν}_{σ} + h _{ν}_{ρ} h _{µ}_{σ} )
=
0
(50)
the latter nonvanishing contraction has the form of masslike terms for the symmetric rank 2 tensor h _{µ}_{ν}
L _{m}_{a}_{s}_{s} = 2L ^{−}^{4} ( h ^{µ}^{σ} h _{µ}_{σ} + (h ^{µ}
_{µ} ) ^{2} )
>
0,
h _{µ} ^{µ}
=
trace (h _{µ}_{ρ} ) =
g ^{µ}^{ρ} h _{µ}_{ρ}
(51)
Since L _{m}_{a}_{s}_{s} > 0 is positive deﬁnite these terms cannot be used to cancel out the cosmo logical constant contribution
L ^{−}^{4} abcd e
a
µ
^{e} ν ^{b} e ρ e
c
_{σ} ^{µ}^{ν}^{ρ}^{σ}
d
=
L ^{−}^{4} det e
=
L ^{−}^{4} ^{} g
(52)
There is another possibility worth exploring if one takes the grade of γ _{a} to be odd
_{µ} ↔ e _{µ} is now
_{µ} and the
^{e} _{ν} ^{b} g _{a}_{b} = g _{[}_{µ}_{ν}_{]} yields an antisymmetric metric tensor g _{[}_{µ}_{ν}_{]} . In this case, a
while the grade of γ _{a}_{b} still remains even. In this case we will have that A
Grassmannian odd (instead of even), and anumber so that e
contraction e
a
µ
a
µ
^{e} ^{b}
_{ν}
a
a
= −e ν ^{b} e
a
symmetric tensor is only obtained from the contraction in eq(47) h _{µ}_{ν} = e ^{i}
µ
^{e}
^{j}
_{ν} ω ij = h νµ .
If we were to identify h _{µ}_{ν} with a spacetime metric g _{(}_{µ}_{ν}_{)} , in this case the ”emergent”
metric h _{µ}_{ν} can be seen as the ”condensate” of two Grassmannian odd valued ﬁelds h _{µ}_{ν} =
ω ij = h νµ . A symmetric and antisymmetric metric can both be accommodated within a Hermitian
e
^{i} µ ^{e} _{ν} ^{j}
complex metric g _{µ}_{ν} = g _{(}_{µ}_{ν}_{)} + ig _{[}_{µ}_{ν}_{]} obeying
⇒
When the grade of γ _{a} is taken to be odd we have now that the graded commutator must be [γ _{a} , ξ _{i} } = {γ _{a} , ξ _{i} } = 0, instead of having [γ _{a} , ξ _{i} ] = 0 as displayed before in eq(9). Due to the Grassmannian odd nature of A _{µ} we have also modif ications to the expressions for the following ﬁeld strength components
(53)
∗
g _{µ}_{ν}
g
†
_{µ}_{ν}
= g _{ν}_{µ}
a
^{=} ^{g} _{µ}_{ν}
ab
µν
F
=
∂ _{µ} A ^{a}^{b}
ν
−
∂ _{ν} A
ab
µ
+ 2 A ^{a}^{c}
[µ
_{A}
cb
ν]
(54)
9
(55)
since [γ _{a} , γ _{b} } = {γ _{a} , γ _{b} } = 2g _{a}_{b} 1, instead of having [γ _{a} , γ _{b} ] = 2γ _{a}_{b} . One should compared eqs(54,55) with the prior expressions in eqs(19,22).
g _{[}_{µ}_{ν}_{]} the quadratic terms F _{µ}_{ν} F ^{µ}^{ν} will yield mass
terms for KalbRamond like ﬁelds of the form g _{[}_{µ}_{ν}_{]} g ^{[}^{µ}^{ν}^{]} = B _{µ}_{ν} B ^{µ}^{ν} , after identifying B _{µ}_{ν} = g _{[}_{µ}_{ν}_{]} and raising the indices with the metric h ^{µ}^{ν} = g ^{(}^{µ}^{ν}^{)} . Another possibility is to raise the indices with the inverse Hermitian complex metric
F _{µ}_{ν}
^{e} ^{b}
_{ν}
= ∂ _{µ} A _{ν}
∂ _{ν} A _{µ}
+
A
a
µ
^{A} ^{b}
_{ν} g _{a}_{b}
−
Using the deﬁnition e
a
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