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TXP Industrial Control System

TXP TRAINING COURSE

SIEMENS TXP training for Sahand power plant

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TXP Industrial Control System

Contents

1. TELEPERM XP Overview 2. AS620 System description 3. Bus System System description 4. ES680 Graphic Tool 5. OM650 System description

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TELEPERM XP Overview
1 Application
1.1 TELEPERM XP -- Overview
The TELEPERM XP (TXP) process control system provides all I&C facilities that are necessary for automating, handling, monitoring, and archiving processes (such as the operational instrumentation and control systems of power plants) The tasks of a process control system are distributed to different subsystems: z OM 650: Operating and Monitoring system. This is the process control and information system for operator--process communication and visualization. z ES 680: Engineering System. This system is employed for configuration and commissioning. z DS 670: Diagnostic System. z SINEC H1: SIEMENS Network Communication. Communication system. z AS 620: Automation System. This is the system used for process automation.

OM 650 process control and information system

The OM 650 process control and information system is the interface between the system and the operator in the control room. This highly ergonomic window to the process enables the process to be centrally monitored and controlled. In addition, the system provides all functions that are required for logging the process and for archiving the data.
z ES 680 engineering system

The ES 680 engineering system is the central configuration system of TELEPERM XP. ES 680 is used for configuring the AS 620 automation system, the OM 650 process control and information system, the SINEC H1 FO bus system, and the necessary hardware. ES 680 provides a configuration package for each target system. ES 680
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centrally administers all configuration data (i.e. the data is entered once only). The configuration of the AS functions and processing functions in OM 650 is based on control system flow charts to Guidelines. A control system flowchart editor in the ES 680 permits interactive entry of the control system flow charts. The configuration principle of the ES 680 is based upon consistent forward configuration. Initial configuration and modification configuration are exclusively performed through the configuration system with subsequent automatic code generation. This guarantees real--time documentation of the system hardware and all AS, OM, and SINEC functions, and permits modification configurations to be centrally controlled.
z DS 670 diagnostic system

The DS 670 diagnostic system is the tool that is used for monitoring and detecting malfunctions in the I&C components of TELEPERM XP. In the event of a malfunction, the diagnostic system swiftly takes the user to the source of the fault and informs about cause and possible elimination of the fault.
z SINEC H1 bus system

The network structure of the SINEC H1 bus system enables communication between the individual subsystems of the process control system. The bus system complies with international standards and consequently offers the prerequisites of open communication.

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1.2 AS 620 Automation System -- Overview


The AS 620 subsystem performs the automation tasks of the industrial processes. The AS 620 acquires measured values and states from the process, performs open-and closed--loop control functions, and transfers the resulting manipulated variable values, correction values, and commands to the process. The other subsystems employ the AS 620 subsystem as the interface to the process. The AS 620 transfers the commands from the OM 650 operator communication and visualization system to the process, reads information from the process that is required by OM 650, ES 680, or the DS 670 diagnostic system and transfers this information to the upstream operator communication and visualization level. According to the different requirements that result from industrial measurement and control activities safety-relevant tasks (such as boiler protection), and high-speed control tasks (at the turbine unit for example), various variants of the AS 620 automation system are available.
z AS 620 B Basic system for general automation tasks, system and unit protection, closed--loop

control. Central structure or distributed arrangement using buses is both possible. FUM--B variant: In a central structure, FUM modules (function modules) are used for connecting the sensors and actuators of the process. SIM--B variant: SIM modules (signal modules) enable a distributed structure to be set up. A bus connects the SIM modules with the central system components.
z AS 620 F Fail--safe for protection and control tasks (e.g. burner control). Single and fault --

tolerant structures are both possible,including the variants with the fail--safe automation processor (APF) and the fail--safe programmable controller (AG-F). FUM-F variant: Configuration with the fail--safe APF automation processor and the related FUM--F modules (fail--safe function modules).
z z AS 620 T Auxiliaries connection Turbine controller and other high--speed control tasks at the turbine unit.

Signal exchange with SIMATIC S5 units. The SIMATIC units contain the implementation of a complete automation task that is not configured via ES 680.
Combinations:

Combining two or more system variants is possible. The components of the different variants must then be connected to the same component of the AP automation processor. Any combination of the abovementioned system variants are possible, except mixing FUM--F and SIM--F (AG--F) components at the same automation processor. Fig. 1.2 below gives an overview of the TELEPERM XP process control system. It shows the position of the subsystems in the hierarchy of the I&C pyramid. The different variants of the AS 620 automation system are shown in gray beneath the SINEC H1 FO (FO = fiber optic) system bus.

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The tasks of the AS 620 automation system are distributed among the following levels of the I&C pyramid:
z Field level

The field level (I/O) contains the sensors (that are used for acquiring the signals from the process) and the actuators (that are used by the automation system for influencing the process). Typical sensors and actuators are transducers, detectors, switchgears, positioners, and solenoid valves. Remote input and output modules (the SIM modules) that are linked with the automation system via the SINEC L2 DP bus may also be allocated to the field level.
z Individual control level

The individual control level is the interface between automation system and process (sensors and actuators). FUM and SIM modules perform analog and binary signal conditioning and drive control.
z Group control level

The automation processors form the group control level. Deals with open--loop control, closedloop control and protection tasks and forms the central component of all AS 620 instances.

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AS620 System description


1. Functional scope

Functional scope
The basic structure of the AS 620 comprises a central unit, the automation processor (AP), the communications processor card (CP) for interfacing to the plant bus and the I/O modules that output signals to the process and input feedbacks from the process Interface modules (IM) are available for connecting additional internal and external bus systems, such as the cabinet bus, PROFIBUS and PROFIBUS-DP, which are also plugged into the AP. Thus AS 620 supports distributed configurations in addition to the traditional central configuration. This optimizes the space requirements of the process control system and allows flexible adaptation to the layout of the plant. AS 620 system features support fast and reliable fault analysis. For this purpose, comprehensive I&C diagnostics have been provided in the form of utilities. AS 620 can tag the process signals as soon as they are acquired with high-resolution time information. This allows faults arising in the process to be analyzed in detail and in the correct time sequence.

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2. Enhancing availability using redundancy


For flexible adaptation to the availability demands of economical power plant operation, all I&C components can be implemented with redundancy. Depending on requirements, different levels of redundancy can be implemented, ranging from partial redundancy of individual modules right through to a fully redundant configuration (for the central unit and all modules). In this context, redundancy refers to the implementation of a "1-out-of-2" structure and the availability is enhanced even further by two identical components operating in parallel. If a component fails due to a fault, the second component continues to execute the function without any interruption. Comprehensive redundancy mechanisms and self-diagnostic functions that are integral to the system ensure automatic fault detection and changeover without the need for any manual intervention. All I&C redundancy mechanisms have already been integrated into the system, so no additional effort is required on configuration. They are not visible to the user.

3. User program
System software
The system software is independent of the specific automation tasks and is available in all APs in the same form. It is responsible for the following functions: Calling and sequence control of user programs Monitoring and control of the lower-level individual control level Reading operations from the OM 650 Operation and Monitoring System and transferring them to the individual control level Reading information from the I/O for automation tasks Controlling communication between modules Administration and changeover for redundancy Performing system startup Monitoring and diagnostics

Function blocks
For tasks that frequently recur in power plant automation, software modules similar to subroutines, so-called function blocks, are included as standard in the AP. The functional scope of the function blocks allows even complex automation tasks to be implemented easily and clearly. The planning engineer sees the blocks in the form of graphical symbols in the function diagram on ES 680. The program code is hidden from the user and only those outputs and inputs, which are relevant, are visible. The function blocks are assigned to screen forms in ES 680, which can be used to parameterize them (e.g. for
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setting controller parameters).

Another task of the function blocks is, in the case of blocks that can be operated such as a set point adjuster, to exchange data with OM 650. This ensures that operating functions are easy to configure, and that the process operation functions of OM 650 are uniform and standardized. Finally, all function blocks contain monitoring functions that are integrated into the alarm-signaling concept for I&C faults.

4. AP Automation Processor
The AP automation processor is the central component of the AS 620 B and AS 620 F automation systems. It is based on the powerful SIMATIC S5 CPU 948/CPU 948R. All subordinate AS 620 components are linked with the system bus (and thus with the operator communication and visualization level of the process control system) via the AP. System and unit protection functions are processed in the AP. In addition to the base operations, a large spectrum of power plant related open and closed loop control blocks are available for this purpose. The user employs these blocks on the graphic ES 680 desktop to create the user program that executes in the AP. The AS 620 T employs a special automation processor, the APT (SIMADYN D), to solve high--speed control tasks at the turbine unit. The APT communicates with the TELEPERM XP systems on the operator communication and visualization level via an AP automation processor. The AP plays an important role in the connection of auxiliaries (SIMATIC S5 programmable logic controllers).These PLC systems, too, always communicate via an AP with the upstream operator communication and visualization level. The central unit is described in the Manual SIMATIC S5--155H programmable logic controller (CPU 94812),6ES5998--4SR11 (2 volumes). Fig. 2.1 shows the basic structure and a possible slot allocation of the central unit used as an AP. The slot numbers show on the annotation strip of the CU rack. The actual installation of interface modules and communications
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processors in the individual slots depends on the plant--related structure and on the variant of the automation system.

Fig. 2.1: Standard slot assignment of the AP automation processor

5. I/O modules
.

Interfacing to the process takes place via I/O modules to which the I/O comprising measurement transmitters and actuators are connected. Two module types are available in AS 620 to support a central or a distributed configuration, FUM modules and SIM modules.

EU 901 Racks
1 Application
The EU 901 rack is used for accommodating modules of the individual control level of the TELEPERM XP AS 620 B automation system. The rack is able to accommodate two IM 614 interface modules (that connect to the AP automation processor) and up to 19 function modules (FUM) that provide the connection to the process. If necessary, an SYS 900 monitoring and signalling module can be installed instead of a function module.
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2 Design
The EU 901 rack has a free capacity of 21 slots at a module installation pitch of 20.32 mm. This includes 19 slots for the function modules to the field devices and 2 slots for the IM 614 interface modules that connect to the AP automation processor or the group control level. Slot allocation: Slots 003 ... 147 19 function modules of the AS 620 B/F or S system Slots 155 ... 163 2 IM 614 interface modules

FUM

modules (function modules) for central configurations

FUM modules FUM modules have been specially developed for power plant applications. Their functional scope has been optimized for the specific tasks in a power plant. Within the context of the higher I&C levels, the FUMs are equipped with preprocessing units with medium to high processing performance. The most important FUM tasks are: Signal acquisition, conditioning, processing, monitoring and sensor supply Individual open-loop and closed-loop controls Time tagging with 1 ms resolution for events (analog and binary) Monitoring functions with excellent fault differentiation for easy and precise diagnostics in the event of a fault. The FUM modules are inserted into subracks that are mounted in electronics cabinets. The FUMs are linked to the AP via the cabinet bus. Redundancy in FUM variants The redundant version comprises two APs that communicate with each other
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and which each has their own bus interface and cabinet bus. The two APs are linked via interface modules. Each FUM is linked to both cabinet buses. Redundancy is implemented from the connection to the plant bus, via the AP as far as the cabinet bus and the modules connected to it. In the case of the redundant implementation of FUMs, two identical FUM modules acquire the signals from sensors or actuators simultaneously. The modules also operate in accordance with the 1-out-of-2 principles. This means that even when a module fails, correct operation of the process is assured.

1) FUM210 (sensor condition)


1. Application The FUM 210 module can be used in the AS 620 B automation system either as: Sensor conditioning for binary signals (BT function) High speed binary signal conditioning (BT_I function) Modules for individual controls (ESG function) The inputs and outputs of the module are non--isolated. Two function modules can be circuited parallelly (redundantly) in order to increase availability when binary signals are conditioned. The module can be used for the following functions: Supplying binary sensors (short--circuit and overload proof) Conditioning up to 28 sensor signals Monitoring the sensor lines and the sensor signals Generating time--tagged data Simulating the logical sensor states via the software Fault display via LEDs on the front panel 2 . Front Panel Elements The operating and display elements required for all the modules of the individual control level (FUM modules) such as the module fuse and the Module fault LED are integrated in the front panel 1 fuse holder for the module fuse 1 LED (red, 5 mm) for displaying module faults

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3Technical Data
Binary inputs without sensor processing High level input voltage 13...33 V High level input current 13 V 24 V 33 V 1.7 mA 3.5 mA 5 mA Contact current (closed contact) 3.4 mA typical Permissible bridging resistance 47 k Power dissipation without Approx. 6 W Power dissipation Binary signal input (high signal) Approx. 80 mW

2) FUM210 (driver control)


1. Application The FUM 210 module can be used in the AS 620 B automation system either as: Sensor conditioning for binary signals (GB function) Module for drives (individual controls/ESG functions) The present description explains the Individual drive control. The FUM 210 individual drive control module is used to control and monitor various branches. The FUM 210 module enables all the drive control variations to be covered with the exception of the direct control of solenoid valves.
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The following types of drives can be controlled: Type of drive 1: Individual drive with screen operation Max. of 2 check back messages, no check commands Type of drive 2: Motor, solenoid valve or switchgear with screen operation Type of drive 3: Actuator with screen operation Single contacts for limit check back messages Type of drive 4: Servo drive with screen operation Single contacts for limit check back messages Type of drive 5: Solenoid valve with screen operation Changeover contacts for check back messages Type of drive 6: Actuator with screen operation Changeover contacts for limit check back messages Type of drive 7: Servo drive with screen operation Changeover contacts for limit check--back messages Type of drive 8: Reversing drive with screen operation Switchgear with 3 contactor relays Type of drive 9: Reversing drive with screen operation Switchgear with 4 contactor relays Type of drive 10: Motor, solenoid valve or switchgear with screen and desk-tile operation Type of drive 11: Actuator with screen and desk-tile operation Single contacts for limit check back messages Type of drive 12: Solenoid valve with screen and desk-tile operation Changeover contacts for check--back messages Type of drive 13: Servo drive with screen and desk-tile operation Changeover contacts for limit check--back messages Type of drive 14: Servo drive with screen and desk-tile operation Single contacts for limit check--back messages Type of drive 15: Servo drive with screen and desk-tile operation Changeover contacts for limit check--back messages Type of drive 16: Reversing drive with screen and desk-tile operation Switchgear with 3 contactor relays Type of drive 17: Reversing drive with screen and desk-tile operation Switchgear with 4 contactor relays The FUM 210 module does not have a fixed assignment of the hardware inputs and outputs to the types of drives and therefore no fixed number of channels. When the required drive function is being configured with the ES 680, free binary inputs, binary outputs, check command outputs and message outputs of the function module are assigned to the drive function. This results in a higher degree of flexibility which allows a free combination of the types of drives and ensures optimal utilization of the hardware resources. The FUM 210 function module has a total of 24 outputs: 16 standard binary outputs (BA1..BA16)
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If two modules are circuited parallelly in order to increase availability the corresponding outputs are coupled. The function module has 16 short--circuit--proof and overload--proof driver outputs. The outputs are protected against reverse voltage and negative field voltage by means of longitudinal diodes and suppressor diodes. The outputs are provided with an automatic reclosure function. They restart their function when there is a output command (high signal) present and as soon as there is no longer an overload or a short circuit. 2. Command Priorities the command types are listed corresponding to their priority. (Highest priority) Reverse controlling manually in case of disabling through Manual CLOSED torque limit switch Manual OPEN Protection commands Protection CLOSED
Protection OPEN

Local controlling Manual STOP/CLOSED/OPEN


Automatic STOP

Automatic commands Automatic CLOSED


Automatic OPEN Manual STOP

Manual commands Manual CLOSED


Manual OPEN

(Lowest priority)

3) FUM230
1 Application 1.1 Use The FUM 230 function module is an analog input module for current signals in the range between 0/4 and 20 mA. The transducer power supplies are also accommodated on the module. The module is employed in the AS 620 B automation system. The AS 620 B is associated with the TELEPERM XP process control system. 1.2 Functions The FUM 230 function module is used for inputting up to 16 current signals in the range 0 ... 20 mA or 4 ...20 mA, and for conditioning, monitoring and distributing the signals. In addition, the function module is capable of supplying DC 24 V to up to 16 transducers with 2 or 4 wire connection. To increase the availability in signal conditioning, two function modules may be connected in parallel (redundancy). Connecting HART(R) transducers is possible if the necessary minimum load of 250 is provided. The FM230 function module permits the following functions to be implemented:
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Connecting up to 16 transducers in 2 wire or 4 wire configuration, and 0/4 ... 20 mA current output DC 24 V / 120 mA auxiliary power supply for the sensors (short-circuit-proof and overload-proof) Monitoring the sensor power supply for short-circuit and overload conditions Acquiring and conditioning up to 16 analog signals in the ranges 0/4 ... 20 mA Additionally monitoring the measuring range of the analog signals and 4 ... 20 mA for brokenwire conditions Limit signal generation and measured value modification (correction factor, square-rooting) Analog signal simulation of the 16 channels through software functions. 2. Mode of Operation 2.1 Transducer Power Supply The FUM 230 function module is able to supply DC 24 V to a maximum of 16 transducers in 2-wire or 4-wire configurations. This is done via short-circuit-proof and overload-proof electronic drivers that are able to supply a permanent current of a maximum of 120 mA. Series and parallel diodes protect the outputs against polarity reversal. The outputs are monitored for over-voltage or short-circuit conditions. 2.2 Analog Signal Acquisition The function module is able to process analog signals in the ranges 0 ... 20 mA and 4 ... 20 mA. The signal range of each individual channel may be selected through the Analog input range parameter. 3.Power loss Power loss without outputs Single configuration 6.0 W Parallel configuration 6.3 W Transducer supply 2.2 W /A

4) FUM280
1 Application 1.1 Utilization The FUM 280 controller module for continuous control forms part of the AS 620 B automation system. The FUM 280 module is used to control and monitor continuous-action actuators. It is the standard interface between these components and the higher-order control system. In addition to the drive functions a controller with setpoint adjuster can be realized on the module. 1.2 Functions The following operating modes are possible for the utilization of the FUM 280 controller module: Controller function in the automation processor (AP) of the group control level.
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The module is used as an input and output module for continuous closed-loop control systems. The controller functions are processed by the automation processor, whereby standard function blocks are used. The number of channels and the number of free analog inputs and outputs depends on the type of process operation and visualization. Operation and visualization can be effected either on screen (OM) or on screen and separate desk tiles. Screen operation Controlling and monitoring of 4 continuous drives Drive limit position detection through 2 NO contacts per drive Monitoring of the manipulated variable by reading back to the module 2 analog inputs for free disposal 2 analog outputs for free disposal Screen and desk-tile operation Controlling and monitoring of 2 continuous drives Drive limit position detection through 2 NO contacts per drive Monitoring of the manipulated variable by reading back to the module Connection of a manipulated variable and a setpoint desk tile per drive possible Controller function on the FUM 280 module The module is used as a controller operating autonomously or as a subordinate controller (master controller in the AP). It operates with a fixed sampling time of 50 ms and is suitable for control systems with system time constants 100 ms. If the automation processor fails, the FUM 280 can continue to operate as an autonomous controller. Here again, process operation and visualization is possible through a screen or also through screen and separate desk tiles. The number of channels available is the same for both variations. Screen or screen and desk tile operation Controlling and monitoring of 2 continuous drives Drive limit position detection through 2 NO contacts per drive Connection of a manipulated variable and a setpoint desk tile per drive Setpoint adjuster to the module Controller on the module 2 analog inputs per drive Input 1: Reading in the actual value Input 2: Reading in a disturbance, an external setpoint or for free disposal 2. Signal Output A total of six analog outputs with the nominal output levels of 0/4 to 20 mA are available on the module for outputting the manipulated variables and additional displays for a conventional control desk tile. The analog output range can be parameterized for every output. The current outputs are stable at no load and
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short-circuit-proof against the reference potential M. Power dissipation without Approx. 7.26 W inputs and outputs Per analog input 20 mW Per analog output 480 mW Per sensor signal with sensor supply through the module

5) FUM232
1 Application
1.1 Utilization The FUM 232 function module is a conditioning module for temperature sensors. The module is used in the AS 620 B automation system. The AS 620 B forms part of the TELEPERM XP process control system. 1.2 Functions Up to 14 Pt100 platinum resistance thermometers or up to 28 thermocouples of diffrent types can be connected to the FUM 232 function module. It is possible to combine different types of sensors. Two function modules can be circuited parallelly in order to increase availability while the measuring signals are being conditioned (redundancy). The FUM 232 function module encompasses the following specific functions: _ Electrical isolation of the measurement inputs _ Constant-current source for Pt100 _ Acquisition and conditioning of the signals coming from up to 14 Pt100 resistance thermometers as a four-wire configuration 28 thermocouples of type J, K, E, S, T; _ Differential--temperature measurement at thermocouples _ Monitoring of the sensors, measuring circuits and measuring signals _ Linearization of the measuring signals _ Time-tapped data generation _ Limit-signal generation _ Signal simulation via the software The measuring inputs of the module are electrically isolated against the inner circuit. The inputs have a high-resistance decoupling via optoelectronic relays. Connected Pt100 units are supplied with a typical measuring current of 0.16 mA via a multiplexed electrically-isolated constant-current source. The respective measuring channel selected by the module processor is switched to a first-order passive filter via optoelectronic relays and is amplified by a difference amplifier. After pre-amplification the measuring signal is amplified further depending on the parameterized measuring range, transferred to a voltage-to-frequency converter (VFC) and digitized.
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The module processor monitors, linearizes and standardizes the digitized measured values depending on the parameterization. The measured values can be filtered additionally by a parameterizable software filter function. The conditioned signals are transferred to the higher-order level via the process input image. Four limits can be set per measured value via the parameterizing function. The limit direction, i.e. the upper limit or the lower limit can be parameterized for all limits. The hysteresis can be set once for all limits.

6) FUM511
1 Application
1.1 Utilization The FUM 511 interface module for binary signals is allocated to the AS 620 B automation system. It is located on the individual control level, and provides the connection between the process components and the next higher level (AP). The module is used for reading binary signals via isolated optocoupler inputs, and for outputting binary signals from the next higher level via standard binary outputs. The module may also be used in the AS 620 F with APF to perform non-safety-relevant tasks. In this case it is used in a non-redundant single channel configuration. 1.2 Qualification The FUM 511 module has been type-tested according to the KTA rules and/or a specific procedure model, and is thus fit for utilization in nuclear plants. 1.3 Functions The input signals are converted into the representation that is required for further processing, and provided to the next higher level via the module processor. The outputs permit signals from the next higher level to be output statically or blinking at different frequencies. The variants are selected by parameter setting. The FUM 511 module features the following functions: _ Reading up to 16 binary signals (isolated) _ Expanding the input signals in the range 0 ... 10 s (selectable by parameters) _ Outputting up to 16 binary signals _ Outputting binary signals to control an indicator panel _ Outputting binary signals to control a desk tile Fig. 1 shows its front panel.

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6. Communications processors
CP 1430 communications processors serve as an interface to the plant bus. They are connected to the star coupler of the plant bus via drop cable or fiber-optic cables and optical transceivers. The CP 1430 in conjunction with the communications software of the AP processes the data traffic via the plant bus in accordance with the ISO 7-layer reference model. One CP 1430 is used in the non-redundant AP version. In the case of a redundant AP, two CP 1430s and, if necessary, two optical transceivers are used, whereby one CP 1430 is inserted in one automation processor and the other CP 1430 is inserted in the other automation processor. Connection to the plant bus is via two star couplers. This ensures that the redundant system is tolerant to faults or failure of one bus interface including a star coupler and a communications processor. Another communications processor, the CP 530, is available for interfacing to the SINEC L1 bus system for AGFs. It is connected directly in the AP. The CP 5431 is used to interface to PROFIBUS.

7. Interface modules
Interface modules form the link between the AP and the lower individual control level (FUM/SIM subracks), fail-safe systems (APF/ AGF), ancillary systems (SIMATIC S5) or to internal redundancy links. They can either be connected directly to the AP or via expansion units.

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IM 304 (AP) - AP redundancy link (slave) - Expansion unit interface (SIM) - FUM subrack interface (cabinet bus) IM 324R (AP) - AP redundancy link (master) IM 308 (expansion unit, SIM) - Interface for ET 200 stations - Interface for intelligent field devices IM 153 (ET 200U station) - Central/expansion unit interface IM 318 (ET 200U station) - Central/expansion unit interface IM 614 (subrack, FUM B) - AP interface - Additional FUM B subracks IM 651 (AP; conventional cables)
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- APF interface IM 661 (APF; conventional cables) - AP interface IM 631 (APF) - Interfacing to FUM F subrack IM 641 (FUM F subrack) - APF interface - Additional FUM F subracks (cabinet bus). - Additional FUM F subracks (cabinet bus).

8. AS 620 F with APF


1 Application
The AS 620 F with APF automation system consists of up to seven fail--safe APF systems with an AP automation processor on group control level. The AP performs higher--order automation functions without safety character, and forms the interface to the operator communication and visualization system of the TELEPERM XP process control system with the subsystems OM 650 (for operator communication and visualization), ES 680 (for configuration), and DS 670 (for diagnostics). Fig. 1.1 shows the basic structure of an AS 620 F with a redundant APF.

Fig. 1.1: AS 620 F with APF automation system; configuration with one redundant APF

The APF systems under the AP are suitable for automating and monitoring safety-relevant systems that require approval (such as a a steam boiler in a conventional power plant, including the necessary boiler protection and burner
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control functions). The APF system may also be used for systems that do not require approval if they represent a significant hazard potential for men and environment. The safety--relevant requirements, that are applicable to the safety circuits of steam boilers represent the state of the art for the installation of safety equipment and are therefore transferred to other safety--relevant applications for which there are no special safety requirements yet. When the fail--safe AS 620 F automation system with APF is used, the Rules for Safety--Relevant Use must be observed in order to ensure that the safe state is established in the system in the event of a malfunction of the automation system.

2 Components of the Fail--Safe APF System


A fail--safe APF system consists of the following components: _ The EU 910 rack forms the base unit in that can accommodate the APF 120, IM 621 or M 661, IM 631, SYS 900 modules and up to 12 FUM-F modules. _ The EU 911 rack forms the extension unit in that can accommodate the one or two IM 641 interface modules and up to 18 FUM-F modules. _ Fail--safe APF 120 automation processor module _ IM 611 and IM 621 interface modules for the connection to the higher--level AP automation processor via fiber optics or IM 651 and IM 661 interface modules for the connection to the AP via copper cables . _ FUM-F modules (up to 66 FUM per APF system) _ SYS 900 monitoring and signalling modules (one module per APF system) _ IM 631 and IM 641 interface modules for connecting the EU 911 expansion units _ Connecting cables between IM 621/IM 661 and IM 611/IM 651 in the AP system and between IM 631 and IM 641 _ Terminating connector for IM 641 (is plugged into the bottom front connector of the last IM 641 module).

2.1 EU 910 Subrack


The EU 910 rack (see Fig. 2.1) forms the base unit of the APF system. It provides slots for the following modules: _ 2 fail--safe APF 120 automation processors _ 12 FUM--F modules _ 1 SYS 900 monitoring and signalling module _ 2 IM 621 or IM 661 interface modules _ 2 IM 631 interface modules Two independent rack buses (bus 1 and bus 2) connect the 13 slots for FUM-F and SYS 900 modules with the two APF modules and the two IM 631 interface modules.

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Fig. 2.1: EU 910 rack

2.2 EU 911 Subrack


The EU 911 rack (see Fig. 2.2) forms the extension unit of the EU 910 rack. It provides slots for the following modules: _ 18 FUM--F modules _ 2 IM 641 interface modules Two independent rack buses (bus 1 and bus 2) connect the 18 slots for FUM--F modules with the two IM 641modules and thus with the two APF modules.

Fig. 2.2: EU 911 expansion rack

2.3 FUM--F Modules 1) FUM310


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1 Application 1.1 Use The fail--safe sensor conditioning module FUM 310 can be employed as -- FUM--F in a fail--safe AS 620 F with APF or as -- FUM--B in a non--fail--safe AS 620 B with AP. The following rules must be observed when the module is used in the AS 620 F: -- Two, three or four modules, together with the MFX 52 function block (in the APF) permit fail-safe operation; three or four modules permit fault--tolerant operation in conjunction with safety-relevant applications that require approval (such as burner control in a power plant). -- Where signals without safety function are concerned, a single module may also be used in stand--alone operation and without MFX 52. The following rules must be observed when the module is used in the AS 620 B: -- The module may be employed in stand--alone operation and in two--channel mode. A twochannel application (increased availability), requires the RED_310 function block to be available in the automation processor (AP) for administering the two modules. -- In AS 620 B, the module may not be used for safety--relevant applications that require approval. 1.2 Functions The FUM 310 module is used as a short--circuit--proof power supply of binary sensors, conditions the signals from the binary sensors, and permits to perform the following functions with and without safety function: _ Power supply for up to 8 changeover contacts or up to 16 single contacts _ Conditioning the sensor signals _ Monitoring sensor connections and sensor signals _ Simulating the logic transducer states _ Indicating sensor states and malfunctions via LEDs on the front panel 2 Front Panel Elements In addition to the control and indicator elements, module fuse, and Module fault LED that exist on all modules of the individual control level (FUM modules), the FUM 310 module features another 16 LEDs on the front panel that are ON when the associated input has H level applied or blink ON and OFF at 2 Hz if the associated input channel is faulty (see Fig. 1).

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Inserting a pin in one of the sockets on the front panel applies a simulation signal (L or H signal) to the associated channel instead of the transducer signal. Simulation may be disabled by parameter setting.The conditioned and/or simulated signals are fed via a comparator to the module processor where they are processed. Each channel has an LED on the front panel allocated that is ON when an H signal is applied to the transducer input (irrespective of the simulation). NO and NC contacts of changeover contacts are both conditioned and monitored. This requires two channels of the module. The monitoring function checks the validity of the signal of the NO contact. The valid NO signal is processed under the channel number of the first channel. The hardware delays a transition of the input signal from L to H or vice versa typically by 3 ms. In addition, they may be provided with a software delay between 0 and 10 seconds (selectable in steps of 0.1 s). The input signal will only be processed after this time has elapsed. The processed binary signals are transferred via the process image of the inputs (PAA_E) to the next higherlevel.
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Parameter setting permits a maximum of 4 out of the 16 input signals to be selected for output via the binary outputs. *) In an AS 620 F with APF, conditioning and adapting the input signals and transferring them to the next higher level are safety--relevant. The inputs may cyclically be checked whether or not a transition of the input signal from H to L is recognized. The sensor power supply is briefly interrupted when the input signal is in H state (closed single or changeover contact). The system checks whether input signal acquisition is able to detect the L signal. If this is not the case, there must be a short--circuit between the sensor line and L+ potential or a defect in the input signal acquisition circuit.

2)FUM360
1 Application
1.1 Use The fail--safe sensor conditioning module FUM 360 is assigned to the fail--safe AS 620 F automation system with APF. In conjunction with a second FUM 360 module and the function block MFX 53 it is suitable for safety--relevant applications that require approval, such as burner control systems in power stations. 1.2 Functions The FUM 360 module is used for controlling safety actuators (for examples, solenoid valves in burner control systems) via the corresponding coupling relays. The function and connection diagram for the module is shown in Fig. 1, the front panel in Fig. 2. Under normal operation the fail--safe module receives commands from the superordinate level (APF) for each of its 24 channels. The module processor receives the commands and passes them on to the corresponding binary outputs. In addition, the module processor operates the corresponding LED which stays illuminated for as long as this channel is issuing a command (H signal ). A readback input is assigned to every signal output. Checking of the outputs by the output monitoring functions has to be parametrized (see Section 6). If the output signal monitoring function has been parametrized, signals are exchanged at the signal outputs for the purposes of testing. Depending on the signal status of the output, an L signal is briefly set to an H signal and an H signal set briefly to an L signal. These signal changes will be registered by the readback inputs and checked by the output signal monitoring function. 2 Front Panel Elements In addition to the operating and control elements provided for all module on the
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individual control level, such as module fuse and Module fault LED, the front panel also accommodates a further 24 LEDs as signaling elements, which use a steady light to signal H--signal output at the corresponding output and a 2 Hz flashing light to signal a fault condition : -- 1 fuse holder for the module fuse -- 1 LED (red, 5 mm) for displaying module faults -- 24 LEDs (red, 2 mm) for displaying channel statuses or faults

3)FUM330
1 Application 1.1 Use The fail--safe sensor conditioning module FUM 330 is assigned to the fail--safe AS 620 F automation system with APF. In conjunction with a second FUM 330 module and the function block MFX 51 it is suitable for safety--relevant applications that require approval, such as burner control systems in power stations. 1.2 Functions
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The module FUM 330 is used for supplying up to 4 transducers with DC 24 V auxiliary power and for the signal conditioning of current signals from 0 to 20 mA or 4 to 20 mA. The measuring channels of the modules are monitored cyclically by injecting an internal test signal. This provides a higher degree of safety regarding malfunctioning of the measurement channels than is the case with a FUM 530. The module permits the following functions: _ Supplying up to 4 transducers with DC 24 V auxiliary power in two--wire circuit or four--wire circuit _ Monitoring the sensor power supply _ Conditioning up to 4 analog signals in the 0/4 to 20 mA range _ Monitoring of the analog signals _ Generating limit signals _ Modifying measured values (correction factor, root extraction) _ Simulating analog signals for the 4 channels _ Outputting binary signals of up to 4 limit signals In the signal conditioning the input signals with the nominal ranges 0/4 to 20 mA above burden are converted into signal voltages and are measurable at the sockets of the front panel as voltage signals. A simulated signal can be connected for each measuring channel instead of the measurement signal by inserting a pin into the corresponding socket on the front panel. The simulation signals can be separately adjusted using four potentiometers on the front panel and can be measured as voltage signals at the front panel. Simulation can be blocked by parameterization. The input signals can be additionally filtered by means of parameterizable software smoothing. If analog signals with quadratic characteristic are processed, rooting characteristic adaptation can be carried out. For correction calculations the input signals can be multiplied by a correction factor transferred from the superordinate level (APF). For each analog channel 4 limits can be parameterized. For all of the limits it is possible to set the limit direction -- that is, the upper limit value (OG > max) or the lower limit value (UG < min) as well as the hysteresis. Of the 16 limit signals generated in the module processor 4 can be selected by means of parameterization for output via the binary outputs.*) The conditioning and digitization of the input signals and also their transfer to the superordinate level are of relevance to safety. Every input is furnished with a test structure via which an analog test signal is cyclically injected. In the module processor the specified test signal is compared with the one read in via the input. 2 Front Panel Elements The front panel of the module contains the following elements as shown in Fig: -- 1 fuse holder for the module fuse -- 4 fuse holders for the transducer fuses
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-- 1 LED (red, 5 mm) for displaying module faults -- 4 LEDs (red, 2 mm) for displaying channel faults -- 4 simulation potentiometers -- 4 switching sockets for simulation -- 2 measurement sockets per channel for measuring simulation voltage and input voltage

9. Time tagging
.Time

tagging Principle Information for other systems (OM, DS, other AP) is generated in AS using the DMZ mechanism (data with time). Information can be grouped into the following categories Information about signal changes Information about I&C faults (I&C alarms). When the DMZ is generated, the time of the change or fault is appended to the information. In the case of signals, time tagging always takes place on status change, i.e. in the case of binary signals: on changing from 0 to 1
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analog signals: on overshooting an adjustable tolerance band (e.g. 0.5 %). when a cycle time elapses. A binary signal can, for example, be a value read in from a binary transmitter or a limit derived from a process value. Analog signals are measured values from the process or calculated variables. The value can be scanned for departure from the tolerance band either whenever a signal is generated (e.g. module cycle of the FUMs) or at pre-specified intervals. The tolerance band and scanning intervals can be adjusted for each signal separately allowing adaptation to the process engineering requirements with respect to accuracy and temporal response. The DMZs obtained in this manner are processed in OM 650 and in the diagnostics system DS 670. They are conditioned for the operating personnel in the form of logs, displayed messages, curve diagrams or I&C overview displays. This data can also be archived in OM 650 complete with the time tags. Source of time tags It is possible to configure which signals are to be time-tagged in addition to the I&C alarms that are specified as standard in all components. There are different possible sources for time tagging: FUM modules The time tag is assigned by the module software on signal acquisition or processing. It is possible to configure which signals are to be time-tagged. SIM modules The time tag for signals of the SIM modules is assigned on acquisition in the AP. APF Signals that are generated in the APF are time-tagged in the APF. Time tagging for the FUM F modules takes place on the module itself (as for FUM B). Time-of-day synchronization The AP and the lower-level components require the current system time for the purpose of assigning the time tag. A time-of day transmitter is the reference that ensures that all components have a synchronized time, (alternatively, a selected CP can also serve as the master for time-of-day synchronization). It is connected to the plant bus and ensures that the communication processors are synchronized by the cyclic transmission of time telegrams over the plant bus. The internal clocks of the communications processors synchronize the associated APs that, in turn, synchronize lower-level components such as modules. There are three methods for synchronizing the time-of-day transmitter: GPS/DCF 77 radio signal External clock (plant clock) Manual adjustment via a local operating panel
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Bus System
Bus systems in TELEPERM XP The bus system in TELEPERM XP comprises two separate buses, the terminal bus and the plant bus. Communication between the automation systems (AS 620) and between the AS 620, processing units (OM 650/PU), engineering system (ES 680) and diagnostics system (DS 670) takes place via the plant bus. Communication between the OM 650/PU/SU, ES 680 and the operating terminals (OT/DT/ET) takes place via the terminal bus.

Bus system design and mode of operation The central components of the Industrial Ethernet bus are passive components (e.g. transfer media) and active components (e.g. star-couplers with interface cards, optical link modules and transceivers), that are connected together to form a ring, the so-called virtual ring. The virtual ring itself is implemented with an optical transfer medium. The participants are connected via an electrical transfer medium or a combined
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electrical and optical transfer medium via plug-in cables. When a participant is connected to a star coupler via an optical path, a converter (optical transceiver) is used between the interface module in the participant and the fiber-optic cable to convert the electrical signals into optical signals. The difference between optical and electrical data signals lies in their physical representation on the transfer medium. The type of data coding on the medium is not affected. An optical path comprises two optical fibers with the associated transmitters or receivers. One optical fiber provides the transfer path for the transmit direction and the other provides the transfer path for the receive direction. Both fibers are located within the same fiber-optic cable.

Availability and redundancy As far as process control systems are concerned, strict requirements are placed on central components such as the communications system with regard to availability and fail-safety. The optical version of SIMATIC NET Industrial Ethernet features mechanisms that prevent failure of the communications system in the event of single faults. This enhances the availability of the overall network Redundancy In the case of the optical Industrial Ethernet, redundant TELEPERM XP participants are connected via two separate star couplers to the transfer medium. The resulting duplication of the associated bus components, such as connecting cable, star-coupler and interface card, the failure of a connection or failure of a star-coupler does not lead to total failure of the connected redundant TELEPERM XP participant.

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Bus structures in TELEPERM XP Different bus components and transfer mediums are used in TELEPERM XP in accordance with the requirements for coverage of the plant bus or terminal bus, its topology, environmental conditions and customer requirements for the scope of management and diagnostics functions. Apart from the star couplers mentioned above, Optical Link Modules (OLMs) can be implemented additionally or alternatively. OLMs are similar to star couplers. Apart from two optical interfaces to connect OLMs and star couplers for the purpose of constructing the virtual ring, the OLM also has three industrial twisted pair interfaces for connecting up to three TELEPERM XP participants. Using OLMs, bus design is more flexible and the scaling possibilities for devices are more finely graded than with bus systems that only contain star couplers. Bus designs can be implemented using star couplers only with star couplers and OLMs mixed using OLMs only. In the following diagrams, typical configurations are shown for these three possibilities.

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ES680 System description


Summary The ES 680 engineering system is the integrated, uniform planning and commissioning tool of the TELEPERM XP process control system.

It is implemented in all phases of project engineering: Task definition Detailed engineering Commissioning and maintenance of the I&C on the customer site. ES 680 is used for the engineering of all subsystems of the TELEPERM XP process control system: OM 650 (process control and management system) AS 620 (automation system) Bus system (structure) The data required for the DS 670 diagnostics system and the CT 675 commissioning tool is extracted from this engineering data. On the basic of the process engineering task definition for the associated sensors and actuators, the I&C functions are implemented, such as Measurements Closed-loop controls Drive controls Logic controls Interlocks Sequence controls Human-machine interface (HMI) Logs Processing functions
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General notes on engineering ES 680 is a pixel graphics system that is based on a database and that relies on internationally available and standardized software components. ES 680 is used exclusively for initial engineering and engineering modifications. The target system code is then generated automatically for AS 620 and OM 650. The data for the DS 670 diagnostics system is conditioned from the engineering system data and transferred, without the need for any additional engineering effort. Engineering is based solely on the process engineering task definition. System specific programming knowledge of the I&C system software is not required. As far as the power plant management is concerned, the entire plant I&C can be maintained with the same tool that was used for initial engineering and commissioning. Powerful, high-performance navigation functions support fast familiarization with the I&C task definition for information purposes and, in the event of a fault, they are much more efficient to use than extensive paper documentation that is probably no longer up-to-date.

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Engineering takes place under a pixel graphics user interface with standard displays. During the initial engineering phase, customer specifications (e.g. P&I diagrams), the control room concept and the plant configuration are loaded into ES 680. During this procedure, the arrangement diagrams are created: Equipment structure (hardware layout and bus structure) Automation systems (AS cabinets and cabinet layout) Subracks (inserted modules, channel allocation) For the open-loop controls, closed-loop controls and alarms, the following function diagrams are created: Overview diagram (functions, process engineering) Area diagram (process engineering, sequence control) Single-loop diagram (logic processing of signals, function blocks)

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Up-to-date plant documentation can be called up and printed out or displayed online at any time. The ES 680 engineering system supports the engineering steps system-wide. A typical engineering procedure is as follows: Entry of project data (e.g. plant name, functional complexes, person responsible, etc.) Equipment structure (topology, cabinet layout, module structure) Creation of area and overview diagrams (optional) Planning the function diagrams of the single-loop level (automation/log functions). The OM functions are configured in parallel: Creation of the non-dynamic displays Process interfacing using the HMI editor Definition of the processing functions Following functional description (function diagrams) and structural description (arrangement diagrams) of the process control system, the next steps are Code generation and Transfer to the target system . Function diagrams The function diagram is the principle means of describing the process engineering task definition for the process control system in ES 680. The function diagrams are designed in accordance with VGB guideline R170C. Function diagrams are subdivided into three levels: Overview level Area level Single-loop level The function diagrams for the single-loop level must always be created and the code is generated for the program to be executed in the target system from these diagrams. Function diagrams of the area and overview levels can be created when they are necessary for understanding the context. Examples for this include Overview diagrams for closed-loop controls and process engineering presentations Area diagrams for sequence controls Area diagrams for computation circuits and logic processing of measured values. It is possible to navigate from the overview or area diagram via links to the function diagram of the single-loop level.

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Function diagram editor The function diagram editor is a graphical tool that can be used to create all diagram types. The user interface of the function diagram editor comprises Menus (header bar for basic functions and symbols or pulldown and pop-up menus) and Screen forms (windows for entering/editing parameters of, for example, function blocks). It is operated using the Mouse and/or Keyboard. The screen layout comprises a header bar (menu bar for function selection and a symbol bar) and the desktop (function diagram presentation).

The function diagram can be called, deleted or copied using selection windows called from the menu bar. By entering the diagram ID-code and the diagram level, the function diagram can be called. Wildcards can also be entered, in which case, a list of function diagrams that meet the criteria is displayed and the diagram required can be selected from the list.

A pull-down menu can be used to navigate through the separate pages of a function diagram.
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Create a function diagram Standard blocks are available in the form of symbols for creating and modifying function diagrams. The symbols are assigned to the individual levels and functions. This prevents symbols being entered in levels in which they do not perform a function. A symbol can represent several variants (e.g. pre-selection 1-out-of-2, 1-out-of-3, 2-out-of-3, DCM with/without console control tile). The symbols are placed in the function diagram using the "drag & drop" function (click symbol in the symbol bar, drag it into the desk-top and deposit it at the required location). The blocks have binary and analog inputs and outputs. These signals are connected via binary logic (AND, OR, etc.) with the input side (left) and the output side (right). Function blocks are connected simply by drawing connecting lines (by marking the start and end points) from one symbol port to another symbol port. Invalid connections (e.g. two outputs connected together or a binary value connected to an analog value) are rejected immediately. The signals and connectors of the input/output sides are connected via an interactive window in which the ID-code for the connection is entered.

Screen forms are available for parameterizing the function blocks. Internal parameters such as delay time and controller parameters can be set in these screen forms. Many basic definitions are preset with defaults, so that changes only have to be made in these windows for special applications (exception: controller parameter). Modifications All changes to the task definition are also entered via the function diagram and converted by the engineering system into the system-specific code. This method of consistent forwards documentation ensures that the data is always consistent in the AS and OM. Parameterization with physical values Limit values on FUM and SIM modules and in the GW block as well as ramp functions in computation blocks and constants in correction blocks can be parameterized with physical values.

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Modification logs Whenever blocks and parameters are modified, a log is created in which all modified blocks and parameters are listed. Any errors that have occurred (on parameter modification, transfer, etc.) are also listed. Copy functions Comprehensive copy functions support the efficient creation of function diagrams. Individual diagrams can be copied complete with the input and output tables and renamed or just the graphics. In addition entire groups of diagrams or the overall structure (e.g. for the identical units of multiple unit plants) can be copied. This means that similar plant sections can be planned easily or declared as standard and used again. Comprehensive checks ensure that the execution sequence of the program blocks and function blocks is correct as well as their logical interconnection and guarantee that addresses and parameters are used correctly. Signal tracing and navigation The special functions "go up" and "go down" can be used to navigate between the individual function diagram levels vertically. This means that vertical navigation between the individual levels is possible, as far as it has been implemented. It is possible, for example, to start from the overview level and to move downwards to the detailed information. At the single-loop level, signals can also be traced horizontally beyond the boundaries of the page or diagram.

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The interconnection of components is obtained from the equipment structure diagrams. The signal traffic between the components of the I&C system. Signal connections are administrated and automated by ES 680; the user only has to plan the logical connection via the function diagram. The ancillary systems are integrated via separate symbols for the respective AS functions. The address of the ancillary system can be entered which supports flexible communication planning.

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Function diagrams, specific applications for AS 620 Dynamic diagrams Dynamic function diagrams are an indispensable aid during commissioning for fault analysis and for detecting engineering mistakes. They allow the I&C engineer or commissioning engineer to display current values (binary and analog) directly in the function diagram. The input and output signals and logic circuit outputs are displayed. This supports rapid, detailed error localization. Corrections can be implemented directly in the function diagram and can be checked immediately after transfer.

Fast parameter change The "fast parameter change" function allows the user to modify parameters in the function diagram and then observe the result, or effects in the function diagram. Dynamic has to be switched on for this purpose and the function block parameter window has to be opened. The parameters are adjusted and, following confirmation, they are directly transferred to AS 620. The result is then immediately visible. Code generation is not necessary and parameters can be changed quickly using this method. Simulation ES 680 offers two types of simulation for the purposes of plant testing and commissioning support: Simulation of process signals (inputs of the FUM/SIM modules)

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Simulation using blocks (a block with a switch can be switched between the simulated value and the signal) Both binary and analog values can be simulated. Simulation of process signals The signal is set to simulated and the value to be simulated is entered. Generation of the simulated value is activated. A list of all signals that have been set to simulate is displayed for the purposes of checking. These simulation requests are transferred to AS 620 and the values are applied to the modules (in OM 650 this is indicated by an "S" following the simulated value). If the real value is required again, the simulation parameter can be deleted and following generation, the new request is transferred to AS 620 ("S" disappears in OM 650)

. Simulation using blocks In this case, simulation blocks are installed in the function diagram that can be toggled between the real signal and the value to be simulated. These are integrated into the overall structure by means of code generation and loading. The user can toggle between the original value and the simulated signal using the fast parameter change function in ES 680. . Arrangement diagrams The hardware structure of the project is defined using these diagrams. The editor allows vertical navigation between the equipment structure, AS structure and module structure diagrams. In the module structure diagrams, the correlation with the function diagrams is specified. The arrangement diagrams comprise: Equipment structure diagram (equipment structure, TXP components) AS structure diagram (cabinet layout, AS components)
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Module structure diagram (sub racks/stations) The user can navigate freely in the vertical direction through the arrangement diagrams.

Equipment structure diagram This diagram is only available once in a project. It contains the bus systems (plant bus/terminal bus) and the connected participants with the associated interface devices. The task of bus planning comprises the following steps Entering the I&C equipment structure (hardware topology) Generation of connections; invisible to the user Generation of parameterization data for the communications processors (CPs) The communications links are automatically obtained from this structure diagram and the code is generated for the communications processors of the participants in the form of standard parameter records. The equipment structure diagrams are created using the same editor that is used for creating the function diagrams. Components can be selected from the menu, placed on the diagram and interconnected, these include Bus segments Star couplers Interface modules OM, DS and ES subsystems
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Automation systems Time-of-day transmitters Bridges. The next step is the definition of the automation systems, i.e. a number is allocated to them. The addresses for the CPs and star couplers are assigned and managed in ES 680 in the equipment structure diagram. The databases are also generated for the CPs from this diagram and loaded.

AS structure diagram The hardware of the automation system is displayed in this diagram in detail beginning with the central unit (non-redundant or redundant) and the sub-racks that are connected to it (FUM, expansion rack, SIM stations). The type of sub-rack and its mounting location in the cabinet are specified.

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Module structure diagram The module occupancy is displayed for the sub-racks (FUM, SIM) in this diagram and slots are allocated. Checks ensure that certain modules are only inserted into specific slots in the sub-rack. The channels are assigned in the parameter windows for the modules. This is the correlation between the equipment structure diagram and the function diagram of the single-loop level.

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AP system software licenses A separate license is required for each AP. The number of licenses required is usually determined during initial planning of the cabinets and taken into account when ES is installed. When the equipment structure diagram is saved, it is checked whether the licenses obtained are sufficient for the AS symbols defined. If too many AS symbols have been placed in the diagram, an error message is displayed and additional licenses must be obtained.

Engineering of the OM 650 process control and management system The OM 650 process control and management system is also planned using the ES 680 engineering system. Engineering comprises Creating the plant displays Linking the graphical presentation to the process Allocation to logs Planning the processing functions. Autonomous OM 650 software modules are used to plan the process operation and visualization functions for performance reasons. The same principles apply to both OM and AS engineering. The consistency of the AS and OM engineering information is guaranteed by the lower-level common database of ES 680. Information concerning equipment and functions
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is planned once only with reference to the identification code (KKS) and is then available throughout the ES 680 system. This means that graphical objects in the plant display and in the function diagram are accessed and updated via their identification codes. Standardized uniform block and symbol libraries support the task of project processing.

The separate procedures of engineering the automation functions, the human-machine interface (HMI) and the processing functions must not be seen solely in isolation because cross-references exist between the individual stages. Signals that are required in a display must be provided by AS engineering and, if necessary, conditioned via processing functions. Displays can be created before or after AS engineering.

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HMI engineering The DYNAVISX graphics system that is used for HMI engineering comprises a desktop on which the different tools are based. An editor is used to create the plant displays and parameter windows are displayed to allow the user to define the process references in these displays. The displays are assigned to one of two areas: Plant engineering environment Process engineering environment (process display presentation) The displays are assigned to the plant-engineering environment or to the process-engineering environment when the display is initially created. The plant-engineering environment comprises the presentation of equipment units, apparatus, pipes, etc. in plant displays or piping and instrumentation diagrams. These are used by the control room personnel for operation and monitoring of the plant and for fault analysis. The process-engineering environment comprises the presentation of physical and chemical relationships and states in the form of operating point characteristics, curves and bar displays.

Engineering for display creation Display generation begins with constructing the graphical presentation. The elements of the display are built up from the appropriate standard display components. A distinction is made between static and dynamic elements. Static elements are display components that are always presented in the same form regardless of the current process state, such as pipes or tanks. They are constructed as free-form graphics and are not interfaced to process signals. These elements can be modified with respect to position, shape, size, color, etc. The presentation of dynamic elements is affected by the current state of the process. Sample pictograms are provided for all display elements that are to be displayed dynamically, such as pumps, slides, fans, etc. They are preset with default parameters (size, color), which can be edited. The displays are created interactively, i.e. the display elements are selected from a symbol window and moved to the required position in the display using "drag & drop".

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Engineering the process links When the graphical planning has been completed for the display, it has to be parameterized. The display elements that can be dynamic in a plant display have a number of attributes that can be utilized for dynamic the process display. Each attribute of a display element can be linked to the value of a process. This link is created using display parameterization windows. The graphical symbol, e.g. for a pump, is assigned to the AS function block either via user input or by selection in a window from a list of identification codes that were specified during AS engineering

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Display hierarchy The displays are arranged in a hierarchy. The display hierarchy is created from the top downwards starting with the plant overview display. An existing display is inserted in the display hierarchy as follows: The user navigates through the hierarchy to the position at which the display is to be inserted The display is selected from a list that only contains displays that are permitted to be inserted at this point. The arrow keys that are used later for navigating through the hierarchic levels on OM 650 are controlled on the basis of the display hierarchy that is generated in this manner.

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. Code generation When engineering is complete for the individual systems, code generation is activated. The code generator checks the planned data for consistency (open connections in the function diagram or in OM displays, etc.). Different generators are available for each subsystem as follows: AS generator OM generator LAN generator. Code generation is performed independently for the individual systems. The log created by the code generator permits rapid detection and localization of code generation errors by means of: Fixed log names "Summarized" generator logs on the screen Navigation support between logs AS generation The following code is generated for the AS: Hardware Functions/branches Transfer code Delay time. Hardware generation is performed for each AS individually and comprises the code for the number and types of sub-racks and modules. Any errors that occur in the generation procedure are recorded in a log file which can be printed out at any time. When the functions and branches are generated, the function diagrams of the single-loop level are compiled. The bus and hardware addresses are incorporated. Generation takes place AS-oriented Generation of all functions that are assigned to an AS Function-oriented or identification code oriented Generation of an individual function diagram Program block oriented Generation of a single program block Branch-oriented Generation of the call sequence for the program blocks When the engineering has been completed or later, following changes, transfer code is generated that can be loaded into the AS. The code generation procedure is automatically controlled by the system. This comprises the final generation of the hardware function diagram and the execution sequence of the program blocks. The generated code is saved in a file and can be transferred to the AS either immediately or later. It can be transferred to an AS that has been stopped (offline transfer) or to an operating, process controlling AS (online). The code is transferred via the plant bus. When the delay times are generated, the sampling times for the program
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blocks are optimized and the sequence is determined. This can be modified later by the tool user. OM generation OM generation is performed in the following stages: HMI generation Logs BDM (description data manager) Function diagram dynamization During HMI generation, the displays (graphics and logic) are compiled into the display hierarchy and a check is performed for consistency between the graphics and the process interfacing. A defined transfer format for transfer to OM is generated. In the final step, the transfer file is generated for the display hierarchy. The system checks that all the displays of one branch of the hierarchy belong to the same functional complex and that all displays have been inserted in the hierarchy. Generation is performed for all displays or for individual, selected displays. When the log diagrams have been planned as function diagrams of the single-loop level, the data for the OM has to be conditioned and compiled. When the code has been generated, the logs are available in the OM as "defined logs" and can be selected from the list. The description data manager (BDM) contains all text strings (identification codes, message text, log text) that is displayed or printed out in OM. These texts are stored centrally in the BDM on the server unit (SU) of the OM. The text for the entire plant is always generated. The data has to be specially conditioned to enable the function diagrams to be presented in dynamic form on the OM. This can be performed for all function diagrams or an individual, selected function diagram. Conversion is possible provided that AS code has been generated beforehand without errors. The transfer of HMI data comprises planned displays and dynamic function diagrams Both are transferred to the operating terminal (OT) that has been specified for the transfer. The BDM text is transferred to the SU. Access to the AS systems is ensured by transferring a file containing the address list to the processing unit (PU). The data is transferred via the terminal bus. Diagrams, logs and dynamic function diagrams complete with the associated parameters can be generated individually and loaded onto the OM system. LAN generation When the equipment structure diagram is created, the I&C system components are checked. The Ethernet address assignment is monitored and automatically supplied in the case of the AS communications processors (can be entered manually or modified). During the generation procedure, links are
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created between the systems (for communication purposes) and checked. For example, the signal connections to other AS systems that are defined in the function diagrams are established (AS to AS link). AS generation must be performed before LAN generation.

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OM650 System description


Human-machine interface (HMI) The human-machine interface is the uniform, pixel-graphics desktop for the OM functions of process control, process information and process management for the overall plant.. The human-machine interface is implemented in a modern Windows-oriented form and builds on the international standards of X/Windows and OSF-Motif as well as on the graphics system of DYNAVIS-X. In OM 650, the desktop features: Pixel graphics, and therefore complete flexibility in display design The use of pointing devices such as the mouse or trackball for calling displays, selecting/marking objects in the displays (e.g. opening an operating window for an equipment unit), manipulation of displays (e.g. changing the scale in curve displays), process operation, etc. The process is displayed via a variety of display types that meet the specific requirements of the operating personnel: Plant displays Presentation of information based on plant technology aspects Display of equipment units, measured values, pipe route layouts, etc. as process engineering piping and instrumentation diagrams Used by the plant operating personnel for operation and monitoring of the plant as well as for fault analysis Process displays Presentation of information based on process engineering aspects Display of current and historical relationships as curves, operating point characteristics and bar charts Function diagrams Presentation of information based on I&C aspects Display of I&C functions in the form of up-to-date function diagrams of the open-loop control The associated displays are used principally for fault localization during normal Display hierarchy The displays managed by the HMI are arranged in different hierarchic levels analogous to the arrangement of power plant technology (e.g. overview, area and function unit levels). The display components and the display hierarchy are arranged in accordance with the grouping of subsystems and I&C in the power plant. A display is assigned to a level and displays are interlinked within the same level (neighboring displays) or between levels when the display is created. The user can navigate between displays of different types and between levels, as required. Grouping into functional complexes The plant is subdivided into complexes that can be delineated from a plantSIEMENS TXP training for Sahand power plant Page 59

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engineering viewpoint, which are automated and operated and monitored as a closed unit (e.g. feed-water, firing, super-heater, turbine). The display hierarchy is organized as follows: Plant overview (power plant) Functional complexes Function units Followed by detailed plant displays at the lowest level. Screen layout The visible area of the screen (the large-scale panel also behaves like a monitor) is subdivided into three areas: Header (permanent) Display area (plant displays, process displays, function diagrams, windows) Footer (permanent) The header and footer frame the display, these are always visible and cannot be covered by opening or moving windows. The frame contains common alarm indicators as well as keys for activating basic HMI functions. The display mode of the button indicates whether it is operable or inoperable. This depends on the access rights of the operator and the current functional status of the underlying function.

Header

Date and time in digital format (year.month.day hr: min: s)


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Call buttons for plant displays: - Pull-down menu for functional complexes - Opening the plant overview. When the "Plant" button is clicked, a pull-down menu opens that displays an overview of the functional complexes and the common alarms specific to each of them. The arrow button can be clicked to call the plant overview display from any other display.

Calling the alarm sequence display (ASD) for the operator. Selection and display of the common alarm indicators A, W, T, F, M, L, Z, M. The ASD button can be clicked to open the alarm sequence display. This displays the alarms for the entire plant (functional complexes for which the logged-on user has access authorization). The common alarm indicators are built up from the plant displays of the entire plant and displayed in the top line of the screen. These flags can be clicked to call up the faulty display (or the first decision level) directly. This allows the user to branch to the faulty display directly.

Call buttons for process displays: For calling the overview display The "Process" button cannot be operated. The arrow button can be clicked to branch directly to the overview display for the process displays. From this display, it is then possible to branch to the curves or operating point characteristics of the separate functional complexes.

"System" pull-down menu For system commands such as log output, access protection, archive exporting, display/deletion of print jobs and pocket calculator functions as a window on the computer. Footer The buttons in the bottom line are dynamic and are operable or inoperable depending on the display.

"Previous display" button Opens the previous display The last selected displays are shown in a pull-down menu for choosing a renewed call (plants/process displays, function plans).
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"Page through display hierarchy" buttons (arrow buttons) Up: The display one level up in the hierarchy Left: The display to the left of the current display on the same level Right: The display to the right of the current display on the same level.

"Alarm acknowledgement" button Acknowledgement of all alarms of the ASD page

"Horn acknowledgement" button The acoustic alarm of this OT is deactivated.

"Hardcopy" button The displayed screen contents are output on the hardcopy device.

"Online manual" button The online manual is displayed for the user. Display area Basic displays Basic displays span the entire area between the header and footer. When a new basic display is called, the currently displayed basic display is removed from the screen complete with any open windows and updated variables. Examples for basic displays are: Plant displays Function diagrams Process displays (curves, bar charts, operating point characteristics, etc.) Alarm sequence display Logs. Scroll displays If a basic display is larger than the screen area between the header and footer, it can be configured as a scroll display. Scroll bars are generated, as applicable: At the right-hand side of the display when the basic display exceeds the available vertical space At the bottom of the display when the basic display exceeds the available horizontal space
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Scroll bars can be generated for windows in general when the window contents are larger than the window frame. Windows Windows are displayed in the basic display area (between the header and the footer of the screen). Windows overlap displayed basic diagrams as well as any other windows without replacing them. If a window is closed, the section covered by the window becomes visible again. The frame of a display (header and footer) is not overlapped by windows. Windows can be moved around between the monitors of an operating terminal. The size of a window cannot be changed to ensure that information is not hidden. OM 650 features the following window types: Operating windows Display windows Notebook windows Detail information windows Pop-up windows Video displays. Operating windows Operator control of the process takes place exclusively via operating windows: Activating/deactivating equipment units Changing operating mode (manual/closed-loop control) Adjusting set-points and manipulated variables Disabling the operation of specific functions Operating windows comprise the window frame (size: 300 x 300 pixels), the control tile and one or two window extensions. Operator control and monitoring functions for the associated I&C function are located in the control tile. Standard operating windows are stored in a symbol library from where they are called.

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Notebook windows This function offers the possibility to operator/display window or to generate a message, alphanumeric notes, to read previous notes or to change or extend them (according to the authorization). The notes can contain any kind of information, as e.g. the state of valves (drive in repair), of automation functions or notes on work performed or still to be performed. Up to 10 notes can be deposited in an operator/display window. The notebook window can be opened via an operator/display window, the message sequence display or the system menu.

The two window extensions are described below: Window extension 1: Window extension 1 is used to display alarms in the window and for manual operator adjustment. It can be opened by clicking the button in the window.

The button is then transformed into the button for closing window extension 1. The alarm display in window extension 1 contains three lines for the output of alarms and three lines for the manual operator adjustment display that are assigned to the operating function represented by the operating window. The
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display starts with the oldest unacknowledged alarm. If more than three alarms have occurred for the displayed operating window, a vertical scroll bar is displayed and it can be used to scroll through the alarms. Only one section of the total text for the alarm is displayed in the window. When alarms are displayed, the horizontal scroll bar can be used to view the full alarm text step by step. The manual operator adjustment messages displayed in window extension 1 prompt the plant operator to perform operations. Manual operator adjustment is demanded when a function (e.g. an equipment unit) has been automatically placed in a different state than that which is represented by the current operating state. For example, the protection system could cause an activated equipment unit to be deactivated (status discrepancy), but the operating state in the corresponding block of the AS 620 automation system remains set to "activate". The operator confirms his awareness of the situation by manually implementing the appropriate operation. Manual operator adjustment messages are displayed as common alarms (CAI) of type "B" (operator prompt). They are displayed In the screen header In affected basic plant displays that are currently on display In affected, displayed operating windows when the window extension is open. The active alarms that are displayed in window extension 1 can be acknowledged in the operating window by clicking the acknowledgement button, instead of in the alarm sequence display. Window extension 2 Window extension 2 is used to activate and deactivate operations: Activation/deactivation of manual operations (disable/enable) by the operator Activation/deactivation of external, automatic operations (disconnect/couple), e.g. by a higher-level control Function diagram call

The dynamic function diagram associated with the operating window can be called for the purposes of further information or fault analysis. Detail information windows

A detail information window can be assigned to each operating/display window. This contains type-specific individual states and faults for the function that is
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represented by the operating/display window in dynamic format. This window can be displayed, as required, by clicking the appropriate button on the right-hand side of the operating/display window. The detail information window is subdivided into three columns, whereby the left and right columns are used for direction-dependent states "Off"/"On", "Close"/"Open", "Shutdown"/"Startup" and the central column is used for non mode-dependent information. When the detail information window is opened, the text strings to be displayed as well as the location ID for the function are automatically loaded from the label of the AS function block with which the operating/display window is linked. In the case of open-loop and closed-loop controls, several AS function blocks may be involved. The function block labels and location IDs are managed on the server unit. In an open window, different colors indicate the dynamic status of the text strings in accordance with the signal status and quality codes.

Freely definable buttons The remaining buttons in the window frame are assigned function-specific or are freely definable. Display windows Display windows are used for process surveillance and process information purposes. Display windows comprise the window frame (size: 300 x 300 pixels), the display field and a window extension. In contrast to operating windows, they do not contain any operable elements in the display field. They are opened by clicking pictograms in basic plant displays, process engineering displays and I&C displays. Standard display windows are available that are described in the "Process control" section of this catalog.
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In the left-hand border of the display window, up to four call buttons can be freely defined for each configuration, e.g. for curves, bar charts and operating point characteristics. The graphics can be called up in the form of windows or displays. In the display field of the window, the value is output in the form of a digital indicator and a bar indicator complete with the limits and units. The layout and functions of the window extension are the same as those for alarm output and acknowledgement in window extension 1 in the operating window.

Process control The OM 650 function package "Process control" allows the plant to be controlled exclusively via screens. In this case, generally available, high-resolution monitors and large-scale panels can be implemented. Additional auxiliary equipment, such as conventional instrumentation, can be used but it is not essential. The mouse or trackball are the only operating devices required for process control. All process control functions are integrated into the human machine interface of OM 650. Process control comprises the following tasks: Process surveillance/monitoring - Detecting deviations - Assessing consequences - Taking measures Process operation - Activation/deactivation or startup/shutdown - Scheduled load operation
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- Fault elimination Fault analysis - Fault detection - Fault analysis - Initiating fault elimination - Preventing imminent secondary faults. Process surveillance and monitoring is performed, as far as possible, via plant displays and curves, operating point characteristics, bar displays and function diagram displays that can be called up by the operator with reference to current process conditions. Surveillance via plant displays is supplemented by opening display windows and detail information windows. The display windows perform the same function as the display of the miniaturized control desk. Process operation concerns all screen operations that have a direct effect on the process. These include: Activation/deactivation of equipment units Adjustment of setpoints or manipulated variables Operating mode changeover for automation functions (manual/automatic) Disabling/enabling the operation of specific functions Process operation is performed via operating windows. OM 650 provides standard operating windows for a range of operating functions. Links are generated to operable pictograms when the display is created. ES 680 can be configured to disable functions. All process operations are archived in the form of events. They can be traced and documented at any time via the operating sequence log. A fault analysis is performed on the basis of the common alarm indicators that are active in the plant. The operator is actively guided to the source of the fault or disturbance via the most direct route, which relieves him of the task of navigating through the display hierarchy himself. Detailed information concerning the cause (e.g. alarm sequence display, display window and detail information window, dynamic function diagrams and incident review log) can be output for the purpose of evaluating and rectifying current faults. Active/passive operator guidance When the operator calls up displays and operating possibilities, he can choose between "active" and "passive" operator guidance. Active operator guidance is possible in the case of fault conditions in the plant technology and I&C that need to be evaluated and rectified by the operator as efficiently as possible. Here the operating personnel is visually and audibly alerted by the alarm signal and guided by dynamic symbols (common alarm indicators) via the shortest route through the various display hierarchies to the relevant detailed information. Passive operator guidance is used under normal plant operating conditions. The operator is able to navigate through the various display hierarchies and operating possibilities as far as his access authorization permits and to operate
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the plant or obtain information. Plant displays In plant displays, the entire power plant or sections of it are displayed in the form of plant mimics. In addition to the non-dynamic representation of the plant sections, information concerning the status of the plant sections is presented in the form of dynamic indicators such as analog and digital indicators and pictograms (e.g. motor, valve, closed-loop control). The pipe routes are colored in accordance with the flow medium (e.g. water = green; air = blue). The pictograms in the displays are dynamic and show the appropriate medium color in the activated state. The status of the equipment unit is immediately recognizable from the color shown in the plant display (e.g. "on" = color of medium; "off" = white; "fault" = red flashing border). The plant displays can be designed to suit requirements using the symbol libraries provided thanks to the pixel-graphics system on which they are based. Plant displays are usually basic displays in which operating windows and display windows can be opened for the purposes of process operation and detailed information display, by clicking the pictograms and digital indicators.

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Display hierarchy For a clearer overview, plant displays are organized in a display hierarchy. The structure of the display hierarchy can be freely defined and comprises several levels (usually three or four): Plant overview display (1st hierarchic level) Only the most important plant sections and process values are displayed here in the form of an overview. Functional complex displays (2nd hierarchic level) These represent delineated main plant sections (functional complexes). It is not necessarily the case that these displays are entirely and exclusively related to one functional complex in terms of the signals that are depicted within them. Signals from neighboring functional complexes can also be displayed. Considerable freedom is available to the user in this regard on configuring displays. Lower-level displays (3rd, 4th and any further hierarchic levels) They contain information in ever-increasing detail as far as detailed displays for individual plant sections or equipment units. Layout A plant display or process display comprises, like all other displays, a display header and display area. The display header (not to be confused with the "screen header") is a bar that has the following contents: Display title Pull-down menus for navigation (horizontal and vertical), where applicable The piping and instrumentation diagrams and process values are displayed in the basic display area. Display calls Display calls in OM allow the operator to find the required display quickly or even directly. This is supported by: Selection menus Pictograms and call buttons in the displays In displays (basic displays and windows), pictograms (which can also be configured to be disabled) and special buttons can be positioned during configuration that can then be used to call other basic displays and windows. Selection keys with heading for configurable curve groups. Arrow keys in the screen footer for navigating within the screen hierarchy

Display calls via menus In modern user interfaces, menus are the means of selecting one of a range of possibilities. The HMI of OM 650 uses this technique extensively and offers different menus for display calls that are usually related to the display hierarchy: Pull-down menu for selecting the functional complexes
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Pull-down menu for hierarchic selection of the plant displays (horizontal/vertical) Pull-down menu for system operations (log selection, incident review logs, password entry, etc.) Selecting a functional complex In the screen header, the following button

is used to open the following menu (example):

Menu for selecting a functional complex The buttons "Firing" ("Feuerung"), "Air & flue gas" ("Luft &Rauchgas"), etc. are used to call the corresponding overview displays for the plant functional complexes. At the right-hand side of the call buttons, the "ASD" ("MFA") button is used for calling the alarm sequence displays specific to the functional complex. The A, W, T, F, B, L, Z and M buttons indicate the current fault status for the functional complex and are used for active operator guidance. Horizontal and vertical selection of plant displays The following two buttons are located in the header of plant displays. When they are clicked, a pull-down menu is opened.

A menu opens in which the displays one hierarchic level below that of the display currently on the screen, such as function units or additional lower-level displays, can be called.

This functions in a similar manner to the "Vertical selection" button, with the exception that the neighboring displays on the same hierarchic level as the display currently on the screen are called.
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All the menus listed above contain common alarm indicators (CAI) that provide information on the fault status of a functional complex or neighboring/lower-level displays. They can be clicked to open a display that provides information on the source of the fault. Display calls via pictograms and buttons In each display, pictograms and/or buttons can be configured via which any displays can be selected: In plant displays for example, related process displays (curve displays or operating point characteristics) can be called via pictograms, e.g.:

Other plant displays can be called via buttons that will replace the basic display currently on the screen. The button can be placed anywhere in the display. The operator can only call those displays for which he has access authorization, if this is not the case, the call will be rejected. During configuration, a button is selected from a standard symbol library and the name of the basic display that the button should call is assigned to it.

Display calls via operating/display windows Operating and display windows contain a button for selecting the associated function diagram. Freely configurable buttons are also supported. These can be assigned to call other plant/process displays. Process operations All process operations are performed in windows using the mouse or trackball. Switching operations are performed by clicking the pictograms (motor, valve, closed-loop control, open-loop control, etc.) and the associated window appears. The position of the window in the display is specified during configuration. Using the relocation bar, windows can be moved around the monitor or across any monitors connected to an OT to make previously covered information visible. When the operating window is opened, the associated pictogram is framed with green and when the window is closed, the frame disappears again.

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Windows can be called and operated from plant displays, process displays and function diagram displays. The window contains the pictogram and the associated operating buttons. The pictogram is displayed in a color that indicates current status (On/Off, Closed/Open, Manual, Automatic, Fault). The color-coding of the operating buttons is constantly updated in accordance with the operating state. If the operator has the appropriate authorization for process operation, he can perform switching operations.

Example of an operating window (fan) To perform a process operation, first of all the operation has to be selected. This causes the "Execute" button to become active and the selected button to become inactive. Then the command is transferred to the process by clicking the "Execute" button. The command is not transferred to the AP and the module until the "Execute" button is clicked. If the window is closed without clicking the "Execute" button, the selected command is not executed, i.e. the operation is not transferred to the AS. If a second command is selected following selection of the first command and before the "Execute" button is clicked, the second command is transferred but the first command is rejected. System messages, such as "Input error" or "Input limit" (e.g. on exceeding the adjustment limits for setpoints) are output in the text output line of the window. The window is closed by clicking the "Close" button. Alarm system/fault analysis The task of the alarm system is to report imminent disturbances or faults that have already occurred in the process or in the I&C to the operator as quickly as possible and to provide him with the information required for analyzing the fault. Alarms are events that must be acknowledged by the operator. This usually
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concerns faults such as limit violation in the case of analog values, malfunctions in the I&C or device faults. Events for which acknowledgement is not mandatory are ordinary operating events, such as "On/Off", "Close/Open valve". All events are stored in the archive and can be visualized in log outputs on the monitor. The alarm system comprises two subsystems: Alarm processor in the PU: This is the central point that receives all control system alarms from their sources in TELEPERM XP, manages them and distributes them to the OTs on request. It operates independently of the display status of the individual OTs. The alarm processor provides the data for the text display in the alarm sequence display and for the common alarm indicators (flashing flags) in menus and plant displays. The alarm processor is structured in accordance with alarm areas (functional complexes) and can be distributed over several PUs. Alarm sequence display in the OT: This can be called up on every OT. The operator can select sections of the total volume of plant alarms that are currently active in accordance with his access authorization, display them and manipulate them (e.g. by paging or displaying/suppressing alarm areas). Alarms are displayed in various different forms on the screen or in a log: As common alarm indicators (flashing flags A, W, T, etc.) in - the screen header - the call menus/buttons of the plant displays As individual alarms in the plant displays As plain text alarms in the alarm sequence display (ASD) and in operating and display windows (mini ASD). Log outputs (process operations). The operator is always informed about new alarms immediately in every operating and display situation of his OT, i.e. regardless of the display currently shown on the screen (CAI or ASD buttons). Alarm classes Alarms are assigned to different classes, depending on their meaning, origin and application (the term "alarm class" is used as a synonym for "event type"). Event types Each event is assigned to an event type in accordance with the reason for its occurrence. Events can be classified plant-wide or functional complex related by means of event types in accordance with their significance and weighting. A distinction is made here between events that are principally of importance to the operator (plant operator, shift supervisor) and those that are important to the I&C engineer (service or maintenance personnel).

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Event types for the operator: A White on red Alarm (e.g. an analog value exceeds the alarm limit) W Black on yellow Warning (e.g. an analog value exceeds the alarm limit) T Black on blue Tolerance (e.g. an analog value exceeds the tolerance limit) F Red on black I&C fault M Black on green Manual operator adjustment (not in ASD). The operator is prompted to perform an operation F Red on black Higher-level I&C fault (e.g. AS or module failure) L Black on pink Local fault (e.g. "tank level high" in the case of automatic tank overflow) Z Black on dark blue Status change (e.g. changeover to standby pump) M Black on red Maintenance and service (e.g. filter blocked, changeover to spare filter). Event types for the I&C engineer (service personnel) G Device fault I&C alarm that reports a faulty item of equipment I Indirect device fault I&C alarm that indirectly reports a faulty item of equipment (e.g. system deviation too large, timeout). There are several possible causes. The I&C engineer has to evaluate indirect device faults from the I&C alarm sequence display. Event types for archive and log only (online log) P Process operation by the operator S Signal change (analog value, binary value) or calculation value. All event types can be output in logs or specified as selection criteria for logs.

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Curves In OM 650, curves are the "representation of the progression of process signals over time y(t)".

Curve field Time axis and value axis/axes Up to ten curves One horizontal and one vertical cursor line (always visible) Buttons for changing the displayed interval

Compression/stretching of the curves by increasing/reducing the time scale

The displayed interval is shifted to the left or right, i.e. the curves are displayed from the point in time currently displayed step-bystep towards the future or past. The displayed interval is shifted by the distance between the right/left border of the curve field and the vertical cursor line; i.e. a point on the curve that originally lay on the vertical cursor line now lies on the right/left border of the curve field.

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A window opens in which a date and time can be entered. The curves are then displayed such that the set time is aligned with the right-hand end of the time axis. At the right-hand side of the window, a configured time standard can be selected directly (Date/Time:Minute).

Function diagram presentation Function diagrams that are generated on ES 680 for controls can be displayed on OM 650 in dynamic form. This function is used to analyze faults that have been detected in control sequences, such as missing enable signals, active protection signals or the incorrect execution of step sequences due to missing criteria. The function diagram is called via the call button in the operating window.

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The information provided allows the operator to maintain continuous power plant operation by means of carefully targeted intervention. Function diagrams for the following controls can be dynamized: Logic controls Individual controls Subloop controls Preselection Equipment unit changeover Group controls Sequence controls Subgroup controls (sequence controls). If a diagram comprises several pages, it is possible to page forwards and backwards using buttons. Dynamizing the input/output signals The status of the input and output signals is displayed and updated via indicator flags with a colored border: Status 0 (not active): White Status 1 (active): Green Status 2 (faulty): Red Status 3 (no signal): Light grey. Standard operating windows Process operation takes place via operating windows that are called from displays on the screen (usually plant displays) by clicking pictograms. Each operating window is linked to at least one function block in the automation system (AS 620) or in OM 650 (PU, SU, CU). Inputs and outputs in operating windows, therefore, do not directly affect the power plant function, they act instead on the function block. For each type, a pictogram exists that is placed in plant displays (for calling the operating window) and also within the operating window. It is color-coded to indicate the current status of the function (e.g. activated/deactivated, fault). DCM - Motor (DEM) For operating various drive types (motors in general, fans, pumps)

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DCM - Actuator (DES) For operating a final control element There are two variants of this operating window: Variant 1: Actuator control in continuous mode without stop key. When the "Open" or "Close" button is operated, the actuator traverses into the end position. Intermediate positioning is not possible. Variant 2: Actuator control in continuous mode with stop key. When the "Open" or "Close" button is operated, the actuator traverses into the end position and it can be halted in an intermediate position using the stop button. Precise positioning is possible using control pulse buttons for "Open" and "Close".

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DCM - Solenoid valve (DEV) For operating a solenoid valve that supports the operating functions of "Open" and "Closed".

Equipment unit changeover (DAU) For changeover and monitoring of equipment units that are implemented twice or three times for the same task to enhance availability (e.g. three feed water pumps). Two or three pictograms appear complete with their preselection buttons in the operating window depending on the number of equipment units. In practice, equipment unit changeover is mainly used for the "Pump", "Fan (compressor)" and "General motor" equipment units. Depending on the number of equipment units that are available for the same purpose, the changeover can be configured as "one-out-of-two" (in the case of two equipment units), "one-outof- three" or "two-out-of-three" (in the case of three equipment units.

Subloop control (DTS)

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For activating/deactivating a subloop control, e.g. "Manual/Automatic". Window extension 1 does not exist because no function-specific alarms are generated.

Continuous controller (DKR) For operator control and monitoring of a continuous individual controller. Continuous controllers are used for control loops with positioning actuators without a stepper motor when a continuous manipulated variable is required for activation. The operating window contains process operation functions for Manual/Closed-loop control Open/Close/Stop Control pulse for Open/Close. The position value is adjusted using the "Open"/"Close" buttons and the control pulse buttons are used for fine adjustment. The "IMP" button is used to enable/disable pulse mode. For setpoint adjustment, the DBR operating window (operating block) can also be opened.

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Availability The availability of the I&C functions is now more important than ever due to the increasing use of screen-based control rooms. If the main task of the automation level is to maintain the process in a safe state that corresponds to the specified setpoint parameters, the operation and monitoring level must guarantee the operability of the process functions even in the event of the failure of individual components. Redundancy OM 650 ensures the availability of the process operation and monitoring functions with redundancy: 1-out-of-2 redundancy of the PU 1-out-of-2 redundancy of the SU Parallel redundancy of the OT Parallel redundancy of the CU. Redundancy is optional and can be adapted to system requirements. The availability requirements of OM 650 in a plant with conventional back-up operation (console with control tiles) must therefore be evaluated differently from those of OM 650 in a plant without back-up operation. In the case of 1-out-of-2 redundancy, a pair of functionally identical components operate according to the hot standby principle. One component operates in "master" mode and the other operates in "standby" mode. If the master component fails, the standby component automatically assumes responsibility for performing the functions. After a failed component has been returned to service, it is updated by the "master" and remains in standby mode. In the case of parallel redundancy, two or more components operate alongside each other as "islands" performing the same tasks. Operations can be performed using any component. The components do not monitor each other and a component is not updated after being returned to service, This means that a failed OT for example, can be replaced by any other for the duration of the failure because all OTs are functionally identical (same software, same pictures). If a CU fails, the parallel device can continue to perform its functions. Solutions of this type are appropriate when conventional operation features such as control tiles are not implemented as back-up and process operation must be guaranteed. In the case of a redundant PU, both components are connected to both the plant bus and the terminal bus. They are both supplied with identical information by the automation systems (event telegrams) and carry identical data and states. All computational processes also execute in parallel. The master PU also communicates with the OTs. It supplies displays on the screen with dynamic data and processes the process operations. In the case of a redundant SU, both components are always connected to the terminal bus. They receive the data (events) from the short-term archive sent from the PU in parallel and store them in the long-term archive. In addition, the
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main process information functions execute on the SU, such as characteristic value and service life calculations. These functions are also executed by the master and standby SU in parallel. Apart from this, the master SU supplies the OTs and PUs with descriptive data from the Informix database and processes the log functions. If process control functions are also allocated to an SU, an additional connection to the plant bus is necessary. In this case, the redundant SU also performs the functions of the redundant PU. Monitoring availability The availability of the OM components (PU, SU, OT) is established by: Monitoring the ready state of components Monitoring takes place cyclically via sign-of-life telegrams that are sent by the "OM infrastructure" over the terminal bus. Monitoring the communications links between the OM 650 components Monitoring is performed by the "OM infrastructure" using TCP/IP mechanisms over the terminal bus. Monitoring the communications links between the OM 650 components PU, SU and the automation systems Monitoring is performed by the AS representative (ASR) using STF procedures over the plant bus. An ASR is installed on every PU. If a component (PU, SU, OT) or a communications link fails, an I&C alarm (event type G) is output and the component is logged off. At this moment, in the case of an affected redundant PU or SU, the "standby" component is switched to "master" mode. After reactivation (restart) of a logged off component, it registers its readiness to its communications partners. Hardcopy function In the OM 650 system, screen displays are printed out in their true colors on a color printer that can be directly connected to an OT. The server software for hardcopy output executes on this OT. The color printer and hardcopy server software form the "hardcopy unit". Alternatively, a separate PC with a printer can be connected to the terminal bus for special cases in which additional loading of the OT by the server software is to be avoided. Each hardcopy unit is allocated to one or more OTs or Cus (Ethernet addresses). More than one hardcopy unit can be operated within a system When a hardcopy is activated on the monitor by clicking the hardcopy symbol, the screen contents are stored first in pixel resolution on the device that is connected to the monitor (OT or CU) in an image file (screen dump). It is stored in the ISO standard Computer Graphics Metafile format (CGM, ISO 8632). The hardcopy server scans all OTs and CUs that are assigned to it for hardcopies. It then loads them and copies them into a local file. The screen contents are then output on a color printer in their order of arrival.
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Processing unit (PU) The processing unit establishes the link between the automation system connected to the plant bus and the process control and management system connected to the terminal bus. On configuration, I&C plant areas (automation systems) are assigned to a PU. The main tasks of a PU are: Processing the communication between the OM and AS for the associated plant areas Updating an image of the current values or states of the associated plant areas Storing all data changes (events) for the associated plant areas in a short-term archive Applying binary status information to logic circuits and obtaining all-encompassing status changes (common alarms, incident review documentation) Performing process information functions Performing calculations Supplying the dynamic information for the operating terminals (output and updating of dynamic display information). The PU can be implemented in 1-out-of-2 redundancy. In this case, two PUs that are identical with respect to hardware and software are installed and assigned to each other as a redundant pair.

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A processing unit comprises the following hardware components: Pentium computer, as Desktop mini-tower Modules for connecting to the terminal bus and plant bus Standard graphics card for connecting a monitor directly to the PU for service purposes. Server unit (SU) Within an I&C system, the SU is responsible for the central functions of long-term archiving and logging as well as for supplying the description data. The SU is only connected to the terminal bus via which the communication with the PUs and OTs is processed. At least one MOD drive has to be connected for exporting archive data and evaluating it. In a distributed OM 650 system, an SU must always be implemented regardless of the number of PUs used. The main tasks of an SU are: Managing all data descriptions planned on the ES 680 in a central database. This information is required mainly by the HMI functions and log functions throughout the network. Log functions Long-term archiving with external data storage. The SU can be implemented in 1-out-of-2 redundancy. In this case, two SUs that are identical with respect to hardware and software are installed and assigned to each other as a redundant pair.

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A server unit comprises the following hardware components: Pentium computer, as Desktop mini-tower Modules for connecting to the terminal bus and plant bus Standard graphics card for connecting a monitor directly to the SU for service purposes. The following can be connected as an option: Up to two MOD drives or one MOD jukebox for exporting and evaluating the long-term archive Operating terminal (OT) The OT is used for operation and monitoring of the process and therefore forms the interface between the user and the process. The complete user interface (HMI) of OM 650 is installed on every OT. The number of OTs installed in a plant is determined by the control room design, i.e. by the number and functional scope of the workstations. Plant-wide operation and monitoring is possible from every OT. These possibilities can be restricted for each workstation by the allocation of access rights. The OT concept ensures that the processing functions of the PU/SU are isolated from the display functions of the OT. OTs are not permanently assigned to the PU/SU. Between the OT and PU/SU, only process data, process states and operation information are exchanged. This reduces the data flow on the terminal bus considerably. The main tasks of an OT are: Managing all the HMI functions and all displays for the plant on the local hard disk Access to all short-term and long-term archives (also any distributed ones). If more than one OT is installed in a plant, they operate with parallel redundancy. This means that any OT can perform the functions of another in the event of failure.
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An operating terminal comprises the following hardware components: Pentium computer, as Desktop mini-tower Graphics interface in the following variants - Single-channel graphic card, incorporated in computer, for connection to monitor - Graphics server for two to four monitors - Graphics server for one to four large screen modules - Graphics server for large-scale panel Mouse Module for interfacing to the terminal bus.

The following components can be connected as options: An alphanumeric keyboard for editing the log (not necessary for process operation) Up to two printers (only one if an uninterruptible power supply is connected, because it occupies the serial interface), e.g. - Laser printer for "closed" logs - Line printer for online logs Hardcopy printer connected either - directly to the Pentium computer (the hardcopy software executes on the computer) - or via an additional hardcopy server Up to two horns.

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