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TO REDUCE ELECTRICITY COSTS BY USING A CAPACITOR

PowerinACgeneralCanbedividedintothreeparts.
1. ActiveorRealpower,Pismeasuredinkilowatts(kW)whichwillpowertheequipmentwillbeusedfor realchange,suchasheatorlighttouseTorquetodrive. 2 Reactivepower,Q(VAR)istheenergyusedtocreateamagneticfield. Asanintermediaryinprocessingpowerindevicessuchaselectricmotors,transformers,fluorecent areeithertoreactivepower.totalpoweratwork.Buttherealpowerofthesedevicesarenotdueto reactivepower,buttheuseofpower.Therefore,iftheplanthasalotofthesedevicesdemandreactive powerwillbeincreasedbyreactivepowerwillresultincurrentflowingintodevicemorevaluable. Theincreaseofpowerwillnegativelyimpacttheelectricalsystemasfollows. 2.1Electricalprotectiveequipmentinthefactorymustberatedtohigher. 2.2Electriccurrentflowinpowerlineswillbeincreasedtocausealossinthecablesmore. Includingthevoltagedropacrossthecablehigher. 2.3Whenelectriccurrentoftransformerswhichincreaseastheelectricitydistributionwillhave toworkharderandinefficient. 3. Equipmentormachinery,electricalneedssumvectorofworkingthetwopartswillhavepower. Appearentpowerismeasuredinkilovoltamperes(kVA),whichisapowerthatmustbepaidtothe machineryorequipment.Appearentpowerthatisequaltovoltagetimesthecurrentvalue. ThisvalueismeasuredintermsoftheRMS,iftheelectricalsystemhasbeenusedinthereactivepower todothejobaredisplayed.Greaterthanthepowerthatisalwaysactive. Powerfactor,pfistheratiobetweenrealpowertotheappearancepowerbythisvalue,wewillnotethat theelectricalequipment.Orelectricalsystemsthatmakeuseaccountedformuchrealpower. Thehighpfwouldshowtheeffectivenessofusingtheequipmentorthesystemishigheraswell. Thepowerfactor.Itisbetween0to1,dependingontypeofequipmentAsshowninthetable.

Equipment

Powerfactorvalue Working0%ofrated>0.17 Workingat25%ofrated>0.55

InductionMotor

Workingat50%ofrated>0.73 Workingat75%ofrated>0.80 Workingat100%ofrated>0.85

IncandescentLight FluorescentLight DischargeLight Furnaces WeldingDevice

1.0 0.5 0.40.6 0.81.0 0.70.9

TO REDUCE ELECTRICITY COSTS BY USING A CAPACITOR

ImprovethePowerFactoroftheelectricalsystemhaveincreasedtheleadtogoodresultssuchas 1. Reducethecurrentflowinginthedevice.Orelectricalsystemthatwouldreducepowerlossesinthe electricalsystemtobebeneficialtootherdeviceslastforlonger. 2. Reducethevoltagedropinelectricsystem. 3. Reduceelectricitycostsdownby Reduceenergyuse(kWhr)duetoreducedelectricitylossesdown. Reducereactivepowerdemand,whichrequiresthatthepea.PowerusershavethePowerFactor(lag) duringanymonth.Reactivepowerdemandforthehighestaveragein15minuteswhenthinking maximum15minutekilovardemandexceeds63percentofthereactivepowerdemand,theaverageof 15minutesmaximum.WhenrepresentingkW(maximun15minutekilowattdemand),thenonlythe excesspowerwillbechargedattherateof14.02bahtperkiloWard. (from"electricratesinOctober2000,thePEA). Thesegoodresults.Whyweshouldturntheirfocus.Thatwecanimprovethepowerfactortohowhighup. Howmuchtoinvest.Worthwhileinvestmentornotbecausehemightbetheonewhopaidforthis powerfactorwithoutknowingthetime. Improvethepowerfactor. Wecanimprovethepowerfactor.Tobeincreasedintwoways. 1.Thecapacitorintotheelectricalsystem. 2.SynchronousMotorusingmotorinstalledinsteadoftheoriginalinductionmotor. Powerfactor,butchangeswilloccurinadequateSynchronousMotorrunning. Itdiscussestheuseofthecapacitorintotheelectricalsystemonly.Sizingcapacitormusttakeinto accounttheeffectsare. 1.TheharmonicsortheOvervoltage. 2.Thepriceofthecapacitor.Havecalculatedthecostsincurred.
ActivePower(kW)

2 1
AppearancePower (kVA)

ReactivePower adjustP.F.(kVAR)

P.F.valuetheoriginalsystemisPF1=cos1 P.F.valueoftheimprovesystemisPF2=cos2

ReactivePowerof capacitor(kVAR)

Wherewecanfindtosolvethe P.F.Capacitortothetablepage8

Showstherelationshipofdifferentpowerbeforeandafteradjustingthepowerfactor.