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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level

PAKISTAN STUDIES

Paper 2

Additional Materials:

Answer Booklet/Paper

2059/02

May/June 2004

1 hour 30 minutes

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet. Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Answer any three questions. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. Sketch maps and diagrams may be drawn whenever they serve to illustrate an answer. The Insert contains Photographs A, B and C for Question 3.

This document consists of 9 printed pages, 3 blank pages and an insert.

SPA (KN) S60232/2 © UCLES 2004

This document consists of 9 printed pages, 3 blank pages and an insert. SPA (KN) S60232/2

[Turn over

2

The Environment of Pakistan

1

(a) The sketch cross-section, Fig. 1, shows the main physical features, A to D, of a typical doab.

A Doab

Metres

above

river level +16 +16 D River +12 +12 River C +8 C +8 B +4
river level
+16
+16
D
River
+12
+12
River
C
+8
C
+8
B
+4
A B
A
+4
0
0
0 15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120

kilometres

Fig. 1

For each of the following, give the name of the physical feature and describe its main physical characteristics:

(i)

A,

[3]

(ii)

B,

[3]

(iii)

C,

[2]

(iv)

D.

[2]

(b)

Compare the natural topographical and drainage features of the Upper Indus Plain with those

of the Lower Indus Plain.

[6]

(c)

Barrages have resulted in changes in both the Upper and Lower Indus Plains.

(i)

Name an example of a barrage.

[1]

(ii)

Compare the height and length of a barrage with those of a major dam like Tarbela.

[2]

(iii)

What is the main purpose of a barrage and how is this purpose achieved?

[3]

(iv)

Briefly describe the changes that have taken place in the land use of the Lower Indus

Plain as a result of building barrages.

© UCLES 2004

2059/02/M/J04

[3]

2

3

(a) Study Fig. 2. 64°E 72°E A BB N E Morga Mahmud Kot C D
(a) Study Fig. 2.
64°E
72°E
A
BB
N
E
Morga
Mahmud
Kot
C
D
Key
International boundary
Provincial boundary
Rivers
Hab
Mountain range
Karachi
0
km
200
Plateau
Desert
Oilfields
Arabian Sea
Oil refinery

On your answer paper,

Fig. 2

 

(i)

state the number of degrees East of longitude A,

[1]

(ii)

name the mountain range B,

[1]

(iii)

name the plateau C,

[1]

(iv)

name the desert D,

[1]

(v)

name country E.

[1]

(b)

Study Fig. 2.

(i)

Describe the distribution of oilfields.

[2]

(ii)

Describe and explain the distribution of oil refineries.

[4]

© UCLES 2004

2059/02/M/J04

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4

(c) Study Fig. 3, which shows the amount spent by Pakistan on importing ‘petroleum and petroleum products’ from 1991 to 2002.

Cost of Imports of ‘Petroleum and Petroleum Products’

million rupees million rupees 200 000 200 000 190 000 190 000 180 000 180
million rupees
million rupees
200
000
200
000
190
000
190
000
180
000
180
000
170
000
170
000
160
000
160
000
150
000
150
000
140
000
140
000
130
000
130
000
120
000
120
000
110
000
110
000
100
000
100
000
90
000
90
000
2002
2001
80
000
80
000
70
000
70
000
2000
1999
60
000
60
000
50
000
50
000
40
000
40
000
1998
30
000
30
000
1997
1996
1995
20
000
20
000
10
000
10
000
0
0
1994
1993
1992
1991

Year ending in June

Fig. 3

Describe the trends in the cost of ‘petroleum and petroleum products’ imports shown on

 

Fig. 3.

[3]

(d)

(i)

Explain in detail why it is necessary for Pakistan to import so much petroleum (crude oil)

 

even though petroleum is produced in Pakistan.

[7]

 

(ii)

What problems are caused for Pakistan because so much is spent on importing

 

petroleum?

[4]

© UCLES 2004

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5

3

(a)

Study Photograph A (insert) which shows part of a fish farm at Faiz, south of Multan.

 
 

(i)

Describe the lay-out and features of the fish farm.

[4]

(ii)

How has the physical topography of the area made it easy to construct the ponds?

[3]

(iii)

Where has the material come from that has been used to make the banks of the ponds?

 

[1]

 

(b)

Why is fish farming of growing importance in Pakistan? Credit will be given if you name a

 

species of fresh water fish reared on fish farms.

[4]

 

(c)

Study Photographs B and C (insert) which show parts of one of the many buffalo farms in the area of Karachi called Buffalo (Cattle Colony).

 

(i)

How can you tell from Photograph B that this is a dairy farm?

[1]

(ii)

Describe the shelter shown on Photograph C, also marked X on Photograph B, and

 

suggest why such shelters are needed for the buffalo.

[4]

 

(iii)

Why is a large supply of water necessary for this farm? [2]

(iv)

No fodder crops are grown on this farm. How are farms like this supplied with food for the

 

buffalo?

[2]

 

(d)

Explain the importance of the buffalo farms of Buffalo to Karachi.

[4]

© UCLES 2004

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[Turn over

4 (a)

6

The sketch map, Fig. 4, gives some information about the Warsak Dam.

Warsak Dam

Mohmand Tribal Area N Reservoir ReservoirReservoir road el IntakeIntake Intake nn tu roadroad toto road
Mohmand Tribal Area
N
Reservoir
ReservoirReservoir
road
el
IntakeIntake
Intake
nn
tu
roadroad toto
road to
pipes
pipespipes
RiverRiverRiver ininin gorgegorgegorge
ion
e
gat
i
d
Irri
workersworkers’
workers’
s
settlement
settlementsettlement
n
i
and
andand
a
Hydel
Peshawar
PeshawarPeshawar
t
Power
n
Station
u
n
o
i
t
l
e
o
a
e
g
n
Khyber Tribal Area
i
n
d
r
r
u
I
i
t
(Not to scale)
m
s
n
i
a
t
n
p
u
o
m
e
p
ee
st
e
t
s
Dam
DamDam
Koh Range
Safed
BridgeBridgeBridge

Fig. 4

(i)

Name the river across which the Warsak dam was built.

[1]

(ii)

Using Fig. 4 and your own knowledge, explain why this is a good site for a dam.

[5]

(iii)

Using Fig. 4 and your own knowledge, explain why it was so expensive to build the dam

and power station and to provide irrigation water.

[3]

(iv)

Name the farming area served by irrigation water from the Warsak reservoir.

[1]

(v)

How is electricity produced in power stations such as Warsak and how is it transmitted to

cities like Peshawar?

[5]

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7

(b) Read the following extract from “Dawn – Economic and Business Review”, 1st April 2002.

The reasons for the high cost of production which damage industry are many. They include the high cost of power, frequent break downs at the power stations and the unsteady supply of electricity from them.

(i)

Give three reasons for the high cost of power from thermal power stations in Pakistan.

 

[3]

(ii)

Suggest one reason why power stations frequently break down.

[1]

(iii)

Other than the ‘frequent break downs at the power stations’, why is the supply of power

‘unsteady’?

[2]

(iv)

How may factories try to overcome the problem of unreliable electricity supply from the

 

national grid? Why is it important for them to do so?

[4]

© UCLES 2004

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[Turn over

5

(a)

Study Fig. 5.

8

Proportion of workforce in each sector of industry Z Y X
Proportion of workforce in each sector of industry
Z
Y
X

Fig. 5

Fig. 5 shows the proportions of the labour force of Pakistan working in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of industry. Which of these three sectors is labelled

(i)

Y,

[1]

(ii)

Z?

[1]

© UCLES 2004

2059/02/M/J04

9

(b)

Study Fig. 6.

 
 

Proportion of workforce in Pakistan’s main categories of employment

 
7 6 5 4 1 3 2
7
6
5
4
1
3
2

Fig. 6

Key

1 Agriculture

2 Finance and

Social Services

3 Wholesale and

Retail Trade

4 Manufacturing

including Mining

and Quarrying

5 Construction

6 Transport

7 Others

 

(i)

Which of these categories of employment has all its workforce in the primary sector of

 

industry?

[1]

 

(ii)

How many of the categories of employment given are in the tertiary sector of industry?

 

[1]

(c)

(i)

Give four reasons why so many people work in agriculture.

[4]

(ii)

Why has the percentage of the labour force working in agriculture declined steadily in

 

recent years?

[6]

 

(iii)

Why has the percentage of the workforce working in tertiary industries increased steadily

 

in recent years?

[6]

(d)

Attempts are being made to improve the standard of literacy in Pakistan. Explain why this is

vital for the development of all three sectors of industry.

© UCLES 2004

2059/02/M/J04

[5]

10

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Copyright Acknowledgements:

Question 2.

© Oxford University Press (Pakistan).

Question 4.

Dawn Economic and Business Review.

Photographs.

© Mr. R. Strutt.

The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate has made every effort to trace copyright holders, but if we have inadvertently overlooked any we will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

2059/02/M/J04