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Rapid economic growth by industrialization of the developing countries in Asia has created serious problems of waste disposal due

to uncontrolled and unmonitored urbanization. One of the environmental issues that have greatly imparted to pollution is the solid wastes. Solid waste management (SWM) is an integral part of the urban environment and planning of the urban infrastructure to ensure a safe and healthy human environment while considering the promotion of sustainable economic growth. Biodegradable wastes comprise more than 50% of the waste stream, which could easily be diverted away from the landfill enabling a lesser volume of the pollution. The bio-waste could effectively be used for resource recovery by composting. Unless an effective system is initiated by incorporating the integrated solid waste management (ISWM) system, the reduction in the environmental deterioration cannot be achieved. To do this, this should begin with a proper Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) would call for material recovery and recycling, reuse and reduction of the solid waste. Scavenging of the recoverable materials takes place in urban areas, which ultimately reaches the recycling units in several steps through the scrap and waste dealers. Despite the health hazards, the resource recovery by scavengers, rag pickers and itinerant waste collectors begin right at the household level with specific items. The problem is further aggravated by the lack of financial as well human resources trained in Solid Waste Management practices in the sphere of collection, transportation, processing and final disposal. Whereas aspects like recycle, reuse and recovery of the solid waste is grossly demand and supply driven or disorganized in most cases. In this scenario, the responsible persons or agencies concerned with the public health and environment protection face the crisis of ineffective MSWM. The waste generated in the developing countries is likely similar in composition, the variation between regions being dictated by the climatic, cultural, and industrial, infrastructural and legal factors.

As mentioned, the ISWM provides a framework for the development of a sustainable MSW service, which can take place with the use of a range of collection, transport and treatment options; active involvement of the stakeholders, the MSW system and the industry for product design. One of the aspects that are involved in waste management is the economic aspect. Economic aspects take into account adequate resources to enable a sustainable MSWM system which does not collapse due to the lack of funds and not be an economic burden to the society. It should apply the Polluter Pays Principle for th e waste generators; and provide technical and financial assistance for the private and community participation. The second one is the environmental aspects which should consider the technical aspects with adequate storage, transport, and disposal facilities to ensure that a negative impact to the environment is avoided by way of creating nuisance and aesthetic problems in the short run and emission of landfill gases and discharge of leachate causing air, water and soil pollution in the long run. Next, are the social aspects which make people aware of waste reduction, reuse and recycle benefits as well as environmental health benefits of cleanliness and impacts arising out of lack of MSWM system. Active involvement of the government and private organizations and NGOs would pave way in this sphere. The last ones are the Institutional arrangements. These would call for the administrative and legal setup with law enforcement machinery for the implementation of the program to ensure effectiveness. The government should strengthen the capacity of the SWM bodies with education, training and infrastructural support. Asia has created a unique solid waste management system. This uniqueness is attributed to the waste composition, involvement of the informal sector, voluntary groups, private organizations, NGOs, and community based organizations (CBOs), and rapid privatization of collection, transportation and processing systems. Composting is seen as a major processing system for almost one half of the waste which is biodegradable and can be enhanced with economically friendly source separation techniques like in the developed countries. The recent trends in technological development for MSWM systems in Asia cannot be effective by direct transfer of technology from the west without adapting it to suit the situation in Asia. The major lacuna in the allocation of resources for the MSWM in Asia which does not encompass the entire SWM scenario requires immediate attention of the governments and civic organizations to curtail the growing environmental problems. The present scenario of MSWM which is undergoing rapid changes towards the incorporation of the ISWM could pave way for sustainable urban environment in Asia with effective inputs in economic, environmental and social aspects with adequate institutional arrangements.