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DESIGN, ANALYSIS AND MANUFACTURING OF A CENTRAL LOW VACUUM SYSTEM

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by

AMARNATH.K ELLAMPARITHI.S MAREESWARAN.M VASANTH.A

(103378006) (103378040) (103378079) (103378160)

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BHARATHIYAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY KARAIKAL PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY: PUDUCHERRY 605014
APRIL 2013

BHARATHIYAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY KARAIKAL


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report DESIGN,

ANALYSIS AND

MANUFACTURING OF A CENTRAL LOW VACUUM SYSTEM is the bonafide work of


AMARNATH.K ELLAMPARITHI.S MAREESWARAN.M VASANTH.A (103378006) (103378040) (103378079) (103378160)

Who carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

Prof. S.RAVICHANDRAN HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Mechanical Department Bharathiyar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal.

Mr. S.GUNABALAN SUPERVISOR, Assistant professor Mechanical department Bharathiyar College of Engineering Technology, Karaikal.

Submitted for the university examination held on..........................................

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY: PUDUCHERRY


APRIL 2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to acknowledge all the people who have contributed to a great extent towards the initialization, the development and success of our project.

Our sincere thanks go to Dr.V.Jayaraman, Principal, Bharathiyar College of Engineering & Technology, Karaikal for extending the college facilities for the successful completion of our project and for his kind patronage.

We also thank Prof.S.Ravichandran, Professor & Head of the Department, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bharathiyar College of Engineering & Technology, Karaikal for extending the excellent laboratory facilities, ideas and encouragement towards our project.

We cordially thank Mr.S.Gunabalan, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bharathiyar College of Engineering & Technology for providing innovative ideas and expert guidance for the successful completion of our project.

ABSTRACT
There are many applications like vacuum bagging in composite manufacturing, vacuum permanent mould casting, central vacuum cleaning equipment requires stored vacuum energy for suction. This project work focused on design and manufacturing a vacuum storage system for vacuum permanent mould casting and other general engineering applications. The vacuum chamber is the main part of the system. It is designed and manufactured with our team supervision. The vacuum pump and other accessories are bought as per the system requirement and the vacuum storage system is manufactured.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 VACUUM 1.1.1 HISTORY OF VACUUM 1.1.2 HOW TO PRODUCE VACUUM 1.1.3 THE UNIT OF PRESSURE 1.2 VACUUM CLASSIFICATION 1.2.1 WAYS TO DEFINE VACUUM 1.2.1.1 THE MOLECULAR DENSITY, N 1.2.1.2 THE MEAN FREE PATH 1.2.1.3 THE TIME FOR MONOLAYER FORMATION, T 1.2.1.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS WITH PRESSURE 1.3 VACUUM IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 1.4 ULTRA HIGH VACUUM (UHV) 1.5 PRESSURE AND VACUUM CHAPTER II 2. REASON FOR VACUUM TECHNOLOGY 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 APPLICATIONS OF VACUUM 2.3 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 2.4 IN RESEARCH CHAPTER III 3. VACUUM STORAGE SYSTEM 3.1 PROPOSED VACUUM STORAGE SYSTEM 3.2 VACUUM CHAMBER 3.2.1 SELECT THE BEST MATERIALS 3.2.2 USE PROPER SURFACE PREPARATIONS 3.2.3 DESIGN THE STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS 3.3 DESIGN OF VACUUM CHAMBER 3.3.1 SHAPE CONSIDERATION 3.3.1.1 CONTROLLING DEFLECTION 3.3.1.2 CHAMBER SHAPES 3.4 FEA 3.4.1 VACUUM CHAMBER DESIGN 3.4.2 CHAMBER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 3.4.3 FEA LOAD 3.4.4 CORE STATEMENT MISSING 3.4.5 FEM ELEMENT SELECTION 3.5 GAS LOAD 3.5.1 ASSESS GAS LOADS IN VACUUM SYSTEM DESIGN 3.5.2 SURFACE GAS LOADS 3.5.3 STRESS CALCULATION VACUUM TUBES CHAPTER IV 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 26 26 26 26 26 28 30 31

4. PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS UNDER VACUUM 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 EFFECTS OF VACUUM 4.2.1 MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF VACUUM 4.3 MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY 4.3.1 MATERIALS FOR MANUFACTURING 4.3.2 WELDING 4.4 VACUUM SEALS DESIGN 4.4.1 O-RING 4.4.2 VACUUM SEAL CONSIDERATIONS 4.4.3 CAPTION MISSING 4.4.4 VACUUM LEAK APPROXIMATION. 4.4.5 SURFACE-FINISH CHAPTER V 5. PUMPING SYSTEM 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 VACUUM EQUIPMENT 5.2.1 OIL-SEALED ROTARY PUMP 5.2.1 MECHANICAL BOOSTER 5.2.2 MOLECULAR PUMP 5.2.3 VAPOR DIFFUSION PUMP 5.2.4 SPUTTER ION PUMP 5.2.5 ROUGHING PUMP 5.2.5.1 TYPES 5.2.6 VACUUM VALVES 5.2.7 COMMERCIAL VACUUM SYSTEM 6. PRODUCTION DIAGRAM 6. 1 2D- DIAGRAMS 6.2 3-D DRAWING OF VACUUM TANK 8. MANUFACTURING PROCESS 8.1 VACUUM TANK 8.2 VACUUM PUMP 8.3 VACUUM GAUGE 8.4 TUBING 8.4.1 VACUUM PUMP SUCTION SIDE 8.4.2 SUCTION IN USAGE SIDE 8.5 BASE FRAME CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO VACUUM

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 VACUUM The Earth's atmosphere exerts a pressure upon us, known as the atmospheric pressure, which can be measured in a number of ways. At sea level the standard pressure is 14.7 psi or 29.92" of mercury (Hg) or 760 mm of mercury (Torr). Because the barometric pressure varies, the above sea level pressures are used as a reference point. The term "vacuum" is used to describe the zone of pressure below atmospheric pressure. In the USA the common standard to measure rough vacuum is inches of mercury ("Hg), which can be measured in two different ways. One method is as "Hg gauge ("HgV), where the scale starts at 0"Hg (atmospheric pressure) and goes up to 29.92"Hg, which is perfect vacuum. The other way is to measure in "Hg absolute ("HgA), which is a gauge with a reversed scale. In this case the scale on the gauge reads 29.92"Hg at atmospheric pressure and 0"Hg would be perfect vacuum. Please note that a perfect vacuum is not possible on earth, no matter which vacuum pump is used. An absolute pressure gauge reading in Torr reads 760 Torr at atmospheric pressure, which is zero vacuum and would read 0 Torr at perfect vacuum. 1.1.1 HISTORY OF VACUUM Blaise Pascal was born June 19, 1623 in Clermont-Ferrand, France and died August 19, 1662. He invented the first digital calculator which roughly resembled the mechanical calculators of the 1940s. His studies in geometry, hydrodynamics, hydrostatic pressure and atmospheric pressure led him to invent the syringe and the hydraulic press. His studies also led to the discovery of Pascal's Law of Pressure, wherein external forces to a confined fluid are transmitted uniformly in all directions. Pascal's vacuum-in-a-vacuum experiment and his theory of pressure equilibria resulted in the determination that the pressure exerted by a vacuum is zero. 1.1.2 HOW TO PRODUCE VACUUM Low grade vacuum may be reached using a variety of means. In the range to several 10s of Torr, sealed reciprocating piston compressors may be used. Piston compressors have the disadvantage of the dead space which exists above the piston. This, plus leakage past the piston, limits the degree of vacuum that can be achieved.

Better vacuum may be obtained with a rotary, oil sealed pump. This type of pump has a rotating off-centre cylindrical rotor that "sweeps" air through the cylindrical housing in which the rotor is located. Air is kept from passing from between the vacuum and pressure sides by means of either a set of two vanes which are arranged across the diameter of the rotor or by means of a sliding single vane mounted in the housing. At high vacuum, air doesn't respond very well to being squeezed and pushed around by pistons and rotors. At these pressures gas molecules don't really flow. Instead they more or less wander into the pump. The most common type of pump for use in the high vacuum realm is the diffusion pump. Diffusion pumps are simple, quiet and only require simple (but sometimes tedious) maintenance. 1.1.3 THE UNIT OF PRESSURE 1 atmosphere = 1.0133 bar 1 atmosphere = 760 torr 1 atmosphere = 1.0133 x 105 Pa 1 torr = 1 mm Hg 1 micron Hg = 1 milli Torr 1 millibar = 100 Pa 1 torr = 133.32 Pa 1 millibar = 0.75 Torr 1.2 VACUUM CLASSIFICATION Classification of the degree of vacuum is hardly an exact science - it very much depends upon who you are talking to - but as a rough guideline:

1.2.1 WAYS TO DEFINE VACUUM 1.2.1.1 THE MOLECULAR DENSITY, N The gas density is easily obtained from the ideal gas law : n = ( N / V ) = P / (k.T) [ molecules/m-3 ] Where: P k T Pressure [N/m-2] Boltzmann's Constant= (1.38x10-23J/K)

Temperature [K]

1.2.1.2 THE MEAN FREE PATH Reduction in pressure results in a lower density of gas molecules. Given a certain average velocity for each constituent molecule of air at a given temperature (at room temperature this is about 1673 km/hr.) an average molecule will travel a certain distance before it interacts (collides) with another at any given pressure. This average distance between collisions is the mean free path. At 1 Torr in air this distance is about 0.005 cm, a value that scales directly with pressure. Where, P k T S Pressure Boltzmann's [N/m-2] Constant (1.38x10-23J/K)

Temperature [K] Collision cross section [m2]

1.2.1.3 THE TIME FOR MONOLAYER FORMATION, T The time for minolayer formation is the time required for a freshly-formed surface to become covered with a monolayer of gas molecules. An idealized value for this time it can be obtained by assuming that the surface is atomically smooth, so that the macroscopic area equals the microscopic area, and that every gas molecule that strikes it sticks to it. According to calculation equation: A few seconds at 10-6torr A few minutes at 10-8torr About an hour at 10-9torr

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1.2.1.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS WITH PRESSURE Pressure (Torr) 760 1 10-3 10-6 10-10 Gas Density

Degree of Vacuum Atmospheric Low Medium High Ultrahigh

(molecules m-3 ) 2 x 1025 3 x 1022 3 x 1019 3 x 1016 3 x 1012

Mean Free Path (m) 7 x 10-8 5 x 10-5 5 x 10-2 50 5 x 105

Time / ML 10-9 10-6 10-3 1 104

1.3 VACUUM IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY There are three main reasons why the microscope column must be operated under very high vacuum: The first of these is to avoid collisions between electrons of the beam and stray molecules. Such collisions can result in a spreading or diffusing of the beam or more seriously can result in volatization event if the molecule is organic in nature. Such volatizations can severely contaminate the microscope column especially in finely machined regions such as apertures and pole pieces. These deposited materials will serve to degrade the image. A second reason is to avoid discharging between the cathode and the anode. There exists a very high voltage differential between these two components and stray air or gas molecules can act as carriers between the two. In conventional capacitors non-conducting oil or some other stable insulator is placed between the cathode and the anode. In an electron microscope the high vacuum serves this insulating purpose. Finally, the area surrounding the electron emitter must be kept free of gas molecules especially oxygen. If it were not the life of the thermionic emitter would be greatly shortened and in the case of field emission we would not be able to generate electrons at all. 1.4 ULTRA HIGH VACUUM (UHV) UHV conditions are generally regarded as being in the region below 10-9millibar. Since atmospheric pressure is about 1 bar, this means that the number of atoms of gas in a UHV chamber is 1/1,000,000,000,000 that of air per unit volume. Frequently pressures are a factor 10 or more below

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this. UHV is needed for surface science as molecules in the air will land on a surface and change its properties. Even at a pressure of 10-6millibar, a layer of gas atoms will form on the surface in about 3 seconds (assuming every atom to strike the surface sticks to the surface). This is clearly not enough time to do an experiment. However, at UHV pressures, which are a factor 1000 and above lower in pressure, means that hours are needed before the sample is significantly degraded. In order to achieve UHV, some special procedures are needed. Initially, the vacuum chamber will be pumped down to 10-2millibar using a rotary pump. Then the chamber will be pumped down to about 10-6millibar using a Turbomolecular pump. At this stage, the vacuum chamber is baked to a temperature of about 180 Celsius. After a day or so of baking, the ovens are removed, and the chamber allowed cooling down again. Once down at room temperature, the chamber should have a pressure in the UHV region. The process of baking removes gas atoms which are stuck to the chamber walls. These gas atoms slowly desorb from the chamber wall surfaces, and if the chamber was not baked, then months would have to pass before the chamber achieved UHV conditions. In a production, process and/or environmental requirements change, using a collection of (sometimes pretty ancient) mismatched vacuum pumps - whether its for pick and place, lifting and conveying, vacuum bagging in the manufacture of composite materials, fluid handling (water and waste water), food packaging etc is far from efficient, for a whole host of reasons Any vacuum system in a production or laboratory environment should deliver a steady, continuous suction rate to a number of dedicated outlets. Porosity caused by air trapped in castings (blowholes) accounts for a large share of rejects in pressure die casting. The defects are discovered after machining, threading or tightness testing and are very costly. The vacuum technique in pressure die casting has been in existence for a very long time some companies were proposing installations as early as 1960. 1.5 PRESSURE AND VACUUM The term pressure is used to describe either negative (below atmospheric) or positive (above atmospheric) pressure. Positive pressure is called gauge pressure. The term vacuum is used to describe the region of pressure below one atmosphere of pressure, also referred to as negative pressure. When speaking of vacuum, one must remember it as the opposite of pressure; high vacuum means low pressure. A vacuum (HgV) reading is similar to gauge pressure (PSIG), in that the gauge reading is referenced to the current atmospheric or barometric pressure (which changes over time and place to place). When the reading is referenced to the theoretical absolute zero for a unit of measure,

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the reading is called an absolute value (PSIA, HgA). Standard atmospheric pressure is 29.92 HgA, 760 torr, or 14.7 PSIA. When using a vacuum or gauge pressure reading in a calculation, the reading must be converted to an absolute value. This is done by taking the current barometric pressure and subtracting the vacuum reading or adding the gauge pressure reading. If a current barometric pressure is not known, then the standard atmospheric pressure (29.92 HgA) is assumed. A vacuum reading of 22 HgV is converted as follows: Standard Pressure - Vacuum Reading = Absolute Pressure 29.92 HgA - 22 HgV = 7.92 HgA When using a gauge pressure reading in a calculation, the gauge pressure reading must also be converted to an absolute value. A gauge pressure reading of 22 PSIG is converted as follows: Standard Pressure + Pressure Reading = Absolute Pressure 14.7 PSIA + 22 PSIG = 36.7 PSIA At standard atmospheric pressure all the values are equal. 14.7 PSIA = 29.92 HgA = 760 mm HgA = 760 torr = 760,000 microns = 1,1013millibar (mbar) The units of torr, microns, and millibar are always used as absolute values.

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CHAPTER II REASON FOR VACUUM TECHNOLOGY

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2. REASON FOR VACUUM TECHNOLOGY 2.1 INTRODUCTION Vacuum Technology is the term applied to all processes and physical measurement carried out under conditions of below-normal atmospheric pressure. A process or physical measurement is generally performed under vacuum for one of the following reasons: 1. To remove the constituents of the atmosphere that could cause a physical or chemical reaction during the process (e.g., vacuum melting of reactive metals such as titanium) 2. To disturb an equilibrium condition that exists at normal room conditions such as the removal of occluded or dissolved gas or volatile liquid from the bulk of material (e.g., degassing of oils, freeze-drying) or desorption of gas from surfaces (e.g., the cleanup of microwave tubes and linear accelerators during manufacture) 3. To extend the distance that a particle must travel before it collides with another, thereby helping the particles in a process to move without collision between source and target (e.g., in vacuum coating, particle accelerators, television picture tubes.) 4. To reduce the number of molecular impacts per second, thus reducing chances of contamination of surfaces prepared in vacuum (e.g., in clean-surface studies and preparation of pure, thin films). For any vacuum process, the limiting parameter for the maximum permissible pressure can be defined by:

The number of molecules per unit volume (reasons 1 and 2), The mean free path (reason 3), or The time required to form a monolayer (reason 4).

At room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure, one cubic foot (0.03 cubic meter) of air contains approximately 7x1023 molecules moving in random directions and at speeds of around 1,000 miles per hour (1,600 kilometers per hour). The momentum exchange imparted to the walls is equal to a force of 14.7 pounds for every square inch of wall area. This atmospheric pressure can be expressed in a number of different units (see Table), but until recently it was commonly expressed in terms of the weight of a column of mercury of unit cross section and 760 millimeters (mm) high. Thus, one standard atmosphere equals 760 mm Hg, but to avoid the anomaly of equating apparently different

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units, a term, torr, has been postulated. One standard atmosphere = 760 torr (1 torr =1 mm Hg). This term was replaced in 1971 by SI unit defined as the newton per square meter (N/m2), and called the Pascal (one Pascal=7.5x10-3torr). The first major use of vacuum technology in industry occurred about 1900 in the manufacture of electric light bulbs. Other devices requiring a vacuum for their operation followed, such as various types of electron tube. Furthermore, it was discovered that certain processes carried out in a vacuum achieved either superior results, or ends that were unattainable under normal atmospheric conditions. Such developments included the "blooming" of lens surfaces to increase the light transmission, the preparation of blood plasma for blood banks, and the production of reactive metals such as titanium. The advent of nuclear energy in the 1950s provided impetus for development of vacuum equipment on a large scale. Increasing applications for vacuum processes were steadily discovered, as in space simulation and microelectronics. 2.2 APPLICATIONS OF VACUUM Industrial vacuum applications range from mechanical handling (such as the manipulation of heavy and light items by suction pads) to the deposition of integrated electronic circuits on silicon chips. Obviously, vacuum requirements are as widely varied as the particular processes using vacuums. In the rough vacuum range from about one torr to near atmosphere, typical applications are mechanical handling, vacuum packing and forming, gas sampling, filtration, degassing of oils, concentration of aqueous solutions, impregnation of electrical components, distillation, and steel stream degassing. At lower pressures down to about 10-4torr, many metallurgical processes such as melting, casting, sintering, heat treatment, and brazing can derive benefit. Chemical processes such as vacuum distillation and freeze-drying also need this range of vacuum. Freeze-drying is used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry to prepare vaccines and antibiotics and to store skin and blood plasma. The food industry freeze-dries coffee mainly, although most foods can be stored without refrigeration after freeze-drying, and the technique is receiving widespread acceptance. The pressure range down to about 10-6torr is used for cryogenic (low-temperature) and electrical insulation. It is used in the production of lamps; television picture tubes, X-ray tubes; decorative, optical, and electrical thin-film coatings; and mass spectrometer leak detectors. In thin-film coating, a metal or compound is evaporated under high vacuum from a source onto a base material or substrate. The base material is generally plastic for decorative coatings; glass for

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optical coatings; and glass ceramic, or silica for electrical coatings. Thickness of the film can vary from about 1/4 wavelength of visible light to 0.001 inches or more. In the optical field, antireflection coatings are deposited on lenses for cameras, telescopes, eyeglasses, and other optical devices, considerably reducing the amount of light reflected by the lenses and thus giving a brighter transmitted image. To achieve vacuum high enough for thin-film coating and for other industrial uses requiring pressures down to 10-6torr, a pumping system consisting of an oil-sealed rotary pump and a diffusion pump is used. The oil-sealed rotary pump (sometimes referred to as fore pump) "roughs" the chamber down to a pressure of about 0.1 torr, after which the roughing valve is closed. The fore valve and highvacuum baffle valve are then opened so that the chamber is evacuated by the diffusion pump and rotary pump in series. 2.3 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Central Stationary Vacuum Systems Pneumatic Conveying Foundry - Sand and moon sand clean up, conveyor spills Waste Water Treatment - Filter bed cleaning, milorganite and sand handling Cement - Spills, system conveyance, concrete cutting Steel Mills - Mill Scale, coal handling, housekeeping Power Plants - Fly ash, coal handling, and sump cleaning Pulp & Paper Glass- Sand recovery and clean up Railcar, Tanker and Barge-Unloading, final clean up, Sewer & Sump Bulk Material Conveyance Chemicals Carbon Filtration Charging Brick/Refractory Roofing Contractors- Pea Gravel & Ballast Batch Processing Industrial Cleaning Spill Recovery General Plant Cleanup Hydro-Blast Water & Slurry Removal

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2.4 IN RESEARCH Almost every research laboratory uses vacuum directly in its experiments or employs equipment that depends on vacuum for its operation. The lowest pressures are obtained in the research laboratories, where equipment is generally similar to, but smaller than that used by industry. Typical of the research equipment using vacuum down to about 10-6torr are the electron microscope, analytical mass spectrometer, particle accelerator, and large space simulation equipment. Particle accelerators range from small van de Graff machines to large proton synchrotrons. In space simulation, large units that simulate space around a complete vehicle require a vacuum of 10-6torr or below. Such vessels incorporate a complete shroud at liquid nitrogen temperature and a port through which high-intensity light can be beamed to simulate the sun's radiation. In the pressure region down to and below 10-9torr, research applications include electrical insulation, thermonuclear energy conversion experiments, microwave tubes, field ion microscopes, field emission microscopes, storage rings for particle accelerators, specialized space simulator experiments, and clean-surface studies. In many experiments it is not only necessary to reach such pressures of 10-9torr but to reduce the hydrocarbons in the residual gases to an absolute minimum. Even small traces of hydrocarbons can render the results unreliable. To achieve a vacuum of this order the vacuum vessel and the equipment inside must be cleared of residual gas (degassed) to the greatest extent possible. A common solution is to bake the whole apparatus for a number of hours at about 350C while maintaining a vacuum in the 10-5torr region. Baking at this temperature requires the use of all-metal sealing rings. To eliminate hydrocarbons, the unit is pumped down to about 10-3torr using sorption pumps; and from there, sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps complete the task down to 10-9torr or below.

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CHAPTER III VACUUM STORAGE SYSTEM

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3. VACUUM STORAGE SYSTEM The vacuum storage system is composed of three basic sub-systems: 1. Vacuum chamber, 2. Pumping and 3. Control systems 3.1 PROPOSED VACUUM STORAGE SYSTEM

3.2 VACUUM CHAMBER Vacuum chambers have been built in nearly every shape and size. Designs vary from simple to What were they thinking? However, it is possible to design and build superior chambers for less cost, by considering the following: 3.2.1 SELECT THE BEST MATERIALS Stainless steel plate is the material of choice for many applications. Aluminum, mild steel, titanium, Inconel, money, glass, Teflon, and polycarbonate can also be used. Avoid porous and dirty materials; common castings can be particularly problematic. An excellent cost compromise is to use stainless steel for the components that are exposed to vacuum and mild steel or aluminum for other components. For example, the chamber, chamber door and ports can be made from stainless steel; and the hinges, external stiffeners and other hardware could be made from mild steel. Gasket materials deserve special consideration. Viton-A (fluorocarbon) is the most widely used material, but butyl, Buna-N, EPDM, Silicon (lower vacuum levels); Chemraz and Kalrez are also

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used. For ultra-high vacuum applications (less than 7.5 x 10-10 Torr), metal seals such as copper and aluminum are often used. 3.2.2 USE PROPER SURFACE PREPARATIONS Cleanliness is essential. This means that a chamber must have a clean, nonporous surface wherever it is exposed to vacuum. To achieve this requirement, one of the following processes is employed: 1. Machined/ground all over 2. Bead blasted 3. Grained 4. Electro-polished These processes can increase the cost of a vacuum chamber. Do not over specify and only finish the surfaces that are exposed to the vacuum. 3.2.3 DESIGN THE STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS Structural components should not be an afterthought because these items may significantly impact the cost and reliability of the chamber. Some of the components that must be considered are: 1. Stands 2. Lifting points 3. Hinges 4. Fasteners 5. Stiffeners Although these can be made from the same material as the chamber, the use of stronger and/or less expensive materials (such as mild steel) can be an advantage. Some chambers will require heating, cooling or shielding. When the internal process is very hot, a double walled (jacketed) chamber is required. This design will have channels that are sandwiched between the inner vacuum chamber and an outer water jacket. Water is then circulated between the two walls for cooling. It may also be necessary to have jackets around the ports or water channels machined into the flanges to circulate water. Moderately hot applications, a water channel are welded in a zigzag fashion all around the outside of the chamber. A stream of water flows through the channel, and heat is conducted from the hot sections between the channels by the flowing water. 3.3 DESIGN OF VACUUM CHAMBER Vacuum chamber is considered as a pressure vessel. The Safety Code for pressure vessels and pressurized pipelines can be used for the design of vacuum chamber.

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Materials Vacuum tank EN 1.4436 (AISI 316) Base/frame: EN 10025 Operating data Tank volume: 65,000 cm3 (cc) or 65 liters Vacuum capacity: 3 X 65 lit / hr 3.3.1 SHAPE CONSIDERATION 3.3.1.1 CONTROLLING DEFLECTION If deflections are controlled, then a chamber will seal reliably and last a very long time. Deflections can be controlled by selecting an intrinsically strong shape, or by using a weaker shape then adding stiffeners.

3.3.1.2 CHAMBER SHAPES The best shape to minimize both material and deflection is a sphere. It is also the best shape for evacuating air and maintaining cleanliness because there are no corners.

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The limitation to this shape is that some applications do not readily fit in it. The forming costs of the hemispheric halves can also be expensive for larger chambers. A chambers integrity is difficult to maintain if major structural sections are removed to add doors, ports and feed-throughs. Flanges and stiffeners can be added to compensate for the loss of rigidity. For ease of handling, doors should be made as light as possible. A common way to make doors strong, yet light is to combine a sealing flange with a dished head, or curved plate. 3.4 FEA 3.4.1 VACUUM CHAMBER DESIGN The vacuum system of the accelerator is composed of three basic sub-systems: vacuum chamber, pumping and control systems. The vacuum system for the CANDLE storage ring has to provide the required vacuum pressure of about 1 nTorr in order to achieve integrated beam Lifetime about 20 hours with the beam current in the ring of 350 mA. For achievement of the design goals, selection of the material for fabrication of the vacuum chamber has a great importance. For the intermediate energy light sources, the stainless steel is a good vacuum chamber material. The stainless steel material has excellent vacuum properties [1]. The stainless steel has low magnetic permeability 1.005, high density and mechanical strength (longitudinal tension R=300 N/mm). The stainless steel can be well machined (manufactured) and easily be welded. The use of stainless steel for manufacturing of vacuum chamber efficiently simplifies the technology and reduces the prime cost. The technological approach to vacuum chamber in the third generation storage ring is an important factor enabling achievement of necessary low pressures in vacuum chamber. It requires a systematic approach and physical investigations. In order to attain high vacuum in the storage ring chamber and to prevent the desorption process provoked by photons, the vacuum chamber is divided

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into two zones: in one the electrons will circulate and the second will deal with synchrotron radiation. The features of this solution are described below. The main vacuum chamber of storage ring consists of 16 identical parts (number of magnetic lattice periods), which are connected by bellows junctions. Each period is divided into four sections that correspond to two dipole sections (sector 1, sector 3), focusing section (2) and erect section (4). The sections are connected by conflate flanges with smooth contact surfaces. The main geometrical parameters of the vacuum chamber are presented in Table 1. Table 1: Main parameters of the vacuum chamber Vacuum [Torr] Material Thickness of the sheet [mm] Interior dimensions of electron Channel [mm] Gap [mm] Minimal width [mm] Maximal width [mm] Maximal length of one section [mm] 12 150 320 3506 1 Stainless steel 3 30 x 74

The general view of the vacuum chamber together with the magnetic elements for one standard period and the photon beam line ports is shown on Figure 1. Each section has the pumping port. The sections that serve the extracted photon beam lines and where the synchrotron radiation is basically observed have the antechamber and the absorber stations.

3.4.2 CHAMBER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES In the regions of vacuum chamber, which are free from the magnetic elements, the stiffening ribs made of stainless steel are welded. The calculations show that the maximal deflection in week section of the chamber doesnt exceed 0.5 mm. The results of calculation for the erect part of the

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vacuum chamber and for the vacuum chamber where the dipole magnet is installed are presented in Figure 5 and Figure 6 respectively.

Figure 5: Deflection of the erect part of the vacuum chamber

Figure 6: Deflection of the dipole magnet vacuum chamber.

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The calculations have been done for upper half of the chamber profile. Loading is uniformly distributed and amounts 0.1N/mm, which corresponds to the pressure of 1 atmosphere. The internal pressure of the chamber is accepted absolute null. As one can see from the Figure 6 the section of the chamber where the dipole magnet is installed is stiffer due to the welded plates, which also serve for the formation of the water jacket. If the maximal deflection of the profile of vacuum chamber in the erect part is ~0.28 mm, then in a part where the dipole magnets are installed, it equals 0.08 mm, which is quite accessible. 3.4.3 FEA LOAD The calculations have been done for upper half of the chamber profile. Loading is uniformly distributed and amounts 0.1N/mm, which corresponds to the pressure of 1 atmosphere. The internal pressure of the chamber is accepted absolute null (EPAC 2002, Paris, France) 3.4.4 CORE STATEMENT MISSING Vacuum chamber as a pressure vessel with some arrangements. This is in particular the case at CERN with the Safety Code D2 for pressure vessels and pressurized pipelines (C. Hauviller) 3.4.5 FEM ELEMENT SELECTION The use of structural analysis packages, usually based on the Finite-Element Method (FEM) is a must for the detailed design of vacuum vessels. Two main families of elements ought to be used for these computations (Fig. 3): the solid elements for the thick machined parts but the shell elements are more efficient for thin shell structure (t/R < 100). In the shell elements, the through thickness stresses are assumed linear and integrated in membrane (constant term) and bending (linear term). The first step of the analysis is the linear elastic one which gives all the information on a structure: displacements, strains, and stresses. The second step is to search for buckling factors for the main modes (search for linear eigenvalues). A third one could be useful for thin shells where the nonlinear pre-buckling analysis allows one to determine the shake-down factor on the linear buckling value; it could be as high as 10 for very thin shells. (C. Hauviller) 3.5 GAS LOAD Q=SP (gas load in torr liters/sec. = pumping speed in pressure in torr).1 It is obvious, when we look at the relationship Q=SP (gas load in liters/sec. x pressure in torr).Volume gas is the easiest to understand and deal with. This is nothing more than the amount of gas trapped within the chamber volume at the onset of the pump down process. 3.5.1 ASSESS GAS LOADS IN VACUUM SYSTEM DESIGN The performance of all vacuum systems is governed by the fundamental relationship Q=SP (gas load in torr liters/sec. = pumping speed in liters/sec. x pressure in torr).It is obvious, when we

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look at the equation, that the pressure will be lower if either pumping speed is increased or the gas load is decreased. The pumping speed of a pump can be easily checked in the manufacturers specifications and the effective pumping speed at the chamber can be calculated fairly easily. The total gas load, though, is a little more elusive. This is due to the fact that each chamber design or process will have its own specific gas loads that will combine to make up the total that the pump is required to deal with. Although its important to assess and control these gas loads in the design phase, its also important to know and understand them in an already existing and working system. In an overall sense, gas loads can be divided according to their sources as either volume gas or wall gas Volume gas is the easiest to understand and deal with. This is nothing more than the amount of gas trapped within the chamber volume at the onset of the pump down process. Volume calculations are easy to do in either the design phase or on an existing system. The importance of the systems volume applies only to the roughing segment of the pump down process. The manufacture rs of roughing pumps usually provide a simple means of calculating pump down performance based on volume and pumping speed. This makes it a fairly simple matter to design in the right sized roughing pump and roughing line to achieve the expected or specified pump down performance. Once the pump down proceeds past roughly 1 torr, though, the volume begins to slowly lose importance. By the time the total pressure falls to 1 milli torr or so, the gas in the original volume is almost gone. In the low10-4 torr range, volume gas no longer plays a part in the total gas load, but wall gas does. Wall gas is something of a catchall term in that it includes a number of specific gas sources that are surface related. Its convenient, though, since once the volume gas has been pumped away, it seems as though the pump down rate has hit the wall. This apparent slowdown is due to the fact that we are no longer pumping the permanent gases contained in the chambers volume, but we are now pumping gas that is slowly desorbing from the systems internal surfaces This means that the pump down rate (pressure vs. time) will be controlled by the rate at which the gas leaves the surface to be subsequently pumped away. This rate is called the rate of desorption and is commonly given in units such as torr liters/sec./in. 2 of surface area exposed to the vacuum. In a practical process system that is frequently exposed to ambient air for loading/unloading, this desorbing gas will be essentially all water vapor. When the system is open, the water vapor in the air will contact the clean surfaces that had been under vacuum and fairly water vapor-free prior to airrelease. The polar nature of the water molecule allows it to establish weak bonds to the clean surfaces and to other water molecules. As the water molecules bond to each other, they can form a bed of sorbed water vapor that is hundreds of monolayers thick at the onset of the next pump down cycle. The layers of water that formed last are very weakly bound due to the disorder in the bed and they will

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accordingly desorb and be pumped away quickly and easily. The layers closest to the chambers surface will be more strongly bound and will desorb much slower since desorption will only occur when the water molecule has absorbed enough energy to overcome the energy binding it to either the surface or the next water molecule. The total amount of water sorbed during air exposure will depend upon humidity, temperature, and exposure time. Obviously, the lower the amount of water vapor exposure in terms of both time and humidity will result in lower sorption, and lower sorption w Ill result in lower desorption during the pump down. Water vapor desorption can be broken into two separate sources in most practical systems. These are chamber surfaces and elastomer O-ring surfaces. 3.5.2 SURFACE GAS LOADS Surface gas loads can be estimated fairly well by calculating the total internal surface area and referring to the desorption rate as a function of time shown in the figure. Calculating the surface area of an empty chamber is straightforward, but chambers are seldom empty. Although its worthwhile to know the estimated gas load from the chamber alone, tooling can easily double or triple the surface area. For example, coaters are often fitted with internal shielding that triples the area over the area it is shielding. Calculating the surface area of internal tooling and fixturing can be tedious but necessary if the gas load is to be estimated with any accuracy. In this case, the amount of work required will pay off since it only needs to be done once and results in an extremely useful number that can applied over and over in the future. For example, the desorption rate for surfaces shown in the figure applies to clean surfaces at room temperature. In a coater, the surfaces often become coated with process material that can be spongy or otherwise hygroscopic. Comparing pump down curves between a clean system and one that is becoming more and more heavily coated with each process run will provide quantitative numbers for the effect of the coating and will help determine the timing for cleaning or other maintenance. Elastomer O-rings gas loads are the second major gas source. Water vapor, desorbing from the surfaces, is often the largest gas load source in a working system. As with internal surface sources, the desorption rate decreases with time as the original heavy coverage desorbs, but the water vapor molecule population on the surface is replaced by water molecules diffusing from within the O-rings bulk. This can be seen in the figure as the shapes of the desorption rate vs pumping time curves can be compared. Comparison gives rise to some useful ratios. After one hours pumping, 1 linear inch of Vit on O-ring provides an equivalent gas load to 18 in.2 of chamber surface while the equivalence is 1 linear inch to 175 in.2 after 10 hours of pumping. The gas load from the O-rings can be reduced by using vacuum pre-baked O-rings which removes a

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good deal of the water vapor trapped within a new O-ring. In fact, the desorption rates shown in the figure are for conditioned O-rings that have been pumped on for weeks or months since the desorption rate of new O-rings is too highly variable to quantify. These two major gas loads are not the only ones that can and will occur in a vacuum system, but they are usually the overwhelming majority in terms of relative quantity. This statement, of course, bars atmospheric leaks since they are repairable and not part of the fixed gas load. Since gas loads are additive, the overall expected gas load can be calculated by adding the two main loads which can be easily read from the figure. If these gas loads are considered in the design of a new system, it is fairly straightforward to predict pump down performance of a given design in terms of pumping speed through a simple Q=SP calculation. Then, expected performance changes can be modeled by changing gas load or pumping speed at the design stage instead of after its built and running. Additionally, for existing systems, the effects of changing gas load or pumping speed can be modeled. If, say, better performance is required by a process change, the effect of replacing some Viton O-rings with metallic seals can be calculated. Just replace the expected load per linear inch of the Viton with zero to reflect the missing elastomer gas load. Using the assessment of projected gas loads can be an invaluable tool in system design through recognition of the major gas loads and application of the simple Q=SP fundamental vacuum relationship. Stresses generated by the loads enumerated before should usually remain in the elastic range. This means that the equivalent stress (according to the Von Mises or Fresca criterion for example) should not exceed the elastic limit (0.2) anywhere in the structure. The directive 97/23/EC states in particular that the permissible membrane stress for predominantly static loadsmust not exceed2/3 of the yield limit (stainless steel and aluminum alloys). But, vacuum usually corresponds to an external pressure and the resulting membrane stresses are compressive. Under these conditions, the membrane strain energy can be converted to bending strain energy, leading to an instability and a bifurcation point on the behavioural curve, a potential buckling. Buckling is a nonlinear phenomenon and it could be strongly influenced by the defects inherent to the manufacturing. A safety factor must be applied to any computed buckling value: pressure vessel codes like CODAP use 3.0 but EN 13458-2 quotes only 2.0 for outer jackets. In fact, in practice, it is quite easy to elaborate a design to stay in the elastic range of a material but buckling, a phenomenon factor, could be more difficult to deal with. (C. Hauviller)

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3.5.3 STRESS CALCULATION VACUUM TUBES Tubes are obviously the most common shape for vacuum chambers. The most stable ones are circular ones for which a quick analysis is quite straightforward. The circumferential stress under external pressure p is simply: pR/t Where, R and t being, respectively, the radius and the thickness of the circular tube. If the tube is closed and subjected to an axial force F, the axial stress is = pR/2t + F/2Rt and the Von Mises equivalent stress to be compared to the material maximum allowable stress is ref -3 36 The buckling pressure can also be computed through analytical formulas, depending upon the geometrical parameters of the tube and the Youngs modulus of the material. The most conservative one is for an infinite length of the tube: being the Poisson ratio and (1 2) could be generally approximated by 0.9. A rule of thumb is that the thickness of a stainless-steel circular tube should be at least one hundredth of its diameter (safety factor included). (C. Hauviller)

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CHAPTER IV PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS UNDER VACUUM

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4. PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS UNDER VACUUM 4.1 INTRODUCTION If we remove some amount of atmospheric gas from a leak-free vessel we will have created an environment that is drastically different in many respects: mechanically, chemically and physically. 4.2 EFFECTS OF VACUUM 4.2.1 MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF VACUUM Have you ever placed a half full 2 liter plastic soft drink container that is at room temperature into a refrigerator, and noticed later after it has cooled that its sides are distorted and pulled inwards? What you have inadvertently done is create a condition in which the internal pressure of the plastic container was reduced, causing its surface to buckle. Vacuum engineers are acutely aware of this phenomenon, and design vacuum vessels to be sturdy enough to withstand the external atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (at sea level) in the absence of compensating internal pressure. Structures and components that are particularly susceptible to distortion under vacuum conditions include flat, unsupported surfaces, thin sections, and flexible lines or bellows. 4.2.2 CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF VACUUM The removal of gases from a container will reduce the number of gas atoms that are available to interact with materials in the container. For this reason many materials that are hydroscopic (have a tendency to absorb water from the atmosphere) are stored under vacuum. Materials that readily oxidize are also often stored either under high vacuum, or in an inert atmosphere (nitrogen or argon gas) after the air have been removed from the storage vessel. 4.2.3 PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF VACUUM Many of the physical properties of gases are strongly affected by the pressure of the gas. Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, propagation of sound, optical transmission, optical absorption is just a few. In addition to the effect of reduced pressure on the physical properties of gases, under vacuum solids and liquids also show markedly different behavior. Liquids, such as water, can be made to boil in a vacuum vessel without the application of heat. This occurs as soon as the vapor pressure of the water exceeds that of the vacuum environment... Similarly, atoms of solid material under vacuum conditions will spontaneously leave the surface of the solid. The rate at which materials vaporize under vacuum is a function of the pressure in the system and the vapor pressure of the material. A more in-depth discussion of vapor pressure will be presented later.

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4.3 MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY 4.3.1 MATERIALS FOR MANUFACTURING Materials for manufacturing are available in various states: raw products like blanks or sheets, or semi- finished products like extruded elements (aluminum, copper), moulded, forged, or sintered (ceramics). The choice is usually founded on cost but the final quality in terms of vacuum may be disturbed by the manufacturing techniques. Defects due to impurities internal to the material should not provoke leak-through and elaboration techniques properly handled help with that. Forging, extruding and laminating will squeeze the impurities but also enclose them. Machining will open them with a risk of leak, even with a good quality material. Laminated metal sheets will usually remain leak-tight except in the case of large deformations due to forming (e.g., deep drawing, 180 folding) or in the heat affected zones next to the welds. (C. Hauviller) 4.3.2 WELDING Welds are a source of impurities and defects. Therefore, they should be carefully managed. Welding techniques will not be treated in detail here but hints in order to avoid potential problems are given. The first point, obvious but sometimes forgotten because of the weight of other arguments, is the weldability of the material. To fulfil their role of mechanical resistance, the welds should be designed and executed according to the rules of the construction codes. Depending on the requirements, a reduction factor (0.85, 0.7) is applied in the calculation of the stress level and it is therefore recommended to avoid localizing a weld in a highly stressed zone. But specific rules should be applied to high vacuum chambers to avoid contamination and virtual leaks generated by pockets. The welds should be performed on the vacuum side and trapped volumes between two welds are forbidden. Filler metal is not recommended. Grooves help to minimize heat propagation along the walls and can be useful in case of subsequent cutting and rewarding. Crossing welds lead to a remitting of the bath creating defects. Figures 4 and 5 present the typical weld configurations for vacuum components. The preferred and most used technology is the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding. A very good inert gas (argon) protection is a prerequisite. Electron beam welding is another solution but it is not as flexible owing to the need for a vacuum envelope. And in case of thin shells, plasma welding is recommended. Finally, one should remember that a good mechanical preparation of the parts to be welded is the key to success and that it is easier to weld in the workshop than in situ and the quality will be in accordance. Whatever the techniques and the quality, no more than 99% of a series of welds will be leak-tight. Visual inspection must be systematic and X-rays are highly recommended if not compulsory (C. Hauviller)

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4.4 VACUUM SEALS DESIGN 4.4.1 O-RING The most common type of seal used for sealing vacuum systems is the O-ring. In order for any O-ring to be suitable for high vacuum service, it must have a very low vapor pressure at the service temperature. It must not have any components or materials which will vaporize at the pressures and temperatures to which the joint will be subject. Butyl, Buna-N and Fluorocarbon (Viton A) rubber materials have been used to vacuum seal large chambers (15 foot and 25 feet in diameter). These materials can, in well made, clamped O-rings and under temperature controlled conditions, seal vacuum as low as 10 Torr. Small (6 foot diameter) and large (50 foot diameter) vacuum chambers have been successfully used. t is important, therefore, for O-ring volume to be larger than the cavity, allowing seal compression to block the diametrical gap, preventing leakage and providing 25% compression in the O-ring. 4.4.2 VACUUM SEAL CONSIDERATIONS The rate of flow of gases from the pressure side to the vacuum side of a vacuum seal depends to a great extent on how the seal is designed. As mentioned earlier in this document, increasing the compression reduces the leak rate. Lubricating the O-rings with a high vacuum grease also reduces the leak rate significantly. The vacuum grease aids the seal by filling microscopic pits and grooves produced by small irregularities in the mating metal surface. The O-ring should first be cleaned to remove all dirt and foreign material utilizing a small amount of Alcohol on a cloth as a cleaning agent, and should be given a very thin coat of vacuum grease (i. e., Apiezon grease) applied by drawing it through fingers slightly coated with vacuum grease. It should be noted that vacuum grease should not be depended upon to provide any sort of vacuum seal.

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4.4.3 CAPTION MISSING

4.4.4 VACUUM LEAK APPROXIMATION. The leak rate of a gas through an O-ring seal may be roughly approximated when the permeability of the gas through a particular material is known for the temperature at which the seal must function. The following formula is useful for this approximation: L = 0.7 F D P Q (1-S)2 L = Approximate leak rate of the seal, std. cc/sec. F = Permeability rate of the gas through the elastomer at the Anticipated temperature, std. cc cm/cm sec bar. (example: Butyl's 2 permeability at 77 F with Acetylene is 1.26 x 10 std. cc cm/cm sec bar) D = Inside diameter of the O-ring, inches. P = Pressure differential across the seal, lb/in 2 Q = Factor depending on the percent compression and whether the O-ring is lubricated or dry (from figure 3 below)

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S = Percent compression on the O-ring cross section expressed as a decimal (i.e. for 20% compression, S = 0.20) Note: This formula is a rough order of magnitude approximation and is based on the following assumptions: 1) The cross section of a compressed O-ring is rectangular. 2) The cross section area of a compressed O-ring is the same as its area in the free condition. 3) The permeability rate of a gas through an O-ring is proportional to the pressure differential across the seal. Static Seal Cross Section Calculation. To calculate correct cross section dimensions for static seals, list the gland depth and multiply by the minimum and maximum compression requirements (listed in Table A, Section 3 of Reference 5). For Inside Diameter (I.D., or hole diameter) calculation, list the diameter of the part the O-ring will be stretched over during installation, and reduce this figure by 1 to 5% to undersize the O-ring's I.D, allowing for stretch. (VACUUM SEALS DESIGN CRITERIA) 4.4.5 SURFACE-FINISH Surface Finish is important that the groove surfaces be so ground and polished that no residual tool marks or scratches occur at right angles to the length of the groove. Even minute scratches can produce a leak, which is difficult to locate and repair. The mating flanges, which are flat and serve to compress the O-ring must have, at the point where the O-ring contacts them, an equally good finish. The surface finish in the O-ring groove and on the flat mating flange must be at least 32 micro inch and preferably 16 micro inch.

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CHAPTER V PUMPING SYSTEM

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5. PUMPING SYSTEM 5.1 INTRODUCTION The detail analyses of the economical, production, technological and exploitation factors associated with different pumping system options, lead to the external pumps approach for the storage ring. This solution is the most cost-efficient in the stepwise construction of the complex and is the simplest scheme, which provides the demanded vacuum parameters. The fore-vacuum pumping is performed with roughing down pumps (2 units) and turbomolecular pumps (16 units) since they have high rate of pumping [2]. This procedure is implemented along with preventing the oil penetration to the high-vacuum channel with the help of cryo-adsorbent. Gate valves are installed on each turbo molecular pump, whose impermeability is supported by the metal gasket. The vacuum pumping is performed with roughing- down pumps and turbo-molecular pumps (EPAC 2002, Paris, France) All the pumps can be isolated from the vacuum system of the ring with the help of gate valves, which have metal seals. The main characteristics of pumping system are presented in Table 2. Table 2: The components of pumping system. Type of Pumps Quantity Pumping rate/unit (liters/s) 25 600 1200 ~150 Vacuum (Torr) 10-2 10-6 10-8 10-11

Fore-vacuum Turbo-molecular Titan-sublimation NEG

2 16 80 64

The principal pumping of the storage ring vacuum chamber is implemented with titanium sublimation pumps, connected to the photon absorbers. While the primary function of these pumps is to trap the gas from the photon absorbers, each pump offers 1200 liters/s or a total of about 100,000 liters/s for the entire ring. Titanium sublimation pumps do not pump off methane and argon [3], so 64 Star Cell sputter ion pumps are also distributed around the ring. The pumping rate of each station is 150 liters/s. These pumps are also designed for pressure measurement; thus they constitute 64 vacuum measurement stations. The total amount of pumping of these NEG pumps is 10000liters/s.

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5.2 VACUUM EQUIPMENT 5.2.1 OIL-SEALED ROTARY PUMP Capacities are available from 1/2 to 1,000 cubic feet per minute, operating from atmospheric pressure down to as low as 2 x 10-2torr for single-stage pumps and less than 5 x 10-3torr for two-stage pumps. The pumps develop their full speed in the range from atmosphere to about one torr. The speed then decreases to zero at their ultimate pressures. Two of the most common designs are useful for pumping both liquids and gases. One is a two-bladed pump in which the rotor is eccentric to the stator, forming a crescent-shaped volume swept by the blades through the outlet valve. The second, a rotary piston pump, similar to a single blade, is part of the sleeve fitting around the rotor. The blade is hollow and acts as an inlet valve, closing off the pump from the system when the rotor is at top centre. Ultimate pressures attainable are limited by leakage between the high and low-pressure sides of the pump (due mainly to carry over of gases and vapours dissolved in the sealing oil that flash off when exposed to the low inlet pressure) and decomposition of the oil exposed to high temperature spots generated by friction. Gas ballasting helps to prolong pump life because it removes the chief source of pump contamination, condensable vapours. The gas ballast is a vented exhaust that admits a small amount of air at atmospheric pressure to the compression side of the pump, thus permitting most condensable vapours to pass through the pump without condensing. Typical applications of this pump are in food packaging, high-speed centrifuges, and ultraviolet spectrometers. It is also widely used as a fore pump or a roughing pump, or both, for most of the other pumps described. 5.2.1 MECHANICAL BOOSTER Capacities are available from 100 to 70,000 cubic feet per minute, operating usually in the pressure range from 10 to 10-3torr. The peak speed of the pump is developed in the pressure range from 1 to 10-2torr. The speed at the lower end of the pressure range depends on the type of fore pump used. A typical mechanical booster uses two figure-eight-shaped impellers, synchronized by external gears, rotating in opposite directions inside the stator. The gas is trapped from between the impellers and the stator wall and transferred from the high vacuum to the fore vacuum side of the pump. The gears are oil-lubricated but are external to the pump, so that the impellers run dry.

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Clearance between the impellers and the stator wall is generally about .002 to .010-inch. As a consequence, back leaking of gas occurs at a rate governed by the pressure difference between input and output and the type of gas being pumped. Under normal running conditions, a pressure difference of about ten to one is obtained. The mechanical booster must be backed by another pump in series when working in its normal pressure range. The most frequently used type of fore pump is the oilsealed rotary pump. Typically, the mechanical booster is employed for pumping vacuum-melting furnaces, in an impregnation plant for electrical equipment, and in low density wind tunnels. 5.2.2 MOLECULAR PUMP Capacities are available up to 20,000 cubic feet per minute, with an operating range of 10 -1 to 10-10torr, when backed by an oil-sealed rotary pump. The full speed of the pump is developed in the very wide pressure range from 10-2 to 10-8torr. In the molecular pump, a high rotational speed rotor (up to 32,000 revolutions per minute) imparts momentum to the gas molecules, moving them along the small clearance between the rotor and stator. The molecular drag pump also employs this principle of operation. For ultimate base pressures it has been almost entirely displaced by the faster and simpler turbo molecular pump, in which radial slots in both rotor and stator fins actuate the pump. A number of compression stages are employed but because of its design, larger clearances can be tolerated between rotor and stator than were possible in the molecular drag pump. The molecular drag pump is sometimes built integral with a turbo molecular pump to allow the use of vert clean "dry" backing pumps. These hybrids are often used in semiconductor processing where oil vaporbackstreaming would contaminate processes but high pumping speeds are needed. 5.2.3 VAPOR DIFFUSION PUMP This pump is mainly used on equipment for the study of clean surfaces and in radio frequency sputtering. Pumping speeds are available up to 190,000 cubic feet per minute with an operating pressure range of 10-2 to less than 10-9 torr when water-cooled baffles are used and less than 10-11torr when refrigerated baffles are employed. The pumping speed for a vapour pump remains constant from about 10-3torr to well below the ultimate pressure limitations of the pump fluid. The best fluids allow pressures of better than 10-9torr. The diffusion pump is initially evacuated by an oil-sealed rotary pump to a pressure of about 0.1 torr or less. When the pump fluid in the boiler is heated, it generates a boiler pressure of a few torr within the jet assembly. High-velocity vapour streams emerge from the jet assembly, impinge and

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condense on the water or air-cooled pump walls, and return to the boiler. In normal operation part of any gas arriving at the inlet jet is entrained, compressed, and transferred to the next stage. This process is repeated until the gas is removed by the mechanical fore pump. The oil-vapour booster pump works on the same principles as the diffusion pump, but it employs a higher boiler pressure. Normal operating pressure range is 1 to 10 -4torr. When backed by an oil-sealed rotary pump, this pump is widely used for achieving high vacuum in thin-film evaporation units, accelerators, and in TV tube pumping. 5.2.4 SPUTTER ION PUMP Capacities are available up to 14,000 cubic feet per minute, with an operating pressure range of 10-11torr. The full speed of the pump is developed in the pressure range from about 10-6 to 10-8torr, although the characteristic at the lower pressure is dependent on the pump design. This pump uses a cathode material such as titanium vaporized or sputtered by bombardment with high velocity ions. The active gasses are pumped by chemical combination with the sputtered titanium, the inert gasses by ionization and burial in the cathode, and the light gasses by diffusion into the cathode. A typical pump consists of two flat rectangular cathodes with a stainless steel anode between them made up of many open-ended boxes. This assembly, mounted inside a narrow box attached to the vacuum system, is surrounded by a permanent magnet. The anode is operated at a potential of about seven kilovolts (kV), whereas the cathodes are at ground potential. The sputter ion pump has low speeds and sometimes instability when pumping inert gases. To improve its characteristics other types of sputter ion pumps have been developed: the slotted cathode, triode, differential, and magnetron pumps. To start up a sputter ion pump it is necessary to reduce the pressure to at least 2 x 10-2torr, and preferably much lower, by means of a roughing pump. Sputter ion pumps can operate in any position and do not need water or liquid nitrogen supplies. They have a long life and can provide very clean, ultrahigh vacuum, free of organic contamination and vibration. They are employed mainly for the clean-surface studies and in those applications where any organic contamination will give unsatisfactory results.

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5.2.5 ROUGHING PUMP A roughing pump is any vacuum pump (typically mechanical) used to initially evacuate a vacuum system, as a first stage towards achieving high vacuum or ultra-high vacuum. The term "roughing pump" derives from the vacuum range it works in, "rough vacuum", above 1x10-3 torr. Pumps that operate in the high vacuum ranges typically don't operate or operate inefficiently at atmospheric pressures, whereas pumps that work efficiently at atmospheric pressure usually can't produce a vacuum lower than approximately 1x10-3 torr. One consideration for choosing a roughing pump is whether the pump uses lubricating oil that's exposed to the vacuum. This concern of "hydrocarbon back streaming" where pump oil as a gas makes its way into the vacuum chamber, has led to oil-free pump designs on the market. 5.2.5.1 TYPES Two main types of roughing pumps are oil-sealed roughing pumps or dry roughing pumps. Within the two categories are various kinds of designs with differences among them based on maintenance issues, initial costs, pump lifespan and vacuum level. Early in their manufacture, dry pumps were significantly more expensive than oil-based pumps, however over time the cost gap has closed. 5.2.6 VACUUM VALVES We get involved with a number of different types of vacuum valves. We have manual types and solenoid types. 2 Way and 3 Way style.

Solenoid - These valves are rated for high vacuum to 10-6 Torr. We also have valves for higher pressure applications that are still rated for vacuum pressure. These valves are electrically actuated (115V, 220/230V, 3 Phase) meaning the customer is capable of incorporating these valves into Programmable.

Manual - Very basic ball vales rated for vacuum work to 10-4 Torr and are manually actuated via 1/4 turn ball valve. Sizes from 1/4" - 1 1/2" FNPT. Female National Pipe Thread connections or we also have NW connections or we can add NW connections.

True High Vacuum - Valves from 10-4 Torr and down. Angle, inline, manual and pneumatically actuated. NW terminations and others like large ISO and Conflate flanged valves.

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5.2.7 COMMERCIAL VACUUM SYSTEM

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6. PRODUCTION DIAGRAM 6. 1 2D- DIAGRAMS

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6.2 3-D DRAWING OF VACUUM TANK

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7. PHOTO SNAPS

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8. MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Above fig shows the complete assembly of CENTRAL LOW VACUUM SYSTEM. It consists of vacuum storage tank, vacuum pump, vacuum gauge, Air filter, and regulator, two way hand liver and flexible hoses. 8.1 VACUUM TANK Rectangular metal sheet (mild steel) of 3mm thickness is bent to circular shape with help of a standard fixture and then welded to form a base tube for the vacuum tank. Then two sides of the tube are welded with semicircular dome shaped cover. 8.2 VACUUM PUMP The vacuum pump is mounted on top of the vacuum tank. This is done by, constructing a frame with reference to the size of the vacuum pump mounting screws shown in the figure.

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This frame has multipurpose role, first, it is a mounting frame for the vacuum pump, and also it provides structural stability to the vacuum tank.

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8.3 VACUUM GAUGE The vacuum gauge is mounted next to the vacuum pump in top of the vacuum storage tank as shown below 8.4 TUBING 8.4.1 VACUUM PUMP SUCTION SIDE The suction port of the vacuum valve is connected to the vacuum storage tank though a vacuum shutoff valve. This shut off valve can be used to isolate the storage tank from the vacuum pump. 8.4.2 SUCTION IN USAGE SIDE This is the application side of the vacuum storage system. The vacuum chamber is connected to an air filter as shown in the figure. Then it is connected to a regulator for metered suction rate. Then it is connected to a toggle vale for multiple porting. This toggle valve makes the vacuum storage system useful for multiple applications.

8.5 BASE FRAME

The entire vacuum storage system is rest on this stand. This stand provides clearance to the vacuum tank from ground.

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CONCLUSION These project works focused on design and manufacture a vacuum storage system for vacuum permanent mould casting and other general engineering applications. The vacuum chamber is the main part of the system. It is designed and manufactured with our team supervision. The vacuum pump and other accessories are bought as per the system requirement and the vacuum storage system is manufactured.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY EPAC 2002, Paris, France. VACUUM CHAMBER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR CANDLE LIGHT SOURCE. VACUUM SEALS DESIGN CRITERIA, pp. 18. Vacuum Technology by Ken Harrison, V. of Engineering for the GNB Corporation P: Engineering a Better Vacuum Chamber. C. Hauviller: Design rules for vacuum chambers. CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Effectiveness of the Vacuum Technique in Pressure Die Casting by Armen Badal, R&D Engineer Yves Longa, R&D Engineer Patrick Hairy, Technican CTIF Sevres, France J. A. Venables, UHV resources: Vacuum and materials, available on the web at http://venables.asu.edu/grad/appmat1.html. C. S. R. D. V. S. Group, Tech. Rep., Daresbury Laboratory (1996), available on the web at http://srs.dl.ac.uk/vacsci/website%20now%20running%20from%20srdweb4/Documents/DLSp ecications/redbook/rbconts.html. A. Roth, Vacuum Technology (Elsevier, Amsterdam,1990).A. Chambers, R. K. Fitch, and B. S. Halliday, Basic Vacuum Technology (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 1998). E. R. Abraham and E. A. Cornell, App. Opt. 37, 1762 (1998). http://servicios.intec.santafeonicet.gob.ar/personal/rkoro//PUB/Curso_Topicos_Especiales/Vacio/introduction%20to%20va cuum.htm http://www.mcallister.com/vacuum.html http://www.mcallister.com/vacuum2.html

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