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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Every single student in Engineering Department IIUM are entitled to complete our studies by fulfilling all the course appointed by IIUM. Therefore, in my journey upon completion of my study in IIUM, I need to complete my Engineering Industrial Training (EIT). Every student gets to choose their own company to do their internship and I was very grateful that I was granted a golden opportunity to complete my EIT in the biggest telecomunication company in Malaysia which is Telekom Malaysia Berhad.

First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude to Allah S.W.T for giving me the strength to complete my internship in three months without facing a lot of difficulties. In this opportunity, I would also like to thank my supervisor, En Abdul Rashid b Alias for his undivided attention and help through my training. He is a very kind and responsible man. During my three months of internship, he always helped me and gave a lot of beneficial lesson in the working field to me. In addition, he always shared his experience in working with the equipment with me. If it is not for him, it was not easy for me to complete the training. Although he was very busy at times, but he still entertain and guide me kindly.

Here, I would also like to thank Dr Roslizar b Mat Ali, who kindly spent his time to visit me at the company and who will also be the assessor of my Engineering Industrial Report (EIT) final report. I was really grateful to him because he gave me such a comfortable time during the visit. He was also very kind and friendly towards me and my supervisor. After the visit, my supervisor got a different perspective towards the lecturer and respected them more. On top of that, I would like to thank my parents and friends who always supported me during my hard time. Last but not least, I would like to express our gratitude to Kuliyyah of Engineering for giving me a golden opportunity to gain experience in such a great company.

SUMMARY

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Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) is the program which gave opportunity to the students in Kulliyyah of Engineering IIUM to explore the working environment and to experience the theory lesson that they have learnt in the real world. It is a complete program that not only focusing on the academic but also the professional aspects of engineering education. It helped the students to get the picture on what will they experience during their working days in the near future. Upon the completion of the training, it is essential that the students grasp the ultimate goal of the training which was to be familiarized with the working environment.

Throughout the internship, I was able to experience a lot of things that I have never learnt in the classroom. I learnt practically how to trouble shoot a problem regarding the equipment and on top of that I learnt how to socialize in the office and how to bring myself in the working world. I also experienced the way to communicate with the superior and also with the collogues. I get to know that it was very crucial to know all these things before embarking in the working world. These has been a great help in enhacing my skills, capabilities, intellect and also my emotional persona.

Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) can be regarded as the platform for the students to adapt to the working environment of the future undertakings. Through this training it was not only a help for the students but also a great help to the company to discover raw talent in the students that can contribute to the recruitment of future workers for the company. There was always cases in which the students were called back to their internship company to work. This proved that the internship opened a golden avenues for the students.

The visitation from the lecturer was also a good approach that can encourage the students to work with more determination. It helped the Kulliyyah to get the picture on how the students preformed at the company. The internship gave a better perspective of the company regarding the students’ ability. By the visitation from the lecturer the students will fell more responsible towards any of their action throughout the training since it will reflect the quality of the university. They should only do the things that will uphold their university’s quality and pride.

The Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) has benefited the students and gave a lot of chances for the students to applied and explored what have they learnt in the classroom into the real world. In short the training is the simplest way to educate and expose the students with the attitude and preparation before embarking into the working world. This course

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should continously regarded as compulsory course for the students in order to finish their study. I would also like to recommend the Engineering Industrial Training to be taken by the students in their final semester of study. This will helped the students to have a better preparation before started working in the future. In conclusion, by taking the course in their final semester all te lesson and experienced they obtained from the training will be as fresh as freessia in the morning. This will help the students to perform better in their job and will also be a great satisfaction to the company they are working with. Thus, it indirectly give a good image of the university to the public.

All in all, the Engineering Industrial Training not only help the students, but it is a great avenues to the companies and the university. It is hoped that a lot of companies will be ready to take in IIUM students for the internship.

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CONTENTS

Standard Verification Statement

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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SUMMARY

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CONTENTS PAGE

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LIST OF FIGURES

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LIST OF TABLES

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Engineering Industrial Training (EIT)

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1.2 Objectives of Engineering Industrial Training (EIT)

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1.3 Background of Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM0

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1.4 Ibusawat Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) Bentong, Pahang

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1.5 Company Logo

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1.6 Vision and Mission of Telekom Malaysia Behad (TM)

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1.7 Values of Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM)

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CHAPTER 2 WEEKLY ACTIVITIES

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CHAPTER 3 LESSONS AND EXPEREINCED LEARNT

3.1 What is Transmission?

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3.2 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

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3.3 Fiber Optic Cable (FOC)

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3.4 Equipment

3.4.1 Alarm Collecting Unit (ACU)

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3.4.2 Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU)

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3.4.3 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

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3.4.4 MARCONI MSH11C/ MSH11

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3.4.5 Pulse Code Module (PCM) room

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CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION

4.1 Discussion

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4.2 Recommendation

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

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REFERENCES

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APPENDIX

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 : Ibusawat TM Bentong building

Figure 2 : The rooftop of Ibusawat TM Bentong

Figure 3 : Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) logo

Figure 4: Process of transmission

Figure 5: The weaknesses of PDH

Figure 6: The advantages of SDH

Figure 7: The differences in SDH and PDH pricing

Figure 8: STM-1 frame structure

Figure 9: STM-4 frame structures

Figure 10: SDH frame structure

Figure 11: SDH ring protection (normal condition)

Figure 12: SDH ring protection (breakdown/fault occurence)

Figure 13: SDH bi-directional ring protection (normal condition) Figure 14: SDH bi-directional ring protection (breakdown/fault occurence)

Figure 15: Structure of optical fiber and the refractive index profiles

Figure 16: Single-mode fiber

Figure 17: Step-index multimode fiber

Figure 18: Graded-index multimode fiber

Figure 19: Fiber to the office (FTTO)

Figure 20: Fiber to the street (FTTS)

Figure 21: Fiber to the curb (FTTC)

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Figure 22: Fiber to the home (FTTH)

Figure 23: Schematic representation for FTTH

Figure 24: The structure of optical fiber

Figure 25: The cross sectional view of optical 4-fiber cable

Figure 26: The basic structure of optical fiber cable

Figure 27: The structure of optical 36-fibers cable

Figure 28: The structure of optical 96-fibers cable

Figure 29: The Alarm Collecting Unit (ACU)

Figure 30: The Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU)

Figure 31: The Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

Figure 32: The MSH11

Figure 33: The MSH11C

Figure 34: The MSH11C internal architecture

Figure 35: The MSH11C units

Figure 36: The optical card of MSH11C

Figure 37: The Digital Distribution Frame (DDF)

Figure 38: The Fiber Distribution Frame (DDF)

Figure 39: The cable chamber

Figure 40: The ADPCM Transcoder Equipment (to be changed)

Figure 41: The channel mapping of MSH11C

Figure 42: The channel mapping of ALCATEL path 121

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: The advantages of optical fiber cable

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) is an important component of the curriculum degree programs offerred by the Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University. Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) is compulsory for all students of Kulliyyah of Engineering in order to complete their Bachelor of Engineering degree. It is a very essential program to enhance the knowledge and technical skills of the students and also the ability to adapt to working environment of the future undertakings. This program helped to expose the students to the practical experience and actual working environment. It is also hope that it shall open the avenues for developing the students’ skills and capabilities, as well as enhancing their intellectual and emotional persona. In addition to that, the Kulliyyah also hopes to forge the vital industrial linkages that shall pave opportunities for "smart partnerships" and industrially driven research. The vision of the Engineering Industrial Training Unit is to excel in managing engineering internship activities responding to the vision of the kulliyyah to be a world class center with the diverse educational needs of the Ummah. On the other hand, the mission of the Engineering Industrial Training Unit is to be committed to excellence and innovation in the management of internship activities by internalizing the spirit of the Garden of Knowledge and Virtue and World Class Engineer. As part of this commitment , Engineering Industrial Training Unit:

is dedicated to provide quality engineering training one-stop with sufficient scope. values its constituency and the diversity in management, ethics and humanities.

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1.2

Objectives of Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) The objectives of Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) includes :

to expose students with the working environment to enhance and supplement the knowledge and skills of students to develop students in term of ability, competence and interpersonal relationship. to expose and familiarize the students to rules and regulations including safety in industrial environment. to develop the spirit of team working among students and other working group members.

1.3 Background of Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) is the largest telecommunication company in Malaysia. It has a monopoly on the fixed line network and has a considerable market share of the mobile communications market after its acquisition of Celcom and merging with its mobile operation arm, TMTouch. It has an internet service provider subsidiary (TMNet) offering narrowband and broadband connectivity. Broadband connectivity is through DSL under TMNet's Streamyx brand. Due to its near monopoly of the last mile connections, TMNet is now the sole DSL broadband provider in the country. However, despite its high number of subscribers,TM Net is subject to very vocal user criticism, with allegations of poor service and clueless customer management. TM Company or formerly known as Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TMB) is a corporate body established in Malaysia after it was privatized. Before privatization, it was known as the Department of Telecom Malaysia or JTM by its short name. Before it was privatized, JTM was administered under the Department of Telecommunications and Posts. On the 1st January 1987, JTM was chaired by Dato 'Mohd Rashdan bin Haji Baba and since that JTM was converted to Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TMB). The purpose of TMB establishment was to reduce the burden of government spending and to improve the quality of services. TMB was also known as an ambitious organization that can stand independently. TMB plays a somewhat different role from JTM. Its focus was towards the real business that can be done more effectively and will indirectly enhance the development of the country economically and socially. On the 14 April 2005, TMB has undergone rebranding which was officiated by Dato 'Seri Abdullah Haji Ahmad Badawi, Prime Minister of Malaysia at that time. It

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was a platform to inject a new enthusiasm and passion to the overall image of the company and to approach customer service culture which is more fresh and energetic. Prime Minister of Malaysia willingness to officially launch the new brand identity showed the support of the Government towards TM in the company’s quest to bring real and new change to TM. The new identity is the visual identity of the second change of the Company since 1990 when it became a public listed entity, and it was already 15 years since the last time the brand change. This rebranding process is an essential step forward towards the transformation initiatives that strengthen and supported TM business development strategy which was unveiled recently. Furthermore, this rebranding will help TM handle rapid changes in markets and technology. The first identity change occurred in the year of 1987 when the Company was shifted from a government entity to a corporatized body, known as STM or Telekom Malaysia. This was followed by another change of name and identity to Telekom Malaysia Berhad as the Company is listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia on 7 th November 1990. All these occurrence of transformation involved changes in the name and logo of the company. The efforts of changing the brand, possessed a deeper focus. The reasons of the transformation were very enticing. The first reason was the year of 2005 marked the 15th anniversary of the TM was enlisted entity on Bursa Malaysia, so this rebranding was hoped to inject a fresh approach to the brand and to bring a reformation to the overall company brand identity. Secondly, the fresh approach was taken by the company to strengthen the efforts in the previous changes. Thirdly, the re-branding efforts will help to render the brand from being identified as the only local brand and placed them back in line with other well-known international telecommunications companies competing in this region. Transformation of the rebranding included changes to the provision of TM perception. This modification represents more than just the mere outward change the logo and name change, but the main thrust of this transformation is to plant a customer service oriented culture among members and will be strengthened by improving the quality of services rendered. In order to realize the transformation, TM is focusing on providing an intensive training for all members of the front-line” staff. This was meant to equip them with the necessary customer service skills so that they can provide a good quality of services in a professional and consistent manner for all customers touch points. In

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addition, TM is rolling out a CRM IT infrastructure that will improve the systems and processes to ensure that all of the 'liner' ready to deal with inquiries from customers. These changes are aimed to show the new identity TM as an emphatic, bold, enthusiastic and energetic.

1.4 Ibusawat Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) Bentong, Pahang Ibusawat TM Bentong is the place where the handling of the exchange Customer Network Operations for areas in Bentong district occured. Ibusawat TM Bentong located in Bentong and situated between Bentong Municipal Council building and Bentong Fire Station. It could be said to lie in the middle of the city Bentong. Ibusawat Telekom (TM) Bentong was the place where I spent my three months of internship in the Regional Network Operation, Zone Building Team (RNO ZBT TX_RB) Unit. The Ibusawat TM Bentong regulate customer service operations for TM Berhad where the main function is to provide a new installation for telephone customers, damage repair, damage complaints from customers, carry out surveillance for the new service clients, as well as acted as the connector between the control center of an area with the other and also establish a network of telephone cabling in new areas. In this Ibusawat is also where the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) is placed. This is where all new installations and external transfer ranking exchanges conducted. It is also the location where the data path and telephone customers are located. In addition, this Ibusawat also placed the communications between exchange routes with other Ibusawat known as Carrier. It houses the control system of communication using fiber optics system. The system in place in a special room called PCM (Pulse Coded Module) room which is equipped with the latest communication equipment advanced. This is the unit in which I spent my three months internship. Ibusawat TM Bentong also houses rooms for switching operations in which it is operated by SOMA units (Switching Operation Maintenance Area) Bentong. The main function room is to accommodate the equipment is SOMA exchange for Bentong exchanges.

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Figure 1 : Ibusawat TM Bentong building 15
Figure 1 : Ibusawat TM Bentong building 15

Figure 1 : Ibusawat TM Bentong building

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Figure 2 : The rooftop of Ibusawat TM Bentong 1.5 Company Logo Figure 3 :

Figure 2 : The rooftop of Ibusawat TM Bentong

1.5 Company Logo

2 : The rooftop of Ibusawat TM Bentong 1.5 Company Logo Figure 3 : Telekom Malaysia
Figure 3 : Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) logo
Figure 3 : Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) logo

1.6 Vision and Mission of Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) TM is the leading telecommunications company in the country. TM's objective is to be recognized as a world-class telecommunications company, which focuses on total customer satisfaction in all aspects of consumer and business needs. In achieving this, TM is committed to providing a variety of telecommunications facilities that are innovative, productive and quality services and support needed by developing countries. On the other hand, the TM mission is to provide comprehensive services to our customers and try to be a world class telecommunications company. TM planned to achieve this goal through the development of human resources, supplying products and provide excellent quality services and while also meet the needs of the country, employees and shareholders.

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1.7 Values of Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) possessed its own values to serve as the track as well as the natural guide to achieve its corporate mission and vision. These values will help to mold Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) in the quest of becoming a world-class telecommunications company.

1.7.1 Total Commitment to Customer

Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) is conscious, responsive and productive in meeting all the needs and expectations of our customers. TM is also prepared to

implement various continuous improvements in order to offer a valuable service to customers. In other words, Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) mainly focuses on customers and always renders the priority to quality in achieving total customer satisfaction.

1.7.2 Uncompromising Integrity

Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) is committed to the truth and honesty in all

actions. Therefore, Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) is entitled to be honest, dedicated and committed to the organization's aspirations TM and always fair in their dealings with customers, suppliers and colleagues.

1.7.3 Care, Respect and Responsibility

Teamwork and mutual respect for each other is the practice in the organization Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM). Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) continues to seek a harmonious environment and is conscious to the cooperation, kindness, language, mutual understanding, have an open mind and always appreciate the opinions and feelings of others is a culture employees of Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM).

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CHAPTER 2 WEEKLY ACTIVITIES

All students of Kulliyyah of Engineering International Islamic University Malaysia need to go through Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) in order to fulfill the requirement for the graduation. EIT is compulsory to all final year students who has fulfill 90 or more credit hours. Therefore, in the journey to graduate as an engineer from IIUM, I as the student need to go through the training for three months starting from 13th June 2012 until 05th September 2012. I undergone the internship in the biggest telecommunication company which is Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM). I was sent to the TM station in Bentong which is the Ibusawat Telekom Malaysia (TM) Bentong. I was placed in the Regional Network Operation, Zone Building Team (RNO ZBT TX_RB) Unit. I have spent the three months of the internship in this unit. The weekly report of my activities throughout the training is as follows.

1st week (13th June 2012-19th June 2012) The first day of the Engineering Industrial Training (EIT), I was ordered to report duty at the TM Human Resources located in Kuantan Pahang. I met with Pn Hartini bt Mohamed Wadzir, the Manager of Unit State Pahang. After that, I was placed under the ZFT Raub in Ibusawat TM Bentong. In the Ibusawat Telekom Bentong, I was placed at level four of the building where the Regional Network Operation, Zone Building Team (RNO ZBT TX_RB) Unit is

located. The significance of this unit is the Pulse Code Module (PCM) room. There are a lot of equipment placed inside the room. My supervisor told me that I will gradually learn about the equipment throughout the three months of my training. During the first day, I was exposed to how ACU (Alarm Collecting Unit) was tested. I began to understand deeper the importance of alarm in the equipment. I was given chance to troubleshoot the problem with the ACU since it did not work. In order to troubleshoot, I needed to observe the ACU closely to find any malfunction. From the observation, I can only observe the blinking of the unit for transmission side

whereas for the receive side the LED did not

working with ACU, I was not very sure why the ACU did not work.

Since this is my first time

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Hence, I randomly guess there was a problem with the power supply of the unit. This is because the power supply for the transmission side was heated after being tested while for the receive side it was not heated up which showed it did not work properly. In order to fix the problem, we are required to pay a visit to the supplier of the ACU which is the Resscom Engineering. During the visit, I had the chance to see how the troubleshooting process was done to get to know the exact problem with the ACU. After troubleshooting was done, it was deduced that the power supply for the receiver side was not working. The power supply was changed and the ACU was tested again to ensure it was working perfectly. The ACU was fixed again to the equipment. All in all, the first week of the training was good and I felt comfortable to learn and work in the office. There was a lot of equipment in the PCM (Pulse Code Module) room that I would like to learn and work with. From learning the equipment, I can basically apply what I have learnt in class. I can see that the knowledge of Mechatronics courses can be applied in telco field. There was not much different learning Mechatronics and Telecommunications just that I need to know what courses to apply.

2nd week (20 June 2012-26th June 2012) For the second week, I was assigned by my supervisor to learn the SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) and to understand the operation of SDH equipment. To start learning the SDH, firstly my supervisor gave a brief explanation on SDH in order to give an overview on SDH. The most basic word related to the SDH is STM (Synchronous Transport Module). Generally, there are four types of STM namely: STM-1, STM-4, STM-16 and STM- 64. I had already learnt the difference between PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) which have been used before the implementation of SDH. The basic different between them is that SDH is more flexible with simple network infrastructure. I had understood the frame structure of the STM. SDH is the infrastructure for the telecommunication networks of the 21st century, which provides broadband and intelligent services. During the second week, I followed my supervisor to go to the Bilut station for monthly checking. The Bilut station was unmanned station which means there is no permanent staff was placed at the station but the staff came regularly to check the

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condition of the equipment. There I observed how the connection between Ibusawat Bentong and Bilut cabin was connected. I also get to understand the flows of the data through the FOC (fiber optic cable) were done. I also observed how FDF (fiber distribution frame) was connected in the cabin. No alarm from any equipment was detected. I also went to Bukit Tinggi station for switching test. Bukit Tinggi was also the unmanned station. This was done during the night time to avoid any disturbance in the signal line. It started at 10.00pm and ended at 2.30am. The switching test was done in order to ensure the protective cable work without any problem. Hence, if the working cable encounters any fault it automatically switches to the backup cable. This also known as one plus one cable. At first, both main and protective cable was working on the same 36 core FOC. By having this kind of configuration, if the core was to encounter any fault, both main and protective cable won’t work and will lead to major fault. In order to avoid this, we wanted to change the protective port so that it will work on different FOC which was the 96 core FOC. To test the switching, we first need to work with the people from FOC unit to check whether there was any problem with the continuation of the FOC route from Bentong to Bukit Tinggi. This was done by using the Power Meter and Light Source Meter. After testing the continuation of the route, we changed the port and test for the switching. I gained a lot of knowledge from the work. This was the first time ever I have worked during the night time and it was a very precious experience since I know that I was to be an engineer in the future, the working hours will not be only during daytime. I might need to work in the night time, thus this is a golden opportunity for me to adapt to the condition. All in all, I was very grateful to my supervisor for giving me such a good opportunity to enhance my skills and capabilities.

3rd week (27 June 2012- 3rd July 2012) This week I have learnt the SSU (Synchronization Supply Unit). The PCM (Pulse Code Module) room in my EIT station needs this SSU to sync the signal from the equipment. Thus, it is important for me to know the SSU. Many services running on modern digital telecommunications networks require accurate synchronization for correct operation. For example, if switches do not operate with the same clock rates, then slips will occur and degrade performance.

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Telecommunication networks rely on the use of highly accurate primary reference clocks which are distributed network wide using synchronization links and synchronization supply units. Synchronization supply units (SSU) are used to ensure reliable synchronisation distribution. They have a number of key functions. One of the function is they filter the synchronisation signal they receive to remove the higher frequency phase noise. Apart from that, they provide distribution by providing a scalable number of outputs to synchronise other local equipment. They also provide a capability to carry on producing a high quality output even when their input reference is lost, this is referred to as Holdover Mode. The Synchronization supply units (SSU) used in the PCM room is the SSU SASE 5548B. The test can be done by referring to the clock output of any port desired from the SSU. From the test we can obtained the graph of the output. This graph were the MTIE (maximum time interval error) and TDEV (time deviation) graph. The test can be classified as success if the output obtained did not go beyond the network limit. MTIE and TDEV are the parameters requires to measure the output quality. Many wander requirements for network elements ans interfaces are expressed in the corresponding reccomendations in terms of MTIE and TDEV so these parameters have to be measured frequently. MTIE is calculated from the TIE (time interval error) measurement. To obtain the MTIE we can refer to the TIE vs time measurement and get the maximum peak to peak TIE value detected in a time window sliding along all the measurement time. The MTIE value obtained depends on the width ,S of the time window. By defining different time windows, a table or graph with several MTIE(s) values is obtained fro the TIE measurement mentioned. At the end of the test, we obtained a graph of MTIE and TDEV and we can evaluate the quality of the output signal. All in all, learning the SSU has made me realize how important the synchronization is in the digital network. Without this synchronization, slips will occur and degrades the quality and performances of the equipment.

4th week (4th July 2012- 10th July 2012) This was the fourth week of my training. The training was fun and gave me a lot of experience in dealing with both the equipment and the staff. My social interaction has improved a lot. I can converse freely with the staff and this gave me confidence to deal

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with the staff not only at my EIT station but also when I went to the other station. It allowed me to ask and relate to the work easily. In the fourth week, I went to the Kuala Lipis station to see the equipment there in which the equipment is not available at my EIT station. Kuala Lipis is the manned station which means there were staff working there and the equipment was monitored by the staff regularly. I went to the transmission unit at the Kuala Lipis station. At the station, I was given an explanation by the staff there. I began to understand that the station did not use SDH instead they used DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing). Both SDH and DWDM have the same function. It just their feature and capabilities are differs. I got to understand the differences of both from the visit. Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a technology that puts data from different sources together on an optical fiber, with each signal carried at the same time on its own separate light wavelength. DWDM is an important technology in nowadays fiber optic network. DWDM and CWDM both use WDM technology to arrange several fiber optic lights to transmit simultaneously via the same single fiber optic cable, but DWDM carry more fiber channel compared with CWDM (Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing). DWDM is usually used on fiber optic backbones and long distance data transmission and DWDM system has higher demand of fiber amplifiers. In the station only DWDM was used. This is due to the single optical fiber capacity nowadays could reach 400Gb/s, and this capacity may even enlarge with more channels are added in DWDM. A critical advantage of DWDM is its protocol is not related to its transmission speed, thus IP, ATM, SONET/SDH, Ethernet, these protocols could be used and transmission speed between 100Mb/s to 2.5Gb/s. DWDM could transmit different type of data at different speed on the same channel. There are two types of WDM (broadband and narrow band), broadband WDM uses the 1300nm and 1550nm wavelength for full duplex transmission, that is to say, if a signal is sent in one direction by 1300nm, it can be sent back by 1550nm via the same optical fiber. Narrowband WDM, which is the DWDM we are talking here, is the multiplexing of 4, 8, 16, 32 or more wavelengths in the range of 1530nm to 1610nm range with a very narrow separation between the wavelengths. Nowadays, the word WDM often refers to the DWDM systems. The most common wavelength that can be chosen from the optical power meter (Hewlett Packard E5970A) includes 850nm, 1300nm, 1310nm and 1550nm. Usually for long distance (trunk) signaling, we used 1550nm while for short distance (junction), we used 1310nm.

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The main components of DWDM include the DWDM terminal multiplexer, an intermediate line repeater, an intermediate optical terminal, or optical add-drop multiplexer, the DWDM terminal demultiplexer and Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC). The terminal multiplexer contains one wavelength which is used for converting transponder for each wavelength signal it will carry. The intermediate line repeater on the other hand is placed approx. every 80 100 km for compensating the loss in optical power, while the signal travels along the fiber. The intermediate optical terminal function as the remote amplification site that amplifies the multi-wavelength signal that may have traversed up to 140 km or more before reaching the remote site. The terminal demultiplexer is used to break the multi-wavelength signal back into individual signals and outputs them on separate fibers for client-layer systems for instance the SDH to detect. Last but not least, the OSC carries information about the multi-wavelength optical signal as well as remote conditions at the optical terminal. All in all, DWDM is proven to have more advantages compared to SDH. The used of DWDM multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e. colours) of laser light. This technique enables bidirectional communications over one strand of fiber, as well as multiplication of capacity. From the visit to the Kuala Lipis station I get to know how DWDM works. I also gain a deeper understanding regarding DWDM features compared to the SDH.

5th week (11th July 2012-17th July 2012) This week I started to learn about the FOC (fiber optic cable) in deep. I got to know the different types of the FOC and also got to know the structure of the FOC. I also learnt how to recognize each strand of the core and differentiate them by their color code. I also got to know the parts inside the optical fiber cable. There are three types of optical fibres which are the step-index multimode, graded- index multimode and monomode. They differ in their refractive index profiles. Monomode FOC is also known as single-mode FOC. It requires laser and it has a very large bandwidth. It is very difficult to perform splicing due to the small core they have. It is less expensive compared to the other two types. The submarine cable system used this type of FOC. On the other hand, the step-index multimode fiber FOC used source from the laser or LED. It has a large bandwidth approximately 200MHz/km. The splicing can be

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performed but a bit difficult and it is the least expensive among the three types. It is used a lot in data links. The graded-index multimode FOC also used the source from the laser or LED. It has very large bandwidth which is between 200MHz/km to 3GHz/km. Its application is mainly in the telephone trunk between the central offices. This type of FOC is hard to be spliced but it can be spliced. It is the most expensive one compared to the other two types. There are a number of structures built in the FOC which are the duct or conduit cable, aerial cable, direct burial cable and submarine or undersea cable. As for the duct or conduit cable it has its own types such as tight, loose tube, slot and slot ribbon. The general components in FOC are the sheath and the cable core. Ribbon type cable is the most common cable used. It has a stacked ribbon arrangement with an outer sheath, sheath strength members, inner sheath and twisted fiber optical ribbons maximum 12 ribbon per cable and thermal warp. The FOC arrangement includes the 6-fibers, 8-fibers, 12-fibers, 24-fibers, 36-fibers, 48-fibers and 96-fibers. As for the slotted core, four strands of fiber can be placed in each slot. Each strands of the fiber are coded with the color code to differentiate them. The basic sequences of the color code are blue, white, white and pink.

6th week (18th July 2012- 24th July 2012) As for this week, I went to visit the Bilut, Teras and Raub station to observe the installation process of the new equipment. I went to the station with my supervisor. I met with the vendor people who responsible for the installation. I got the chance to learn about the equipment. During the visit, I was able to see the process of installation of the equipment. The first step and the most crucial step was to draw a brief floor plan of each station. This was important to ensure the equipment was placed at the right place and the equipment can fix the place. In order to get the floor plan, the precise measurements of the station needed to be taken. Next, the power supply for the equipment needed to be chosen. The power supply is required to be checked so that the power does not exceed the power that can be hold by the power box. If the power box is full, the new power box needs to be installed so that the power does not exceed which may cause overflow of power that can damage the whole station.

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To install the new equipment, it is also needed to make sure the slot of the DDF at each station are enough. If not it can cause trouble in the near future. After all these steps are fulfilled, then only the new equipment can be installed. The installations of the equipment usually done after a month of the steps were taken. This is because the vendor needs to take care of the other requirement of the equipment such as the license etc. From the visit, I got to experience how the new equipment is installed at the station. This visit has made me realized that it is crucial to be precise in engineering field. Being precise is a requirement so that the team can work in a harmony condition.

7th week (25th July 2012- 31st July 2012) This week, I don’t have a lot of work to do. I followed my supervisor’s assistant to visit the cable chamber. The cable chamber is located at the underground of the station in which I have my internship. The cable chamber is full of a lot of cable consists of optical cable and also copper cable. These cables are both coming in and going out of the station. In the chamber, I can see the cables that are coming from first floor to fourth floor of the station. Each floor in the station has their own job and is considered to be different unit. For instance the fourth floor where I am doing my internship is responsible as the PCM unit which sends out the data or taking in the data. In the chamber, each of the cables can be identified easily as they are grouped according to their functions. After that, I went to visit the rectifier room which situated on the ground floor of the station. This room is very important as it relates to the power supply of the whole building and equipment. The power supplied by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is the alternating current (AC) while the equipment in the station required direct current (DC). This is where the rectifier room becomes the crucial tools. It transforms the alternating current to direct current to be used by the equipment. I also went to the battery room along the way. The battery room is where the batteries which the alternative power source are stocked. During blackout in which no power supply from TNB, the battery power up the equipment so that the equipment will not shut down which will cause major fault. But the battery cannot power up the equipment forever since it needs to be charged. Thus, during the normal condition in which the rectifier is working, the battery is being charged. The rectifier and battery

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room both have thermometer in them to observe the temperature in the room. This is to avoid over heated in the room that can damage the rectifier and the batteries. This visit has benefited me a lot. I got to experience and to look closely at the rectifier and the cables.

8th week (1st August 2012 7th August 2012) For this week, I learnt about the equipment in the station which is the Alcatel STM-16. I learnt on how to start up the equipment and the SNCP (Sub-Network Connection Protection). The equipment in the station is already started up. Thus, I just learnt the theoretical part of the starting up the equipment. In order to start up the equipment, software product for both downloading to update the NE and for management to install in PC is required to be installed using the CD-ROM provided. The startup of the equipment was done by using PC. It was not a complicated process as I was told by the supervisor. SNCP (Sub-Network Connection Protection) is a dedicated protection mechanism that can be used to protect a portion of a path (between two NE) or the end-to-end path. Each of the transmitting signal nodes is permanently connected (bridge) in the main traffic direction for instance the clockwise direction and in the protected traffic direction regards as the counter clockwise direction. The transmitted signal reaches destination through two different paths, thus enabling the node receiving it to select the best one. The two operating modes can be selected are revertive and not revertive. As for the revertive mode, the signal is switched back into the working channel once the fault is recovered. In the revertive operation the “wait time to restore” (WTR) is fixed at 5 minutes. The loopbacks can be applied in two conditions. The conditions are at line level and at internal level. The loopback commands are used to separate the communication network into independent part checking the line/equipment functionality during the network installation or maintenance operation. Drop and continue on the other hand is the dual node internetworking. Drop and continue is a way of protecting a path crossing a number of sub-networks, for example ring configuration. The sub-networks should be connected through at least two nodes. The equipment is configured as “DROP and CONTINUE” at each interconnection

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node. The sub network termination equipment implements the SNCP connection. The DROP and CONTINUE configuration allows to protect the path crossing two interconnected rings in case of two failures not occurring in the same ring. It is possible to implement DROP and CONTINUE by using single NE (Network Element) at each interconnecting node which also known as collapsed dual node ring interconnection.

9th week (8th August 2012- 14th August 2012) This week, I spent my internship period studying equipment in the station which is

the MSH11C. The MSH11C available in four different configurations according to the function to be performed at the node where the equipment is installed. The configurations are STM-1 Terminal Multiplexer, STM-1 Add-Drop Multiplexer, Double STM-1 Regenerator and DXC Configuration. Both PDH and SDH tributary interfaces can be fitted in MSH11C in order to allow the maximum flexibility in network applications. The MSH11C has directs access to lower speed tributaries with no need to multiplex/demultiplex the entire high speed signal. It also has displayed alarm indication using LEDs on the front panel and local controller PC. The MSH11C has

units that can be combined together to create the configurations. ThE units that are

available in MSH11C are MOST unit, Auxiliary Unit (AUX) and Communication Unit (COMMS). The MOST unit provides the high level control of the equipment and connects with the personal computer acting as local operator to download unit management programs and report on alarm detected. It also provides visual alarm indication. The MOST unit has a number of sub-unit which are STM-1 Optical/Mux, STM-1 Electrical/Mux, STM-1 Electrical Tributary and 32x2 or 1.5Mbit/s Tributary. The auxiliary unit (AUX) on the other hand provides communication channels for service functions. The communication unit (COMM) provides management of Q

interface (for connection to the Network Management Center) and full management of

DCC channels. The MSH11C also has 63x2 or 1.5Mbits/s Tributary Unit, 3x34 or

1.5Mbits/s Tributary Unit, 3x45 or 1.5Mbits/s Tributary Unit and 140/155 Mbits/s

Tributary Unit. In MSH11C alarms are reported by a few ways. One of the ways is the lighting up

of optical indicators (LEDs) on units where an alarm is active (internal alarms). The

other way is the lighting up of the LEDs on the MOST Unit. The transmission of

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ground contacts to the Rack Alarm Unit also indicates alarm. The alarms are also indicated by the transmission of ground contacts to tele-signals connector and display of alarms on the Local Control PC. The transmission of alarm status to the far end equipment such as AIS, RDI etc. also an indicator of alarm. The location of the faults can be within the equipment (INT), outside the equipment (EXT), or alarm signal from other equipment (IND). A Rack Alarm Unit is located on the top of the cabinet to give a summary alarms indication for all equipment fitted in the rack. The unit is available with two or three LEDs. The two LEDs unit is fitted with a red LED that lights on when an urgent and/or not urgent alarm is detected and a yellow LED that lights on when the optical protection device is disabled or after an alarm is acknowledged. The MSH11C is not simple equipment but it was fun learning it.

10th week (15th August 21st August 2012) For this week, I was introduced to the basic of tmnet Streamyx. Streamyx is the Broadband/High Speed Internet Access with speed from 512Kbps2 mbps. It uses xDSL Technologies via existing normal telephone lines and wireless technology in selected areas. It is affordable & attractive pricing. Streamyx does not interfere with standard voice which is both voice and data. Streamyx used the telephone line provided by TM, DEL or CENTREX through the existing telephone line. It can be used in the 5km distance and it used good quality of copper. It required direct copper connection and it cannot support fiber cable. The advantage of Streamyx is that it has direct access. All calls are connected via direct lines an no lines congestion or missing calls occurrence. It is also affordable where no upfront capital or initial investment. The customers only pay monthly subscription and call charges. In addition to that, it is very convenient and customer friendly. There is no need to worry for operator or receptionist since it can operate with or without Operator and receptionist. The system will be maintained by TM Berhad. Apart from that, it is also flexible and it has unlimited growth. This means that the number of lines can easily be increased or decreased. On top of that, it offers a one stop solution instead of going to different vendors TM Berhad will entertain any complaints from the customer. It also has total control. This is due to the TMCentrex features can provide control over customer lines. TMCentrex also provides customer with detail billing so that customer can monitor on usage.

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From learning about the Streamyx, I got to know the benefit of using the services. On top of that, I was also exposed to the operation of the system and had a clearer picture on the operatio and maintenance. In addition, I also got the knowledge to explain to my friends and family members regarding the Steamyx since it is the system that everyone wants to use nowadays. In conclusion, I have learnt a very beneficial information from this.

11th week (22nd August 2012- 28th August 2012) This week I did not have much to do since the training is almost end. I just learnt about PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). This topic is mainly related to the telephone services that we used at home. The things that I have learnt was PSTN connectivity, TM PSTN network hierarchy, PSTN configuration, PSTN signaling, TM PSTN models and others. It consists of telephone lines, fiber optic cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone cables, all inter- connected by switching centers, thus allowing any telephone in the world to communicate with any other. The PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core and includes mobile as well as fixed telephones. The PSTN is in digital due to a lot of reasons. The reasons include digital is the latest and future technology,it has faster speed, cheaper, owns a better service quality and performance and it was easy to create new services by using digital system. The customer access components for PSTN include Main Distribution Frame (MDF), manhole, cabinet, ring pole, drop wire and distribution point. The MDF consists of jumper wire that will connect Exchange Side (E side-Horizontal And Line Side (L side- vertical). The manhole is the location where the cabinet and MDF were done. The cabinet is where the jumpering was also between E and L side. The ring pole which comes from the underground cable is used to hole the drop wire. The drop wire on the other hand is used to distribute exchange line to customer premises. Last but not least the distribution point is where the jumping is also done to provide service to customer. In conclusion, this week I obtained a better and wider picture on the operation of the PSTN. If before this all I can see was the telephone but now I guessed I can imagine how did the telephone works and how the voices are carried from one place to

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another. It benefits me a lot as an engineer to be to have an imagination regarding the things that cannot be seen by our naked eyes.

12th week (29th August 2012- 5th September 2012) This was the last week of my internship in TM Berhad. I have started preparing for the visit by Kuliyyah lecturer. I have discussed with my supervisor what should I present for the visit. We have decided to prepare a Powerpoint slides regarding the basic things that I have learnt throughout the training. Since the basic things such as what is transmission and SDH are applied to all operation of the equipment available in the station, thus we thought that it will be sufficient to present the matters related to basis topic. The visit was scheduled on the 3 rd September 2012 and I was visited by Dr Roslizar b Mat Ali. The meeting was held smoothly. It started at 10.50am and ended around 11.35am. The meeting was interesting and beneficial. I was happy that the meeting run smoothly. Since this was the last week for the internship, I was a bit sad to end the working world which I have experienced for three months. I have gained a lot of new knowledge from the technical part to the social networking skill with people. It was very beneficial to me. I was grateful that I got a very understanding supervisor and a good quality of supervision from him. All in all, the three months I have spent for the training was worth it and I hope it will be a great help for me in the near future. The training has helped me a lot in enhacing my technical skills and communication capabilities and also was a great helped in changing my emotional persona to be a more matured and tougher person. The visitation from Dr Roslizar b Mat Ali was also a great help to me in giving me nore confident to embark on the future undertakings.

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CHAPTER 3 LESSON AND EXPERIENCED LEARNT

3.1 What is Transmission?

Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM) is the largest telecommunications company which monopolized the fixed line network and has a considerable market share of the mobile communications market after its acquisition of Celcom and merging with its mobile operation arm, TMTouch. Since, TM is the telecommunications company, its main business is related to the telecommunications. For a Mechatronics student like me, it was not a problem to undergo the training in a telecommunications company since it is a part of Mechatronics field. Throughout three months of the internship I learnt a lot of things related to telecommunications which indirectly helped me to gain a better understanding in Mechatronics field. The training also helped in enhacing my imagination capabilities in imagining the things that cannot be seen by our naked eyes. The most significant words that emerge in our little thoughts when we talk about telecommunications is tranmission.What is transmission? Basically I learnt a lot of new things related to transmission throughout the three months of training. It has assisted me to think out of box and not only focused on what we can see. We should always think what is actually happening behind everything we saw. Transmission is the process of sending and receiving in either analogue or digital signal or information

between a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint through the medium of transmission. There are three medium of transmission which are copper wire, microwave and fiber optic cable (FOC). Fiber optical cable (FOC) is the medium that is widely used nowadays since it is least expensive and easier to manage. On the other hand, the copper wire is far more expensive while microwave is kind of bothersome to work with.

wire is far more expensive while microwave is kind of bothersome to work with. Figure 4

Figure 4 : Process of transmission

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The figure above shows the process to transmit and receive data or signal (voice) from one Ibusawat to another Ibusawat. From the figure, we can see that before the signal going out of one point and going into another point, the signal or data needs to go through PCM. This is the room that controls all the transmission of data. The unit that controls and observes the room is the Regional Network Operation, Zone Building Team (RNO ZBT TX_RB) Unit in which I was placed for the training. By having placed at a crucial unit, I was very grateful that I can learn and experience a lot of new things which I believe can be a handy tool for me in the future undertakings.

3.2 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is the most vital component in learning to work with the equipment available either in the PCM or any parts of TM station. It is the most crucial principle that needs to be understand in order to work

with the equipment. From the beginning of the internship, my supervisor has stressed on how important for me to grasp the essence of SDH before start learning and working with the equipment. My supervisor told me that if I cannot understand the principle of SDH by heart, I cannot work with the equipment properly. Thus, I always think that learning and understand SDH is very importatnt for me to survive throughout the training period. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is an international standard for high speed telecommunication over optical/electrical networks which can transport digital signals in variable capacities. Regardless of the essentially same principle, SDH is known as SONET in America. Since the emergence of SDH from standard body around 1990, it has helped revolutionize the performance and cost of telecommunications networks based on optical fibers. SDH has provided transmission networks with a vendor-independent and sophisticated signal structure that has rich feature set. This has resulted in new network applications, the deployment of new equipment in new network topologies and management by operations systems of much power greater power than previously seen in transmission networks. The SDH is an international standard that is highly popular and used for its high speed data transfer of the telecommunication and digital signals. This synchronous system has been specially designed in order to provide a simple and flexible network infrastructure. This system has brought a considerable amount of

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change in the telecommunication networks that were based on the optical fibers as far as performance and cost were concerned. Both SDH and SONET are widely used today. SONET in the United States and Canada while SDH in the rest of the world. Although the SONET standards were developed before SDH, it is considered a variation of SDH because of SDH's greater worldwide market penetration. The SDH standard was originally defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and is formalized as International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standards G.707, G.783, G.784, and G.803. The SONET standard was defined by Telcordia and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard T1.105. The original SDH standard defined the transport of 1.5/2/6/34/45/140 Mbps within a transmission rate of 155.52 Mbps and is being developed to carry other types of traffic such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and Internet Protocol (IP), within rates that are integer multiples of 155.52 Mbps. The basic unit of transmission in SONET is at 51.84 Mbps, but in order to carry140 Mbps, SDH is based on three times of this value that is 155 Mbps. Through an appropriate choice of options, a subset of SDH is compatible with a subset of SONET. Therefore, traffic interworking is possible. Interworking for alarms and performance management is generally not possible between SDH and SONET systems. It is only possible in a few cases for some features between vendors of SDH and slightly more between vendors of SONET. Although SDH and SONET were conceived originally for optical fiber transmission, but SDH radio systems exist at rates compatible with both SONET and SDH. In the earlier centur before the emergence of SDH, Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) was widely used but due to some of its weaknesses, SDH has replaced the use of PDH. But the used of SDH was not applicable everywhere. Furthermore, the point to point applications are still functioning mainly by PDH, and also, it is cheaper. PDH is a technology used in telecommunications network to transport large quantity of data over digital transport equipment such as fiber optic and microwave radio wave systems. The term “plesiochronous” is derived from Greek word of plesiowhich means near, chronous, and time. It means that PDH networks run in a state where different parts of the network are almost, but not quite perfectly synchronized.

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PDH is used to send a large quantity of data on fiber optic transmission

system. The transmission and reception are synchronized but timing is not. The

channel clocks are derived from different master clocks whose range is specified to lie

within certain limits. The multiplexed signal is called a “plesiochronous” signal. PDH

signals are neither synchronous nor asynchronous.

PDH allows transmission of data streams that are nominally running at the

same rate, but allowing some variation on the speed around a nominal rate. By

analogy, any two watches are nominally running at the same rate, clocking up 60

seconds every minute. However, there is no link between watches to guarantee they

run at exactly the same rate. It is highly likely that one is running slightly faster than

the other.

The weaknesses that PDH faced paved way for the introduction and use of the

SDH systems. Although the PDH proved to be a breakthrough in the field of digital

transmission, the weaknesses that made it less demanded. The weaknesses of PDH can

be reviewed from the table below.

Asynchronous structure that is rigid
Asynchronous structure that is rigid
Asynchronous structure that is rigid
Asynchronous structure that is rigid

Asynchronous structure that is rigid

Asynchronous structure that is rigid
Restricted management capacity
Restricted management capacity
Restricted management capacity
Restricted management capacity

Restricted management capacity

Restricted management capacity
Restricted management capacity
Restricted management capacity
Restricted management capacity
Non availability of world standard on the digital formats .
Non availability of world standard on the digital formats .
Non availability of world standard on the digital formats .
Non availability of world standard on the digital formats .

Non availability of world standard on the digital formats.

Non availability of world standard on the digital formats .
Non availability of world standard on the digital formats .
Non availability of world standard on the digital formats .
Non availability of world standard on the digital formats .
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.

No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level,

networking is not possible.

No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.
No optical interfaces world standard and without an optical level, networking is not possible.

Figure 5: The weaknesses of PDH

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The SDH emergence has brought a considerable amount of change in

the telecommunication networks that were based on the optical fibers as far as

performance and cost were concerned. If we compare the PDH system with

that of the SDH system, the latter one has a large number of advantages. Some

of the most common advantages enjoyed by the usage of SDH are as follows.

It allows optical interfaces

Its synchronous

structure is flexible

Possesses the

capability of

powerful

management

Cost effective and easy traffic cross connection capacity and add and drop facility

It reduced networking cost due to the transversal compatibility

Has the world standard digital format

Has forward and backward compatibility

Figure 6: The advantages of SDH

Apart from all the advantages mentioned above, the SDH also posesses

various management capabilities such as performance management, security and

access management, configuration management and the event or the alarm

management. So, we can clearly make a distinction between the PDH and SDH

systems so that as per the needs of the telecommunication, the appropriate

transmission system can be used. The graph below shows the differences between

SDH and PDH prices.

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Figure 7: The differences in SDH and PDH pricing Throughout the internship, I did not

Figure 7: The differences in SDH and PDH pricing Throughout the internship, I did not really learn so much about the theory of SDH. My supervisor told me only to focus on the structure and the frame of SDH. These are the vital part of learning SDH. Therefore, most of my theoretical knowledge came from reading and from the websites related to SDH. The SDH network works with a single central clock that synchronizes all the elements in the network. The SDH contains the following bit rates:

STM1 - 155 Mbit/Sec

STM4 - 622 Mbit/Sec

STM16 - 2.5 Gbit/Sec

STM64 - 10 Gbit/Sec

STM is the standard abbreviations Synchronous Transport Module. The mathematical expression below shows how we can obtain STM-4 by combining STM-1 and so forth.

STM-1 : 63x2Mb/s

STM-4 : 4 x STM-1 = 4x63x2Mb/s

STM-16 : 4 x STM-4 = 4x4x63x2Mb/s

STM-64 : 4 x STM-16 = 4x4x4x63x2Mb/s

The STM-n frame structure is best represented as a rectangle of 9 x 270xN. The 9xN first columns are the frame header and the rest of the frame is the inner

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structure data including the data, indication bits, stuff bits, pointers and management. The STM-n frame is usually transmitted over an optical fiber. The frame is transmitted row by row. The first is transmitted the first row then the second and so on. Figure 8 below shows the STM-1 frame structure.

and so on. Figure 8 below shows the STM-1 frame structure. Figure 8: STM-1 frame structure

Figure 8: STM-1 frame structure

so on. Figure 8 below shows the STM-1 frame structure. Figure 8: STM-1 frame structure Figure

Figure 9: STM-4 frame structures

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Figure 10: SDH frame structure There is one other things related to the SDH that

Figure 10: SDH frame structure

There is one other things related to the SDH that I was asked to learn which is the SDH protection. The SDH gives the ability to create topologies with protection for the data transferred. Following are some examples for protected ring topologies.

Following are some examples for protected ring topologies. Figure 11: SDH ring protection (normal condition) In

Figure 11: SDH ring protection (normal condition)

In the figure, we can see Dual Unidirectional Ring . The normal data flow is according to ring A (red). Ring B (blue) carries unprotected data which is lost in case of breakdown or it carries no data at all.

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Figure 12: SDH ring protection (breakdown/fault occurence) In the case of breakdown rings A and

Figure 12: SDH ring protection (breakdown/fault occurence)

In the case of breakdown rings A and B become one ring without the broken segment. This ensure the transmission of data can still occur without any problem. All the sites can still communicate with each other by using this ring protection method which is also known as “1+1” method. It is a very efficient way of protection besides shorten the fault restoration period. Apart from that, SDH also provide a bi-directional ring protection. The Bi- directional Ring allows data flow in both directions. For example if data from one of the sites has to reach a site which is next to the left of the origin site it will flow to the left instead of doing a whole cycle to the right. This is illustrated by the Figure 13 below.

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Figure 13: SDH bi-directional ring protection (normal condition) Figure 14: SDH bi-directional ring protection

Figure 13: SDH bi-directional ring protection (normal condition)

13: SDH bi-directional ring protection (normal condition) Figure 14: SDH bi-directional ring protection

Figure 14: SDH bi-directional ring protection (breakdown/fault occurence)

In the case of breakdown some of the data is lost and the important data is switched. For example if data from a site should flow to its destination through the broken segment, it will be switched to the other side instead. This allows the sites to communicate normally even the breakdown or fault occur. The fault restoration period can also be shorten and the workers can tackle the problem in a calmer way. All in all, there are still a lot of areas of SDH that I need to learn and understand but the time constraint did not allow me to do so. My supervisor told me

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that what I have known and learnt is pretty much good for me to work with the equipment. It was really fun learning this new things and it helped me to get a better picture how to work with the equipment.

3.3 Fiber Optic Cable (FOC)

Fiber optic cable (FOC) is another important lesson that I have learnt throughout the training. Since the equipment used SDH and SDH allows the used of optical fiber thus I need to have a little knowledge related to optical fiber.There are three types of optical fiber. They are step-index multimode, graded-index multimode and monomode. These optical fibers differ in their refractive index profiles.

optical fibers differ in their refractive index profiles. Figure 15: Structure of optical fiber and the

Figure 15: Structure of optical fiber and the refractive index profiles

We hear about fiber-optic cables whenever people talk about the telephone system, the cable TV system or the Internet. Fiber-optic lines are strands of optically pure glass as thin as a human hair that carry digital information over long distances. They are also used in medical imaging and mechanical engineering inspection. Single- mode fibers have small cores (about 3.5 x 10-4 inches or 9 microns in diameter) and transmit infrared laser light (wavelength = 1,300 to 1,550 nanometers). Multi-mode fibers have larger cores (about 2.5 x 10-3 inches or 62.5 microns in diameter) and transmit infrared light (wavelength = 850 to 1,300 nm) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Some optical fibers can be made from plastic. These fibers have a large core

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(0.04 inches or 1 mm diameter) and transmit visible red light (wavelength = 650 nm) from LEDs.

The single-mode fiber requires laser as the source and posesses a very very large bandwidth.It is very difficult to splice the fiber due to small core it has. It is less expensive and it is used a lot in submarine cable system.

expensive and it is used a lot in submarine cable system. Figure 16: Single-mode fiber On

Figure 16: Single-mode fiber

On the other hand, the step-index multimode fiber uses laser or LED as the source. It has a large bandwidth which is about 200MHz/km. The splicing is categorized as doable but still difficult to be done. It is the least expensive and is widely used as data links.

It is the least expensive and is widely used as data links. Figure 17: Step-index multimode

Figure 17: Step-index multimode fiber The graded-index multimode fiber is sourced from laser or LED. It has very large bandwidth which is about 200MHz/km to 3GHz/km. The splicing is difficult but doable. It is the most expensive compare to the previous types and it is widely used in telephone trunk between central offices.

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Figure 18: Graded-index multimode fiber A simple illustration can be used to explain how does

Figure 18: Graded-index multimode fiber

A simple illustration can be used to explain how does the optical fiber transmit light. Suppose we want to shine a flashlight beam down a long, straight hallway. Just point the beam straight down the hallway and we can observe the light travels in straight lines, so it is no problem. But let picture the scenario if the hallway has a bend? The simplest thing we can do is to place a mirror at the bend to reflect the light beam around the corner. And what if the hallway is very winding with multiple bends? We can line the walls with mirrors and angle the beam so that it bounces from side-to-side all along the hallway. This is exactly what happens in an optical fiber. The light in a fiber-optic cable travels through the core or a hallway as illustrated above by constantly bouncing from the cladding (mirror-lined walls). This involve the application of a principle called total internal reflection. Since the cladding does not absorb any light from the core, the light wave can travel great distances. However, some of the light signal degrades within the fiber, mostly due to impurities in the glass. The extent that the signal degrades depends on the purity of the glass and the wavelength of the transmitted light (for example, 850 nm = 60 to 75 percent/km; 1,300 nm = 50 to 60 percent/km; 1,550 nm is greater than 50 percent/km). Some premium optical fibers show much less signal degradation which is less than 10 percent/km at 1,550 nm. The figures below show the optical fibre application which include fiber to the office (FTTO), fiber to the street (FTTS), fiber to the curb (FTTC), and fiber to the home.

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Figure 19: Fiber to the office (FTTO) Figure 20: Fiber to the street (FTTS) Figure

Figure 19: Fiber to the office (FTTO)

Figure 19: Fiber to the office (FTTO) Figure 20: Fiber to the street (FTTS) Figure 21:

Figure 20: Fiber to the street (FTTS)

Figure 19: Fiber to the office (FTTO) Figure 20: Fiber to the street (FTTS) Figure 21:

Figure 21: Fiber to the curb (FTTC)

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Figure 22: Fiber to the home (FTTH) Figure 23: Schematic representation for FTTH Besides the

Figure 22: Fiber to the home (FTTH)

Figure 22: Fiber to the home (FTTH) Figure 23: Schematic representation for FTTH Besides the things

Figure 23: Schematic representation for FTTH

Besides the things that I have discussed above, I also got to know the stucture of the optical cable. Unfortunately, I can get the actual picture of the structure since I need to enter the underground chamber to get the picture. Going underground was not part of my supervisor’s jobscope. Thus, after discussing with my supervisor we decided to get the picture of the structure from the reference book. The structure of optical fiber is represented by the figure below. From the figure, we can clearly see that there are four different structure of optical fiber. They are duct or conduit cable, aerial cable, direct burial cable and submarine or undersea cable.

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Figure 24: The structure of optical fiber Figure 25: The cross sectional view of optical

Figure 24: The structure of optical fiber

Figure 24: The structure of optical fiber Figure 25: The cross sectional view of optical 4-fiber

Figure 25: The cross sectional view of optical 4-fiber cable

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Figure 26: The basic structure of optical fiber cable Figure 27: The structure of optical

Figure 26: The basic structure of optical fiber cable

Figure 26: The basic structure of optical fiber cable Figure 27: The structure of optical 36-fibers

Figure 27: The structure of optical 36-fibers cable

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Figure 28: The structure of optical 96-fibers cable There are a lot of reasons why

Figure 28: The structure of optical 96-fibers cable There are a lot of reasons why the used of optical fiber is said to be revolutionizing telecommunications. The table below discussed the reasons why optical fiber is more demanded compared to the copper wire and microwave.

Advantages

Less expensive

Thinner

Higher carrying capacity

Less signal degradation

Light signals

Reasons

Several miles of optical cable can be made cheaper than equivalent lengths of copper wire. This saves our provider (cable TV, Internet) and money.

Optical fibers can be drawn to smaller diameters than copper wire.

Because optical fibers are thinner than copper wires, more fibers can be bundled into a given-diameter cable than copper wires. This allows more phone lines to go over the same cable or more channels to come through the cable into your cable TV box.

The loss of signal in optical fiber is less than in copper wire.

Unlike electrical signals in copper wires, light signals from one fiber do not interfere with

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those of other fibers in the same cable. This means clearer phone conversations or TV reception.

Low power

Because signals in optical fibers degrade less, lower-power transmitters can be used instead of the high-voltage electrical transmitters needed for copper wires.

Digital signals

Optical fibers are ideally suited for carrying digital information, which is especially useful in computer networks.

Non-flammable

Because no electricity is passed through optical fibers, there is no fire hazard.

Lightweight

An optical cable weighs less than a comparable copper wire cable. Fiber-optic cables take up less space in the ground.

Flexible

Because fiber optics are so flexible and can transmit and receive light, they are used in many flexible digital cameras for the following purposes:

i)Medical imaging - in bronchoscopes, endoscopes ii)Mechanical imaging - inspecting mechanical welds in pipes and engines (in airplanes, rockets, space shuttles, cars) iii)Plumbing - to inspect sewer lines

Table 1: The advantages of optical fiber cable All in all, the whole while I learnt the optical fiber was a very difficult period since I have never learnt it in the classroom. I needed to be more attentive and hardworking in order to grasp the understanding in this lesson. By learning the optical fiber I got to know the transmission of the data better. I was able to imagine what is actually happening in the strand of the optical glass. This lesson has benefited me a lot eventhough there are still a lot of things related to the optical fiber that I do not know.

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3.4 Equipment Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) in TM Berhad has gave me a lot of experiences working with machine and equipment. It has hepled me enhacing my confidence and boldness to face the equipment. The vital things that I learnt was that we do not need to feel scared with the equipment. We need to be their friend and try to understand them first before start working with them. There are a lot of equipment in the PCM room. I got the chance to learn most of the equipment. But the three months spent there was not enough for me to really understand the principle and operation of each equipment. The best thing that I can do was to understand little bit about every equipment. I would like to discussed the lesson that I understand about the equipment. This may not be a lot and enough but for me it is better for me to discuss what I understand rather than writing a bunch of things that I do not understand.

3.4.1 Alarm Collecting Unit (ACU)

This is the first equipment that I have learnt during my training. It is a quite simple equipment if we look from its physical appearance but we need to understand the vital role of this equipment. From the name of this equipment, we can randomly guess its function is to collect alarm. This equipment is very crucial to get an advance information which equipment is breakdown or facing any problem.

ACU monitors the other equipment and blink if there is any abnormalities occur in any equipment. The ACU used in TM is provided by Resscom Engineering Sdn Bhd. On the first day of my training, my supervisor happened to encounter a problem with the ACU. The ACU need to be in good condition all the time since it monitors the other equipment’s performance. In TM Berhad, the alarm center in Kuala Lumpur who monitors all ACUs will inform the sites if the ACU face problem and the workers are given specific period of time to repair the unit.

The bright side about the equipment is that the workers do not need to repair the ACU on their own. They can just send back the broken ACU to Resscom Engineering. The tachnical assistant there will troubleshoot the problem and settle them once and for all. But according to my supervisor, he and his friends like to gather and guess the problem. He said it was a good exercise for our mind and I was given chance to join join in the gues

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a chance to join the guessing. It was fun and challenging since I never work with the equipment before. But I managed to guess correctly and it made me so happy and confidence to undergone the training.

made me so happy and confidence to undergone the training. Figure 29: The Alarm Collecting Unit

Figure 29: The Alarm Collecting Unit (ACU)

3.4.2 Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU)

Synchronization Supply Unit is another equipment I got to learn during the training. As we all know many services running on modern digital telecommunications networks require accurate synchronization for correct operation. For example, if switches do not operate with the same clock rates, then slips will occur and degrade performance. Telecommunication networks rely on the use of highly accurate primary reference clocks which are distributed network wide using synchronization links and synchronization supply units. Synchronization supply units (SSU) are used to ensure reliable synchronisation distribution. They have a number of key functions. One of the function is they filter the synchronisation signal they receive to remove the higher frequency phase noise. Apart from that, they provide distribution by providing a scalable number of outputs to synchronise other local equipment. They also provide a capability to carry on producing a high quality output even when their input reference is lost, this is referred to as Holdover Mode

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The Synchronization supply units (SSU) used in the PCM room is the SSU SASE 5548B. The test can be done by referring to the clock output of any port desired from the SSU. From the test we can obtained the graph of the output. This graph were the MTIE (maximum time interval error) and TDEV (time deviation) graph. The test can be classified as success if the output obtained did not go beyond the network limit. MTIE and TDEV are the parameters requires to measure the output quality. Many wander requirements for network elements ans interfaces are expressed in the corresponding reccomendations in terms of MTIE and TDEV so these parameters have to be measured frequently.

and TDEV so these parameters have to be measured frequently. Figure 30: The Synchronization Supply Unit

Figure 30: The Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU)

3.4.3 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

The DWDM is the equipment I learn the least during the training. This is because there is no DWDM equipment available inPCM room Bentong. I got to learn thie equipment during my visit to Ibusawat TM Kuala Lipis. Thus, I did not have much time to really understanf thie equipment. I can only understand the basic things

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about the equipment. Not only that, I did not even got the chance to take a picture of the equipment. Both SDH and DWDM have the same function. It just their feature and capabilities are differs. Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a technology that puts data from different sources together on an optical fiber, with each signal carried at the same time on its own separate light wavelength. DWDM is an important technology in nowadays fiber optic network. DWDM and CWDM both use WDM technology to arrange several fiber optic lights to transmit simultaneously via the same single fiber optic cable, but DWDM carry more fiber channel compared with CWDM (Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing). DWDM is usually used on fiber optic backbones and long distance data transmission and DWDM system has higher demand of fiber amplifiers. In the station only DWDM was used. This is due to the single optical fiber capacity nowadays could reach 400Gb/s, and this capacity may even enlarge with more channels are added in DWDM. A critical advantage of DWDM is its protocol is not related to its transmission speed, thus IP, ATM, SONET/SDH, Ethernet, these protocols could be used and transmission speed between 100Mb/s to 2.5Gb/s. DWDM could transmit different type of data at different speed on the same channel. Though I did not have much time to understand and learn about DWDM but I got to know that DWDM is proven to have more advantages compared to SDH. The used of DWDM multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e. colours) of laser light. This technique enables bidirectional communications over one strand of fiber, as well as multiplication of capacity. From the visit to the Kuala Lipis station I get to know how DWDM works. I also gain a deeper understanding regarding DWDM features compared to the SDH. The figure below is the picture of DWDM I obtained from my supervisor.

below is the picture of DWDM I obtained from my supervisor. Figure 31: The Dense Wavelength

Figure 31: The Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

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3.4.4

MARCONI MSH11C/ MSH11

The MARCONI MSH11C/MSH11 is one of the biggest equipment in the PCM room. This is the equipment that I always observed during the training. Both

MSH11 and MSH11C have the same function. It is just that the MSH11C is the simplified version of MSH11. We can see the difference between the two equipment from the figure below.

We can see the difference between the two equipment from the figure below. Figure 32: The

Figure 32: The MSH11

We can see the difference between the two equipment from the figure below. Figure 32: The

Figure 33: The MSH11C

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From both figures,we can see that MSH11C can provide two separate transmit and

receive port in single optical carb but MSH11 can only provide one transmit and receive port in each optical card. The MSH11C available in four different configurations according to the function to be performed at the node where the equipment is installed. The configurations are STM-1 Terminal Multiplexer, STM-1 Add-Drop Multiplexer, Double STM-1 Regenerator and DXC Configuration. Both PDH and SDH tributary interfaces can be fitted in MSH11C in order to allow the maximum flexibility in network applications. The MSH11C has directs access to lower speed tributaries with no need to multiplex/demultiplex the entire high speed signal. It also has displayed alarm

indication using LEDs on the front panel and local controller PC. The MSH11C has

units that can be combined together to create the configurations. ThE units that are

available in MSH11C are MOST unit, Auxiliary Unit (AUX) and Communication Unit (COMMS). The MOST unit provides the high level control of the equipment and connects with the personal computer acting as local operator to download unit management programs and report on alarm detected. It also provides visual alarm indication. The MOST unit has a number of sub-unit which are STM-1 Optical/Mux, STM-1 Electrical/Mux, STM-1 Electrical Tributary and 32x2 or 1.5Mbit/s Tributary.

The auxiliary unit (AUX) on the other hand provides communication channels for service functions. The communication unit (COMM) provides management of Q

interface (for connection to the Network Management Center) and full management of

DCC channels. The MSH11C also has 63x2 or 1.5Mbits/s Tributary Unit, 3x34 or

1.5Mbits/s Tributary Unit, 3x45 or 1.5Mbits/s Tributary Unit and 140/155 Mbits/s Tributary Unit.

Unit, 3x45 or 1.5Mbits/s Tributary Unit and 140/155 Mbits/s Tributary Unit. Figure 34: The MSH11C internal

Figure 34: The MSH11C internal architecture

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Trib card COMM card Optical card
Trib
card
COMM
card
Optical
card

Figure 35: The MSH11C units

Trib card COMM card Optical card Figure 35: The MSH11C units Figure 36: The optical card

Figure 36: The optical card of MSH11C

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3.4.5

Pulse Code Module (PCM) room

These are the pictures from the PCM room. It was really interestning and fun to undergone internship in such a good place. I will used the knowledge I gained

from the internship to be a better person.

I gained from the internship to be a better person. Figure 37: The Digital Distribution Frame

Figure 37: The Digital Distribution Frame (DDF)

to be a better person. Figure 37: The Digital Distribution Frame (DDF) Figure 38: The Fiber

Figure 38: The Fiber Distribution Frame (DDF)

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Figure 39: The cable chamber Figure 40: The ADPCM Transcoder Equipment (to be changed) 58

Figure 39: The cable chamber

Figure 39: The cable chamber Figure 40: The ADPCM Transcoder Equipment (to be changed) 58

Figure 40: The ADPCM Transcoder Equipment (to be changed)

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Figure 41: The channel mapping of MSH11C Figure 42: The channel mapping of ALCATEL path

Figure 41: The channel mapping of MSH11C

Figure 41: The channel mapping of MSH11C Figure 42: The channel mapping of ALCATEL path 121

Figure 42: The channel mapping of ALCATEL path 121

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CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION

4.1 Discussion The three months that I have spent for my Engineerin Industrial Training (EIT) was a very beneficial and precious period for me. Throughout the three months I was very grateful to be a trainee in a huge company. Although telecommunications engineering was not my majoring but by learning it, my technical capabilities has improved a lot and I became more confident to work with the machine and equipment. By going through the training, I was also given a chance to enhance my communications skills which is the most crucial soft skills for company’s recruitment. I was really glad that through the training I became more responsible towards my own action. I would never intentionally cause a mistake and always double check my work so that I will not cause any negligence. On top of that, from the training I have also realized that to be an engineer, it is not enough to acquire only the technical skills but the management skills is also vital. There are a lot of senior workers at the internship station and I have learnt from that how to conduct a senior workers even if we are their superior. These skills are crucial in order to have a stable and productive organization. Apart from that, I have also aware of the importance of having a good relationship with our superior. It does not mean that we need to flatter our superior but instead we should ensure the quality of our work cannot be questioned. We should do our work to the best of ourselves and always be responsible towards our work. In addition to that, we also need to get to know what is our jobsocpe so that the work can be done smoothly and efficiently. The jobscope also helps us to know who should we refer to if there is any problem occur. On top of that, as an engineer or a person who works with machine and equipment, we should be creative and always think ahead of others. We should always troubleshoot any problem occur with the precise consequence. We must do our works following the steps that we have given by the company. So that, in the event of occurence of fault the problem can be settled in short amount of time. For example, if the optical fiber was cutoff, we should first determine the location where the fiber was cutoff. If we need to connect the cutoff part, we need to do it diligently in order to avoid from reversing the pole of the fiber. If these steps are not done, it may need up to two or three days to sove the problem.

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Besides that, teamwork is also important to ensure the work can be done smoothly. Each workers must know their own roles and work according to their roles. This will prevent misunderstanding and dispute between the workers. Furthermore, the workers should always respect each other and polite to each other. From the training, I have realized that without mutual understanding a team cannot do the work efficiently. Eventhough the superior workers are still young, the senior workers should respect them and vice versa. This will ensure a good productivity of the company. These are crucial knowledge that I have gained throughout the training. I believe that these knowledge and skills will help me in the future. The training was a very gallant stepping-stone for the students to embark on the working world. It gave a lot of experience that the students cannot get from sitting in the classroom. The internship also provide a better picture for the students of what is waiting for them in the working environment.

4.2 Recommendation Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) program should be continously offered and compulsory for the students. It is recommended that this program should be fulfilled during the final semester. This is because the knowledge and experiences gain from the training will still be fresh to be applied by the students in the working world. By taking the program in the final semester, it will help the students to have a broader opportunity to be recruited by the company since they can immediately work after finishing the training. In addition, the students can apply the knowledge and skills from the training more efficiently if they take the program in their final semester. It will help them to perform better and gain satisfaction from the company. This will indirectly upgrade the quality of our university to a higher level. I would also like to recommend the visitation of lecturer can be made compulsory. This is because I feel that the vivitation gave a lot of benefit not only to the students but also to the lecturer and the company itself. Through the visit, an industrial linkage that can pave opportunities for partnerships and industrially driven research can also be achieved. The visit will be a great help to the students to show their performance in front of both the supervisor and the lecturer. This will directly boost the students’ confidence. Besides that, it is also recommended that the weekly reports are submitted at the end of every week instead of at the end of two weeks. By doing this, the

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coordinator can track the performance of the students more efficiently. It ia also a great way to ensure the reports are submitted on time. Furthermore, it will be a lot easier for the students if they did not need to print and scan the weekly reports. It was bothersome since some of the offices did not provide the scanner. All in all, the training has been a great pave for the students to start up their career. It opens up the opportunity for the students to adapt with the working environment.In conclusion, by going through the training, students can expect what they will experience in the working world which is important for self-preparation

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

The three months Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) has ended and I was really grateful that I can fulfill the program successfully. All in all, at the end of the training, it can be deduced that the objectives of the training were achieved. The objectives of the training include to expose students with the working environment, to enhance and supplement the knowledge and skills of students, to develop students in term of ability, competence and interpersonal relationship, to expose and familiarize the students to rules and regulations including safety in industrial environment, and to develop the spirit of team working among students and other working group members. These objectives are successfully achieved. In conclusion, I feel very fortunate to be given the opportunity to undergo the Engineering Industrial Training (EIT) in TM Bentong. This training has been able to form my personal as a disciplined and responsible employee. I was really grateful to the Kulliyyah of Engineering IIUM, lecturers and my supervisor for giving me this golden opportunity. I am very certain that all these knowledge and skills shall help me in the future undertakings.

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REFERENCES

http://www.acronymfinder.com/Alarm-Collection-Unit-%28ACU%29.html. Retrieved

on 16 June 2012.

http:// Synchronization_in_telecommunications.htm.Retrieved on 23 June 2012.

http://www.huihongfiber.com/dwdm.html. Retrieved on 4 July 2012.

http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-dwdm.htm. Retrieved on 4 July 2012.

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/mels/dwdm/dwdm_fns.htm.

Retrieved on 4 July 2012.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wavelength-division_multiplexing.Retrieved on 7 July

2012.

http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~bbathula/courses/HPCN/chap04_part-2.pdf. Retrieved

on 7 July 2012.

http://www.pulsewan.com/data101/sdh_basics.htm. Retrieved on 7 July 2012.

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk482/tk876/technologies_tech_note09186a0080119

27d.shtml. Retrieved on 12 July 2012.

http://www.gare.co.uk/technology_watch/sdh.htm. Retrieved on 12 July 2012.

MARCONI MSH11C handbook, Rev 02-10/97, 4ck-ib000188-e.

Telekom Malaysia Fiber Optic handbook,Optical Cable and Transmission System, Kod: 0404/98/3.

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APPENDICES

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