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Moreonpreflopaggression.Letsreexamineourair:nutsratio,andworkonsomefactorswhichmay pushorpullourratiosupordown.Themainreasonweevenhavearatioisthatthereisgenerallya perfectfrequencywhichbothmaximizesvalueforourstronghands,aswellasgivesvaluetohands thatotherwisewouldhavenone.(Wouldbefoldsinthatsituation,soturnsitintoa+EVplay)This numberisimpossibletodetermine,butthegoldenratioisthebestillustratortocomeclosetothis frequency. Aswell,thereasonwedonotwanttoraise/foldhandswhicharenutfunctions,isthatforthemost part,any4betiscommittingvillaintoanallin,andalsopricesusintomakingapreflopdecision. (Whetheritbepushpreflop,orcallandgetallinonanyflop)Thesimplefactis4betting,evenwhen mildlydeep,allowsnoroomformaneuverability.Forexample,ifplayerAopensforthepot(3.5xtheBB) getsrrbyplayerBBforthepot(12xtheBBtotal)andthenplayerBmakesit40xBBtotal,forthistonot commitplayerA,stackswouldhavetobeminimumof350xtheBB.Eventhoughsituationslikethisdo exist,sincemosthandsdealwith70to250xtheBB,ifweare4bet,wereeitherfolding,pushing,or callingwiththeintentionofneverfolding.Usingthesethoughts,ifwere4bet,wesimplyfeltanynuts segmentbyoneofthewaysmentionedabove,orletthehandgoifitfallsinthebluffcategory.

Ifthe handwasclosetobeinginthenutssegmentbutnotthere(forexample,couldbeQQorAKvsanit orJJ/TTvsastandardplayeror88/ATvsapsycho)thenwedrathernot3betthenfoldit,sinceweare notcomfortablefeltingit. Whenwedealwithaproperratio,again,themainpointistobalanceourownhandstomaximizeEV. Theotherreason,thatmakesthingsnice,isthatthisallowsustoslipintoacurtainofnonexploitation, whichisprettyswell.WhatImeanbythis,ispeoplewhoreraiseveryrarelyorfartoooftenareeasyto play:Theonewhoonlyhasnutvarietyhandswontbeinthesituationofa3bettoroftenanyway,and whentheyare,peoplewillplaysomewhataccordingly.(Iftheynotice,whichisnotguaranteed)If someone3betsfartoooften,theysetthemselvesuptobeing4bet,whichmeanstheir3betwillnot showprofit.(Andactuallywillcostthemagreatdealofmoney)Forexample,inaNL1000game,ifplayer Amakesit40pf,andplayerBmakesit150withawiderangeofhandsIfplayerApushes(ormakesit 450,whichisessentiallythesamethingsincetheyreneverfoldingtoanallin),theyregamblingtowin the~200inthepotnow,andifcalled,haveX%equityofa~2015pot.Settingupthemath 200(fold%)+(2015xequityY%)960(theamounttheyreinvestingaftertheirraise)>or<0. Withus(inanormal2:1ratio)wefold67%,call33%,whichmeansforthemtoshowprofit,theyneed: 200(.67)+(2015xEquity)>960. 134+2015eq.>960 Eq>826/2015 Eq>~41%. IfourtypicalrangeisAAQQ,AK,thehandswhichshow41%:AA(84%)KK(57%).AKsisroughly42%,QQ roughly40%,andAKo39%,makingthatgroupverymarginalifinfactweareonlyfeltingthesame.

Ourfirstmaingoal,anditwillbetheeasygoal,istoascertainournutsfunction.Again,anynutsfunction willjustbeahandwhichwilleithershowprofit,breakeven,orbejustifiedwithasmalloverlayofpot oddstogettingingivenalotofaction.Withtheideaaboveinplace,thestandardisAAQQ,AKVs.most peoplewhonevergetoutofline(andeveryonegetsoutoflinesometimes,evenifitsasminimalas 10%,willshifteverymarginalhandtoahanddefinitelyworthplaying). Aquickchartbelow:(Anypokerstovesimwoulddemonstratethisaswell) HandGrouping%oftotalhands AA,KK.9% AAQQ,AK2.6% AAJJ,AK/AQ4.2% AA99,AKAJ6.3% OccasionallyonecouldarguethataplayerexiststhatgettingallinpreflopwithevenKKisasmall mistake,butwellholdtruetothedictumthatanyhandwhichtakesplace(acesvskings)isacolddeck andonewewouldnotratherfocuson.Mainly,ourconstructiveenergyismoreimportantelsewhere. Also,peoplewiththelastsectionofnutshandsaretruemaniacsandgenerallywontbeatatablefor verylong,sincetheygobrokequickly.Forfullringitsnotevenallthatbizarretostartwiththefirst groupofhandsandplanaccordingly. Sometimestoshiftthefulcrum: 1.Ifaplayeristilted,itspossibletheyremorelikelytomakeadesperateoroddmovepreflop,thusyou mayenlargeyournutsrange.(althoughwedcutbackontheairrange,whichwellgettonext) 2.Ifaplayerisshorter,weregenerallygettingbetterimmediateoddsonceweve3betongettingallin, whichnaturallyescalatesournutsegment.Again,thiswilllikelycauseustodecreaseourairrange. 3.Ifaplayerisdeeper,(moresothennormal,forexampleoneisusedtoplaying125bbsdeep,andis nowsuddenly225bbs)weregoingtobegettingfarworseoddsonanallincallif4bet,andvillainis oftengivinghimselfanawfulprice(hisstack)forpickingupthepot.(Whichissmallerrelativetohis stack)Thiswillcauseustodecreaseournutsratio;however,alongwithdeeperstacksmakesa4bet blufffrombothvillain(andus)morepossible,sinceitsnowcorrecttobluff4bet/foldwithalotof hands,soifyoucaninducegreaterbluff%,theninturnyoushouldincreaseyournutsfunction.Inthe standardzone,whenyoubotharedeeperthough,thiswillgenerallycauseustoincreaseourairrange. Theblufffunctionisthefunpartinallofthis.Mainly,therearenumeroussituationswhereweshould shiftitupordown.Similartoourhandgroupingofnutshands,hereisahelpfulchartwiththebest candidatesfor3betting.

HandGrouping%oftotalhandsTier KQs54s2.7%2ndTier(SuitedConnectors) KJs64s2.4%2ndTier(Suited1GapConnectors) KTsJ8s.9%2ndTier(ExcessSuitedBroadways) A9sA6s1.2%1stTier(NoncoldcallableSuitedAces) AJsATs.6%1stTier(StrongBigSuitedAces) A5sA2s1.2%1stTier(StrongSmallSuitedAces) 88223.2%1stTier(Nonnutpocketpairs) Ajo/ATo1.8%3rdTier(StrongeroffsuitAces) A9oA2o7.2%3rdTier(WeakeroffsuitAces) KQoJTo,KJo/QTo,KTo5.4%3rdTier(OffsuitBroadways) T9o54o5.4%3rdTier(OffsuitConnectors) Ourstandard,again,shouldbeina2:1Air:Nutsratio,withAAQQ,AKasourNutfunction,or2.6%,so ~5.2%shouldinturngotoourAirfunction.KQs54s,KJs64scontribute5.1%,sovoila,thatisourtypical 3betrange. Thecommonmisconceptionabouttightraisersvslooseraisers: Manypeoplefeeltheloosersomeoneis,themoreaptyoushouldbetopunishthemforraising loosely.Thisissomewhattrue;mainly,theyareraisingpoorerhandsonaverage,thereforetheyshould nothaveagoodenoughhandtofallbackuponwhenreraised.Theexamplebelowisanextreme,but shouldshowthatthisisfaultylogic: ApersonwhoonlyraisesAAQQ,AKandonlyplaysAA22,AK/AQraisespreflop.(Theywouldbe considereda8.3/2.6,also,whichistheepitomeofanit.)However,ifreraised,theyonlycontinuewith AA.Thus,ouroftheir2.6preflopraise%,theycontinuewithjust.45%ofit,or17%.Iftheyopenina NL100gameto4,andwemakeit12,werelaying12(our3bet)towin5.5.(The4theyopenedto,and theblinds,whichare1+.5).Thus,inabstraction,ifthisworks45%ofthetime,wellshowprofit.Sinceit willworkroughly83%ofthetime,werecorrectin3bettinganytwocards.Now,anotherplayerraises AA22,AKsA2s,KQs54s,AKoATo,KQo.Thisis16.7%oftheirhands.However,theyonlyfold6622, A5sA2s,andKQotoareraise.Thatisameasely4.4%oftheirhands;inthisscenario,whenwelay12to win5.5,wedonotshowprofit.(Onthatmove,sincetheydefendalmost75%oftheiropenraises!)Here

werenottrulycorrecttoraiseanyair,unlesswecanshowprofitpostflopwithit.(Whichwecan) Hopefullythisexampledemonstratesthenthemaingoalofreraising: Evenifaplayerisloose,wearemoreconcernedwithhowlooselytheydefendtheiropens,NOThow looselytheyopenedtobeginwith!Withthatinmind,therearemanycasesinwhichwecanandshould adjustourratio: 1.Ifwewillbeoutofpositionwhencalled,wegenerallywantabetterhandtofallbackupon. Whateverratiowecurrentlyhad,wewanttoscaleback;ifwereina2:1ratio,weprobablywantto havea1.5:1ratio.Ifwehada3:1ratio,wedkickitbackto2:1.Andsoon. 2.Ifvillainopenedfromearlyposition,wegenerallyfigurethattheywilldefendtheiropenmore frequently.Likewise,iftheyopenedfromlateposition,wefigurethattheywillnotdefendtheiropenas frequently.Therefore,EPraisesgenerallymakeusscaleback,LPraisesmakeusscaleforward. 3.Ifitsearlyinasession,andvillainhasnohistorywithyou,youcanscaleforwardaratiosincetheywill havenogaugeofyourfrequenciesforthissortofthing.Oncecaught,however,youprobablyshould reverttoanormalratio. 4.Asnotedabove,ifaplayeristilted,theyremoreapttomakeadesperateplay,suchasanoddball blufforabadsituationalcalldown.Inthatcase,wewanttoscalebackourratio,sinceweexpectthat theylldefendtheiropenalot. 5.Asnotedabove,ifaplayerisdeeper,theyremoreapttonotcallthereraisewithoutabiggerholding, unlesstheyareagamblertype.TherationalehereisyourethreateningalargeramountofpureBBs, andthereforeyour3betshouldmakethemscalebackontheir3betdefendrange.Thus,whendeep,we normallyreverttoatightnutssegment,butveryloosebluffratio.(Suchas4:1or5:1,which coincidentallywillprobablystillbeKQs54s,KJs64sandthencoldcallingAKandQQ). 6.Ifthereareplayerstoact,weshouldscaledownourblufffrequencyifwefeelaplayerbehindis capableofmakingabigmoveatthepot.Furthermore,iftheactionendsonus,(suchasbigblindvs smallblind,whereweshouldbe3bettingalot)wecanexpandourblufffrequencysinceweONLYneed toworryabouttheopener. Thegoldenratiothereforeisahighlyflexiblesituationalapplication,andisafunpreflopadjustment everyoneisabletomake.Ihaveashortquizonit,althoughitshardtogiveoneclearanswer,sodo yourbest! Fullring,8handed,3/6NL: 1.Anit(11/4)opensUTGforthepot(3.5xtheBB).Hehasafull100bbstack,andweareUTG+1witha similarstack.Whattypicalmode,barringnohistoryasideusobservinghisstats,shouldwebein?

2.Amaniac(27/22)opensUTGfor4xtheBB.Hehas120bb,andweareintheCOwith170bb.Youve seenhimgetallinwithJJbeforenoproblem,whatmodeshouldwebein? 3.ATAG(15/10)opensfromUTGfor3xtheBB.Hehas250bb,andwecoverhim.Wereinthebutton, withverytimidblindstoact. 4.Player1nowopensintheCOfor3xtheBB,hehas75bbafterlosingamediumsizedpotwithan overpair.WereintheBBanditsfoldedtous. 5.Player2nowopensinthebuttonfor3.5xtheBB.Hehas100bb,andwehaveasimilarstack.Werein theSBwithanaggressiveBBtoact;ifwecoldcall,hewillsqueezeawiderangeofhands. 6.Player3opensintheCOfor4xtheBB,hehas150bb,wehave125bb.Wereonthebutton. Answers: 1.ThisisaprettyclearAA/KKonlynuts.Andthisisaspotonecouldmakeanargumentforonlyhaving AAasnuts,butwellignorethatagain.Sowerelookingat.9%fornuts.Werestartingata2:1ratio (need1.8%airtofulfillthat)butwithsomanypeopletoactwemaywanttoscaleitdownalittlebit. Also,withhimopeningfromUTG,wecanscaleitdownagain.Finally,withnohistory,hemaygiveus creditforacesveryoftenunlesshesseenuseverreraiseinthisspotwithoutthem.Idprobablysetmy ratioaround1.5:1(air:nuts)althoughIdconsiderleavingitat2:1butcoldcallingKK.(For~1%fluff hands)ThusIdpick4orsohandsfromthesuitedconnectorbunchtoreraise,possibly54s,65s,76s, and87s,andbecontentwiththat.Idalsomakeit10.5xthebb,aswell,layingapriceof10.5:5. 2.WewouldleaveournormalnutsrangeofAAQQ,AK,howeverwecouldtrulyconsiderratchetingit downanotch.Sinceitsfullring,though,andhedidopenfromUTG,Iwouldntbeabletomakethat decision*yet*,butIdbeclosetomakingit.So2.6%nuts.Sincetheeffectivestackisstilljust120bbs, itsnotdeepenoughtowarrantcuttingbackthenutsegmentaswell.Herewehaveposition,butminor historyifheknowswhatweveseenoutofhim.SincewereintheCOtherearestillplayerstoact,soId probablybefinejustleavingourstandardrangeof2:1air:nuts,withAAQQ,AKvs.KQs54s,KJs64s.Id makeit12xthebb,aswell,layingapriceof12:5.5. 3.WithoutadoubtournutssegmentwouldbeAA/KKonly.Werenot3bettingQQwiththeintentionof feltingit.Wemayactually3betAK,(goingbacktoalwaysrepopthetighterraises)butlaughably attachthattoourbluffsegment.Interestingly,though,becausewewillhaveabsolutepositiononthis hand,nottoomanypeoplearelefttoact,andyoubothareverydeep,Idlikelybeina4:1oreven5:1 airr:nutsratio.Thisactuallyisntallthatbreathtaking,sincewhatthatmeansiswellbe3bettingAA/KK, andthenourstandardKQs54s,KJs64s.Weregoingtomakeit9xthebb,forafinalpriceof9:4.5 4.Nowthatthegameissuddenlyshorthanded,inthecontextofitsbeenfoldedtoaMPraiser,wedo notneedtogiveasmuchcredittoouropponents.Interestingly,althoughouropponenthereisvery tight,wehavetwonicethingsgoingforustoenlargeoursmallnutsrange:Villainonlyhas75bb(hes short)andhepossiblyisontilt.(Havingjustlostthatpot)Also,inthisdynamic,(theCOsteal)wedont mindgettingintoasmallwar.Thus,IdsetmyfeltrangeforAAQQ,AKandbehappyaboutit.Forour

bluffsegment,wehavedifferentfactorsherepointingindifferentdirections.First,wereoutofposition. Second,opponentistilting.Bothsignssayweshouldscaleback;if2:1isroutine,weshouldscaleto 1.5:1thenbackto1:1.However,thisisaLPraise,andwehavenooneelsetoact.Iwouldntmind leavinga1.5:1ratio,andrepoptheSCsandhalfthe1gapSCs.(LikeKQs54s,KJsJ9s)Idmakeit12xthe bbaswell,forapriceof11(wehave1bbdead):4.5. 5.HerewerefinallyinthefeltrangeofJJ+,AQ+.WerenotdeepatallanditstheLPdynamic.Sowere inthe4.6%camp.Forourbluffsegment,wereoutofposition,anaggressiveplayertoact,andaguy wholikelydefendsthatreraisewithpositionliberally.Wedprobablybecontenttoleavea1:1ratio, whichnotsurprisinglywillmakeourrangeAAJJ,AK/AQfornuts,andthenthestandardKQs54s,KJs 64sbluff.Werelaying13.5(wehave.5bbdead):5. 6.StandardfeltrangeofAAQQ,AK.Ifhesbeenincrediblyaggressiveinthesespotsorhasmade moves,wecandipdown,butwerecontenttoleaveitatthis.However,lotsoffactorsgoingforusfor ourbluffratio;wehaveposition,wereatinybitdeeper,hemadeaLPraise,wehavenohistory,theres noreasontoassumehesagamblingtype,andhesplayinghissolidgame.Ournormalratiois2:1,at thispoint(Especiallyiftheblindsareinert)weregoingtogotothemaxboundaryto5:1.Or,~13%of hands!Crazy,eh?MeanswerelikelycoldcallingJJ22,AQsA2s,repoppingthehandsaboveforvalue, and3bettingawiderangeofbluffhands:13%isthetier2stuffandoffsuitaces.SoitlookslikeKQs54s, KJs64s,KTsJ8s,AQoA2o.