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FAKULTI PENDIDIKAN DAN BAHASA

SEMESTER MAY/ 2013

OUMH2203SMP ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP)

NO. MATRIKULASI NO. KAD PENGENALAN NO. TELEFON E-MEL

: : : :

741117115249001 741117-11-5249 017-9797027 muhd_nazri@yahoo.com

PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN

TERENGGANU

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP

INTRODUCTION DISADVANTAGES OF MOBILE PHONES OUTWEIGHT ITS ADVANTAGES The uses of mobile phones were increased tremendously from year to year. According to a recent report from the World Bank, about 75% of the worlds population now has access to a mobile device as more than 6 billion people around the globe.1 Without a doubt, mobile phones have dramatically changed the way we live, communicate with others and do business. Due to this scenario, it can be seen that the use of mobile phone brings many benefits towards the humans. As the world came to new technology generation, people cannot live without mobile phones. However, many problems are appearing caused by mobile phones as it can be the cause of social and medical problems as the public concerns about health effects of mobiles phones receive a lot of coverage in the media. As so many people are using these technologies, researchers are concerned that any associated risks, even small ones, could cause significant problems. Thereto, the purpose of this report is to analyze the disadvantages of the mobile phones as it outweighs the advantages besides provides some recommendations towards these problems. Mobile phones nowadays can be said as lifesavers as they can help people in emergencies. If a person get stuck in the middle of the road and find no one for help, thus, they can just use a mobile phone and call for help. Mobile phones are comfortable way of communication over a long distance. Along with the obvious convenience and quick access to help in emergencies big and small, mobile phones can be both economical and essential for travelers trying to stay connected. However, along with all

Reid, A. (2012, September 27). Everyday Health. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from Huffpost Living Canada: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP these advantages there are many disadvantages for mobile phone usage as it can be seen from health and social perspectives. From health perspective, first and foremost, mobile phones may cause cancer towards its users. Despite numerous studies that indicate that there is no definite link between cancer and the use of mobile phones, there are a lot of people who continue to express fears that they will contract some form of cancer if they use their mobile phones too much. However, according to the research made by the World Health Organization (WHO), radiation from cell phones can possibly cause cancer.2 The agency lists mobile phone in the same carcinogenic hazard category as lead, engine exhaust and chloroform. 3

According to Dr. Keith Black, chairman of neurology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, the type of radiation coming out from mobile phones is called non-ionizing. This radiation is not like an X-ray, but more like a very low-powered microwave oven. According to him, the radiation from microwave is similar to what happens to food in microwaves, essentially cooking the brain. Besides to lead to a development of cancer,
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Dellorto, D. (2011, May 31). International Edition. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/
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ibid

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP there could be a whole host of other effects like cognitive memory function, since the memory temporal lobes are where we hold our cell phones."

Meanwhile, as accordance to Dr. Devra Davis, cell phones are two-way microwave radio that changes brain cells and alters glucose levels (the brains main fuel).4 Since a brain tumor utilizes unnecessary amounts of glucose, changes in glucose utilization may be a key mechanism to support tumor growth. Even short-term exposure to nerve cells from cell phones can increase glucose in the brain. There was a case that leads to a cancer which involves Innocente Marcolini, 60, an Italian businessman, fell ill after using a handset at work for up to six hours every day for 12 years. 5 Therefore, it was proven that the radiation from mobile phones have a higher tendency to cause a person to has a cancer. Secondly, the excessive use of mobile phones may cause infertility. Over the past two decades, the implication of cell phones radiation has come under intense scrutiny. A recent study conducted at the American Society of Reproductive Medicine by researchers in Cleveland Clinic presented that using cell phones endlessly may have some affect on
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Jacobs, E. (2012, August 21). Retrieved July 15, 2013, from elynjacobs: http://elynjacobs.wordpress.com/ Alleyne, R. (2012, October 19). Health. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP their sperm. The study done were evaluated towards 361 men and found that the more they chatted on the cell phone, the bigger the impact on their fertility as it can affect their sperms motility, mobility, and shape.6 The study conducted found that the infertility can be caused by the cell phones electromagnetic waves as it may cause the body temperature to increase from head to toe. The study also shows the semen that has been exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones had higher levels of damaging free radicals, lower sperm motility (the ability of the sperm to move and swim) and sperm viability (the percentage of live sperm), and possibly greater oxidative stress.

Besides that, according to the research conducted by students in Stanford University, about 15% of couples are affected by infertility, with about half resulting from male factor infertility. Many believe this infertility may be due to cell phone radiation affecting sperm quality in males.7

Lieberman, J. (2006, December 12). Today Consumer Correspondent. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from NBC News: http://www.today.com/
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Ferguson, K. (2012, June 2012). Retrieved July 13, 2013, from http://large.stanford.edu/

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP

The Effect of Cellular Devices on Male Infertility

Submitted as coursework for PH250, Stanford University, Spring 2012 Besides that, another research conducted by Biolnitiative Working Group 2012 has found that in last fifth years, health risk due to radiations has been increased substantially.8 The research also points out that a number of new studies link radiation to sperm damage. Even a mobile phone in the pocket may harm sperm DNA and result in infertility in men. Laptop computers with WiFi and mobile phone data card can also damage DNA in sperm. Despite medical problems, there are also social problems which may be arisen which regard to the use of mobile phone. Mobile phone addiction is a big social problem. Psychiatrists believe that mobile phone addiction is becoming one of the biggest nondrug addictions in the 21st century. Along with the age drop of the mobile phone users and the ease of prepaid method provide by the system operators, most teenagers now own
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Fankhauser, D. (2013, January 8). Mobile Phones can cause Infertility. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from FertilityWithinResearch: http://www.fertilitywithinreach.org/

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP their mobile phone and network service. Furthermore, new models of mobile phones are released almost every day. There are many latest models of mobile phones together with its applications such as games, Whatsapps and etc. In order to get up-to-date, people tend to change their mobile phones once in a while. These became habits among the mobile phone users causing them to spend unnecessary cost on mobile bills and costs. People are also engages on their mobile phones all the time, no matter on phone calls, using SMS text messages, personalizing the mobile phones with ringtones, pictures and etc. Another disadvantage by the use of mobile phone is it can caused criminal behavior among its users. The mobile phone is a new aid in criminal and antisocial behavior as it has been used to facilitate assaults, to facilitate harassment such as cyber bullying, to illegally advertise products, and to undermine law enforcement. In Australia mobile phones with texting capabilities, photo and video capabilities, and satellite positioning options make it possible for children to have constant access to the Internet. Much of this access is currently unsupervised. As a court report in Australia held that cell phones have taken the Internet out of schools and family computers and put it in children's pockets and pencil cases, offering 24 hours unmonitored access."9 Besides those problems, new antisocial behaviors at school include cheating during exams and petty theft.

Elizabeth Keating. (2007). Current Societal Problems with Mobile Phone Usage in 15 Countries. Austin: University of Texas.

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP Cyber bullying is a bullying act using offensive words and behavior via online chatting, emails or SMS text message. It was showed that the psychological effects of cyber bullying are much severe that face-to-face bullying. Bullying statistics show that cyber bullying is a serious problem among teens. Cyber bullying affects many adolescents and teens on a daily basis. Cyber bullying involves using technology, like cell phones and the Internet, to bully or harass another person. It can take many forms such as sending mean messages or threats to a person's email account or cell phone, spreading rumors online or through texts, posting hurtful or threatening messages on social networking sites or web pages, stealing a person's account information to break into their account and send damaging messages, pretending to be someone else online to hurt another person and by taking unflattering pictures of a person and spreading them through cell phones or the Internet.10 Cyber bullying can lead to anxiety, depression, and even suicide. Many cyber bullies think that bullying others online is funny. Cyber bullies may not understand the consequences for themselves of cyber bullying. The things teens post online now may reflect badly on them later when they apply for college or a job. Cyber bullies can lose their cell phone or online accounts for cyber bullying. Also, cyber bullies and their parents may face legal charges for cyber bullying, and if the cyber bullying was sexual in nature or involved sexing, the results can include being registered as a sex offender. Teens may think that if they use a fake name they won't get caught, but there are many ways to track someone who is cyber bullying.11 According to the survey made by the Cyberbullying Research Center, it was found that over 80 percent of teens use a cell phone regularly, making it the most popular form of technology and a common medium for cyber bullying.12 Besides that about half of young people have experienced some form of cyber bullying and 10 to 20 percent
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(n.d.). Retrieved July 10, 2013, from bullyingstatistics: http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/ ibid ibid

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ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP experience it regularly. The survey also found that girls are at least as likely as boys to be cyber bullies or their victims while boys are more likely to be threatened by cyber bullies than girls.The surveys conducted also found that cyber bullying victims are more likely to have low self esteem and have higher probability to commit suicide. Thereto, in order to overcome this problem, parents have a big responsibility to overcome these matters. First and foremost, parents must monitor their childs technology use. Regardless of how much the child resents it, parents can only protect him or her by monitoring what they do online. For instances, parents may keep the computer in a busy area of the house so that they can easily monitor its use, rather than allowing the child to use a laptop or tablet in his or her bedroom. Secondly, parents may limit data access to the child's smart phone if he or she uses it to surf the web. Some wireless providers allow turning off text messaging services during certain hours. Besides that, parents have a right to insist on knowing the child's passwords and learn the common acronyms kids use online and in text messages. Parents also may encourage the child to tell the or another trusted adult if they receive threatening messages or are otherwise targeted by cyber bullies, while reassuring them that doing so will not result in their loss of computer or mobile phone privileges. Parents also may talk to their teens about cyber bullying, explaining that it is wrong and can have serious consequences. Make a rule that teens may not send mean or damaging messages, even if someone else started it, or suggestive pictures or messages or they will lose their cell phone and computer privileges for a time.

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP

CONCLUSION In conclusion, although the uses of mobile phones are more important nowadays, however, people must change the way of using this technology. Here are some recommendations that can be followed in order to use mobile phones. First and foremost, in order to protect from cell phone radiation keep distance from the phone. The intensity of mobile phone radiation diminishes quickly as the distance from the mobile phone increases, and every millimeter counts. Besides that, people also may protect themselves from the effects of cell phone radiation by holding the mobile phone away from the body and by using a wired headset besides putting it on speaker mode and by using a wireless Bluetooth headset or earpiece, which emit radiation at far lower levels than cell phones. Lastly, people also may carry the mobile phone away from the body either in a purse, briefcase or computer bag instead of putting it in the pocket. Due to that, a problem of cancer and infertility may be avoided. 10

ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP

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ENGLISH FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION (SMP) OUMH2203SMP REFERENCES

(n.d.). Retrieved July 10, 2013, from bullyingstatistics: http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/ BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Alleyne, R. (2012, October 19). Health. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ Dellorto, D. (2011, May 31). International Edition. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/ Elizabeth Keating. (2007). Current Societal Problems with Mobile Phone Usage in 15 Countries. Austin: University of Texas. Fankhauser, D. (2013, January 8). Mobile Phones can cause Infertility. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from FertilityWithinResearch: http://www.fertilitywithinreach.org/ Ferguson, K. (2012, June 2012). Retrieved July 13, 2013, from http://large.stanford.edu/ jacobs, e. (2012, August 21). Retrieved July 15, 2013, from elynjacobs: http://elynjacobs.wordpress.com/ Lieberman, J. (2006, December 12). Today Consumer Correspondent. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from NBC News: http://www.today.com/ BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Reid, A. (2012, September 27). Everyday Health. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from Huffpost Living Canada: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/

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