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The Counseling Process Counseling Process- is a continuous, cyclical model in which the counsellor and client collaboratively set

goals, formulate actions plans, and assess progress toward the goal(s). -Throughout the process new information is integrated, the counsellor-client relationship is developed, and progress toward counseling goals is reassessed. Hackey and Cormier (1987) describes the counseling process as a series of steps through which the counsellor and client move. THE STEPS OF COUNSELING PROCESS STEP 1 RELATIONSHIP BUILDING. The first step involves building a relationship and focuses on engaging clients to explore issue that directly affect them. Carl Rogers (1957) was among the earliest to emphasise the importance of building a relationship between the counsellor and the client. He identified three important conditions for the establishment of an effective counsellor-client relationship: Empathy, Genuineness and Unconditional Caring. STEP 2 Problem Assessment. This step involves the collection and classification of information about the clients life situation and reasons for seeking counseling. STEP 3 Goal Setting. It involves making a commitment to set of conditions, to a course of action or an outcome. STEP 4 Counseling Intervention. Therapist and counsellor collaborate to accomplish the goals of the agreed upon treatment plan. The client is usually educated on treatment options and techniques that may help them to cope or relax.It is integral to the outcome of treatment that the client is included in their solution. Intervention refers to the act of using a technique within a therapy session. STEP 5 Evaluation, Termination or Referral. For the beginning counsellor; it is difficult to think of terminating the counselling process, as they are more concerned with beginning the counseling process. However, all counseling aims towards successful termination. Terminating the counselling process will have to be conducted with sensitivity with the client knowing that it will have an end. It is a stage of counseling that clients need to be prepared for and counsellors need to address early on in the counselling process to avoid abandonment.

Goals of Couseling 1. Achievement of positive mental health It is identified as an important goal of counselling by some individuals who laim that when one reaches positive mental health one learns to adjust and response more positively to people and situations. Kell and Mueller (1962) hold that the promotion and development of feelings of being liked, sharing with, and receiving and giving interaction rewards from other human beings is the legitimate goal of counselling. 2. Resolution of Problems Another goal of counselling is the resolving of the problem brought to the counsellor. This, in essence, is an outcome of the former goal and implies positive mental health. In behavioural terms three categories of behavioural goals can be identified, namely, altering maladaptive behaviour, learning the decision-making process and preventing problems (Krumboltz,1966). 3. Improving Personal Effectiveness Yet another goal of counselling is that of improving personal effectiveness. This is closely related to the preservation of good mental health and securing desirable behavioural change(s). 4. Counseling to Help Change Tiedeman (1964) holds that the goal of counselling is to focus on the mechanism of change and that the counselee should be helped in the process of becoming- the change which pervades the period of adolescence through early adulthood during which the individual is assisted to actualize his potential. Shoben (1965) also views the goal of counselling as personal development. 5. To make and Implement Decisions Some counsellors hold the view that counselling should enable the counselee to make decisions.It is through the process of making critical decisions that personal growth is fostered. Reaves and Reaves (1965)point out that the primary objective of counselling is that of stimulating the individuals to evaluate, make, accept and act upon his choice. 6. Modification of Behavior as a Goal Behaviorally- oriented counsellors stress the need for modification of behaviour, for example, removal of undesirable behaviour or action or reduction of an irritating symptom such that the individual attains satisfaction and effectiveness. Growth-oriented counsellors stress on the development of potentialities within the individual. Existentially-oriented counsellors stress selfenhancement and self-fulfilment. Obviously the latter cannot be realize without first securing the former, namely, symptom removal or reduction as a necessary pre-condition for personal effectiveness.