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Modeling, Design and Construction of Articulated Hand for use in prosthetics, with adaptive control in Neural Networks based on mathematical model for nger.

Emilio Soto, Oscar Baez Postgraduate Department and Basic Sciences line 2: Technological Institute of Puebla line 3: Puebla, Mexico line 4: sotobungee@hotmail.com, obaez70@hotmail.com Sergio Sosa Institute of Engineering and Design line 2: Technological of Monterrey line 3: Aguascalientes, Mexico line 4: sergio.sosa@itesm.mx

This project seeks to provide force control in the restraint of objets, by the myoelectric signals generated by a patient, and contribute to technological developments in the eld of prostheses myoelectric. A. Myoelectric Signal

Abstract An Articulated hand model was designed and built by CAD-CAM software, analyzed by nite element in the structure; the hand was made for a 3D printer in a rst time, the construction of each nger suggested a mathematical model [?] that describes the Inertia Matrix, Gravitational Matrix, and the Coreolis Matrix; the resulting mathematical model is three degrees of freedom, the nger control is based for Neural Networks [7] that determine the behavior of the actuators independent of each phalanx. Such movements react to capture a myoelectric signal [2], from amputee arm trans-radius [4], processing the myoelectric signal determines the closure or opening of the hand with ngers. The electrode design was created with a structural materials in carbon ber to delete the spurious signals [1], and obtain a clean command signal. Keywords-Prosthetics, Adaptive Control by Neural Networks, Myoelectric Signal, Mathematical Model of 3G.

We study the characteristics of the myoelectric signal wave for the purpose of capturing an electrical impulse from a motor unit of a muscle that point us in the duration of contraction, with that the patient determined the force that closes the prosthesis. After capturing the signal with the aid of electrodes, there is a ltering process and adaptation of the signal, so that we serve to control it.

I. I NTRODUCTION Research in this text is located in the catchment of a myoelectric signal to determine the force with which a prosthetic hand will be closed, the purpose of making a sketch of the patients desire to close or open the hand with a certain apprehension is possible with an adaptive control in software through neural networks theory, this is done with independent control of each nger articulated. For a patient suffering from upper limb amputation, its very important to design a prosthesis that will help the patient to have control of the gripping force of an object, so, if the object is fragile, will not damaged. In the investigation, the rst point is the detention of the duration of muscle contraction that generates a myoelectric signal to determine the strength with which each nger will be closed, with the help of a software control to move a nger in different times to other ngers, that will close the hand.

978-0-7695-4284-3/10 $26.00 2010 IEEE DOI 10.1109/MICAI.2010.34 107

Figure 1. Myoelectric signal generation.

As shown in Figure [9], the rms value of surface EMG is a nonlinear function of muscle strength, even when relations are obtained from small muscles of the hand or in others where the range of force is limited, what it tells us that the length of the muscle, its rate of exion-extension and the change the basis of their strength of the rms value. This propagation of energy that produces a myoelectric signal is the sum of a group of waves along a motor unit or assembly of myobrils, this can be further explored by an approximation of the sodium and Potassium pump which is the cause of this action with a circuit that gives a linearized equation of this wave of energy, known as the cable equation.[9]

(a) Figure 2.

Previous gure gives us the relations that can approximate the behavior of the signal generated, by what is determined that: Vm Membrane voltage (Volts) Cm Membrane capacitance (Farads) Rm Membrane resistance (Ohms) tm Time constant of the membrane (seg) Em Leakage reversal potential (Volts) Where we have: im + iiny = imc + imL + imr Substituting equations, in the inductor: imL = In the capacitor: C =

q V 1 L

These signals are an example of the signals processed by the microcontroller that contains the neural network for force control point of each nger, this signal is taken on its integration to obtain a pulse that approximates a square wave and calculate the duration of the pulse, for motor unit of the arm muscle. II. M ATHEMATICAL M ODEL OF FINGER The locomotion in a nger has an explanation in the kinematics, which can be explained by a dynamic model of the system to be developed from the kinematics, taking two degrees of freedom, the movement was study in the three phalanges, the last phalanx is not valid for the study, so to clarify the inertia of motion, coreolis matrix, pairs of gravity and whether the system can be controlled.

Vm dt

V C = q;

m Cm V t = imc

imR =

Vm Em Rm

2 Vm 1 ri +ro 2 x

Solving: im = imc + imL + imr iiny The equation of the cable, the circuit of the cell membrane is: 1 2 Vm Vm 1 = Cm + ri + ro 2 x t L 2 Vm Vm = C + L 2x t Vm dt + Vm Em Iiny Rm (1)

Figure 5.

Finger.

This factor is important to obtain a pulse rectied for the stage of system control, this largely depends on the proper functioning of the system, with the identication of the whole length of myoelectric signals, may determine the corresponding force that will be asked to make to the prosthetic control.

Essentially Newtonian and Lagrangian mechanics, is to obtain manageable models for computing systems, are essentially based on a principle of the kinematics of the two grades of the nger due to relative movement between the various elements, as well as centripetal forces that depend on the instantaneous conguration of the manipulator. The dynamics of the system can be expressed by a set of n nonlinear equations as follows. First Union: y1 z1 Second union: =

1C 1C

cos q1 sin q1

(3)

Figure 3.

y2 z2

108

1C 1C

cos q1 sin q1

2C 2C

cos(q1 + q2 ) sin(q1 + q2 )

(4)

1C

1C

q1 q2 q1 q2

(5)

Where q is a vector of n dimensions that describe the joints of the leg, is the vector of pair of entrance, C represents the Coriolis forces and centripetal caused by the movement of the segments of the leg, g models the effect of the gravity and M is the matrix of dimension inertia nn. The same we can show with the Lagrange: = d L L dt q q (8)

V1,1 V2,1

(6)

Where L is the Lagrange given by the analysis of the energies. L = kT (q, q )VT (q ); where k is the kinetic energy and V the potential energy, and are given by: kT = k1 + k2 k1 = k2 = And. VT = V1 + V2 = m1C gh1C + m2C gh2C V12 =

2 2 1 1q

The stability of the system is examined by the variation of a function to representative of its power state. A system nonlinear can imagine as a set of equations differentials nonlinear of form x = f (x, t). Although this equation explicitly does not contain the entrance of control like a variable, can be applied to feedback systems of control, since the entrance of control will be function of state x and function of time t. Therefore: x = f (x, or, t) and like U = g (x, t) replacing, we will have a dynamics in loop-back of x = f (x, g (x, t), t). In addition to which in a state x can be a set point of the system if f (x ) = 0. One time that x(t) has reached the state x , remains in this state for all future time. If the function V (x) is dened positive, it has derived partial continuous and his derived through a state trajectory is dened seminegative (V (x) 0), then we say that, V (x) is a function of Lyapunov of the system.[?] The Theory of Lyapunov for the local stability, say that, if in a surrounding exist a scale function V (x) with the rst derived partial continuous if:

1 1 2 m1C 2 1 + I1 q 2 2 1

1 1 m2C 2 1 + q 2 )2 2 + I2 (q 2 2

(12) (13)

V12 =

2 2 1 1q

2 1 2 (q

+q 2 )2 + (2

1 2

(15)

Having the result of the dynamic model of the system: M (q ) q= M1,1 M1,2 M2,1 M2,2 = m1 = m2 = m2 = m2

2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

Then we say that the set point is locally stable, if v (x) is dened negative locally, then the stability is asymptotic, for the global stability, then exist a scale function V of state x, with derived rst continuous so that:

M1,1 M2,1

M1,2 M2,2

q

1 2

(16) cos q2 + I2

Then the set point in the origin is asymptotically stable of global way. Then, we nd global asymptotic stability from a controller of position PD. The dynamics of the system can be similar the dynamic model of a robot that can express by n equations nonlinear, as it follows: M (q ) q + C (q, q ) + g (q ) = (7)

109

C (q, q )q =

m2

1 2

sin q2 q 1 m2 G1 G2

0

1 2

sin q2 q 1

q (17)

g (q ) = G1 = m1 G2 = m2

1C

(18)

2C

sin(q1 + q2 )

We now considered a controller made up of a term PD and a compensating term of the gravity. Therefore, the order of control for the found system will have the following form: = kD q kP q + g (q ) (19)

Considering the physical considerations of the structure of the leg, we will nd a function of Lyapunov adapted for our intentions. It is observed that the matrix of inertia M is dened positive for any value of q. The derivative proportional controller can be interpreted like a combination of amortization coefcients. The Lyapunov function candidate is: 1 T [q Mq + q T kP q ] (20) 2 Where the rst term represents the kinetic energy of the manipulator and the second represent an articial potential energy with the amortization of law of control PD. In order to derive the previous function we can consider the principle physical of which the rate of change of the energy of a mechanical system is equal to the energy provided by external forces. V = =q V ( g )q T kP q (21)

Figure 6.

(a)

(b)

The system in loopback will be asymptotically stable and the error will tend to zero. This indicates to us have a good controller designed and taking into account the movements and the inertial forces from the system in each one from its members, we can have a approximate control. It can be veried that the computational algorithm have a complexity O(n22 ) number of operations to make. III. I NSTRUMENTATION With the help of an instrumentation amplier, is captures the myoelectric signal of muscle tissue that is electrically neutral when at rest, so it is not detected nerve activity. During the contraction or relaxation originates an nerve impulse wave is detected in the membrane potential of cells that can range from 50V and 20mV . After deploying an electrode with instrumentation ampliers, the captures of the pulse duration to make a myoelectric muscle contraction in arm of the patient, indicating a duration of approximately 20mseg to 100mseg , but the patients pulse generation can be during a maximum of 2 seconds for control.

The actuators that were used are shown below along with their graphs of operation, giving a range of the type of sensor to use.

(a)

110

Table I C ONTROL VARIABLES TO P RESSURE S POT Myoelectric Pulse X1 seconds 0.167 0.333 0.500 0.667 0.833 1.000 1.167 1.333 1.500 1.667 1.833 2.000 Set Point of Pressure X2 percentage 8% 16% 24% 32% 40% 48% 56% 64% 72% 80% 88% 96% Pressure Spot Y1 Newtons 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

In the Myoelectric signal is observed nal form to the patients muscle contraction, implying that the signal remains a sum of several waves that propagated in the motor unit, but it is enough to determine by means of a programming code in the microprocessor, the force that the patient wishes. The proposed control is an adaptive control based on neural networks, which gets its data via myoelectric pulse duration, this information is sufcient for the system to interpret the force that close the hand, this is done through a table with initial data, to by calculated for neural network. The control system of each nger in the hand is shown.

adjust the weights during a learning phase in which all the examples are presented to the ANN repeatedly. Tan-sigmoid transfer function (tan-hyperbolic) was used as an activation function for hidden and output layers. After the learning phase the ANN can be used to obtain the answer to an input pattern. For this purpose, the MATLAB 7.0 software package dedicated to neural network modelling was used [12] ]. The neurons of the input layer correspond to the control process parameters (Myoelectric Pulse and Set Point of Pressure). The output neurons correspond to the control performance parameter to be evaluated (Pressure Spot). The network also includes one hidden layer, which helps the network in learning the non-linear mapping between the input and output layers. The mean square error (MSE) was chosen as performance function for supervised training. As each input is applied to the network, the network output is compared to the target. We want to minimize the average of the sum of these errors. The MSE algorithm adjusts the weights and biases of the linear network so as to minimize this mean square error. In essence, the MLP training procedure aims at obtaining an optimal weight set that minimizes a pre-specied error function. The error is computed as the difference between the target and network output values. The error function is the MSE and error of learning (e(k )) are dened as: M SK = 1 Q

Q

e(k )2

k=1

(23) (24)

e(k ) = yi (k ) gi (k )

Figure 8.

Control system.

The experimental data are shown in the table I, given by myoelectric signals obtained, the force generated by the piston and the pressure given by the sensor. IV. ANN M ODELING The neural network stores the information in the strength of the neuron interconnection through so-called weights. Because the weights of the link between the neurons can not be pre-determinate for a large scale neural network, the learning ability is necessary for a neural network to

111

where Q refers to the number of input-output example patterns used in training, i the index of the example pattern (vector) and, yi (k ) and gi (k ) the desired (target) and MLP predicted values of the k th output node, respectively. The network overtting occurs when: the network is training excessively (overtraining) and/or the network architecture has more hidden nodes than necessary (overparametrization). There are different procedures for obtaining optimal network architecture [10] The experimental results of criteria (Y1 ) have been used for the learning phase of the neural network. The most popular and successful learning algorithm used to train multi-layers networks is the back propagation (BP) scheme. Like the quasi-Newton methods, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was designed to approach second-order training speed without having to compute the Hessian matrix. The results the MSE for Mk of Training was estimated 7.411e+7. And the correlation coefcient R of individual for Y1 output variables was calculated for Training 0.9993. This model was based on the multilayer perceptron architecture [11]. In the next Figure 9 shows the comparison between ANN and Pressure Spot computed values.

Figure 9.

V. F INAL D ESIGN AND C ONSTRUCTION OF A RTICULATED H AND The rst stage is the designed of the prosthesis, in a commercial package was design to determined to build size and parts, as well as the pistons to be used for the movement of each nger. So the design is as follows with the stress analysis of parts. After analysis, the hand was printed, to the assembly of actuators, the placement of the sensors and the control tests with Microcontroller.

Figure 11.

Comercial outline.

R EFERENCES

[1] H.S. Nalwa, Handbook of Nanostrucutred Materials and Nanotechnology, Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 2000. [2] Jakko Malmivuo, Bioelectromagnetismo, Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields, Oxford University Press: New York, USA, 1995. [3] Paul J. Rosch, Marko S.Markov, Bioelectromagnetic Medicine, Marcel Dekker: New York, USA, 2004. [4] Richard L. Drake, Wayne Vogl, Adam W. M. Mitchell, Anatomy for Students, Elsevier: Madrid, Spain, 2007. [5] Proakis and ManolakisH, Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall: USA, 1996.

(a)

(b)

[6] Astrom and Wittenmark, Computer Controlled Systems, Paraninfo: Madrid, Spain, 1998. [7] Omidvar and Elliott, Neural Systems for Control, Academia Press: California, USA, 1997. [8] Khalil, Nonlinear Systems, Prentice Hall: Michigan, USA, 2002. [9] Paul J. Rosch, Marko S.Markov, Bioelectromagnetic Medicine, Marcel Dekker: New York, USA, 2004.

[10] Nandi S., Ghosh S., Tambe S.S.,Kulkarni B.D., Articial Neural Network Assisted Sthochastic Process Optimization Strategies, AlChE J, volume = 47, No = 10, pages = 126, 2001. [11] Chen S., Billings S.A., Neural networks for non linear dynamic system modeling and identication, International Journal of Control, volume = 56, no = 2, pages = 319-346, 1996. [12] Matlab Inc., Matlab, Neural Network Toolbox, User Guide, USA, 2007. [13] Aha, D.W. and Bankert, R.L., Proceedings of the AAAI94 Workshop on CaseBased Reasoning, 3Seattle, WA, page: 106112, USA, 1994.

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