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# Phase Controlled Rectifiers ______ (AC/DC Converters)

Objectives
Principle o f controlled rectification. Single phase and 3 phase converters. Half wave and full wave converters. Bridge converters -------- semicoi semiconverter * full bridge converter

Resistive, inductive and motor (RLE) loads on converters. Continuous and discontinuous output current operation and its effects. Inverting operation (power flow from load to source) in case o f full converters. Effects o f feedback diode and freewheeling operation. Harmonic analysis o f converters.

3.1

Introduction

## 3.1.1 Principle of AC/DC Conversion (Controlled Rectifier)

Controlled rectifiers are basically AC to DC converters. The power

Controlled rectifier

controlled by controlling triggering angle of the devices. Fig. 3.1.1 shows this operation.

(3-1)

3 -2

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

The triggering angle ' a of the devices is controlled by the control circuit. The input to the controlled rectifier is normally AC mains. The output of the controlled rectifier is adjustable DC voltage. Hence the power transferred across the load is regulated.

Applications :

The controlled rectifiers are used in battery chargers, DC drives, DC power supplies etc. The controlled rectifiers can be single phase or three phase depending upon the load power requirement.

## 3.1.2 Concept of Commutation

Answer following question after reading this topic 1 . What d o you mean by commutation o f SCR ? Give types o f commutations. Explain natural commutation in details.
Marks (6), May-2007 I \ J Most likely and masked In previous
niversity E xam

D efinition : Commutation is the collective operation, which turns of the conducting SCR.

Commutation requires external conditions to be imposed in such a way that either current through SCR is reduced below holding current or voltage across it is reversed. There are two types of commutation techniques.

Fig. 3.1.2
Forced com m u tation : It requires external components to store energy and it is

used to apply reverse voltage across the SCR or reduce anode current below holding current of the SCR to turn it off.

3 -3

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

C u rren t com m u tation : The SCR is turned off by reducing its anode current

## below holding current.

V oltage com m u tation : The SCR is turned off by applying large reverse voltage

across it.
P rinciple o f lin e com m u tation

The natural commutation does not need any external components. It uses supply (mains) voltage for turning off the SCR. Hence it is also called as line commutation.
Explanation

Mains AC

Fig. 3.1.3 A half wave rectifier uses natural commutation to turn off SCR

Fig. 3.1.3 shows the circuit using natural commutation. It is basically half wave rectifier. The mains AC supply is applied to the input. The SCR is triggered in the positive half cycle at a. Since the SCR is forward biased, it starts conducting and load current i0 starts flowing. The waveforms of currents and voltages are shown in Fig. 3.1.4. Since the load is resistive,

## j::::::::::::::::::: I::::::::::;,:::::::;:::::;:::::::::::: ::::::::::::

31113S HIS sstS :!t H :3 S !t:S!?:!:

## SHi !H9 5SI! 8 : HIE B i:! HHi IS

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: I:::::::::::::::::;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:;::::-.;:

Fig. 3.1.4 W aveforms of half wave controlled rectifier to illustrate natural commutation

3-4

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Hence the shape of the output current is same as output voltage. Observe that the output current is basically SCR current. At 'rf the supply voltage is zero. Hence current through SCR becomes zero. Therefore the SCR turns off. The supply voltage is then negative. This voltage appears across the SCRs and it does not conduct. Thus natural commutation takes place without any external components. Here note that natural commutation takes place only when the supply voltage is AC. Thus the controlled rectifiers use natural commutation.

3.1.3

Forced Commutation

## 3.1.3.1 Principle of Forced Commutation

Forced commutation is used when the supply is D.C. A commutation circuit is connected across the SCR as shown in Fig. 3.1.5. The commutation circuit is normally LC circuit. The LC circuit stores energy when the SCR is ON. This energy is used to turn-off the SCR. The LC circuit imposes reverse bias across the SCR due to stored energy. Hence forward current of SCR is dropped below holding current and the SCR tums-off. There are different types of forced commutation circuits depending upon the way they are connected.

LC circuit

## 3.1.3.2 Classification of Forced Commutation

Forced commutation circuits can be classified depending upon whether voltage or current is used for commutation. Similarly the classification can be made based on whether the load resonates or commutation components are separate. Some times additional SCR is used for commutation main SCR. Such techniques are called auxiliary commutation methods. Based on these classifications following are some of the main commutation techniques : 1. Self commutation by resonating load and LC circuit 2. Auxiliary voltage commutation (impulse commutation) 3. Auxiliary current commutation (resonant pulse commutation) 4. Complementary commutation 5. External pulse commutation.

3 -5

## 3.1.3.3 Comparison of Natural Commutation and Forced Commutation

Table 3.1.1 shows the comparison between natural and forced commutation techniques.
Sr. No. Natural commutation Forced commutation

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

No external commutation components are required. Requires AC voltage at the input. Used in controlled rectifiers, AC voltage controllers etc. No power loss takes place during commutation SCR turns off due to negative supply voltage. Cost of the commutation circuit is nil.

External commutation components are required. Works on DC voltages at the input. Used in choppers, inverters etc. Power loss takes place in commutating components. SCR can be turned-off due to voltage and current both. Cost of the commutation circuit is significant.

3.2

## Single Phase H alf W ave C onverter and Effect of Freewheeling Diode

3.2.1 Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with Resistive Load
Answer following question after reading this topic 1. Explain the operation o f 1 < \ >half wave converter with the help o f circuit diagram and waveforms.

## M ost likely and

Important
Q u estion

The principle of phase controlled operation can be explained with the help of half wave controlled rectifier shown in Fig. 3.2.1. The secondary of the transformer is connected to resistive load through thyristor or SCR Ty The primary of the transformer is connected to the mains supply. In the positive cycle of the supply, Tj is forward biased. T{ is triggered at an angle a. This is also called as triggering or firing delay angle. Tj conducts and secondary (i.e. supply) voltage is applied to the load. Current i0 starts flowing through the load. The output current and voltage waveforms are shown in Fie. 3.2.2.
Fig. 3.2.1 Half wave controlled rectifier with R-load.

3-6

## Since the load is resistive, output current is given as,

Hence the shape of output current waveform is same as output voltage waveform. At n supply voltage drops to zero. Hence current i0 flowing through 7^ becomes zero and it turns off. In the negative half cycle of the supply Tj is reverse biased and it does not conduct. There is only one pulsve of V0 during one cycle of the supply. Hence ripple frequency of the output voltage is, fripple = 50 Hz -e- supply frequency

3-7

## The average value of output voltage is given as,

Vo(av) = f ! vc

1 T
0

dot

The period of one pulse of v0 (cot) can be considered as T = 2 n. And v0 (cot) =Vm sin cot from a to jr. For rest of the period v0 (cof) = 0. Hence above equation can be written as,
V o (a v )
7T

1 7 1

2n J

## ... (3.2.1) The power transferred to the load will be,

V U )

o(a v )

Thus the output average voltage and power delivered by the controlled rectifier can be controlled by phase control (i.e. a). The phase control in converters means to control the delay (or triggering) angle a.

## 3.2.2 Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with RL Load

Now let us study the operation of single phase half wave controlled rectifier for inductive (RL) load. Normally motors are inductive load. L is the armature or field coil inductance and R is the resistance of these coils. Fig. 3.2.3 shows the circuit diagram of half wave controlled rectifier with RL load. The SCR will be forward biased in the positive half cycle of the supply. Hence SCR is applied with the firing pulses in the positive half cycle. The waveforms are 00 x u iU shown in Fig. 3.2.4. Fig. 3.2.4(a) shows the supply voltage and Fig. 3.2.4(b) shows the

. . . .

3 -8

## Fig. 3.2.4 W aveform s of half wave controlled rectifier for RL load

When the SCR is triggered, the supply voltage appears across load. We normally neglect small voltage drop in SCR. Hence v0 =vs when SCR is conducting. This is shown in Fig. 3.2.4(c). Observe that output voltage is same as supply voltage after a. Because of the RL load, output current starts increasing slowly from zero. The shape of i0 depends upon values of R and L. At n , the supply voltage becomes zero and i0 is maximum. Due to negative supply voltage after n, SCR tries to turn-off. But energy stored in the load inductance generates the voltage L - ~ . This induced voltage forward biases the SCR and maintains it in conduction. This is shown in Fig. 3.2.5. The basic property of inductance is that it opposes change in current. At n , the current i0 is maximum. As SCR tries to turn-off due to negative supply voltage, the output current i0 tries to go to zero. Such change in i0 is opposed by load inductance. Hence the energy stored in an inductance tries to maintain i0. To maintain the flow of i0, inductance generates the voltage with

polarity as shown in Fig. 3.2.5. This voltage is higher than negative supply voltage. Hence Tj is forward biased and it remains in conduction. The output current and supply current

3 -9

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

flow in the same loop. Hence i0 =is all the time. The waveform of i0 is shown in Fig. 3.2.4(d) and is is shown in Fig. 3.2.4 (e). After 7 1 , i0 (i.e. is ) flows against the supply. Hence energy is consumed in the supply. i0 flows due to load inductance energy. In other words, the inductance energy is partially fed to the mains and to the load it self. Therefore energy stored in inductance goes on reducing. Hence i0 also goes on reducing as shown in Fig. 3.2.4 (d). At P the energy stored Fig. 3.2.5 SCR conducts due to in ductance voltage after n in the inductance is finished. Hence i0 goes to zero. Therefore T. tums-off. In Fig. 3.2.4(c) observe that v0 is negative from n to p . Because Tj conducts from n to p . Hence whenever Tj conducts v0 =vs . The SCR is triggered again at 2 71 + a. Hence output voltage remains zero from p to 271+ex. Output current as well as supply current are also zero from p to 2?i+a. At 2n + ar Tj is triggered again and the cycle repeats. Here i0 goes to zero at p. Hence this is called discontinuous conduction. > Example 3.2.1 : Derive an expression fo r average value o f output voltage fo r 1 < j) half wave controlled rectifier with RL load.
Solution : For discontinuous conduction, the output voltage waveform is shown in

Fig. 3.2.4(c). The output voltage waveform repeats at the period of T = 2ti . The average value is given as,
T o(av

... (3.2.2)

In Fig. 3.2.4 observe that, v0(<at) v\$ = Vm sin (oI 0 from a top from 0 to a and p to2 n

f V

## sin cof dwt = - -[-coscof]^ 2 71 (3.2.3)

Vo(av) = y ^ (cos< x-cosP ) This is an expression for average value of output voltage.

3-10

## 3.2.3 Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with Freewheeling Diode

Answer following question after reading this topic 1. C om p are freew heelin g d iod es an d fe e d b a c k diodes.
Marks [31. D ec.-2 0 0 6 , 2 0 0 8

Now let us consider the half wave controlled rectifier with freewheeling diode across the RL load. This circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 3.2.6. The SCR is triggered at firing angle of a in positive half cycle of supply. Hence v0 =vs . The waveform of v0 is shown in Fig. 3.2.7(c). Observe that from a to n , v0 is same as supply voltage vs . The freewheeling diode (Dfvv) is reverse biased, hence it does not Fig. 3.2.6 Freewheeling diode in half wave controlled rectifier conduct. The output current i0 increases from zero as shown in Fig. 3.2.7(d). This is shown in equivalent circuit-I in Fig. 3.2.7. See Fig. 3.2.7 on next page. After 7i, the supply voltage becomes negative. Hence SCR tries to turn-off. Therefore i0 tries to go to zero. Observe that i0 is maximum at n. But the load inductance does not allow i0 to go to zero. The energy stored in inductance generates the voltage L with polarity as shown in Fig. 3.2.8.

The induced inductance voltage forward biases freewheeling diode as well as SCR. Fig. 3.2.8 Freewheeling action in half But freewheeling diode (DFW) is more wave controlled rectifier forward biased. Hence it starts conducting. Therefore Tj tums-off. The output current now flows through the freewheeling diode. In Fig. 3.2.8 observe that i0 = ifW when freewheeling diode conducts. Here iFW is freewheeling current. Fig. 3.2.8(d) and (e) shown that i0 =iFW when freewheeling diode conducts. The freewheeling current flows only due to energy stored in the load inductance. The output current flows in the load itself. Thus inductance energy is supplied back to the load itself. This process is called freewheeling. If load energy is fed back to the supply (mains), then it is called feedback. The energy of inductance goes on decreasing after n .

3-11

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Equivalent circuit - 1

Equivalent circuit - II

## Fig. 3.2.7 Waveforms o f half wave converter with freewheeling diode

Hence i0 also goes on reducing. At p the inductance energy is finished. Hence i0 becomes zero at p. Thus freewheeling diode conducts from n to p. The output is shorted due to freewheeling diode. Hence v0 - 0 whenever freewheeling diode conducts. This is shown in Fig. 3.2.7(c) also. During freewheeling Tj is off. Hence no supply current flows. Therefore

3-12

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

is = 0 during freewheeling period. T: conducts from a to n . Hence i0 = is from a to n as shown in Fig. 3.2.7.
Comparison between freewheeling diodes and feedback diodes
Sr. No. Freewheeling diodes Feedback diodes

1.

Load energy is utilized in load itself through freewheeling diodes. Freewheeling diodes have to carry full load current. Free wheeling diodes are slower.

Load energy is feedback to the source through feedback diodes. Feedback diodes carry full load current some times. Feedback diodes should be fast.

2.

3.

Example 3.2.2 : Derive an expression fo r average value o f output voltage fo r 1 < j>half wave controlled rectifier fo r RL load and freewheeling diode. Solution : Fig. 3.2.7(c) shows the output voltage waveform. From this we can write,

vs = Vm sin cot 0

## The period of v0 is 2 n . The average value is given as,

o(av)

1 f 1 = f v0(at) d(0 t =
0

## ^ [ coscot] j-[l + cosa] ,.(3.2.4)

o(av)

Here note that average output voltage is same as that of resistive load given by equation 3.2.1. This is because output voltage waveforms are same in both the cases.
Example 3.2.3 : A single phase half wave controlled rectifier is used to supply power to

10 Q load from 230 V, 50 Hz supply at a firing angle o f 30. Calculate - i) Average output voltage ii) Effective output voltage Hi) Average load current.
Solution : The given data is,

R = 10 Q, V, = 230 V a = 30 =

230 V2

3-13

## i) T o obtain av erage output voltage V0 (av)

The load is resistive. For this load V0tav\ is given by equation 3.2.1 as V., Vo (av ) = ^ - ( 1 + c o s c x )
1 71

22,042 ( ,

= ^

r [ 1+cos6

= 96.6 V
ii) To obtain effective o utp u t voltage v 0 , s ,

## The rms value is given as,

Vo(rm s)

i j Vy (of) diot
. 0

From the output voltage waveform of Fig. 3.2.2 we can write, 1 * J v* sin 2 cof dcot

V.o(rms)

Vm i f 1 -c o s 2 (0 / 2n J -------2-------di0t

## V, m J dcot- J cos 2 ( 0 1 dcot 47 1

/ V

\Vm 1I k . I V.

n sin 2wf" a 2 a

J
... (3.2.5)

a sin 2 a 1 + 7 1 271

This is an expression for effective rms value of half wave controlled rectifier. Putting values in above equation,

3 -1 4

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

160.27 V iii) To obtain average load current I 0(av) The I0(av) can be calculated as,

_ K(av)
*0(00) ' R

Example 3.2.4 : A single phase half wave converter is operated from a 120 V, 50 Hz supply and the load resistance R = 10 Q. If the average output voltage is 25 % o f the maximum possible average output voltage calculate -

i) Delay angle a ii) The rms and average output currents Hi) The rms and average thyristor currents iv) The input pow er factor.
Solution : Given data

Supply voltage Vs = 120; hence Vm = V 2 x l2 0 = 169.7 V, Load resistance, R = 10 Q Average output voltage VQ (av) = 25 % of V0^ av^ maximum i) To obtain delay angle a The average output voltage of half wave converter is given by equation 3.2.1 as,

V0(av)

## be maximum at a = 0. Hence above equation will be,

n It is given that the average output voltage is 25 % of its maximum valve, i.e.,
V o (a v ) = 25 % o f V o (a v )m a x

= 0.25 x 54 = 13.5 V

3-15

## Putting values in above equation, 13.5 1697

2k

(l + cos a )

Solving above equation for a, a = 2.09 radians = 120 ii) To obtain rms and average output currents Average value of output current is given as, V.
o(av)

R 13.5 10 1.35 A

The rms value of output voltage is given by equation 3.2.5 for half wave converter, i.e., . 2a 1 a + sin
K 2
k

Vo(rms)

1697 1 209 |sin(2x2.09) ir 2 ti = 37.718 V Hence rms output current will be,
o(rms)

^o(rms) R 37718
10

3.77 A

iii) RM S and average thyristor currents The waveforms of half wave converter are given in Fig. 3.2.2. There is only one thyristor and output current flows through this thyristor. Hence thyristor current is same as output current. Therefore rms and average valves of thyristor current will be same as these of output current, i.e.,
T(av) o(av)

1.35 A

and

^T(rms)

^o(rms) = 3.77 A

3-16

## iv) T o obtain in p u t p ow er facto r *

Since the load is resistive, the rms value of load current will be same as rms value of supply current. Note that the same current flows in supply and load, i.e.,
^s(rms) = ^o(rms) = 3 .7 7 A

The total supply power will be, Total supply power = Vs(rms) Is(rms) = 120 x 3.77 = 452.4 VA The active load power will be, Active load power = V 2 Vo(av) K (13.5)'
10

18.225

Power factor =

Active load power Total supply power 18.225 452.4 0.04 (lagging)

> Example 3.2.5 : For a single phase half wave converter having resistive load o f 'R ' and

## , determine ii) Form factor iv) PIV rating o f thyristor

INOV.-2007,10 M arksl

## Solution : G iven data

f e ( l + c o s f ) = 0.159
Vo(av)

0.159 VJ,
R

o(av)

V.o(rms)

a sin 2 a 1 + ----7 1 2 7t

/o Sm K 27 1

3-17

## i) To obtain rectification efficiency

P(tc ^o(av)

Pac

Vo(rms) I o(rm\$)

= 0.2028 or 20.28 %

## ii) To obtain form factor

FF

V, o(rms) V, o(av)

## iii) To obtain ripple factor

RF = -J fF 2 - 1 =
iv) To obtain PIV rating

y j{ 2 .2 2 ) 2

- 1 = 1.982

Peak value of supply voltage appears across SCR in negative half cycle. Hence

3.3

## Single Phase Sem iconverters (Half Bridge Converter)

The semiconverter is also called as half bridge converter.

## 3.3.1 Circuit Diagram

Fig. 3.3.1(a) shows the circuit diagram of single phase semiconverter. Observe that the semiconverter has two SCRs 7^ and T2 . There are two diodes D1 and D2. The input is 230 50 Hz AC supply. The output V0 o f the semiconverter is DC. The load 'R' is connected across the output. Fig. 3.3.1 (b) shows isolated cathode configuration. Both the configurations of Fig. 3.3.1 are
Fig. 3.3.1(a) Circuit diagram of 1 (j>semiconverter (Common cathode configuration)

3-18

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

A
230 V, 50 Hz AC supply
o---------- <Tv

d,

## Fig. 3.3.1 (b) 1 < } ) Semiconverter (isolated cathode configuration)

symmetric. In case of common cathode configuration. The cathods of both the SCRs can be made common. But in case of isolated cathode configuration, the gate drives of both the SCRs should be completely isolated. But both the circuits are functionally same.

## 3.3.2 Working with Resistive Load

Answer following question after reading this topic. 1. With the help o f circuit diagram and waveforms, explain the operation o f three p hase sem iconverter fo r 'R' load fo r a = 0, 3 0 6 0 and 90. Marks [10], D ec.-2006, 2 0 0 8

5t likely and

University E x am

Let us consider the working of 1 < | > semiconverter having resistive load. In the positive half cycle of the supply, SCR Tj and diode D2 are forward biased. SCR Tj is triggered at firing angle a. Current flows through the load. The equivalent circuit is shown below.

Fig. 3.3.2 Conduction o f 7^ and D 1 in positive half cycle of the supply. Dotted line shows path of current flow

and

V0 _ V Ys R R

3-19

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Fig. 3.3.3 shows the waveforms of this circuit. The waveform of V0 is same as supply voltage Vs , when Tj -D ? conducts. Since the load is resistive, the output current waveform is same as voltage waveform. This is because,

3 - 20

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Thus amplitude of V0 is only reduced by the factor 'R' to give i0. But the shape of the current waveform does not change. In the Fig. 3.3.2 observe that iT1 is the SCR Tj current, and is is the supply current. Basically i0, iT1 and is is the same current. Hence, i0 = is = iTi (when T7 -D 2 conducts)

These currents are in the same direction and flow in the same loop. The waveforms of these currents are also shown in Fig. 3.3.3. See Fig. 3.3.3 on previous page. SCR Tj and diode D j conduct till n, at 7i supply voltage is zero. Hence current through SCR Tx drops to zero. Hence tums-off. After ti , the supply voltage is negative and Tx is reverse biased. Hence the output voltage V0 is also zero. At rc+a, SCR T2 is triggered. It starts conducting, since it is forward biased because of negative cycle of the supply. The current i0 flows through load, T2 and D2. Such equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3.3.4.

Fig. 3.3.4

Conduction of T2-D2 in negative half cycle of the supply. Dotted line shows path of current flow

From the above equivalent circuit observe that positive of Vs is connected to positive of V0. Hence V0 remains positive even if supply polarity (i.e. negative cycle) is reversed. Hence we can write, V0 = and i0 = V = V ...(3.3.3) ...(3.3.4)

In Fig. 3.3.4 observe that current through T2 flows in the same direction as i0. Hence i T2 Similarly i0 and is is the same current, but their directions are opposite as shown in Fig. 3.3.4. Hence, = - *0 The waveforms of all the currents and voltages are shown in Fig. 3.3.3. At I n , the supply voltage is zero. Hence T2 turns off. After 2 n T2 is reverse biased. Then Tj is triggered again at 2n + a and the complete cycle repeats.

3 - 21

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Example 3.3.1 : For the 1 < | ) semiconverter having resistive load o f 'R' determine the

following : i) Average output voltage V0^ av^ ii) RMS output voltage V0(rms)
Solution : i) Average output voltage :

## The average output voltage is given as,

Observe the waveform of output voltage in Fig. 3.3.3. It has a period n. Hence above equation can be written as,

In the above equation V0 (cof) = Vm sin cot from a to n . Solving the above integration we get, ... (3.3.5)

(rms)

... (3.3.6)

3-22

3.3.3

## Working with Inductive (R-L) Load

1. Draw the circuit diagram, voltage and current waveform fo r a = 60, RL load o f semi-converter. Marks[8], May-2007

## Most likely and

University E x am

Normally the semiconverters are used to drive the DC motors. These motors are basically inductive (R-L) load. Hence it is necessary to consider the working of semiconverter with R-L load also. With the inductive load, the three modes are possible : i) Continuous load current ii) Discontinuous load current iii) Continuous and ripple free current for large inductive load.

## 3.3.3.1 Continuous Current Mode

Answer following question after reading this topic. 1. How freewheeling is present inherently in the semiconverters?

In this mode, the current flows continuously in the load because of inductive effect. The waveforms of load current and load voltage are shown in Fig. 3.3.5. In these waveforms observe that SCR T. and diode Dj conducts from a to it. Since the load is inductive current keeps on increasing (saturating) and it is maximum at k . At n, even though the supply voltage is zero, current doesnot go to zero. This is because load inductance opposes this sudden change of current. The load inductance generates a large voltage so as to maintain load current. This current flows through T, and D2 . The equivalent circuit of this operation is shown in Fig. 3.3.6. The SCR Tj conducts even after n , since it is forward biased due to voltage induced in the load inductance i.e. L . Diode D2 is also forward biased due to this voltage. Hence current does not flow through supply i.e. is when freewheeling action takes place. Thus the energy stored in the load inductance is fedback to load itself in freewheeling action. SCR T2 is triggered at rc+a and the output current starts increasing. Since the current i0 is continuous, it is called continuous current mode of semiconverter. The similar

3 - 23

## Fig. 3.3.5 Waveforms of 1 < J >semiconverter for continuous load current

operation takes place when T2 and D2 conducts in negative half cycle of the supply. Fig. 3.3.5 shows supply current (/..), freewheeling current and other waveforms for inductive load. Note that the output voltage waveform remains same. If there is freewheeling diode in semiconverter, then freewheeling current flows through this diode.

3-24

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

^ D2|___j ^ D1

Fig. 3.3.6 Freewheeling action takes place through T y D2 Average value of output voltage with inductive load

Compare the output voltage waveforms of Fig. 3.3.3 (resistive load) and Fig. 3.3.5 (inductive load). The voltage waveforms are same. Hence average and RMS values of output voltage are also same. i.e. for inductive load, From equation 3.3.5 V.o(av) V,
+C O S )

... (3.3.7)

## From equation 3.3.6

\ Vm 2 V - 1 o(rms) 1 2 7l

7 i-a + i sin 2 a

r
l
k

... (3.3.8)

## 3.3.3.2 Discontinuous Current Mode

In this mode, the current through the load becomes zero for some duration. Hence it is called discontinuous current mode. Fig. 3.3.7 shows the waveforms of discontinuous current mode of semiconverter. (See Fig. 3.3.7 on next page). As shown in above waveforms, Tj -D ? conducts from a to and the load current i0 goes on increasing. At n supply voltage is zero. But because of inductance, i0 does not go to zero. The load inductance induces a large voltage L to maintain current in the same

direction. Hence i0 continuous to flow and it goes to zero at p. Since next SCR T2 is triggered at 7i+a (See Fig. 3.3.7), output current is discontinuous. Freewheeling takes place from 7i to p. The freewheeling current flows through Tj and D2- Similar operation repeats in next half cycle. Observe that the voltage waveform remains same in discontinuous mode also. Hence ^o(av) anc* ^o(kms) are same as tf*at o f resistive load.

3 - 25

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Fig. 3.3.7 Discontinuous mode of single phase semiconverter 3.3.3.3 Continuous and Ripple Free Current for Large Inductive Load

Answer following question after reading this topic With the help o f neat circuit diagram, m ode equivalent circuits and waveforms o f supply voltage, supply current, output voltage, output current, explain the operation o f a single phase half controlled bridge feeding a level (highly inductive) load.
Marks [5], D ec.-2000; Marks [10], May-2006

## M ost likely and

University E x am

As the load inductance increases, the ripple in i0 reduces. When the load inductance is very large, the ripple in i0 will be negligible. And i0 can be treated as continuous and ripple free. Fig. 3.3.8 shows the waveforms of Ity semiconverter for large inductive load. The load current is continuous and ripple free. Observe that the output voltage waveform is same as resistive load. But the current waveforms are different. The output current is constant DC of amplitude I^ avy The SCRs conduct for n radians. Hence SCR current is square wave. The supply current has the amplitudes of i ^ avy The supply current is zero whenever freewheeling action takes place.

3 - 26

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Fig. 3.3.8 Waveforms of 1 < J > semi converter for highly inductive load Example 3.3.2 : Derive an expression for output current for RLE load driven by 2 < j> semiconverter. Assume continuous conduction. Solution : Fig. 3.3.9 shows the circuit diagram of 1 < J > semiconverter for RLE load.

(Fig. 3.3.9 see on next page). Normally, the RLE load is motor load. L is the inductance of the motor and R is the resistance of the inductance. E is an induced emf in the motor. The waveforms of this circuit will be similar to those shown in Fig. 3.3.5. From a to n , T|- D 1 conducts and

3-27

vs = Vm sin

## Fig. 3.3.9 A 1 < J > sem iconverter driving RLE load

supply voltage vs is applied to the load. Hence an equivalent circuit will be as shown below :

Vm sin cot

0
Fig. 3.3.10 Equivalent circuit when T y D 1 or T2- D2 conduct

By KVL in above circuit we get, di.A wt) Vm sin cof = R io l(<at) + L 2i_ + This equation can be solved using laplace transform. The solution is,
< 01(cof) = ^ - s i n ( w ( - 0 ) + i o l(O)e ' L

... (3.3.9)

Here

Z = e -

2 (toil)2

/ ol(0) is initial current at cof = a. From k to ;c+ a freewheeling takes place. T^D2 conduct in this duration. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3.3.11.

j i

3-28

For to n + a

## By KVL to this circuit we can write, R io2((ot) + L d io2((*t) dt +E = 0

This equation can be solved using laplace transform. The solution is, io2( >t) = E 1 n R (l~ e L) (3.3.10)

o2

Here iQ 2 (0) is the initial current at cof = n . In the waveforms of Fig. 3.3.10 and Fig. 3.3.11 observe that,
... (3.3.11)

and

/ oj(0)=/o2(coi=a)

Putting the above two conditions in equation 3.3.9 and 3.3.10 we can get the initial values. Then two currents / ol(cof) and io2((ot) are separately expressed for semiconverter.
Example 3.3.3 : For a h j> half bridge converter having highly inductive load , derive the follozving : i) Fourier series for supply current ii) RMS value o f nth harmonic o f supply current. iii) Fundamental component o f supply current iv) RMS value o f supply current. |Nov.-2007, 8 M arks; May-2008, May-2006, 6 Marksl Solution : i) To determine Fourier series

'S( 0 =
h ta v ) +

X
;= 1

3 - 29

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Here

an

y J is (o t) COSMof rfcof
2n:

2k

_ 2_

2n

## 2n | l< n< w ) cosnmt dwt+ | (-/ ^ Jc o s M w f rfco/

2n

J coswof rfcof- J

COSH(Ot d(Ot

tin
-2 1 o(av)

7 7 7 1

s in H a

## for /i=l, 3,5, for H= 2 ,4 ,6 ,

(3.3.12)

The above equation shows that an is zero for even harmonics of supply current.
bn is given as, ~t

j j o

's(w0 sin/7cof d o t

Putting values of T = 2n and / s (cof) from supply current waveform of Fig. 3.3.8,
_2_

2n
) sin TUot do)t

## 2 k \ ! c(av) sin n(0t d(ot + J n+ a

o(av)

In

| sin n o t d o t - J

sin n o t d o t

<t<w)
7171

(1 + COS77a) (1 - COS/171)

## 21 tlK 0 (1 + cos 7 7a) for

77 = 1,

3,5,

(3.3.13)

for 7 7= 2 ,4 ,6 ,,

3-30

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

The above equation shows that bn is zero for even harmonics of supply current. Hence cn = +b%

21 o(av) nn

sm n a

21 o(av) nn

(1 + cosna)

## 4 l 0(av) na ------ cos nn 2

for n = 1, 3, 5,

... (3.3.14)

This equation gives peak value of nth harmonic of supply current. And < j> can be calculated as, < fci = ta n ~ ' r

un

-21 c{av) .

tan

nn 21 c(av) nn

sm na

(1 + cosna)

= -ta n na ~2

... (3.3.15)

Observe the supply current waveform of Fig. 3.3.8. It has symmetric positive and negative half cycles. Hence its average value is zero. This can also be verified mathematically as follows.
T

I (av) Here

is ((ot)d(ot

_1_ s (av)

o(av) dwt

3 - 31

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

o (< rc > )

271
0

[7i + a -2 jc-(7 c+ a ))

Thus the average value of symmetric waveform is zero Thus the Fourier series can be written as, C O

* s( f) =

h = 1,3,5,

4/o((iv)
tin

cos - y sm(

na

f )

. (3.3.16)

## ii) R M S valu e of n lh h arm on ic o f su p p ly cu rrent

The rms value of the nth harmonic is given as, j _ >/2 _ t l s M co sm . nn______ 2_ V2 n = 1, 3, 5........ ...(3.3.17)

= 2^ Io(av) cos^
hk

## iii) F un d am en tal com p onen t of su p p ly cu rrent

The fundamental component of supply current is obtained by putting n = 1 in equation 3.3.17. i.e.,
h i = 0 .9 1 ^ cos |

...(3.3.18)

## The rms value is given as,

T

s(rm s)
With T = 2 k and putting for is (cof) from supply current waveform of Fig. 3.3.8,

s(rm s)

2 71

*\$*** + J

r r+a

( U a v ) ) 2 ^

3-32

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

/ oiav)'y n

... (3.3.19)

The above equation shows that rms value of supply current depends on a.
)>* Example 3.3.4 : For a 1\$ half controlled converter having highly inductive load, derive the

## followiitg : i) Displacement factor (DF) iii) Harmonic factor (HF)

Solution : i) Displacement factor

ii) Supply power factor (PF) iv) Current distortion factor (CDF)

The displacement factor is given as, DF = cos < (> ! From equation 3.3.15, < ( > = Hence 4 > 1

DF = cos -j

... (3.3.20)

## The supply power factor is given as, PF = sl

s(rms)

cosfy

Putting the values of / sl (equation 3.3.18), /^rws) (equation 3.3.19) from previous example and 4 > 1 above we get,

... (3.3.21)

3 - 33

SI o(av)
^
H F=

2 C O S 2

## 8 cos This is an expression for harmonic factor of supply current.

iv) Current distortion factor (CDF)

.. (3.3.22)

Isl
's(rms)

2V2 / d a v )
7 1

a --------- COS

## In - a c{av) \ n 2V2 COS^ yjn(n-a)

...(3.3.23)

)) Example 3.3.5 : For a 1 4 > half controlled bridge having continuous and ripple free current, obtain, i) Active power and ii) Reactive power.
Solution : i) Active power

## Active power is given as,

PacUve = V s JS1 c S<tj

2 -Jll

Vs'

COS

cos I -

^ V s Jo(av) 2a 2cos 2
(1 + cos a)
(3.3.24)

3-34

## Reactive power is given as,

^reactive ~

V s h i s*n ^1
v - . Vs ---------------cos sin

H -? )
2 2

## & Vs ^o(av) . a a = -------------------2 sin co s

71

_ _ VmI d >v) s in a
71

...(3.3.25)

i) Active power is consumed by the load. ii) Reactive power is not consumed by the load. Hence its sign is negative. iii) Reactive power fluctuates between load and source. iv) Total power includes active as well as reactive power. *
Example 3.3.6 : Single phase semiconverter is operated from 120 V, 60 Hz supply. The load current with an average value o f In is continuous with negligible ripple content. Turns

ratio o f transformer is unity. The delay angle a=-^. Calculatea) Harmonic factor o f input current b) The displacement factor c) Input power factor
Solution : The given data is,

Vs = 120 V

71

o cos 2 aj 8

3-35

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

HF 8 cos' = 0.3108 or 31.08 % b) The displacement factor is given by equation 3.3.20 as, DF = co s^ = cos 0.866 c) The input power factor is given by equation 3.3.21 as, PF
I

7t/3^

2 a

j ^ a ) COS 2
8
7t 71-

cos

2 (n/3

= 0.827 lagging

## 3.3.4 Asymmetrical Half Bridge Converter

Fig. 3.3.12 shows the two configurations of asymmetrical half bridge converter. Note that both the configurations are functionally same. In both of these circuits the two SCRs appear on the same link.

(b)

3-36

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

When Tj is triggered, current flows through T1 and D j. T2 is triggered in the negative half cycle. Then current flows through T> and D2. Fig. 3.3.13 shows the waveforms of half bridge converter given in Fig. 3.3.12. These waveforms are shown for resistive load and a = Observe that the output current

waveform is similar to output voltage. Since T| and D ^ conduct simultaneously their current waveform is same. Similarly, the current waveform of T2 and D2 is same.

Suppty voltage

Firing p u lses of T .

----

Firing p u lses

otTj

Output current

## SC R T, & d iode D, current

~ ~r

sc r t

2&

d io d e D 2 curren t

irtt

3 - 37

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Since the above output voltage is same as that of single phase semiconverter, the rms and average values of output voltage will be,
VL
o(av)

(1 + cos a)

Vc{rms)

2n

rt - a + - sin 2 a

## 3.3.4.2 Operation of Asymmetrical Half Bridge Converter with Level Load

Answer following question after reading this topic 1 . Draw the circuit diagram and wauefrorms o f output voltage, output current, supply current and SCR currents for a single p h ase asymmetrical half controlled bridge feedin g a level load.
, Marks [6], M a y -2004.2 0 0 5

I >
V

With the similar circuit diagram of Fig. 3.3.12 but for highly inductive load, the operation of asymmetrical converter will be as follows.
M ode - I ( a < c o t < n )

SCR Tj is triggered in this mode. Hence load current flows through T^DV The waveforms are shown in Fig. 3.3.14. (See Fig. 3.3.14 on next page).
M ode - II (it < cot < n + a)

In this mode, the supply voltage becomes zero at n. Hence Tj is no more forward biased. But due to highly inductive load, the constant current is maintained to flow. This load current flows through D^ - D2. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3.3.14. Thus the freewheeling action takes place through D j - 0 2 and supply current as well as output voltage are zero.
M ode - III (71 + a < cot < 2 ;r)

SCR T2 is triggered at 7i+a. Since T2 is more forward biased due to supply voltage, it starts conducting. The load current now flows through T2 -D 2. The equivalent circuits - III in Fig. 3.3.14 shows the current flow.

3 - 38

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

r,,n
s~
t t
Equivalent Circuit Equivalent Circuit - II

zf z;

zf z;:
f i

## Equivalent Circuit - III

Equivalent Circuit - IV

Fig. 3.3.14 Waveforms of asymmetrical half controlled bridge converter for level load

3-39

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Mode - IV (2rc < a>t < 2n + a ) At 2 k, the supply voltage becomes zero. Therefore T2 tums-off. But due to heavy inductive load, the current continuous to flow. This current now flows through Dj -D 2 since they are more forward biased compared to T2 -D 2. At 271+a, SCR T j is triggered again and mode-I starts. Thus the cycle repeats. Mathematical analysis Observe that the waveform of output voltage is same as that of semiconverter. Hence the rms and average values of its output voltage are,
o(av)

Vn,
71

(1 + cos a)

and

Vo(rms)

V L 7 i - a + ^ s i n 2a 2t c

)>* Example 3.3.7 : For the single phase asymmetrical half controlled bridge circuit derive expressions for i) Average output voltage ii) RMS output voltage

iii) RMS value o f the nth harmonic supply current iv) Supply current distortion factor.
[M ay-2004, 2005, 2 0 0 8 ,1 0 M arks!

Solution : Observe the waveforms of semiconverter (Fig. 3.3.8) and asymmetrical configuration of semiconverter (Fig. 3.3.14). The waveforms of output voltage and supply current are exactly same. Hence the above parameters will be same as that of semiconverter, i.e., i) Average output voltage, VQ{av) (1 + cos a) V 2 vm 7 i-a + - s i n 2a
2k

iii) n

y/2

## 4/ o(av) na ------ cos 7171 2 V2

------------------C O S ^ r7171

^^^o(av)

na
2

2V2 COS
iv) Current Distortion Factor, CDF = J
k (k -

a)

)>! Example 3.3.8 : Draw the circuit diagrams o f symmetrical and asymmetrical single phase

3 - 40

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

half-controlled bridge rectifiers and sketch the SCR and diode current waveforms for each circuit for level loads. From these waveforms, derive an expression for the ratio o f average SCR current to average diode current. [Dec.-2003, 8 Marks]
Solution : The circuit diagram of symmetrical configuration is given in Fig. 3.3.1(a). The waveforms are given in section 3.3.3.3 for level loads.

The circuit diagram of asymmetrical configuration is given in Fig. 3.3.12. The waveforms are given in section 3.3.4.2 for level loads.
SCR and diode currents for symmetrical configuration

Fig. 3.3.15 shows the SCR and diode currents for symmetrical configuration. Average SCR current will be,

Fig. 3.3.15 Symmetrical configuration of 1 < j> HCB, VQ, i T^ and / 01 waveforms

## h (a v ) Similarly average diode current will be,

i
o(au)

= \ \ 'r M d w f = ^
0

} I 0(av)d cof = - ^
a

2 ^J ! o(av)d<ot -----Y ~ a

1fr

. _ ^o(av)

3 - 41

^o(av)

^0{av)
T ~

## SCR and diode currents for asymmetrical configuration.

Fig. 3.3.16 shows the SCR and diode currents for asymmetrical configuration.

i*--

waveform

1
h (a v )

j\

^D(av)

2n

i*
0

^o(av)

2n

## Average SCR current _ Average diode current

' o(av) 2n _ n - a r n+ a n+ a
(av> 2k

n -a

3 - 42

## 3.3.4.3 Comparison of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Configurations

Answer following question qfter reading this topic 1 . Explain different configurations o f semiconuerter and com pare them. Marks [6J, D ec.-2000, M ay-2000, 2 0 0 3

TiT T i

M o s tlik e ly a n d p r e v io u s U n iv e r s ity E x a m
asymmetrical

Table 3.3.1 shows the comparison configurations of half controlled bridge. Sr. No. Symmetrical configuration

between

symmetrical

and

Asymmetrical configuration

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

One SCR is connected on each link. SCRs can be driven with common cathode. Freewheeling takes place through on diode and on SCR. Average currents of SCR and diodes are same. SCR and diodes conduct for equal durations.

Both the SCRs are connected on single link. SCRs must have isolated cathodes. Freewheeling takes place through both the SCRs. Average currents of diodes are higher than SCR. SCRs conduct for shorter duration compared to diodes.

Table 3.3.1 Comparison of symmetrical and asymmetrical configuration Example 3.3.9 : A single phase half controlled bridge rectifier operates from the 115 V,

60 Hz mains and supplies a resistive load o f 250 Cl For firing angles o f 45 and 135,
Calculate : i) Average output voltage iii) Load pow er v) Peak supply current ii) nns output voltage iv) rms supply current [D ec.-2004, 18 M arks!

3 - 43

For a = |,

F o ra -J,

V0(av)

o(nns)

2n

7 t-a + ^ sin 2a

For a =

V0{rms)

162.6J
27C

7t\

^ "4

109.63 V

3 ti
*-T *2

34.65 V

P'

o(ai>)
R

For a

4' 3n
7 '

For a =

For 1

## half bridge inverter with resistive load,

h(rm s) ^o(rms) ^o(rtns)

R
For a = 4' hirm s)

109.63 250

0.438 A

3-44

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

=T '

= W

= 01386 A

v) Peak supply current The supply current will be maximum, when output current is maximum, i.e.
s(max) o(max)*

Now the output current will be maximum when output voltage is maximum. For a = peak value of output voltage is Vm Hence, _ ls(peak) Vm _ 162.6 R ~ 250 " Hence,

For a =

t /
W ) =

3 ti slrl ~T~

162.6 x 0.7071

...

-------- R

## = --------- 2 5 0 --------- = 0 4 6 A '

Example 3.3.10 : A single phase half controlled bridge rectifier supplies a ripple free load current o f 10 A and operates from the 110 V, 60 Hz mains. If the average output voltage is 75 V calculate :
i) Firing angle ii) rms output voltage iv) rms 7^ harm onic supply current

## = 110 V, A Vm = V 2V S = V 2 x 110= 155.56 V = 75 V.

i) Firing angle
Vo(av)

= - f - d + cosa)
155.56 n K .

V,

--

7d - -------- (1 + cos a)

a = 1.03 radians or 59
ii) RMS output voltage

o(rms)

I V2 = -I

} 2 JT

3-45

l
2

f (155.56)2 f
271

= 99.15 V

,..-1 .0 3

## iv) RMS 7th harmonic supply current

o{av) 7a =-----COS^r7ti______ 2_
V2

V2

## dropped since it is rms value,

v) Supply power factor

PF =

## ... By equation 3.3.21

= 0.83 )) Example 3.3.11 : A single phase HCB operated from the 230 V, 50 Hz mains feeds a resistive load o f 100 Q. If the firing angle is 60, calculate, i) iii) v) iv) Average output voltage Total output power ii) RMS output voltage iv) DC output power

## Load current at instant o f turn-on i.e. cot = a . Peak load current.

lM a y -2 0 0 3 ,12 M arks!

3 - 46

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Vs = 230 V, R =
i) Average output voltage

vm = J l V s = 7 2 x 230 = 325.27 V

100 n , a = 60 or |

## ii) RMS output voltge

206.3 V
iii) Total output power

Vlrms) R
iv) DC output power

P, o(DC)

,
0

_ vo(tot)
R Vm sin cot R

3-47

## 325.27 sin ^ = ------ jo g = 2.816 A. vi) Peak load current

n by putting cot = a = -j

Since SCRs are triggered at a = -^, the supply peak voltage occurs at ot=^. Therefore load current will be at its peak when cof = ^ i-e.,

_
o(peak) ~ V

o(peak)
r

Vm sin cot

cin

__________ 2 = o 9 s A

325.27 sin -J

100

Example 3.3.12 : A single phase semiconverter operates with 230 V, 50 Hz ac input and supplies level load current o f 10 A, operated at firing angle o f 60. Calculate :

## i) RMS supply current iii) Supply power factor

Solution : Given : 1 < | > HCB

## ii) Output voltage v) RMS value o f third harmonic input current.

[D ec.-2000, 8 M arks; D ec.-2006, 10 M arksl

## vs = 230 V, '< > = 10 A'

Vm = V2 1/ = V2 X 230 = 325.27 V = 60 or |

## i) RM S sup ply curren t

ln -a
)v 7 1 7 1
*"3

= 10

1 7 1

8.165 A
ii) O u tp u t voltage

V<n,A o(av) =

(1+ cos a)

3 - 49

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

3.4.1

Fig. 3.4.2 Conduction of 7^ and T2 in positive half cycle of the supply. Dotted line shows path of current flow

Let us consider the working of 14> bridge (Full) converter with resistive load. In the positive half cycle of the supply SCRs Tj and T2 are triggered at firing.angle a. Hence current starts flowing through the load. The equivalent circuit for this operation is shown in Fig. 3.4.2. It is clear from Fig. 3.4.2 that, when T{ and V0 = Vs V
and, ' = i f

- (3 A 2 )

## (i.e. supply voltage)

V
= T

Fig. 3.4.3 shows the waveforms of this circuit. Observe that load voltage is same as supply voltage from a to n. Since the load is resistive, waveforms of V0 and i0 are same. The supply current i\$ and i0 are in the same direction hence i\$ =i0. T] and T-, turn off when supply voltage becomes zero at n. In the negative half cycle T3 and T4 are triggered at
7c+ a.

Fig. 3.4.4 shows the equivalent circuit when T3 and T4 conduct. In the adjacent figure observe that supply current is and load current i0 flow through the same loop. But directions of i\$ and i0 are opposite hence
h

= -*o

The supply current waveform is also shown in Fig. 3.4.3. T3 and T4 turn off when supply voltage becomes zero at 2 k . At 2 k + a, Tj and T2 are triggered again and the cycle repeats.

3 - 50

3 - 52

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Solution : This is a fully controlled bridge with resistive load of 100 Q in series with the battery of 50 V. Hence output voltage of the converter appears across resistance of 100 Q and battery of 50 V. Hence let us first calculate average value of output voltage. The given data is,

a = 30
Vs

220 V

/ .

Vm =

220V2

The average output voltage for resistive load is given by equation 3.4.3 as,

Vo(av) =
=

## ~ < 1+CS ) - ( 1 + cos 30)

71

= 184.8 V This voltage is applied to the load. Fig. 3.4.6 shows the equivalent circuit.

By applying KVL to above circuit, Vo(av) = ',(,)* + 50 184.8 = '<,(*>) * l > +50 o(av) = 1.348 A Thus the current through the load is 1.348 A.

3 - 53

## 3.4.2 Working with Inductive Load

The inductive load means resistance and inductance in the load. Such loads are DC motors. Because of the inductive (R-L) load, the load current shape is changed. Hence operation of the full bridge converter can be discussed into three modes : i) Continuous load current ii) Continuous and ripple free current for large inductive load iii) Discontinuous load current

In the continuous load current, the load or output current i0 flows continuously. The waveforms are shown in Fig. 3.4.7.

Fig. 3.4.7 Waveforms o f 1 (}> full converter fo r inductive load having continuous load current

3-54

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

As shown in the waveforms of Fig. 3.4.7, Tj and T2 conduct from a to n . The nature of the load current depends upon values of R and L in the inductive load. Because of the inductance, i0 keeps on increasing and becomes maximum at ti . At k , the supply voltage reverses but SCRs T| and T2 does not turn off. This is because, the load inductance does not allow the current i0 to go to zero instantly. The load inductance generates a large voltage L
r

din dt
This voltage forward biases Tj and T2 as shown in Fig. 3.4.8. In Fig. 3.4.8 observe that the load current flows against the supply voltage. The energy stored in the load inductance is supplied partially to the mains supply and to the load itself. Hence this is also called as feedback operation. The output voltage is negative from n to n + a since supply voltage is negative. But the load current keeps on reducing.

At n+ a, SCRs T3 and T4 are triggered. The load current starts increasing. The load current remains continuous in the load. The similar operation repeats. The ripple in the load current reduces as the load inductance is increased. from T i to ti + cx due to inductance voltage

3.4.2.2 Continuous and Ripple Free Current for Large Inductive Load Answ er follow in g question after reading this topic 1. Draw the circuit diagram o f a single phase fully controlled bridge rectifier and sketch the waveforms o f output voltage, output current, supply current and SCR current for a level (ripple free) load. Marks [5], M ay-2000. 2 0 0 1 ; Marks [10]. D ec.-2004

M ost likely an d

University E xam

s,

Now let us consider the case when there is large inductance in the load. Because of the large inductance, the ripple in the load current is very small and it can be neglected. Hence load current will be totally DC as shown in Fig. 3.4.9. In the waveforms shown in Fig. 3.4.9, there is no effect on output voltage waveform for large inductive load. The supply current waveform (/ s) is square wave for large inductive load.

3-55

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Fig. 3.4.9 W aveform s o f 1 < J >fu ll converter fo r continuous and ripplefree load current in case o f large inductive load ))* Example 3.4.3 : For the 1 < )>full converter having inductive load and continuous load

current, obtain the following : i) Average output voltage V0^ av^ ii) RMS output voltage V0^ rms^
S olution : i) Average output voltage fo r inductive load The average output voltage is given as, 1 T Vo(av) = f

[Dec.-2004, 3 Marks]

vo

(0

Observe the waveforms of l< f> full converter for inductive load given in Fig. 3.4.7 and Fig. 3.4.9. The output voltage waveform has a period from a to 7t+a ; i.e. n. And vQ(cot) = Vm sin (ot during this period. Hence above equation becomes, j 7i+a
Vo (a v ) = -

a
=

Vm sin

d(s>t

K 1

- COS

.nTi+a
(0 1

pyrighted material

3 - 56 2 V

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters) ... (3.4.5)

o(av )

cos a

This is the expression for average load voltage of l< f> full converter for inductive load.
Plot of V0(av) versus firin g angle (a)

Following table lists the values of VQ /av\ with firing angle (a)

Vo{*v) =

Km c o s a

2V - f = 0 637 Vm
0.55 Vm 0.318 Vm 0 - 0.318 Vm - 0-55 Vm - 0-637 Vm

## 30 60 90 120 150 180

Table 3.4.1 VC(av,) w ith respect to a Observe that VG (av) is positive for a < 9&. Hence it is called rectification. For a > 0, V0 (av) is negative. Hence it is called inverting mode of operation. In inverting mode, output energy is fedback to the source.

## Fig. 3.4.10 Variation o f VD ^

w ith respect to a

3-57

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

ii) RMS value o f output voltage fo r inductive load The rms value is given as,
2

0
2

## | V 2 sin2 cof d cof

a

... (3.4.6)
Thus the rms value of load voltage is same as rms value of the AC supply voltage. Example 3.4.4 : Draw the circuit arrangement o f a single phase full converter feeding a

general load comprising o f R, L and E. Sketch the AC supply voltage o/p voltage and the load current waveforms. Assuming continuous load current operation, derive an expression for DC output voltage. A single phase full converter feeding an RLE load is fed by 230 V, 50 Hz mains. If R = 0.5 Q, L = 8 rnH and E = 50 volts, assuming that conduction is continuous and firing angle is 4 0 find average value o f load current.
S olution : C ircuit diagram and waveform s Fig. 3.4.11 shows the circuit diagram of full converter supplying RLE load.

R = 0.5 Q vs = 230 V. 50 Hz

L = 8 mH E = 50

3 - 58

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

The RLE load is normally motor load. 'R' is the resistance and 'L' is an inductance of armature winding of the motor. 'E' is the induced emf of the motor. When the load current is continuous, then waveforms of this circuit will be similar to that of RL load. Hence with small ripple in output current, the waveforms of this circuit will be similar to those shown in Fig. 3.4.7. Note that 'E' is not reflected in the waveforms as long as output current (i0) is continuous. If output current (iQ ) is constant and ripple free, then the waveforms will be similar to those shown in Fig. 3.4.9. RMS and average output voltage The output voltage waveform remains same with RL load and RLE load when i0 is continuous. Therefore the rms and average values of output voltage will be same as those derived in previous example for RL load, i.e., Vo(av) = - f - cos a

2V

V , v = -2L = V vo(rms) ^2 s Second part : To obtain average load current The ripple in the load current (i0) depends upon values of R, L and E. If load inductance is small, then iG can become discontinuous. In Fig. 3.4.7, observe that iQ repeats at the intervals of ;r . The waveform of i0 remains same whenever Tj-Tj or T3-T4 conducts. Hence in any interval (i.e. a < cof < a or rc+a < cof < 2n + a) the equivalent circuit will be as shown below.

Fig. 3.4.12 Equivalent c ircu it when TyT2 or r 3-T4 conduct By applying KVL to above circuit,

+E

3-60

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

a = 40 = 0.698 radians and Z = -J r 2 +(coL )1 = ^(0.5)2 +(2.513)2 = 2.5622 Putting values in equation 3.4.8 we get i0(0) as *o(0) = 325.27 1 + 0.5352 sin(0.698-1 .3 7 4 4 ) 2.5622 1 -0.5352 50 0.5

= 162.48 A This is the minimum value of output current. If this value becomes negative, then it indicates discontinuous operation. Putting values in equation 3.4.7 we get equation for i0(ot). i.e., . . . 325.27 . . = '25622 SUl - ,yr7A A \ 50 05

= + jl6 2 .4 8 + | | - | | ^ s i n ( 0 .6 9 8 -1.3744)} el5 l 3 (a698_i) = 126.95 sin (cot - 1.3744) - 100 + 392.89 e -0.1989<at (3.4.9)

This is the equation for output current from a to n + a. This waveform has period of n and it repeats at rc+a. Hence average value of i0 will be given as,
n+a

; o(at>) =

|
a

.. n + 0.698

= -

j
0.698

]< io> ;

= ^

1 9 A QR

3 ?39

0.698

1 n n 3 ?39

q q 3 839

J e~^9S9(0t dot

0.698

0.698

## = 217.28 A This is the average value of output current.

If a freewheeling diode is added across the highly inductive load in l< j> full converter, derive an expression for average load voltage.
Example 3.4.5 : S olution : We know that freewheeling action does not take place in 1 < J> full converter inherently. In the positive half cycle, Tj and T2 conduct from a to n as usual. But from n to n + a freewheeling diode starts conducting. This is shown in Fig. 3.4.13. The freewheeling

3-61

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

diode is more forward biased compared to T| and T2. Hence freewheeling diode conducts. The freewheeling diode is connected across the output V0. Hence Vo =0 during freewheeling. The energy stored in the load inductance is circulated back in the load itself. Fig. 3.4.14 shows the waveforms of this operation. The output voltage becomes zero in the freewheeling periods. Compare the load voltage waveform of Fig. 3.4.13 with that of l<j>full converter with resistive load (Fig. 3.4.3). They are same. Hence the average load voltage can be obtained from equation 3.4.3. i.e.,

Vo(av) = ^ - ( 1 + coso)

...(3.4.10)

## to rc+a due to inductive load

Fig. 3.4.14 W aveform s o f 1 4 > fu ll converter fo r highly inductive load and freewheeling diode across the load

3-62

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

))! Example 3.4.6 : A single phase fully controlled bridge rectifier is fed from

230 V - 50 Hz supply. The load is highly inductive. Find the average load voltage and current if the load resistance is 10 Q and firing angle is 45. Draw the supply current waveform.
S olution : The rm s value o f the supply voltage is,

V 5(rms) = 230 V
Hence peak value of supply voltage is,

V m = V s(rms) 42
= 230 V2 Since the load is highly inductive, the load current can be considered continuous and ripple free as shown in Fig. 3.4.9. For such operation, the average load voltage is given by equation 3.4.5 as, Vo(av) = ~

2V

cos a

## Vo(av) = ------ -------cos 45

= 146.42 volts The average load current I 0tav\ or l a is given as,
_ o (a v ) Vo (a v )
r

2 x 230 V2

## Putting the values of R =10 Q and V0^ v) = 146.42 volts, 146.42

l o (a v ) 10

= 14.64 A The supply current waveform will be a square wave as shown in Fig. 3.4.9. The amplitude of the square wave will be I 0^ m \ i.e. 14.64 A.

For a 1fyfull converter having highly inductive load derive the following: i) Fourier series for supply current ii) RMS value o f nth harmonic o f supply current iii) Fundamental component o f supply current iv) RMS value o f supply current
Example 3.4.7 :

3 - 63

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

S olution : i) To determine Fourier series The general expression for Fourier series is given as, 0
> S
( 0 = ^ (a p ) + Z

n=1

cn

S' ( + )

where and

## +bn tan -1 \bn n/

Here,

J i\$ (cof) cos n o t d o t
2n J is ( o t ) cos n o t d o t
o

n+a 2n+a

= 2it o(av)

## \ I o(av)cosnu>t db)t+ 2n+a

| ( - /o(<n-))cosncot d<at
n+a

j cos n o t d o t -

j cos n o t d o t

-4 I o(av)

nn
0 Similarly,
2

sinn a

, (3.4.11)

n = 0,2,4,.

2n

## From supply current of Fig. 3.4.9,

2n

2n + a

l^ m)Sinn(0td( 0t+

3-64 Ji+a La

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters) 2n+a

o(av)

J s in n a td to t- j
rt+a
[1

sin n a td & t

2 I o(av)

nn
4 I o(av)

cosn a

-cos n

ti]

nn
0 Hence =

cosn a

for for

n = 1 ,3 ,5 ,. n = 0 ,2 ,4 ,6 ,.

(3.4.12)

+ bn
4 I o(av)
V.

nn

[ sin2 n a + cos2 n a ]
J

4 /o(av)

nn
And Thus < j> = tan 1 jP~

for

w= l , 3, 5,

(3.4.13)

## = -n a from equation 3.4.11 and equation 3.4.12.

< J>

= -n a

(3.4.14)

The average value of supply current is zero. i.e. I\$(av) = 0. This is clear from Fig. 3.4.9. Therefore Fourier series is, 4 I
7 1 = 1 , 3 , 5 ,.-

nn

sin (ncot-n a )

(3.4.15)

Ii) RMS value o f nth harm onic supply current The RMS value of the n^ harmonic of the supply current its given as,

4 !o(av)
1 -

_ !L -

nn

sn

V2

nn

3 - 65

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

iii) Fundamental com ponent o f supply current The r.m.s. value of nth harmonic of supply current is given as,

hn =

0.91 o(av)

With n = 1 above equation we get r.m.s. value of the fundamental component of supply current i.e., hi ~ h(av) ...(3.4.16)

iv) To obtain rm s value of supply current The rms value is given as,
1/2

\$ (rms)

= J /s2 (cof) d o t

1 7

## From supply current waveform of Fig. 3.4.9,

2n+a E s(rms)

In
^o(av)

\ I o(v)d<at +

(-'o ia v ))

d (o t

h (rm s)

... (3.4.17)

Example 3.4.8 :

For a l<j) full converter having highly inductive load, derive the

following : i) Displacement factor (DF) ii) Supply power factor (PF) iii) Harmonic factor (HF) iv) Current distortion factor (CDF)
S olution : i) Displacement factor The displacement factor (DF) is given as, DF = cos < j) j From equation 3.4.14 = -n a ; Hence 4> j = -a . ... (3.4.18)

3-66

COS

## From result of previous example and equation 3.4.18,

2 V2 /o(av)
PF

cos a

PF = ------ cos a

... (3.4.20)

## iii) Harmonic factor The harmonic factor (HF) is given as,

HF

's(rms)

/2 -1

o(av)

sl

' 2 V2 /

HF = 0.4834

or 48.34 %

(3.4.21)

Thus the harmonic factor of supply current is fixed to 0.4834, irrespective of triggering angle. iv) C urrent d istortion fa cto r (CDF) The current distortion factor (CDF) is given as, CDF sl
s(rm s)

2 V2 1 o(av)
o(av)

2>/2

0.9

...(3.4.22)

3-67

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Example 3.4.9 : For a 1 fully controlled bridge having continuous and ripple free current obtain, i) Active power and ii) Reactive power. [Dec.-2000, 6 Marks] S olution : i) Active power Active power is given as,
Active = Vs h l c o s * l

= Vs ------- co s(-a ),

## since < j> j = -a

= 2--------------- cos( a)
71

= ------------- cos a K
ii) Reactive power Reactive power is given as,
^reactive
=

^o{av)

...(3.4.23)

h i s m ^1

## 241 , > sin(-a) = v V .-------------K

= - 2 --------------- sin a
71

IV

= ---------------- sm a

^ ym 1 o(av)

...(3.4.24)

/ oAnA\

The negative sign indicates that the power is reactive. Comment Compare the reactive powers of full converter and half converter. They are as follows : P *tf*< H C B ) = - ^ < f Z ! sin a

2Vn , av) .
* W ii (FCB) = --------- Sirl From above two equations we have,

P r e c i s e B) = 2 *P reaclive (HCB)

3 - 68

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Thus half controlled bridge draws 50 % reactive power compared to that of full controlled bridge.

))* Example 3.4.10 : A single phase full converter is operated front a 120 V, 60 Hz supply.

The load current with an average valve of la is continuous, with negligible ripple current. If the turns ratio of the transformer is unity, if the delay angle is a = i) HF o f input current ii) DF iii) PF
S olution : Given data Supply voltage, Vs = 120 Delay angle, a =

Calculate the

i) Harmonic fa c to r (HF) For continuous load current, the harmonic factor is fixed for full converter. And it is given by equation 3.4.21 as, HF = 0.4834 or 48.34 % ii) Displacement fa cto r (DF) For 1 < j>full converter, DF is given by equation 3.4.19 as,

iii) Power facto r (PF) For 1 full converter, PF is given by equation 3.4.20 as, nc 2 V2 PF = ------cos a
71

3 - 69

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Example 3.4.11 : A single phase full converter operates with 220 V, 50 Hz ac input and supplies output load consisting of R-L load with very high inductance drawing level load current 10 A and operated at firing angle of 30. Find -

i) iii) v)

## RMS supply current, Input displacement factor, Power factor

ii) Fundamental component o f input current, iv) Harmonic factor vi) Output voltage.
[M ay -2000,10 M arks]

## S olution : Given : 1 <|>FCB v: 220 V

Vm = 220^/2 = 311.12 V
a = 30 or - radians.

I0(av) = 10 A,
i) RMS supply current

## By equation 3.4.17 ii) Fundamental com ponent o f in p ut current

2V2 /o(ar>) n
2V2xlO 9 A

By equation 3.4.16

## iii) Displacement factor

DF = cos
cos a = cos = 0.866 iv) Harmonic factor

HF
v) Power facto r

0.4834 or 48.34 %

By equation 3.4.21

PF =

6

71

3 - 70

Vo(av) =

2Vm

## 2x311.12 n ~ ~ ~ ~ cos^ = 171.53 V.

Example 3.4.12 : A single-phase fully controlled bridge converter supplies an inductive load. Assuming that the output current is virtually constant and is equal to ld, determine the following performance measures, if the supply voltage is 230 V and if the firing angle is maintained at (n/6) radians.

i) Average output voltage ii) Fundamental power factor or displacement factor (DF) iii) Supply power factor (PF) iv) Supply Harmonic factor (HF)
S olution : Given : I ^ av^ = Id *W ) = 230 V Hence V> = ^ = 230 V2
[M ay-2007, 8 M arks]

a =
i) Average o utp ut voltage

Vo(a) =

co sa

71

## DF = cos a = cos ^ = 0.866

o iii) Supply power fa cto r

71 71 6

or

2V2

2V2

7 1

## HF = 0.4834 for fully controlled bridge.

Example 3.4.13 : What happens ifT 2 shown in Fig. 3.4.15 is shorted due to fault in the

## positive luilf cycle ?

[M ay -2007,4 M arks]

3-71

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Fig. 3.4.15 S olution : In the positive half cycle and short circuit of T2, the situation will be as shown in Fig. 3.4.15 (a) Here observe that Tj is forward biased but it will start conducting when it is triggered. T4 and diode D3 are reverse biased in positive half cycle. Fig. 3.4.15 (a) C ircuit diagram

Fig. 3.4.16 shows the situation in positive and negative half cycles. In positive half cycle the controlled supply will be applied to load. But in negative half cycle, supply is shorted through T4 .

3-72

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Draw voltage and current waveform for circuit shown in Fig. 3.4.17
[May-2007, 4 Marks]

## Resistive load for a = 30

Fig. 3.4.17 Solution : Fig. 3.4.18 shows the voltage and current waveforms.

Fig. 3.4.18 Output voltage and current waveforms The output voltage for a = 30 is shown in Fig. 3.4.18(b). For resistive load, the shape of output voltage and that of output current are same. And,

V.

3 - 73

## 3.4.3 Inversion in 1 < |) Full Converter (Second Quadrant Operation)

Answer follow ing question s after reading this topic. 1. Explain the inuersion in h j)full converter. 2. Write short note on 2
y

## quadrant operation o f LCC.

Marks [5], D ec.-2001. Marks [6]. Dec -2006

## M ost likely arid

University E xam

The waveforms of 1 < J >full converter for inductive load are given in Fig. 3.4.9. Observe that the output voltage v0 goes negative for some duration. These intervals are 0 to a, n to n + a , ..... and so on. The output current i0 remains positive always. Thus output instantaneous power becomes negative in such intervals. In other words, load power flows to source when v() goes negative. The average output voltage is given by equation 3.4.5. i.e.,

V.o( av)

COS a

The variation of Vn/M ,\ with respect to a is shown in Fig. 3.4.19. In the Fig. 3.4.19 the o(av)

V.

is positive from 0 to
V,o(av)

## For a = 90 or - , the V0(av} is zero

i0 - Positive v0 - Negative

## v0and iQboth Positive

(a) Variation o f output average voltage with resp ect to firing angle

Fig. 3.4.19 Fig. 3.4.19 shows the waveform of v0 for a = 90 or The SCRs conduct, current flows

in the load but V .o(av) 0. This means power fluctuates between load an power is consumed by the load. The load inductance stores power from source when v0 is

3 - 74

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

positive (i.e. rectification). And this stored power is fed back to the source when v0 is negative (i.e. inversion). When the firing angle is increased above 90, the average output voltage becomes negative as shown in Fig. 3.4.19. This is called second quadrant operation. The net power is fed from output (load) to the source. But where does this power comes from? Because load inductance cannot supply more power than it stores. At a = 90, stored power and power supplied to the source are equal. For a > 90, the stored power is less and more power needs to be supplied to the source. Hence an external DC source is to be connected in the load as shown in Fig. 3.4.21. This DC source maintains the forward bias on the SCRs. Hence they keep on conducting even though a >90. Such output voltage

3 - 76

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

i) Calculate the value o f the current limiting resistor required fo r nominal charging current o f 15 A if the firing angle is 30. ii) Calculate the maximum and minimum firing angles to maintain the current constant if the mains supply voltage varies by +10 % to -1 0 %. iii) The above bridge is now operated in the inverting mode by reversing the battery polarity arid adjusting the firing angle appropriately. Calculate the firing angle such that the battery discharge current is 10 A with nominal mains supply voltage. Also obtain the power supplied by the battery and power fedback to the mains. Neglect all device drops. [M ay -2006,16 M arks]
Solution: Given : Vs = 240 V Internal resistance (Rbatt) = 0.25 + 0.25 = 0.5 Q
batt

144 V

i) To obtain current limiting resistor Here a V,o(av) = 30 2VL and cos a cos 30 = 187.127 V Io(av) = Ibatt = 15 A

2 x 240 x V2

The current limiting resistor is given from Fig. 3.4.22 as, V. R^l 0.5 Q
h a lt

Vu batt

3-77

Vs(max) =

## v s(min) = 240 - 10 % of 240 = 240 - 24 = 216 V

To maintain constant charging current V^av) should remain constant. Hence range of firing angles can be calculated as follows:

V.o(av)

2Vm(max) n

cos a ,

a max = 38

And

o(av)

2 Vw(min) a

cos a,

## 2x216x V2 187.127 = ------------ co sa, 7 1

min = 15-79"

Thus a can be varied from 15.79 to 38 to maintain constant charging current, iii) To obtain firing angle and powers in inverting mode From Fig. 3.4.23 wre can obtain ^o(av) as'
^ o { a v ) + ^ 4 4 ^b a tt^ b a tt =
I = = 10 A

/. Vo(av) Vo(av)

## 144 + 10x0.5 = -139 V

2Vr

co sa

2x 240 x V2 -139 = ----------------co sa a = 130 To obtain the power supplied by the battery Battery current is 10 A and its voltage is 144 V. Hence power supplied by battery will be, Battery power = 10x144 = 1440 W.

3 - 78

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

To obtain power fedback to mains The combined resistance of the reactor and battery is 0.5 Q. Hence power loss due to this resistance will be (10)2 x0.5 = 50 W. The remaining power is given back to mains, i.e., Power supplied to mains = 1440 - 50 = 1390 W.

## 3.4.4 Comparison of Half Controlled and Full Controlled Rectifiers

Now let us compare the half controlled and fully controlled bridge rectifiers. Table 3.4.3 shows this comparison. Sr. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

## Half controlled converter

This consists of half number of SCRs and half number of diodes. This operates in only one quadrant. Output voltage is always positive. Inherent freewheeling action is present. Power factor is better. Inversion is not possible. Used for battery chargers, lighting and heater control.

## Fully controlled converter

This consists of all the SCRs as controlled devices. This can operate in two quadrants. Output voltage can be negative in case of inductive loads. External freewheeling diode is to be connected for freewheeling. Power factor is poor than half converter. Inversion is possible. Used for DC motor drives.

Table 3.4.3 Com parison o f h alf and fu lly controlled bridges ))* Example 3.4.17 : A single phase fully controlled bridge operates with 230 V, 50 Hz ac

input and supplies continuous ripple free output current of 5 A. If bridge is operated at a firing angle of 45. Find, i) Average output voltage iii) Harmonic factor
S olution : Given : l< t> FCB.

ii) RMS supply current iv) RMS value o f 3rd harmonic o f input current.
[M ay-2001, 2008, 6 M arksl

Vs = 230 V, l 0(av) = ^ A,

Vm = 230V2 = 325.27 V
a = 45 or ^ radians.

Vo(av)

3-79

## ii) RMS supply current

^s(rms)

= 5 A iii) Harm onic fa cto r For 1 FCB with highly inductive load, HF is constant, i.e.,

HF = 0.4834 or 48.34 %
iv) RMS value o f 3rd harm onic c 4 l g(av)/nn

41
2^2 I0(m)

41
nn

SJ

3n

3n

)) Example 3.4.18 : Show that reactive power input reduces to half due to above converter

as compared to full controlled bridge for same firing angle a, feeding a continuous ripplefree constant current load. [Dec.-2000,10 Marks]
S olution : a) Reactive power of sem iconverter
P(reactwe) =
sin *1

ti

w ^ l o(av)
' ^ ^sK (av)

. a

C L

## . . . a a . smce 2 sm cos = sin a

2 2

= ------------ sm a

^o(av)

since V 2 Vs = Vm

r=.,

..

3-80

## b) Reactive power o f fu ll converter

P( .ireactive)

^s/s iSin<J>i

2V2 7
= V

sin a

-------------- sin a

21/m / o{av) .

since -Jl V s = Vm

Result : From the reactive powers of semiconverter and full converter, observe that reactive power of semiconverter is half of full converter.

## 3.5 Three Phase Semiconverters 3.5.1 Operation with Resistive Load

Answer follow in g question after reading this topic 1. Explain the working o f 3 < j>semiconverter with the help of waveforms.
Si
.v.
V -Most likel^HH

[D ec.-2 0 0 6 , D ec.-2 0 0 8 ]

Important

We have discussed 1 (j) semiconverter earlier. The 3< j> semiconverter delivers more power. It uses three SCRs T j , T3 and T5 and three diodes D4 , D6 and D2 . Fig. 3.5.1 shows the circuit diagram of 3< t > semiconverter. Fig. 3.5.3 (a) shows the waveforms Load of supply phase voltages R, Y and B. Note that these are phase voltages. These are the voltages with respect to neutral N. In Fig. 3.5.1 (3(f) semiconverter), when any SCR and diode conducts, line Fig. 3.5.1 3 < t> sem iconverter or half bridge converter voltage is applied to the load. Hence it is necessary to draw the line voltage waveforms.

3 - 81

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Fig. 3.5.2 shows the phasor diagram of supply phase and line voltages. In this diagram observe that line voltage RB lags phase R by 30. This is clear from waveforms of Fig. 3.5.3 (b) also. The phase shift between two line voltages is 60.
BY

Fig. 3.5.2 Phasor diagram show ing the relationship between phase and line voltages o f 3 < j>supply When a < 60 Tj is triggered at a =30 (see Fig. 3.5.3 (c)). SCR Tj and diode D6 conducts. Hence line voltage RY is applied to the load from f-^ + a j to j . At and hence it starts conducting. Hence line voltage RB is applied to the load. Tj D2 keeps on conducting till next SCR T3 is triggered at + . The load voltage waveform for a =30 is shown in diode D2 is more forward biased

Fig. 3.5.3 (c). The devices conducting are also shown in respective intervals. Observe that one period of the ripple in output voltage waveform is,

Thus there are three cycles of output ripple in one cycle of the supply. Hence ripple frequency is three times of the supply frequency, i.e.,

## frippte = 3x50 = 150 Hz

In the Fig. 3.5.3 (c), observe that each SCR conducts for the maximum duration of 120

3-82

3 - 83

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

The current waveform for resistive load will be similar to voltage waveform since, i

= Yo

Example 3.5.1 : Derive an expression for the average output voltage of 3 < J> semiconverter having resistive load for a < 60. Solution : We know that the average output voltage is given as,

T V. o(av) = f j vo ( 0 d(at
Observe the waveform of V0 given in Fig. 3.5.3 (c). The period T can be considered 2 ji 5k from [ + cc to -7- + ct I which is - 5-. Hence above equation becomes,

72

6r

vo M

d^

) Z+a
5k

3_
2k

2
|

VRY (cof)dcof +

VRB( o t ) d o t

... (3.5.2)

K 6 +a

The equations for VRy and V'/ , can be written from Fig. 3.5.2 (b) as follows,

VRY (cof) =

Vm sin I cof + ^
... (3.5.3)

Vm ( 0 = V 3 V m s m L t - Z

6)

Here Vm is the peak value of the phase voltage. Putting above expressions in equation 3.5.2, n 5k

Vo(av)

2k

## Vm sin ^cof + ^jda>t +

V3 Vm sin ^ co f-^ j d ot

3\[3 V
2
k

sm ^cof + ^jdcof +

siw^cot gj dot

3-84

2k
3V 3U m
2k

[-co s ((Of+
6

6 ( < !)~ n
2
COS

5n

## ( K (7 1 _ eos( _ + _ 71A ) + co s( _ +a+_ K

- +a - z \ + cs ( K- K
k

5k

U "6

3 V 3 Vn
2k

( l + cos a )

... (3.5.4)

This is the expression for average output voltage for a < 60. When a = 60 Fig. 3.5.3 (d) shows the output voltage waveform for a = 60. Observe that the voltage waveform is just continuous. When Tj is triggered at a = 60, the line voltage RB is applied across the load. Tj and D2 conducts from triggered at +

## and T3 D4 conduct. The current waveform will be similar to voltage

waveform for resistive load. The average output voltage is given by equation 3.5.4, since voltage waveform is continuous. When u > 60 Fig. 3.5.3 (e) shows the output voltage waveform for a = 90. SCR T^ is triggered at ^g + a j . Tj and D2 conducts and line voltage RB is applied across the load. In the waveform observe that, output voltage becomes zero at line voltage RB becomes zero at In Fig. 3.5.3 (b) observe that

Hence SCR Tj is turned off. Since T3 is not triggered, + T3 is triggered and T3 D4 conducts. Line

## the output voltage becomes zero. At

voltage YR is applied across the load. Thus for a > 60, the output voltage is discontinuous. Since the load is resistive, the current is also discontinuous. The current waveform will be similar to voltage waveform. Example 3.5.2 : Derive an expression for average output voltage of 3 < j> semiconverter having resistive load for a > 60. Solution : Fig. 3.5.3 (e) shows the waveform of output voltage for a =90 (i.e. a >60). Observe that the period of ripple cycle is -

2k

3-86

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Vs(line) = 440 V
V
s(Ph)

0 ^3

Vm = V2 V s(pf0 = V 2 . ^

= J | 440 V

We have derived an expression for average value of output voltage earlier. For a < 60,

3 7 3 V
o(av)
2 k

(1 + cos a)

_
2 71

o(av)

= 524.7 volts.

## 3.5.2 Operation with Inductive Load

We have discussed the operation of 3 < {> semiconverter with resistive load. Now let us consider the operation with highly inductive load. Hence the load current i0 can be considered continuous and ripplefree. Fig. 3.5.4 shows the circuit diagram of 3(f> semiconverter driving highly inductive load. Consider that SCRs are triggered at firing angle of 90. Fig. 3.5.5 (See Fig. 3.5.5 on next page) shows the waveforms of this converter. Fig. 3.5.5 (a) shows the supply phase voltages R, Y and B. Fig. 3.5.5 (b) shows the supply line voltages. These waveforms are

3 87

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Fig. 3.5.5 Waveforms o f 3 (j> sem iconverter fo r highly inductive load drawn according to the phasor diagram of 3 c | > supply shown in Fig. 3.5.2. Fig. 3.5.5 (c) shows the gate drives of SCRs Tle T2 and T3 for a =90. Fig. 3.5.5 (d) shows the output voltage waveform v0. Observe that Tj is triggered at f^ + a j . Line voltage VRB is

3-88

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

maximum at the time of triggering. Hence Ti-D 2 conducts and line voltage VRB is applied 7 7C across the load. At , the line voltage = 0, but the output current i0 [Fig. 3.5.5 (e)J is not zero. The output current waveform is continuous and ripplefree. The load inductance generates a very large voltage L Fig. 3.5.6. to maintain i0 continuous. This situation is shown in

Fig. 3.5.6 Freewheeling action in 3 < J > sem iconverter. Dotted lines show s freew heeling current paths The freewheeling diode DFW is forward biased by the load inductance voltage L The freewheeling current ipW is basically i0. Thus the energy stored in the load inductance is fed back to the load itself. Fig. 3.5.5 (g) shows the waveform of freewheeling current. SCR T-, turns off at - 7- as soon as freewheeling diode starts conducting. This is because 1 6 freewheeling diode is more forward biased compared to Tj and D^ after . If extra freewheeling diode is not connected, then freewheeling current flows through T-. and D4 . This is shown by 'thin dotted line' in Fig. 3.5.6. Thus freewheeling action is inherent in 3 < | >semiconverter. If we neglect the drop of period is zero. As shown in period. Compare the output Fig. 3.5.5 (d) (inductive load). freewheeling diode, then output voltage during freewheeling Fig. 3.5.5 (0/ no supply current flows during freewheeling voltage waveform of Fig. 3.5.3 (e) (resistive load) and Both the waveforms are same.

Example 3.5.4 : Derive an expression for average output voltage of 3 < j> semiconverter having highly inductive load. S olution : We have seen that the output voltage waveforms of 3 < f> semiconverter are same for resistive as well as inductive loads. Hence their average values are also same. Hence from equation 3.5.5 we have,

3 - 89

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

V. o(av)

3 a/3 V

2n

(l + cos a )

... (3.5.6)

This is the expression for average output voltage for resistive as well as inductive loads and 0 < a < n .

Unsolved Examples
1. A 3 < j>semiconverter is operated from 3 < t>230 V, 50 Hz supply. The load is 10 ohms in series with large smoothing inductor. Determine output voltage and current if triggering angle is 60.
!A n s.:V o W = 403.5 V, l 0(i ) = 40.35 A] 2. Derive an expression for average value of output voltage for 3 < J>semiconverter.

## 3.6 Three Phase Full Converters

Answer foUowing question after reading this topic 1. Draw the circuit diagram, voltage and current waveform for a = 3 0 , resistive load of three phase full bridge converter.
Marks [8], M ay-2007, Nov.-2007

## Most likely and

University Exam

Three phase half converters operate only in first quadrant of v0 - i 0. The output voltage v0 is always positive for resistive as well as inductive loads. The output current i0 is also always positive. Hence 3 (j) semiconverter operates in first quadrant only. Three phase full converters can operate in two quadrants. The output voltage of 3< j> full converter can be positive as well as negative. It uses six SCRs as shown in Fig. 3.6.1.

3 - 90

## 3.6.1 Operation with Resistive Load

Answer follow ing question after reading this topic 1. Draw the circuit diagram o f three phase full converter with a resistive load. Explain its working and draw the load voltage, n input supply, load current at a =
3
Marks [6], D ec.-2007; Marks [10], May-2008

an d

## asked in previous ^ ^j^Jniwrsity Exam

Let us consider the operation of 3 < J > full converter having resistive load. Fig. 3.6.2 shows the waveforms of 3 < ( > full converter having resistive load. Fig. 3.6.2 (a) shows the supply phase voltages R, Y and B. Fig. 3.6.2 (b) shows the supply line voltages. These supply voltage waveforms are drawn according to the phasor diagram shown in Fig. 3.5.2. Fig. 3.6.2 (c) shows the gate drives for a =30. For six SCRs, there are six gate drives. See Fig. 3.6.2 on next page. In Fig. 3.6.2, observe that in interval-I, gate drives are given to SCRs T6 and T -[. Hence line voltage VRY is applied across the load. The equivalent circuit for this interval is shown in Fig. 3.6.3.

In Fig. 3.6.3 observe that SCRs T6 and Tj (normally written as 6-1) conduct. Hence,
=

VRY

Observe that output current i0 and R-phase current iR flows in the same direction. Hence, *R *o Similarly observe that Y-phase current iX J and output current i0 are in opposite directions. Hence,

W = -'o

3-91

## Power Devices and Machines

3-92

Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters) + txj to ^ + a j . Line voltage VRY is applied

## + a j SCR T2 is triggered (Fig. 3.6.2 (c)). Here note that Te

tums-off, since T2 is triggered. Hence Tj -T2 starts conducting and it is marked as interval-II. In this interval supply line voltage VRB is applied across the load. At + aj ,

T3 is triggered. Hence Tj tums-off and T2 -T 3 starts conducting. Therefore line voltage VYB is applied across the load. It is marked as interval-III. Load and supply currents

Fig. 3.6.4 O utput current and supply current waveform s fo r a = 30 Since the load is resistive, the shape of output current waveform will be similar to that of output voltage. Its amplitude will be i0 = Whenever Tj conducts, R-phase current will be positive and whenever T4 conducts, R-phase current will be negative. The follo w in g points are im portant about 3<J>full converter operation. i) Only two SCRs conduct in any interval. ii) Each SCR conduct for 120. iii) Each SCR pair conduct for one interval of 60. iv) SCRs are triggered in following sequence : ......... Tl - h - h -T4 -T5 -T6 -T, -T2 ............

3 - 95

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

= 4 iv vh= 4 i - ^ v Here firing angle is 45. Hence the conduction will be continuous for resistive as well as inductive load. Therefore the average DC output is given by equation 3.6.2 i.e., VV) 3>/3 VL = -T ^ c o sa

3 V 3 x -J2

400 V3 cos 45

V * )

## 3.6.2 Operation with Highly Inductive Load

Answ er follow ing question after reading this topic 1. Draw the circuit diagram o f 3 ^ full converter with a highly inductive load. Explain it's working and draw the load voltage, K load current and current through SCR waveforms for rectification I y.

^ revious

Let us consider the operation of 3 < | > full converter with highly inductive load. The output current will be continuous and ripplefree. In the waveforms of Fig. 3.6.2, observe that voltage waveform is continuous till a =60. But with inductive load, voltage waveform is continuous for any value of a. Fig. 3.6.5 shows the waveforms of 3 4 > full converter for highly inductive load. Fig. 3.6.5 (c) shows the output voltage waveform for a =60. Observe that this waveform is same as that of resistive load shown in Fig. 3.6.2 (e). Fig. 3.6.5 (d) shows the continuous and ripplefree output current. Fig. 3.6.5 (e) shows supply phase current waveforms iR , iY and iB. Observe that the R-phase current is positive whenever Tj conducts and it is negative whenever T4 conducts. All the three current waveforms are of the same nature (quasi square wave) having 120 phase shift with respect to each other. Fig. 3.6.5 (f) shows the output voltage waveform for a = 90. The waveform goes negative for same period, because of inductive load. The load inductance generates a large voltage to maintain the load current in the same direction. Hence SCRs continue to conduct and load voltage becomes negative occasionally. Note that there is no freewheeling in full converter.

3 - 96

3 - 97

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Inversion Mode o f 3 < j) Full Converter Fig. 3.6.6 shows the circuit diagram and waveforms for inverting opeartion of 3< | >full converter.

(a)
(a) C ircu it diagram fo r 3 o full brid ge co nve rter fo r inversion (b) w avefo rm s

(b)

Fig. 3.6.6 Inversion in 3<j>full converter At a = 90, the output average voltage is zero. For a > 90, the average value of output voltage is negative but current is positive and constant. Hence power at the output side is negative. This means power is fed back from output side to 3 < t >AC supply. The DC source is connected in series with RL load as shown in Fig. 3.6.6 (a). This source forward biases the SCR even if a > 90. The waveforms of inverting operation are shown in Fig. 3.6.6 (b) for a =120. The inversion takes place and average output voltage is negative.

)) Example 3.6.3 : Derive an expression for average output voltage of 3 < j> full converter

S olution : In the Fig. 3.6.2 observe that output voltage waveform is continuous for complete range of a. Hence single expression can be derived. In Fig. 3.6.2 (d), observe that one ripple period of output voltage can be,
71 K \ 71

2 + a will be,
RY

6 + =3

During this period line voltage VRY is applied across the load. From Fig. 3.6.3 (b), VRY V3 Vm sin

3-98

## The average output voltage is given as,

T

V.o(av)

j
^73

n 6+ a
71

VRY

(0

2 + rfcof

71

3V 3 V

COS

(Of +

fl

r a

3V 3 V.,

cos a

(3.6.4)

This equation holds for complete range of a. Example 3.6.4 : A 3 full converter operated from 3 < J ) -V connected 208 V, 60 Hz, supply with Rl = 10 Q. It is required to obtain 50 % o f the maximum possible output voltage. Calculate -

i) Delay angle a ii) rms and average currents iii) rms and average thyristor ratings iv) r| o f rectification v) PF
Solution : Given data
line

208 V. Hence Vh = pn V3

~ = 120 V V3

## m Load resistance, Output voltage

r

j2 V ph = 7 2 x 1 2 0 = 169.7 V
=

ion
50 % of Vo(av)max

Vo(av) =

Power Devices and Machines i) To obtain delay angle a Average output voltage of 3 V
o (a v ) =

3 99

3V3Vm
------ ^ C O S a

n
3 V 3 x l6 9 7
71

280.68 V

## Since output voltage is 50 % of its maximum value,

^ o (a v ) = 0 * 5 V o (a v )m a x

o (a v ) =

373V,
" co s

## Putting values in this equation, 373x1697 140.34 = ----------------cos a

K

a = 60
ii) Average and rms output currents Average output current is given as, Mav) -

## Vo(av) 140.34 ^--------- fo-----

To obtain rms current, we have to obtain rms output voltage, for a < 60, the output voltage waveform is continuous as shown in Fig. 3.6.2 (d). Consider the period from ^g+ a j to ^ + when voltage VRY is applied arrows the load. This period is,
K \ ( 7t ^ 71

+ a j [6 + a J - 3

From Fig. 3.6.2 (b) we can write an equation for line voltage VRY as, V ry = V3Vm sinf cof + \$

3-100

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Here Vm is the peak valve of phase voltage. RMS value is given as,
T o (rm s)

; J V2(cOt)d(Ot

71

dcot

*3V *

sin2fcof + ^\diot

n r a
a 1 -C O S

9V2 e yvm 2 f
n

dv)t

... (3.6.5)

V 0(rms) =

3x1697^

2n

= 159.17 V

## Therefore rms output current will be, _

Vo(rms) _ 159.17 _ 1 5 9 1 7 a
M r m s ) --------- ------------Jo ------

iii) rm s and average th y ris to r ratings In the waveforms of Fig. 3.6.2, observe that two thyristors conduct at a time. The load current is carried equally by three thyristors in one cycle. These three thyristors are T x, T^, T5 and T * T6, T2. Hence the average output current is shared by these three thyristors. Hence average current of single thyristor becomes,

3-101

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters) - (3-6.6)

= 4.678 A

This is the average current carried by each thyristor. The rms current is also shared by three thyristors. Hence we can write, /2 _ 12 ,i 2 i /2 1c(rms) ~ 1 T(rms) + 1 T(rms) + 1 T(rms) Above equation shows the relationship between output rms current and rms current of three thyristors. RMS current of each thyristor is same. Hence,
1 c(rms)

j2

or 2

31 T(nns )

iT(rms) = =

V 3

- (3-6.7) = 9.189 A

15917

V5

iv) R ectification efficiency (r|) Rectification efficiency is given as, ^ Average or dc load power rms load power

^o(av) ^o(av)
rms) ^o(rms)

140.34x14.034 n ___ 77_ 0 / = iW x lW = 0777 or 7 7 7 % v) To obtain power factor The active load power is the power consumed in the load. It can be calculated as, Active load power = /^rw ig x R = (15.917)2 x 10 = 2533.5 W At any time instant two thyristors conduct. Hence the supply current can be given in terms of thyristor currents as, j2 _ o/2
l s(rms) T(rrns)

3-102

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

... (3.6.8)

13 A For 3 < j>supply, the total supply volt-ampere will be, supply VA = 3 Vs Is = 3 x 120 x 13 = 4680 VA The power factor is given as,

## Active load power Total supply power(VA)

4680 = 0 5413 (la8Sin g )

## 3.6.3 Comparison between 3 c |> and 1 < |> Converters

Marks [2], D e c -2 0 0 7 Marks [3], D e c -2 0 0 8

## 2. Give the advantages o f 3 supply over 1 < ( >supply.

Let us first see the advantages of 3 (J) power supply. Advantages o f 3 (j>supply : i) Higher power supplying capability. ii) It is suitable for driving AC loads such as high power induction motors, fans, pumps etc. iii) Phase shift in 3 phases is useful in many applications. iv) Power demand on one phase is reduced due to three phase. v) Even if one phase fails, other two phases supply power to the load partially.

3-103

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Advantages of 3 < J >converters : The three phase converters have most of their advantages due to 3 < | >supply. i) 3 4 >converters are capable of supplying more power to the load. ii) The ripple frequency is high (i.e. 150 Hz and 300 Hz). Hence filtering requirement is reduced. iii) Supply power factor for 3 < { >converters is improved. iv) 3< | > converters provide continuous load current because of improved ripple frequency.

Disadvantages i) Since three or six SCRs are to be controlled, the triggering circuits are complex for 3< j>converters. ii) It is not suitable for simple low power loads. A pplications i) High power battery charges. ii) High power D.C. motor drives. Com parison of 3 4 > and 1 < j>converters
Sr.No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Parameter
Ripple content in output Output power Supply current waveform Ripple frequency Control and complexity More

1 < J >converter
Less

3(j> converters

Less upto 5 kW Square wave for 1 < (>full converter 100 Hz Less complex and easy control Higher

More than 5 kW Quasi square wave for 3 < {>full converter 150 Hz and 300 Hz Complex control and implementation 0.955 Less

## Maximum supply power factor ^ 0.9 Supply and load derating

Table 3.6.1 Com parison of 3 4 > and 1 < j>converters It shows that it is preferable to use 3 < | >converters for better power efficiency. Hence for higher load power requirement 3 < j>converters are always preferred. But for simple and low power applications 1 < | >converters are used because of their simplicity of implementation.

Unsolved Example
1. A 3 < {> full converter operates from 3< J* 415 V, 50 Hz supply. The load is highly inductive. Determine the triggering angle of the converter to get average output voltage of 300 volts. The load resistance is R = 10 Cl Determine the load current and power. I A its .: a = 57.63, Io(av) = 30 A, Po{av) = 9k W]

3-104

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

Summary
Sr. No. Type of converter Load Parameter

2V

( 1 f cosa)

## 'o(av) = ^ ( c o s a - c o s p ) ^o(av) = C0Sa)

1< j>semiconverter

'o(av) = ^ ( 1 + c o s )

o(rms)

V2 vm 1 2n

^sin 2 a j

RL

'o(av) = T ( 1+COSa)

w
RL

vo(rms)

_ i m rc - a + 2 s'n 2a 1 2k

DF = cos
2 PF = \ 7 T ( 7 t - a j C0S 2

hf

= E E E JT , 8cos"

3.

## 1< J >full converter

'o(av) = - f ( 1 + c o s )

n - a + -^sin 2a j
RL 2Vn
o(av) v o(rms) ^

cos a

## RL with freewheeling diode

'o(av) = - f ( 1 + c o s c t )

y2
t a + 2 sin 2a j o(rms) ~ 1 2t t 7 DF = cos a RL PF = ?^?cosa

Jl

HF = 0.4834 or 48.34 %

## Power Devices and Machines

4. 3 < J > h a lf w a v e c o n ve rter

3-105
R

## Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC/DC Converters)

3J3 V V 0 (a v ) = 2 n W s a f o r a - 30 = 1+ c o s ( g + a

jj for a

> 30

RL ^ o (a v )

vm 2k 005(1

5.

R , RL

w V o (av)

6.

## 3 < j> full co n v e rte r

3V3VL V o (a v ) = s a ^o r

a+ fo r > 6 0

v o(av) v o(av)

m[ 1+ ( 3
3 v '3 V L

## RL R L - with fre e w h e e lin g d i od e

cosa
w ith R -lo a d .

^ o (a v ) 's s a m e a s

7.

\$ d u al

co n v e rte r

RL

, . = - c o s a 0)(av) ti 1

2V

2V

V > = CS2 a i +a 2 = 1 8 0
cir

= S l lc0sw ,- c0s i j

2V r