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Kindly mentionThe Craftsman

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THE
ART. RX- AIILO

CRAFTSMAN
beautify these public places of asscinbI~. R. Jl~ALlRII~: It has been remarked that while Americans turn their backs upon the street and devote a11 their care to the embellishment of their residences, foreigners often seem to neglect to the Perhaps their homes, and to bend their energies tile decoration contrast This of the streets.

E
cation, sons of

VlttlY sclici~~ for


beautifying titstreets must recognize the purposes for wlkh streets are created; whatcvcr runs counter to their greatest streets are means of communiperupon, or under the purpose This ideas, above,

uscfuhlcss must be removcd.

is not so marked as thus stated; brings us to note that the fourth is less true of the purely in crowded for which commercial treatwhere are and

but still there is truth in the statement. of the street is one of ornament.

Primarily,

for the transmission of goods,

statement

business streets than of avenues in resident ial quarters ; for, districts, ment do not opportunities exist, artistic obtain

street level; through tunnels, pipes or wires. Secondarily, air, and streets afford access, light and these open spaces prowithout

vided by the public authorities, the indiridual ~vould be compelled able. The to resort to other habitdevices in order to make his property in the landlord the right and air.

traffic is less, where pleasure vehicles predominate, and where the thoroughfares broader. In sonic cities, great has been paid to the decorative in attempting not forget If these to understand factor, attention

laws of many States recognize to unrestricted The elevated damages to

the purposes which is often served by

access and to light roads in Sew York paying property Thirdly, especially of partially

for which public ways arc created, one must the art purpose, are the very important. purposes thoroughfares, affords ready paper the street which contributes communication, social in all. facilities In this

have paid and are still

immense amounts for along their lines. streets are often

social centers, This of

where the climate makes life out and enjoyable. csplains why so much attention character cities. The people that

most to the citys welfare is that one which e\ery aid to.,rapid access to pioperty,

doors attractire

, )

has been given

to the artistic

when desired, and beauty fixtures:

streets in many foreign often taking every

we are alone concerned

with street The spe-

pass so much of their lives upon then-meal in the cafk line the boulerartls, and chatting friends during the evening,-that :rnd propcrlr with their naturally

but the purposes for which streets

exist must be kept well in mind.

cific problem is : How should street fixtures so be treated as to further the cause of civic art i
219

the city spends large sums to

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ART

IX- THE

STREET
boscs Indeed, spare, could be affixed to buildings, them to stand upon the number is surprisingly of by the such street of fixtures large, instead the curb. less of allowing be removed

which might as it appears That or the apbe greatly alteration,

or so altered

as to occupy

when one stops to consider. pearancc improved removal

would

goes wit.liout saying.

If one may be permitted ner and sandwich include streets, tidwrtiscments or posted upon in the streets: construction for inconsistent for a vigorous

to regard hung ncross

banand to the

men as fixtures, property materials, sermon. cities that

temporaetc., It he is

rilv located sewer pipe, hah a test strangely dcrisc

such as ash cans,

_.
Paris: Isle of Refuer and Elertrolier

should

schemes

beautifying

the streets

Ih~Llt,tlcss 2~ tour

tt1c f-irst

:111swf21 suggcted

by

through

any

city

is, that which

the

end not

desired i4 to be :Lcconq~lishcd by ~limiwrtio7/. Thcrc and lamps, They zlntl


wl1crc
lllOlY!
TALlllJ)

are n~any fixtures at all; pole4, of trafic,


:1re

should

bc in the strccth teleptlonc and impede


lll:LtCI+dl~ the
rattler
pO\tS

such as tclcgraph advertising clocL<, descriptions. the sidewalh,


width, usually 111& :Ls to

posts

various obstruct
its so gre:Lt

lYdllcc

cl-on-cls
tllnn :1lY?

lehs space,
fwqucntlv

imperatiw. standing H_&:unt% method for by in


Cologne: Elrctrolier in the Jiilichs-Plats

left and the

after

ttq

hart

cearcd to be used. space,

occupy in vogue rcmoTing ought croa.ded

valuable

in some cities a small plate sections. Fire

of providing

how connections

,j ust below the surface, imitated, and pnrticularlv police

flush with tllc wJk,


:lI:lrlll

to be widclr

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ART
every
clay,

IS THE

STREET
recently greatest to the character cities progress iu of street fixtures, have art, made the we have designs. even in those nlrcady mmy which civic

and,

therefore, character artistic

have a greater
StJWCtLllTS

effect upon him tllan many

Of :L

purely

ornamental

which he visits

seldom and at long intervals. Yet to provide paratively cost fixtures is a conof but when the thousand easy task. among Tlie preparation so many

instances

of artistic

The

:LccolllpanviJlg taken

photographs of electric
~OhlCJll.

illustrations by the writer

(from in 1903) show


solved one in other estent in the elecnotice. for and

the model may be expensive, is divided copies, the extra espense

lamps in Cologne
These cities The designs and plan to of

and Paris,

bow two cities have successfully


reproduced, European America. upon with some variations, some placing

becomes insignifi-

have been widely

lhe cost of manufacture need not cant. be greater for an artistic, than for an inartistic
SCeJl SO

fixture,
COnStaUtly

for when an object


it JllLlSt have

is to be
Sinlpk,

trolicr in the center of the street, instead of

graceful which this

lines and harmonious properties add nothing

proportions to the cost. than in-

the curb,

is worthy

of special

It divides less Jehus.

traffic and affords

a refuge

It must be substantially feature crease the final espense. Apparently cials public certain wisely the only

built, of course, but

the pedestrian

who is hard pressed by rcckThe street is better lighted

will cl~enpc~~ rather

at less espe11sc; reason why streets fixtures, is that offithat they In have suitable In have as the their Esfor their In still to secure

circular when

for each lamp illumines a area, as compared with a semi-circle IanJp is placed upon tbe curb.

do not have beautiful demand cities, gone for

the

are not made to feel that there is a them, and good designs. organizations

are not aided in securing private so far

as to preparc

designs and to present them to the city. others, where it seemed impossible official erected esamples contracting practical perience attention, fixtures at their own these organizations espense,

of what should be done. companies, suggestions, shows that

other towns they have worked through and great altered of art. need exists
pliXC

who have welcorncd

plans to meet the requirements an active public

sentiment and a willingness of the city.


TREATMIZT

upon the part of art workers to abilities at the disposal


SCGGESTIOSS

FOR

Although

attention

has been paid

0~11~

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THE

CRAFTSMAN

Vienna:

Tramway

Station

Occasionallg, as w?ll. Trolleg propulsion

the electrolier

includes a clock a street

sufficient care to endure the strain. practically the only must be trolley tistic form. To sour& speak of an object, artistic trolley poles, is to provide

rlYlus,

resource, wliere there an arpole

poles and wires disfigure

mow or less, and any system of electrical which aroids their use is greatly But the overhead trolley only electrical system As to be the to be preferred. present, profitable many it

chimerical, but this is a both possible as is seen by a deLightsecured by construction. Painted seeu,

is cheaper than the other devices, and, at is the in sparseI>- settled districts. it, the question streets arc narrow,

and practicable

sign now employed in Copenhagen. ness and strength the use of are therein steel open-work

towns prefer Wllcre

considered is how to make it the least objectionable. wireh may be strung from building ing, and the we especially it tclcgraph be allowed generally to build-

The liues taper grndu:~ll~ to the top, which is capped with a modest ornament. an olive green, least although creditable. thaw ugly these trolley of any objectionable I poles are the have

of poles bc thus avoided. cities. electric Soinetiines light or are should not

But this device is not of general application, in Anierican to utilize is powiblc

there are other designs which are Tisitors to Hamburg poles along the will regal1
Jmgfrmsticg

poles, but the latter in cities, too far apart,

which are so loaded with nvxningless ments a~ to be distasteful. the other extreme.

orllil-

and the former

These represent

and >ot set with

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ART
If the streets threaded

IX THE
lines

STREET
and the line recently Transit of the Bronx, constructed by Commission in the Ror-

by trolley

vatcd ough

are bordered so to place foliage. partially expedients, the electrical The affliction, mon one. careful features. and

with trees, it is often

possible

the Rapid

the tracks that the poles, wires By this means, a ride in summer refreshing, Yet and the noise is these are but smothered.

that it seems ahnost a of the shelters in New Berlin, KnickCan it to the Subway

and cars are hidden to some degree by the is made doubly

work of art.

A comparison

over the entrances Paris, or Boston, erbocker ugly Why

I-ork with those of Vienna, Budapest, should put Father and shame. to confusion

and the time will be welcomed shall have been made in as to cause the trolis a still greater industry

when such progress

be tllat it does not matter to New York what structures should stud and mar the streets? municipal to civic the city, while other no attention instances comfort signs, we create a special to beautify pay

lev pole to be abandoned. elevated railroad although However, to The study fortunately reduce

commission art ?

a less COI~I- city departments One might designs, letter boxes, way transfer hoses,

much can be done by its objection;d~le

multiply street-name stations,

of artistic stations, call and street rail-

stat,ions need not be ugly; The

including

public

the lines of the st.ructure need not be abrupt diverse.

Hochbahn

in

Berlin Ele-

fire and police fountains,

leaves much to bc desired, but yet it is such an improvement over the Manhatt.an

hydrants,

telephone drinking

and telegraph

offices, gas lamps,

Blldapest.Hunears: Entranceto

subway

station

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THE
even telegraph

CRAFTSMAN
are especially well adapted to ornament. Witness the arch of triumph in Paris, from which radiate twelve avenues, the monumental fountain in the Place de Brouckere, Brussels, the Nelson Column in Trafalgar Square, London, the William I. Monument facing the City Hall in Hamburg, or the Campanile in Florence. But however important may be the question of location in relation. to its effect upon a work of art, there are other reasons why art works should be placed in, or near to a street. often Every citizen uses the streets and Thousands many times each day.

poles, but such multiplica-

tion is not necessary. Enough has been said in order to indicate that no necessary Each one can street fixture need be ugly. be made more or less artistic, and when this result has been accomplished, improved at a slight expense.
ART IN THE STREET

the appear-

ance of our cities will have been materially

Plans for street embellishment should not stop here; they should also provide works of art: such as monuments, fountains, I statuary, columns, arches and the like.

do not mean that these should be so placed in crowded quarters as to increase congestion by reducing street area, but upon land, Small if need be, allotted for this purpose. open spaces, the forks of diverging avenues, street intersections and termini of bridges

pass a given point in a public thoroughfare, where a score visit a spot in a park. Therefore, the pleasure, the inspiration, the educative influence produced by a work of art in a busy center, is many, many times that of a statue, for example, in a sequestered spot. Parks, it is true, should have art works; but we must not forget that if the vast mass of our citizens are to be benefited and influenced by art, works of art must be placed where they may be seen constantly. It is not the isolated, infrequent glimpse which will effect results, but rather repeated, The masses cannot be taken daily contact. to art; art must be brought to them, just as small parks have been brought to the people in the tenement districts.
TREE PLANTING

Probably

no ,one thing

contributes

so

much to the beauty of a street as the planting of trees. The foliage adds color,meeting a need which is so generally unsatisfied. The green is also restful and refreshing.
Ramburg Docks: Public clock

The

shade tempers the heat

and glare of the sun upon hot, summer days. Even in the winter, the street which has

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ART
trees appears the contribution the beauty narrow electric made be overestimated. wires, lofty less bleak and bare.

IS THE
Indeed, to

STREET
parkways ornamental. The difference in the purpose A plan for would for in which and charmay be enor one to and boulevards is principally

of these natural growths Modern city conditions

and health of a city can scarcely

acter of streets determines the whole method of treatment. tirely appropriate one locality,

streets, asphalt it difllcult

paving, trees,

gas pipes, etc.-have but they

buildings,

to grow

street system, another. ban district, district, and if or

be wholly

unsuited

The fixtures adapted example, a

to a suburprobably business center. the

would

be out of harmony Civic art is worthless, it does not utilitarian discuss

in a crowded, nianufact,uring take into

if it is not practical, account

side of every situation. the province of this paper to buildto this will and to the be street to

It is beyond
Cologne: Kaiser Wilhelm King

the means by which private t,lie artistic indirectly example treatment contribute of

ings might be beautified, have also made the need of them greater, and it is most cities have portant feature. unfortunate A great that portion so many this imof the of practically of Paris, eliminated note that fixtures
result.

but it is proper

will The

set by the city facades,

induce private to conduct of

owners to erect better buildso as to contribute from representing the reasonably

reputation trees which

as the most beautiful and the care

ings, to present more beautiful business rather than detract the street. people, the entire Then, expected

city in the world, is due to the thousands line her avenues,

tht attractivcncss. set standard.

with which they are tended and preserved. It is quite impossible all city streets. where traffic foot is needed to have trees upon available purBut in and ciragain is of almost In busy business districts, for purely utilitarian

The city, should

individual

may

is dense and every

to do his part.

poses, there is no room for them. the residential if only slight cumstanccs, and wide, again. districts,

there is room

care be used, they will grow,

even under the present disadvantageous as has been demonstrated Where of the since trees would thoroughfare the purpose

the omission to a crime,

amount

Pm-ix:

Approach

to the Am de Triomphe

de 1Etoile

927

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THE
THE AND RELATION CRAFTS TO SPENCER reflection OF THE

CRAFTSMAN
ARTS BY imitation of the beautiful forms evolved, sometimes deliberately, in the practice of the craft. Thus, of often unconsciously, the fine arts are not, an utterly arts, the different but are derelationship arts it is the outset sought real that in Move-

PROGRESS.

ARTHUR

of men learned in the secrets

A
origin practice evolved requisite Then,

MOMENTS that go

w-ill shop between the of their purhad that

as

YOlllc!

suppose, from

the distinction back The into to the

lineage

the useful perceiving to

fine and the useful earliest esistcncc type of

arts does not beginnings had

scended from them. Without between hardlv meaning ment, beauty the fine and the useful possible of and the which comprehend and at are to Crafts bc the Arts

civilization. pose sprang of

arts only skill

in necessity,

and the aesthetic generations than

when the

successive

assumes utility origin beauty,

a higher to satisfy after

the demands

of utility. not as

combination ed a common and may those

and not in singleness. to the arts of the question, of

Grantutility then, now

this higher beauty this

degree of skill had was sought

been attained, something to utility. birth after In to

apart by itself, but as an adjunct manner architecture, at first and somebegan esist to

be raised

in what relations enthusiasm,

they

stand to each other. Animated lightened, sprang. definite by a lofty than Their object the filie more enwhich they as the might iu arts have become more spiritual, the arts from adoption of their

which has been called the mother of the arts, gave served only thing without sculpture, to adorn period in itself. and for which grew sirnply complete utility, the building, into Painting cannot applied

a long

of beauty endeavor

in ornament, useless things

oruamcnt ornament

seem, at first thought, the separation and, toward of attention practical consequently, the useful. been upon in

to have resulted their

of that from

other objects, indifference it has,

would be a self-contradiction. and painting the puresuborit be-

Just as in sculpture and beauty dinate,

In architect,ure impossible aesthetical, apparently by

ly aesthetic aim did not at first predominate, was sought as something before effort, something incidental,

course,

to concentrate ignoring and sculppurpose of all of art,

aims, but in painting

came a goal of conscious development be striven purpose. beauty

so in archistage of grew to

ture there would son in saying others. absolute though going of Yet

be much rea-

tecture it was only at an advanced that beautiful for, as of no forms

that the aesthetical to the exclusion it is difficult going To

has come to prevail artistic perfection utility

less importance to its be conseries to its and

to conceive the greatest

than the adaptability which they

of the building represent may

hand in hand with it is scarcely quality Bv this comhut

In all the fine arts, the ideals of of a long something selection

uselessness.

is not requisite,

sidered as the culmination of traditions of which predecessor extending through each has added

too far to say that a certain is indispensable.

back into the past, skilled

practicalism

is not meant the sort of practical&l monl_v associated with monev-making,

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ARTS,
rather the
SiXilC,

CRAFTS
habit of

AND
great.

YROGRESS
to be called Yet its greatness potential only virtues is not to be inbut must depend which may be of it in perhaps to It acts men their that, no analysis would of

matter-of-fact

haps deserved uot infrequently ferred from its perfection, on certain understood Further show this rest upon is axiomatic
RffWtillg

mind found live, tions. an tical and

in men who are in close contact in which they extravagant espectato say that exist in the are or not to given to

with the age and the society judgments exquisite temper,

over-sanguine reasonable may

through

It is entirely

its human and vital aspect.s. consideration requirement a form practicalism

sensibility nor

same person necessarily illustration ing of the greatest (ommand picture, beautiful. only must but through subject degree cacy good, painter. of must of

whose mind is of marked pracwill such a combination in artistic sterility. qualities


All

of social obligation. of his fellow for be asserted of art is of

result

that no man can perform responsibility work

of the necessity of such a blendand idealistic in art may be found of technique, might in painting. taste and in a

the happiness assuming or morbid It cannot

practical

without an ugly concern

consequences.

exquisite

skill in composition, make it great, To

be present

to any one but its owner. exclusively of society. appropriated Art can

Art has to a

yet those qualities though be great,

alone could not make it not its the picture and through design could

ceased to be what it was among the ancients, something solitary property class, and has become the collective no longer but and itself to private demands to society. of much of our modern not due so much to mediocrity We are too in the an art of vital, and of this is the is are but in archiFrench inferiversatile, too learned of caprices, opinion,

they might

possess evoke

refinement sensations of

and beauty, such as no or deliproduce. of a latter idcalby or great the

its expression exquisiteness

merely adapt public The opinion

must meet the test of public responsibility art is perhaps eclectic, traditions the present nowhere tecture, florid working ority of properly a medium academicism the end, thing too of

it a sense of

coloring, those

unaided, of

It is easier to define the requirements than a powerful however, Perhaps,

weakness

of talent as to excess of talent. the past to create The truth

should have what for lack of a better phrase may be called a quality ism. A quality of common necessary of practical idealism tempered

that shall be sim$e, in evidence of and the Italian than

sense may certainly to the highest

be said to he in each escel-

straightforward. more

excellence

one of the fine arts. which the world ing fame accorded readily though only ture, conceive capable might perfection, judged

By the highest

where preference forms a sterile about

is shown for and academicism traditions for beauty,

lence are meant the power and the vitality acknowledges by the lastOne can classic which, of culgreat masters. of an art of truly aesthetically, fully circle of people of being

Renascence

to bring design. of

a mincing

Academic

not a substitute expression is to confuse

appreciated

; but the vice of


the means with technique rather somethan

by a limited

be said to exert an uplifting Such art has per-

and to make of

influence

in the world.

vulgarly

conspicuous,

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THE
subtly modern elusive. art It is this vice from and which is suffering, when workers anything

CRAFTSMAN
which will proportion to the amount of artificial satisfy of energy which they have consumed. vast multitude have needs. absurd, failed To to They have created a wants, and and
tlley

cease only free from ism.

in the arts shall of esotcricof useful in-

perceive that their work to be great must be suggestive the history possessed

natural

noble ll>\ve

say that the world would machinery

been better without with that of they have one would the fine arts, we find less in common In the or The

is, of course,

If we compare dustry that than

but it is hy no means unreasonable may some time beand that it may without has quanIt has has than now the servant

to hope that machinery come more definitely of mans higher come to minister hd e ging artificial economized tity, and multiplied nature,

wish to discover.

useful arts there has not only been room for beauty, but there has been in a greater demand for it. of ostentation, less degree a popular love of fashion, many substitutes always from known

to his happiness, For effort

him about with a great rumiber of limitations. human machinery quality. as regards

and of lus-

ury has made people willing forts of civilization, how its counterfeits,

to put up with

but not in so far

as regards

sometimes known as combut if people have not to distinguish they have it. beauty at least Unforin detheir

the output

of labor

indefinitely, in bulk be perbenefit of and the has

as production

been work of the sort which could formed without more effectually On the other rather than it, it has been of unmixed the volume, makeshift, rule which

with its aid than hand, where the

desired to choose the beautiful of their capacity tunately, sires modern such a manner without gratification. eotyped was once originality Moreover, novel for enjoying trade has as to quicken affording Modern

to the extent developed aesthetic for.

to society. excellence, product it has exercised habits, tended

has been the thing to be considered, been an with of a crude arbitrary of the greatest over mens For

means machinery

has ster-

the forms

of beauty

so that what commonplace, and by the cheapand imitation. of labor of the designer has not only drawing, but or

the evasion

has been at-

has become

difficulty.

and so that the worth ness of incessant has separated deteriorated the craftsman a mechanic.

of creativeness

the result naturally pensive machinery.

machinery costly

has been to make skill, though of be. nor rare, seem eswith the output as it should

has been displaced reiteration

the finer products neither This

of human

the modern distribution the functions into mechanical and design

in comparison

is not

and the workman,

Man does not require complicated ficial habits piness to rnake him happy; rather upon the depends

and artihis hapquestion In

has become

an operative

whether his natural invenstimin supplying lence. If instrument of activity, of civilizayet they are less effective more

wants are satisfied.

We are apt to think of mechanical tions as a powerful ulated certain forms tion, and they have, beyond have not rewarded
230

the latter, variety and mediocrity than simplicity energy making and excelhad been lavished modern life sweetit more elaborate,

question,

upon the task of making er and less upon

man with happiness

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ARTS,
escellencc

CRAFTS
more cllcapl~-, banished from let

d;?;D

PROGRESS
its use-

might not

be bought be

nnn~ tllose allured into purchasing less products. From utility, the foregoing though not of

and only Let

the superfluous machinery

would seem dear.

it may be seen that concerned with to necessity discovered hostile

lllodern life-that of a master. of

would be absurd-but This is necessary the

the arts which arc primarily

it be made to play the part of a menial, not in the inof adby the minisrace. terest civilization, degree

beauty, have come to deal solely with utility, while it was previously fine arts had grown extent all practical trate their attention tradition. farther the two forms common origin, that the to a large forms of to disregard upon special

yancement tering to

of which may be gauged of the agencies wants of the the higher the character in an industrial

refinement or crudity Moreover, is of great son that possess formation others. evolving advanced placed In

needs and to concentherefore,

of these agencies for the reathey in the any are civilization influence beliefs than they

In their development, of activity apart, and farther

ethical significance, powerful and own

have been drawn in spite of their

a more of our

and in spite of the fact that of values would bring It has been ,point-

ideals

a just interpretation

generation

them into close affinity.

types of character civilization

which may not In an be of escelselecwould

cd out that work in the fine arts of to-day needs to possess what has been called practical social idealism, that it requires before of dignity not it can in life a sense of attain to obligation,

be altogether upon

fit to serve as models. a premium qualities the highest

lence, and the men possessing tion into the positions greatest An reward practical progress. to nourish, gling industrial system

such qualities influence, as to of perupon merit.

power or vitality. to fill a place humanized, be recognized though

In a word, the fine arts must be any vulgarized-must not of It has also

would be drawn by a kind of natural of greatest wealth, and greatest somewhat and

responsibility. types might

as the property

so organized

one class, but of all mankind. formerly cases handicrafts vast

commonplace efficiency conditions

been shown that the useful arts, which were but have now in many mechanical industries, attento perout this interbut their purbecome

business ability

more liberally moral

than superior a penalty

haps be said to be imposing Economic not to stultify,

need to be made to minister more effectually to civilization, mit artistic of the This Arts by bestowing greater t,ion upon beauty, market by and by refusing mechanical

should tend

individual

1Phen practical succeed to call

men see that only by strugthey can hope to enterprises, civilized. would then, a

workmanship

to be driven

to attain excellence in their business itself for highly excellence

inventions.

regeneration and Crafts

of the handicrafts, Morement, broadly

and only then, will the world have the right Such imply struggle machinery of a skilful had ceased that and for tyr-

humanization

of the fine arts, are what the It does not have

preted, may be said to signify. aim to play realizes special that special arts may

had become a tool in the hands and noble master workman, to be a mere instrument subjecting to economic

the part of an iconoclast, its animating

problems : yet

money-making,

pose, as the writer conceires

it, is the recon231

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THE
ciliation of beauty and utility, that the higher happiness of mankind to regard

CRAFTSMAIS
any cult or school isfied them. in municipal rich style materials that nearest examples could possibly have sattrue that of the style-the native analogous and power The recent may of and is to can aestheir It is unfortunately architecture, of to a the Georgian few

in the belief

best be served by refusing thetic wants as more exclusive than other own peculiar Movement ceiving

in spite distinctive

and less vital

needs and as demanding mode of treatment.

approach

we have-very

The real meaning cannot

of the Arts and (rafts without conmore than a revival the enthusiasm a conviction prefer of
S11c11

of similar universality of landscape

be grasped

have thus far been produced. achievement well serve to stimulate ers in related treatment which, perhaps, which, architects

it as something

architecture

of handicraft. that the world ugliness society, painting, dress itself,

IJnderlying

and worka mode tradi

of its devotees is undoubtedly to beauty,

arts to develop

does not necessarily

while not defying creating

and that art should adsmall fraction in general.

tion, does not yield it servile obedience, without a new school, as adhering not to be classed

not to any

but to humanity and poetry,

a belief, of course, implies that architecture, are to be regarded as useful handicrafts, close conmoreover, faith of equality of in much the same light and that the former, are t,o be considered tact in rith life. presupposes opportunity, sistent with equality The Arts

any esisti tig school.

Such art will perhaps


llli~ster,

possess, in th e 1 lands of a individuality. consistently skilfully tutions, those The Good cultivate

the Charart cannot, instiof

act,eristics not so much of a st.yle, as of an municipal methods which are not with democratic

not less than the latter, as requiring a belief,

Such

harmonized

as its foundation as signifying and, so far the moral and Crafts of welfare

strong

and for this reason the purposes underlying animating perhaps the spirit Arts and

democracy,

such art at its best can be none other than (rafts Movement. of this movement idealism which to serious The ncmovecravmight be defined not inaccurately of pract5cal essential

as may

be consociety, cannot and art best of

of condition

for all men. Movement

but tend to make art more democratic, of the characteristics we may work find an in the municipal too little. a democratic in public the art and illustration

as that quality has been complishment of practical

declared

in the fine arts. wants of

ment must aim at once at the satisfaction


it1ld

this country, ly, however, notable case of

of which there is, unfortunatePossibly Law the most in the was Olmsted, parks of it is to be found Frederick formal of public

aesthetic

ings, and demands of craftsmen tion of artistic escellencc sagacity, would


lstellcc!

a combinaof with

instance the late

enthusiasm

with knowledge With-

of men as necessary

to their attainment of enthusiasm Crafts

whose work in designing so emancipated traditions the beauty that from

in their several vocations. the Arts without to carry and

and academic reproducing nature it was as

out such a combination

in faithfully

Riovetncnt into CSthe same

and freedom

never have been summoned


;

able to suit the needs of his countrymen no art possessing the distinctive

men possessing

marks of

qualities

on its work, it can never

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ARTS,
hope to fulfil life. broader often tion Its its noble function certainly either than

CRAFTS
in modern demands the artist a or to the civ-

AND
This difficult might

PROGRESS
statement to combat; be better is undoubtedly if to develop slowly true and it and to

success

it were possible,

outlook

the artisan be sought of Titanic ilization? et! of

of the past can be said to have But is not the object of engrossing talents prospect diffused, evolved of by worthy the atten-

let our municipal nately,

improvements

be the reprecedent part, and study too liter-

possessed. the finest forces The

sult of local demands. has always to prevent ally played

But such, unfortu-

has never been the case; an important from being precedent a full

of our modern

complex

happiness

followed,

and exhaustive

more generally att,aimnent of

of a state of sociof the love of and the

has always been necessary. Knowledge a full part of our is power, authorities and it is only by on the is being of what and complete understanding

in which vice is rendered more difficult than virtue, among may men, rultivated all sorts

excellence conditions imagination, earnest civilizing

well quicken spur

done abroad, a position So

that we can place ourselves in in the fullest unclone in the be effective of plays of the imin this with-

and should every

on to more than now, a

to secure the best for our country. a thorough

endeavor

one who desires to

city plan can be complete of what No a full part city that is being plan transit can

WC art become,

more definitely

sense of the word without derstanding of cities.

force in the world.

great citiesof the world for the enlargement without comprehension

RIITSI(IIAL AJIERI(A

IUIKOIE?rIESTS

IS

portant expansion.

No plan can be effective understanding necessity. now

I
-that be of

out a full has been recently stated follow on good closely will be authority ments upon that if municipal precedent, it improvetoo for future culties of

the economy of the confuof the diffius, would be and

that is to be obtained by a present provision JIuch many confront of both sion that now prevails, which eliminated foreign underground

in America foreign

indicative

of an unfortunate development

state of affairs

by an intelligent methods transportation.

understanding surface

improvements local

to bc of value, should and an answer to

lOCil.1tl~l~lfuldS.

833

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THE
THE COLORADO B5DESERT GI_3TA\i

COLORADO
AND CAL-

DESERT
by our own or our friends the Filipinos or the among

arc surfeited esperiences Zulus;

IFORRIA.

STICKLEY

I
to

while the scenic effects of the entire are as familiar in which of to our minds w-c picnicked eye as last those if they only

N the old days, when transit munication sketches upon to by


Tl1e11,

and COI~I- globe and seized

were those

SlOW, books vere whom eagerly of

the grove summer. By

of trawl

circumstances the earths necessary country or was espectcd

reason

the new conditions, simply something describe,

bound surface. his

a certain

point

who treat of travel with either pen or pencil, can no longer wish to produce
VdllC.

description of

by the reader and wan absolutely understanding treated, the region

of interest and

They

must content things

be impressionists to as The record they public facts, see

and
but them, phy-

since his SOLITCCS of knowlthe principal separated than railway. far. are one residing from us bg station i, to no the descrip-

critics ; not cager representing through sical

edge were few: But to our upon more tions now,

to attempt

the more difficult task of of vision,

in the encyclopaedia. things seas or continents, imagination our near and local nor pictures seem little more distant the nest J?liere multiplied

their own medium

or intellectual. or pleasure, personal,

now deand ideas, that the with

niand5 of those who use their powers for its instruction something things sympathy concepts tells which

Trawlers,

described

have been approached

point of becoming e\~ry day depart visit to strange

wwrisomc.

Our nciglibors From some 1Yc

and studied with intelligence. tenability, or if the mental

for: or return

It matters not if the point of view be one of questionable

countries

and peoples.

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THE
lens distort, to some degree, the submitted in the reside to its power: some partial there

CRAFTSMAN
objects truth and, will to dream of which the most fanciful can the The sity very be seen, touched before and spontaneity human fullness for of Nature heart pervading seem easy, is largely abundance faery feast and inspires all life products The in it. to feelings, tasted.

will be present

in such transmission, so offered, which

suggestions a real value,

unknown although removed. of the

can be put

makes acnecesThe fruits in

profit by the receiver. In accordance many many through with such principles, personal experience rathto and to er than as a narrative more through of travel familiar the medium

complishment effort names

are idyllic, exceeded

the number in the

of them not being described

of books,

Kan of the Y nma interpreter,

iMap.gie

Srott
desert Keatss found tarines, Eve of St. Agnes. Here apricots, and are necthe

certain

impressions

of the Colorado

and California

are here recorded.

in perfection quinces, loquat trees.

oranges, peaches,

lemons, limes,

figs, pomegranates,

S
136

guavas, vine, The the

with the product ahnond everywhere The sight at this sensuous

OIJTHERN by only one

California paralleled other

in region

springin beauty of the

of

the

time is perhaps similarly

walnut

eucalyptus

makes its healing is

presence

felt and the air

world, Riviera,

situated,

and when visited that is the of the poets a realized coast of the Italian Age country

is laden with delicate perfumes.


no

at the same period peninsula. then becomes The

of the year:

less flattered than the other senses, and seem that season, is attainable. in this region, climax of the

or northwestern Golden in either

it would exquisite pleasure

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THE
But the idyl changes history, ligious like

COLORADO
of rebeauty

DESERT
insisted, the of of this charming the interest afforded region is thus en-. Desert. save by of the

to a vital book of and economic in And

as it can not be too strongly I~nccd, and

a lesson of stern endeavor, zeal, of bold political of ones

singularity

enterprise,

if one is able to resist the Edensurroundings, the memorials of the Span-

impression

by the Colorado be paralleled

loveliness

can not, presumably, the experiences First the awful among American

order to study once again, account,

of travelers in the Far East. the striking Sahara phenomena must be placed

iards in the Missions ter, if the motley

and Haciendas.

the scene assumes a new characpopulation be taken into feature of

sandstorms

which, when encountered, of man with the Arch

since this pronounced

seem like the struggles

An

msernbly

of Tumlt

Indians

the great of found

gold-bearing

State of

present,s one races to be of humanity

Fiend,

since

alrnost force

superhuman are required

strength from It was one


my

the most varied in the world: differing be accurately pleasure beauty to of

studies divisions

and nervous who grapples although carriage degree

a place in which several

with their fury. the shelter of of

radically quently son. The romantic precede

lot to experience from

one of these whirlwinds, the railway no unusual

live and labor

side by side, and can conse,judged be by comparifrom the

; the storm being


of violence. the phenomenon conception effects, not be

But even in its attcndefies descripin order that of its and by


237

derived

uated form, tion. any adequate character. physical,

the coast

is enhanced wastes which ...But. while,

It must be witnessed Its can

by the contrast the Southern

of the barren Railway.

he formed spectacular communicated

it for the traveler who arrives upon Pacific

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THE
speech. ous words terms But speaking childhood, various darker actions, fail of whether one who qualification facts Nature of man shrink or

CRAFTSMAN
a party to
1~

As in the presence of a11 stupendXature, and they would use them, until

of friends back that knowledge from right,

whom I had persuaded they might rapid gain than passage of a can of the region

turn

closer

obtained Vpon our

a single like

seem too poor such right

and mean to be pronounced. will not has deter me from in a on, as one to whom, from appealed fitted to hours of gladwith equal power to the of the mind. Conscious as

across it. a succession majestic towers, rose the San Jacinto peak capped a height moun-

tains : their loftiest and attaining

with clouds

language, musings

of eleven thousand On our left by the saint showing convex gigantwo one of a

ness, or yet again

feet, while its base lay nearly three hundred feet below the level of the sea. stood the no less imposing range, superb named Clairvaus San. long, ,. San Bernardino

also that the Desert has been described,

distinguished mountains: from Gorgonio, smoothly the

; the other,

called

tic oval of granite tains a height sand feet. Titanic

which at-

of twelve thoubarriers,

Between these two natural

which seemed to lock us within a prison area, the train wound its way, fury of advanced, gradually color, by a picture, ural in certain Studies of Natby b IoWn. NC hit of Appearances, recently published delivered the external assumed a up t.o the As we Nature single of storm.

becoming

a chaos

The atmosphere showed a light cnfk shade, transmitting Spirals, formless from no blue of sky, no green fantastic of earth sand, to a whorls, masses the of mountain,

one of the most distinguished art critics, nicalities my own impressions. meet with that of profound The curred Thus

of American leaving techto

no azure or purple vegetation. and


shapes

I shall not hesitate to note here to the students, sympathy I shall hope which

reached

apparently

is evoked

sky piled with denser sand-clouds; side the tracks, of sand, more rapid eddies, currents subjected although

while beand ridges

in many hearts by the plain, feeling. which I sandstorm

honest record witnessed oc-

to a motion of the train, like the Phy-

than the passage

near the limits of the great

waste,

made the surface

of the soil appear

whither I had returned


838

from the coast with

drained bed of some vast river or sea.

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THE
The men and women appeared parts, they while the background were projected, of I paper recognized against

CRAFTSMAX
afford a viStiL into the pa& life of the minof the Pacific Slope. this peculiar
ht

to be playing which to fall Hut surcsists Puma,

ing districts

seemed ready and lathing. I

Rut yet, after studying one must recognize that, cation, swept through applied

life, long ; as

at any moment, falsehoods gradually owing

and to disclose that

its shabby was

that it can not of

the operation color

science

to means of transit the local away,

and communiwill he a mirage,

rounded by true pioneer conditions. to its comparative isolation,

of Yuma

as a wind scatters

as a survival. floating often literature. Basque although widely tions


240

The

character-types arc almost in tradition of and classes

of

its so and

leaving dominate At gain4

the commonplace the town. t.he first present,

to pervade impression openness. Crime.

and there

population Like

classic:

have they appeared people

the gypsies

in Granada, the Spanish of Yuma, and condiand representing whole,

is the sense of apparent

Vice

is

like the persistent country, little differing of

crerywherc seven mortal it. would

and seemingly

waiting The rapidly of the

the inhabitants cohesive races,

for the coming

of its brother

sins can be committed

and wit.hout effort by him who so wills, and seem that. the atmosphere

men, form

a distinct

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TNl3 COIiORADO
place miglit casil_v gencratc even
tllilll

DESERT
&on5 in for order
one

scvcn others are no

blagek are object moralizing.


For,

the traveler, to prevent pano-

more unclean At nigllt,


other the

those which
iLJ)&W21

be he never so little given to reflection and overpowc-ring inust turn

known to tile Churcl~. the StrWts


tt1at of t0 ttw SClTC 11SC t11a11 ptt1s t,o sILlool1,

d~spOn&ilcy,

to the strceth which hhow a moving rama quite ah picturesque, varied


IIlitIl~

dancehouse and the gambling quite C0lllptW;l~~le with is manifest is


no : Wht

hell, and
I Illi1

if not so imposworld. Indeed, this re-

in my experiences of travel I can rcmembcr nothing


be

ing, as any offered at the meeting places of races in the


Illv old JIilS%l,@?

permitted

to call tlic enthusifwm in


Illma.

for ezqil
of

time5 in

through boulevard

which tator

There,

town of the Far West, I,a garding

I \vas reminded of

course, the element of danger greater more


SCRp0rt.S

for the spcchumanity those imthe

Cannebikrc, the famous

than in AIeditcrrancan depraved quarters tlran Simply,

which the inhabitants of Marseilles

nor ilre the t.ypcs of

encountered found portant

in the vicious

of any

focus of population. carnival business

type of town represented by Puma is abandoned to a perpetual tional of movement which or of passion ; enterprise.
rllp

there being no opposing

current of educa-

The memor_v of one among the many places resort I visited, remains in mind, fixed there by the sonorous voice of a ncgro If I Fortune who sang but Knew; if melodiously while the the ballad, wheel
Citlld,

of

turned, and the strident voice of such lie could be your bets, or articulated Make @on, gents, other cspress their civic pride, by saying boast of equaling with the splendid, their own city. that if But lest the sordid Paris possessed such a promenade, it might I may be accused of contrasting

the croupier, commanded : Name your

more technical In
such

phrases, such as variegate and his imitators. at slang is felt as these, found in Yuma,

the pages of Brct Harte assemblages every street-turning to be the proper

I hasten to say that. I

standard mode of speech, to the same dcevening dress would

make the comparison only between the racctypes encountered in the two places ; setting aside the brilliancv of the French seaport, lights, its with its lavish display of free space, it.s fine trees and shrubbery, its dazzling gance of the mqjority shops stocked with costly wares, and the eleof its promenaders. are concerned, But as far as the race-types

suited to the surroundings grcc that conventional bc unsuited. than dives, to the very :stincts? what designation

And to the places themselves could be more appropriate since in them descent is made slime and mire of hul\lan inthe places and the asscn-

Alike

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THE
the comparison the throng
hurnousCs :

CRAFTSMAN
irrigable lands ; gold are found miners, prospectors men who, an occasional bearing gambler disguised. and than also Still and promoters csperts priest, those garments of mingling

remains their

valid. white

It is true
tO nCCCllt

tllitt in TUma tllClY2 RlT 110 JlOOlY


with
but,

; scholarlylooking ; finally,
~~IIOSC face,

turbans

iLIltl upon inquiry,

to be Government

in their place, shoes ; and Indians other

we find the blouses in of banswathed

in geology or parson,

Chinese with their pcndent and danas, their wooden blankets and flaunting
pl~l~l~

qucucs,

arc no more in the motley

unmistakable throng,

tile gayest black hair

t.he professional to be perfectly

head-ornan~ents beneath,

and bclirv-

long,

straight

ing himself

beaten marked suhtlc

by by eyes,

the wind their

and

adding

to their and with in a of

other tyes those

there are and in profusion enumerated will give

; hut
some

weird appearance

; also, slender Mexicans,


sinuous their movements sombreros cowboys forming farndressed

already

slight idea of a street scene in a town whose singularity overtaxes the descriptive faculty of all saw those who have genius in the use of pen or pencil. As one might population of infer Tuma froni the scene, the is an indeterminate

wearing Spanish

the airs of the full sharp ers from

grandees;

costume

of their kind, with soberly States

contrast

the Middle

in search

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quantity. by

The

curious
qlliLlitJJ,

types,

fils&iLtillg

r:rnccd to plzult tllc stilndard or States The


~lpon tl1e

of the United as
in

their pictnrcsquencss,
gone

their ugliness,

lacific stages

coast. of devclopmcnt, arc rccordcd Adobe houses point,

cvcn their sinister


a11 d

nrc there to-day is an old one. of the Fran-

hcparatc

to-morrow.

But the iIssclllblv is ago, it was the site of monks two Jlissions

is usual in all settlements, the buildings of Puma.

ercr

renewed of

and the town ccrtnin

structures and just an

More than a century the labors ciscan order,

.stand side by side with frame with the most modern as, sometinics, at an unsuspected

brick buildings,

who cst&liAcd

there.
ing place

Gradually by

it hccame a definite for from crossing their

hillt-

old formation lying

of rock pierces

the stratum Rut the

for travclcrs, the Mcsicans on their

and it was the point the older

nearest the earths

surface.

chosen (olorado, country,

way

sterility0 reigning in the great, circumscribthe ing desert, seems to hare stricken brain of the men of Turna. of shelter and and trade public alone habitations town, rigidly Rare necessities produced of the the buildings therefrom

to their later established ~11~11it WRS visited


,111d Keibrrle~,

province

of Sucv:~ or Alta California. cll;lrilctcr Slo:Lt,

Such was its hg Generals


iLS tllC~

FWlllOllt

iId_

cscluding

all pro243

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244

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visions Yumi~

for is

tllc silnply

griLtifiCILti0ll il Iidting

of

the

CyC.

c~Lll?~~tlJ iLS
eduCitti0n. (crtaiil JGilrillg :tllti t0

ObSttLClCS

k)itlTillg

I_O%lYSS

illl(J

I)lilCT

in
iLllt1

tllc
tllc Of

tlcscrt,

wlic~rc routc~s ilwc+, Iiostelrics cntcrprisc


lilW5 iLl)olllldSg

thrive,

fWltlllTS llle

qf

Such

radicalism clestructive CarneSt plea

ap-

traffic is active,
\-iCc3 evil. 011 visitctl StiLtCS tile the tlil_V School of tll:lll~

:LS revolutionary, 111;LdC :Ln

unite

in

iL

llliLClStlVl~l

d~~)lOIXbl~, I

for

the prcserration folloning


l~l:~i1ltiAillCtl for tllC ill?; by lOc:ll iLlriT.Al, tlle ITnitetl tribe Of I

and fostering atlloug if left ot)jccts

of the arts aluong tlw tribes the of

of hketrg the

and pottery-making 410,

Indit~ns,-cs~)et~i~~ll~ Sortliwest, produce fulness bolisul exquisite with beauty, aud possess

<~O\CrlllllC1lt

to thuselves, <join usesyuto claims

Intlians.
OfkYl~S

Tlic
qll:lrtCrs,

sclmd
and

is
tllc Fort

howd
hiLrracks \TulnN, of the

in
of

the
t11c

which

eiubody a delicate illdiSputi~ble

Oltl
on

alld the

110W disilimltled (:tliforilia huk

SitUiltCd ~~olori~do

he regarded reply tlicw


tllilt

as works of art,.
110

rircr. sisting

Tlic

incidents

of of

this

visit-contlw

To this plea I received the equall_v earnest SUCll fAVOr SllOUld bC shown wliic~li Ought to be swept
savnrforest such and bar-

of tlw inspwtion of
bi~md~ swing

dorniitorics,

h-0

Crafts,

cSillllillati0ll

scllo01

work,
by meal

listening
iIn in Indiilll progrC~~

to

i/\ViLy, togdlicr of blanket,ing yet iilorc life. art, Jfr. prinlitiw

wit11 tile otllcr eiuployincnts Illat- all<1 hd-weaving,


of tlw The lllilll prod&s of tile of

the
ldC1.,

SC11001 and

WlldllCtCd a pupils

-WOllld

IlOt 1lilTC

lllildc
htl friclidly it

il

(lN!p iinprc:siori not Fccn for which a

upon
spirited,

iiiv

mind,

hllY)llS

Spear from

lirgcd,

were inuseum point like of as the of study

altl1Ougll

discussion

ol),jccts,

beautiful of Of

a certain

arow

lwtwecii

tlicb sul)c~riiitclltlcnt
illl(l lll_YSClf,

in cli:qy, tllc of

view, hut most of all, worthy CSitlllplCS I~gyptian


idc0glXplls

31~. ,J. S. Sl)cilr, polic_v the to

rcgarcliiig cducthoii

racial

limitations, in which
Who,

Iw pursued

iii tlic

liieroglvlhs
il pOpIt

we see the an my

rcprtwiit:itivcs inferior the to

of it priiriitivc
YilCV_!.

and pw-

liowevcr hard concluded kind them and


to the

SLll~l;LblV

thy his strong their in the


thilt

liihrcd,

wcrc not ilt)lC to produce WC to Wc do not, their thir large,


possible

'11~

s~ll)ci-intcndt,iIt that shortest lily Hv Intli:ins

csprcssctl road in ttw+iiig

illpllitl)C?t. oppollcllt, own race qucstioii. scientific g00~1 of hriug


st;LlltlillYl.

Iwlief for tlrtw


IlliLllS hll0llltl

to civilizntioii cliilwliitc
tllCrC no

l<aye the fccblc-ulindrd multiply study at


as

of our without by the to cinI for swk he

tile

how
way. hC

(10 cwrytliiiig
lllilillt:LillCd

infirmities

iiic~tliods;, restrain llllllli~nit~


IlCiLI

no

coiiipron~isc, Of ihs, \vorltl

110 iLl~sO~ptiOll, SllCll :lS

illlli\l~Llll:ltiOll wllc~ll the p:Lgll

0CCIl1I.cd, IKwLlIIC

tllc~111 as

IlOlYlliLl

gr:td11n11v

llic

smic

inems strong

must

(hristianizd. riulid social


llil.tiOllS frStiLtlOllS th ol(1,

Hc~ ;Idroc;it<d in tlic arts


: tiL+tC

~rlfo~~~(l i~ntl
food, :111 tllcsc giuucs, of tilt
lbliLllitics t0

l)lO~CYl with In :qaiii origiiial ing


lily

tile lntliil~~S. to tltosc


for

chngw customs,
\VilrdS Of free,

dress,
illnd

reply

statciiicnts

mligion

~)lciltlC(l

tllC prCsCrriLti0n Of tlici Intlians


the

Of the

rcgartling
itlIt

Ililndicrr~ftS
StlCllgtll

: tlirectdircctlp 245

fcclirlg

iLS

to\\-:llYl

lThllttiL1 of tllC

irrcymnsiblc

life,

and conSc-

policy

outliiwd

in tlicsc

sentriiccs

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THE
quoted from mv adversary: arts. their only them hitherto Indian their relinquish The have
I would

CRAFTSNAN
~abolmust be and to this to of it, is always fashioned commands revealed by the in the things given of service urging alwavs world: mars a savage of Persian inscription tional
cup ;

ish all their barbarous made to accept end which North ours. they

They own life

any

people; of the of a

that the display

of that sentiment attention war-club side with wrought tea-

way to reach of everything been

is to deprive

as we see the decorated tribe occupying Ornament, book-cover, from flower-pattern all these ob,jects the people for side by

attached. that the of art between

a place in Gram-

On the contrary, American of are excellent

I maintained expressions kind ; that

a carefully from

the Koran, serving

or a convena Chinese the special are in-

classes of types

comparisons

are idle;

that

such objects

must be judged

by their ad-

herence to certain fixed laws, or their dcpart-

uses of

whom they

A semi-tropic-al

paradise

ure from is capable are perfect to argue,

the same;

but that no one critic standards which

tended

and

differing

radically

in

them-

or body of critics chosen from a single race of establishing and permanent. In my efforts Oriental

selves, while remaining principles languages single and customs If,

obedient to the same races of varied unite in a it is obebecomes a it of might

of art, as many

rather than to assert, I instanced the fact that. between them of connoisseurs and llnity. I

religion.

therefore,

the tvvo great systems of art,-the and the Western ; emphasizing while the csternal differences are wide, the-investigations laws of beauty, symmetry

dient to these laws of form, of design, work of art. It matters or yet

color and unity not by whom the graduate

the basket or blanket

is woven or fashioned: Nava,jo woman, \VeIIesIey,-the

the Hawaiian

or the

have proven them to be built upon the same reasoned that artistic sentiment, or the lack

preference, expert,

if any, bclongbecause of her

ing to the barbarocs

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THE
disposition toward originality

COLORADO
and inventook

DESERT
of the very life of the native people, and hostile

The object itself being accepted, M-E it could have but a superficial tion. should, 1 continued, le:LVe all fUrtllCr COIl- effect.
si&r:iti(>ns to

ethnologists : to tllOW Who It is for them to of the races, to of plantrank

If,

perhaps,

such things

be true in the Why not

study the races of men. decide declare the relatirc that

more important

case, I argued, why shol~ld

t,hcy not extend to the lesser? of derelopmcnt, f ercnce : allowing parison, torical policy rather

the prcdominancc of animal

pursue toward our nations wards a course than one of intcrthem to exist side by side and to test, by comsince histhe the A-in the success of crime-of them. regretted be

forms in design shows the higher possibilities, while tllat here concerned shapes denotes We arc of low powers and early racial decay. solely

with our own people, esamples prove

with a question

the value of our ways;

what is good or ill in art, and it were a pity to deprive these Indians of their traditional skill, in order to impose upon them some of our civilization for which they which thcg and against fragment will r&I,

of assimilating policy

conquered peoples or

tribes, and the folly-even contrary rog,znce is as much to

of suppressing

are illy-prepared with sullen apathy. In pursuance my sincere primitive the policy handicrafts

or which, at best, t,lrey will accept, of this point in the over I expressed of features of the,

nations as in individuals, thresh&l

and all those who

are in power would do well to stop upon the of action that they may ask thcmwe contcmppersonal, by *justice, or are they inbv the desire of advantages certain life; a people selves : Are the changes v&i& late suggested stigated solely

belief

simplicity of

of our own too

artificial depriving

condemning develborn of

selfish domination?

which they have slowly and keen intelligence I concluded against

oped from their necessities, and still pursue with the fervor of gesting that such conditions. by sugraise, at scprace; and a of

the suppression might

A
these of our people

1 this point my reflections were interrupted by the arrival of the wagon sent to convey us to various points

their handicrafts used learnedly Washington, arating pointing religious Western directed test of

the Indians

of the reservation, and during this extended drive I observed much to confirm the beliefs which I had already expressed. ernment for the health and I recognized germ if lcad properly I saw how happiness also fostered of people in the and and much is necessary to be done by our Gorrepresentatives continent. themselves which, might of the primitive of intelligence to the most

in a crude way, the same argument that was by the Chinese 3linister at the time from of the Boxers

war, when he described the differences the Yellow the White

out that cnch had arts, manners faith of suited to it ; and that the proselyting agents

and customs, systems of philosophy, interference

goodness, devclopcd, fruitnge. At first, ings.

desirable

ideas \rtls useless, because, being toward ccnturics ideas which had stood the upon ccnturics and par-

I was depressed

hy mu surround-

Hcrc

wcrc 1iWp areas of land sus247

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www.historicalworks.com

(*pptik)le
for ]JCrc tltC

to c~~lltiviltiOl1,
Sig;ht

lyittg
ficltls

WiLStC

; ltl:t~JWl ; dOttCd

by grwlt
bg

Of

1JtllT~

aJld

tllcrC

sad-looking a patch
IllC to ltOItscs,

willow of tilled
Or

and soil l,l_v prcsct1ce. ltcr ; tlw lotig tltc idcal :t,rid slonl~ upon \vork. i 3 prb rcl-c:~letl of tltcir frottt tltc thcrc f:~ror:hlc csisted for otltcr mciitl affcctiott for of
StiLtC fro111

tttcqttitc & rare


]ltttS,

trees, intervals.
~Orresp~ndcd

with

She sat, witlt lacing

ltcr clay into

lwforc into it slmp~,

mthCP

ttt:~kriitl of wlticlt rcxlizctl, oiw

altwtdp

rollctl

their

cnritwiitncnt. and wcw wlticlt Ihcrc twglcctcd of wtitl row iii wit.s no it to to
th!

strips.

Iltcse slit coilrd sltc carried

Jltcy w-crc poor, to tltc poittt ftym cIouds


ilttCtll[Jt

dihpitl:ttcd tlirir floors

in ltcr mind, caclt coil or the

of filthiness, that and

as trt:~?_ t)c itifctwd

as sltc prcswd :uttl

tlic fact

tltc

prccctlittg stttootltiitg

it,, cspiidittg modcling

long-uwd

cortt:ttiiiri;ltctl, upon.

cotr~prc~sst~ig,

\\.1tcn trod&xl
ilt

brick-tttakittg, forty1 cotttlitions

:Lll(l 110 115C Of in that iL cOncretc susccptihlc appw~t-cd t,lle hlhlGC


But life.

ittdicatiotts of tltc evidenws progress. for tltcir prosociety, in tttitiiakm to

tttttd,

far

prcfcr;hle clcauly lltcw


to tltc

to tltc sand, itttd at, which


s:ivagc

in tltc work c;~p:hilitics and tlwir

iltttl rccrcatiotts

\VOtlltl ltiLtYl~~t1 :\tl(l cottip:wittivcl~ wasliing. ttlc


t0

lll:LSS,

~~itttt;t Tntlians, lltcsc fatriilirs

:Lpp~iLWd iii tlwir

rCtwll tllc lintits of

vcticr:btion ncccss:uily th is hut htildcrs tltc

old age ;

rctrop:dCs

two

sctttitticttts
atttot~g

strongly

oltscrv:Ltlcc possibilities twirkcd


tltcir

ot11cr facts

soon

iLftcrB.:lrd of tltc I rcof

~touticctl

1Cd lllc t0 t:lkt it 11101~ ltOpL!fltl view of tltcsc iu Cwt:iin dcsirc to


llUlliL Itidi:tns. itttlivitluitls SIlIJIilLiS tltcir

SttlW tllc fiLtltily


t1tw. h-an, It1tlcct1, as

p:1ssed SC~>illYLtX?

evidcttccs

visiting the

tltc sitigulitr

fantilics

itilt& of rcwrthe
o~T1

frllows tlesirc

in I rc-

iting tttorc

sltclters,

T tliougltt affection,

pcr:onal tttcmhw2d
the first

:~dorttttt~~tt t, attd CWl?_lC t0 spiritual I reitt:~rked strong efforts llopcful tllc the ititplsc interest,

this

titan for

0ttCc tltilt, in the tttattcr :~gc :~tid domestic


tllig~t~ \71111JilS tC:tCh

IliLVC deCliLlY(dt0 1X2 ~102

of tltc hhrotts it gcttcr:ll gxtii~s, itt atltlctic

b:LthuOlt~ yoittli ft

0111

ittan. and aiid the

fitrtltertttorc

wlto1em1nc if wc would institutions visiting upon this

Icwon, not fall

which see our into of the

must most kans, I also which thy

1~2 itttor atis

wry

cnforccd portant Ihide slwltcrs, tetttlcd ltelongittg cotnpwscd iii large who, yet ion, order
11s ?

tnatlc: by all the


intlicntions were

itt:dcs to
cort~~lw of CilCll of l)f;~rof of of

dccatlence.

c~scel in them.
Iltcsc rated fwc iitg, by and tnarked inwrii~ltlc otltcr lay in tltc in their I indiriduulity crcctncss ittvcntivc pnstirncs, iii their watched, wlw with was stt:w2.

several

rcsrrvation, hostile upon fit&on,

:L POZWOZO 01 cotlcl:~~c to the of tltosc nutrtlwrs making customs nssiime of this


us to

of the It>di;ltls exist arc rcligin raw. trortt~lc

Wltilc

notice:hlc

witlcnccs power tncthods

n:tthcs---and no opn

intelligeticc~ dcstcrity crude int crest, iL .sitttplc

a11 rcservationsrcsistancc, tttcir of is: the own white

the met1 as sllown craft-work.

and tltc much cntcltof Hut

while unwilling social to

of tltc wotttcn

to rcnoitncc tliosc fwtion ourselves

ant 1 occupations,
Wl~v

:I It:~ttdsomc\ brave
but itigenioits

ittg fish in the (olor:~tlo river, willow

bv means

llic cry
Lcarc

we ask not1ta49

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www.historicalworks.com

it1.g bttt

to tact;lill

0111 (]I(1 lltCtllOdS

Of

life.
ilV:lil

th.

JIvtt

:iw

cverywltcrc~
iltlcl

ttic

kiutic. hi

lltcit red, ot

()n
wit11

t]tc
tltc
tllc fill]

~(jtttr;try, sclto0l

tltc

frictttllics privilqys,
mid

Itiltt(l~ Itlwk
h:ltllc. . Olil

iLtl(1 f<Yt

Itodics yt.
put

lllil~

t]tctttsc]res of

ilSSOCi:Ltc c;~g~rlv
:1llC]

or wltitc.
WV

I%tlt it]Sitlc tllcy likr so


of

ilrC all tllc IV< say


tny I&y
to

]);t,lC: filCCSy
fliL~tIICtttS t0 Of fWtl1

s&c
fiSltCS

arc

]I pm
w]liC]l tiLltIC. ITpon

IOilVCS tllC

It*csitlcttt tltis
owt1.

: llris

tlt~~tlt

GO~Crtltlt~tlt~

(itl(liCiLtillg

tll<b IOWer IliLlf) (p(~itttittg Iltis I girt to tltc tllcsc Itcwic

I _yiclcl to go,~.
rippc~r pilrt) is

Ilut
tllct OCC*ilSiOll

of

the

collcl;l\~c, 0111

ttty

to no tit:~tt. words tltc old tttittl


011c

itltcrprctcr

1V;l.S:Ltt iI.$(l
]liLlllC Of

S(]!!IlW,

pssittg \VllO n-l]0


tllcl

It] pr(m(tttncittg tool\


011

t~]t&r ittg

tltc
]torsott;tl

AIitg~qil

SCOtt,

sotttctltin~

iLIt, ppttd.

Sl)~!iLkS1Stiglislt ~t~t~~tS]ittCtl ittto


]cpIttls

rcxtlil~

:ltltl

IliLS :ltl

intcrcst-

Itistoty. sitttplc, l>?_ tltc

Sltc podic
Oltl

it, was
WOtYlS

tolcl

rllit]M)(lr,

01

1Sltlcr, Ovid, wit]]


\Vilr

\1.110, ilS

Iw disc(~ttrw(l, ltis Itihtoty


(~tt(ld it

CiLrlic~(I(tttc ttttiwtw
itfit

:1\v;Lv t0 _VOl.!tll iltltl SCllOOl-ItOOliS,fO1, lilies Itc hgi~tt


CIlilOS :1tl(l

of tltc
wit11

t IIC

of
sr~fi-

mid

strife

for

~vliiclt

IIO tt:int(~

chttly

Ixiw

c(~tl(l he coittd.
Cll~ltlt~

It] il kittd

Of

lllOtlOtOttO1tS

IlC lYIilt(tl tll:lt its OWII


RYCi1t

M.llCIt

tllc pu)Il~~ of tl!cl (:ll.tll \V(Ic C1C;LtC(l, Cil,Cll filtltil~~


illl, 1 ill1 W:l.S

giwti
Ill,*

110111~, liltl~l]~tI$( Illitd1

color.

koPKo-Allt/l

t1tc~tt, Jc>t

IW (lit1 IlOt

\rislt

tltcttt

to lives fro]]]

t(kgctltt7-.
OllV :LtlOtllVY

SO, I10 SClt:ltYl~C(l tllo triltcs


1,y

rtwrs, its

tltOtttltilitls,

CiLtlV()IIS,

tlcscrts

iltltl fOtY5ts.

1:ilCll filtllilV

livctl f0t

t11~111~ ilgSCS ~l~il~ltlilll~


fOtl~llt fortgltt

witltitt
tllWc

o\vtt

littiits.

Ihtt I]t(]i;Lt]S
]lt(]]

IVCIl

~)itSS((l.
iltlCl

illllOtt~ tlicttt

tlt1~ltlS~~lV~!S,

nltito

:qpin

tttrnctl

in

tlt(~tt~ltt arow of of

to

0ncs

sc1~~0lto tlw

XII togetltcxr. FiLtltw WC


to

llt(w, tltc wltitcs ~\T:tsltitt~Stott fcx\r.


\Vc

(lil?.Sy iltl,]

tile vision tlw


;\itcl

tllose Ol(l (GiLlliC

Scizctl tlt:tt Iv.2 our

tlw

Tttcli:~tt I:ttt~ls, :ttt(l \v( j~cr( to]:1


ilt

an(1 G(*rttt:ltt Itittct II OllliltlS. tltc tmtkcrs to


tltis
110

cltic~ftaitts power
with tl

wlio wsistcvl tltc

tltC Isix (Itivf.


tlw

\~itS t(t wcrc

ctt(1

i nv:i(litig tlicrc
Cillllc

\vctY
(10
ilS

Tott
(()I]](].

IC

VISIOtl
iii its

t11iLtl_Y, iLIlt
I-Iorv

\V( Ilild

iLlSOtllC>fVClit]g tl1il.t
:ttl(l,

n-C i~lllc~riCi1ttS !Vilv,

ill< iLlSO

old

1112111 ctt,Ic,I

:L stt-opllc~,

of a Itisitory, twwdcd
trw, tOWiLrt1 Owt we tlic sllortld

sccottd
tltiLt,

tt!rtti]t~ tittry

slt:~rply

to ttt~,

iLSkct1

itt tttorc
hlTL

ordi-

0th

cltroiiiclcs
strive we:da-,

:
less

itIlt

tonrs:

IT] Id at \1.0]11,1 . VOII ttty answcr, Itc cotttintted

(1,,111?

hcing

to

:LVOid

TTp(tn rccvivirtg rcSign:ttion,

a_ltic]t c(ttttts&d

itlj rtsticc

Civilizctl like

: \Trc (lit1 sI]rrcn-

rilCCS, lest, our

tiictnorics

lx! StilittCd,

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THE
those crimes ~holy, ing from of former dominant from their peoples, glory. and mcrcly the

CRAFTSMAN
whose mclanBut on a strikall parts say, plows, which, Nights, tutc through of the country,-one work from gathrrcd might bcttcr

so detract preoccupied

of the world,--to or to engage arc almost the products the great only

at the prcparathe soil by stctull of melons Arabian constitrnvclcrs The and of Asia.

Jhc old the following figure Puma

rhapsodc,

dignified me for upon hours.

tion of salt,

in the culture from of oases, solncc of desert the

day he bccamc projectctl by train, of travel.

as WC remember

background I returned Coachilla,

of my rcminisccnccs

through

India which

and

Salton, Desert. into

to Pahn at waste, the The

Springs upper country end

Station, of the t,ravcrscd, being lands, wells. of thcrc five from

American passed just with cluster My found name

fruits own

can only

not,

it is said, bears river. Palm which

be sur-

is situated

; lacking
as our about point from the Rhine

the flavor

of romance, comparison which I it.s

(Colorado converted by means Within thousand

Hudson

once a complctc

is now rapidly and from profitable Artesian

in all save the legends the German of destination,

fertile years,

of irrigation three persons

Valley, receives

a population

to bc an ideal oasis, the Blue Palm

has assembled

(Washingtonin

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THE
~&/fern) fornin. hving At Ialni here

COLORADO
home, five

DESERT
against for

its original Station,

tions of capital managers successfully ination, approval. the region, might cles intended should

lihr.

A board of
after being cxam-

;lnd now scattcrcd

from end to end of CiJiSprings but as

be clioi;cn to examine artisale, which to n thorough

milts away, the wind was still high; we neared the valley-oasis, of the mountain walls mcnts. to offer Orflnge, protection lemon, rttngc stretched against fig,

subject4

great but,tresses out their the cleand the air, of with minwith

be stamped

with the comwith the excepin could own n

munity seal, as a final and absolute mark of All foodstuffs, and each tion of a few luxuries could be produced family

almond

apricot

trees wcrc in full bloom; softness, was laden

a caressing glcd perfumes tllc beauty That belonging ~~nrray, fill Naples,
Quisistmtr-

; the eye was intoxicated

of sky, foliage resting

and flowers, and dream. in a tent cottage of Dr. Wellwood

tllc outside world seemed n troubled evening, to the hotel

I rcmembcrcd which (Hcrc Then, my so

those other delightalong bear is the ISay of the name to t,o but
was

crlhrglli, scat.tcred one

often

restored reverted

hc;rlth.)

tho?:gllt.s

a schc~llc long

cherishctl

in my fancy, My work
schcl~lc

for which I had vainly tried to find :L suit-

ahlc
the

~)lilCC of esccution.
cst:~bli4nnent could should

of a community out modcratcly

in which together laborproproducing wants.


th

men and women the, problem ioiis life, :md afford vide against which

of a useful, the corroding

assure health, action

of arc, area large enough to supply its

sufficient leisure for it ScCllled to of

the pursuall

ance of means of culture At Pi11111 V:llley, preliminary were f ulfillcd. rcquircmcnts Intrusion

and rccrcation.
lrle,

TALKS, that cvcniug, of my scheme which I had cqglit

I fitted tllc outlines region of gljmpscs on my way morning, me. On I saw

my

scheme

to the beautiful The following surprise awaited

and interfcrencc
out

were remote evils little to be feared.

from the station. a disappointing visiting cverywhcrc

of door labor was not only practicable,


even alluring. A central,

but

cotiperutivc

the immcdiatc

neighborhood,

dhpcit could be established


sistent whntcvcr workshop, prices. Eiicll

for t,hc purchnsc


could make or qua-

marks of neglect in Italy,

and indolcncc. it seemed hcrc Ilad proven All 853

of supplies and materials at the lowest conworker he desired in his own home

As in many places as if the generosity build fortune,

of Nature

a curse, rather than a capital upon which to comfort and happiuc~s.

thus precluding

all vexing

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THE t!ic
propcrtics, with xxv utterly
:I

CRAFTSMAN
grows Imrs wliicli ruining
;

tllcir

onw

fine

and lie

to did tllcir

bring wit11

tlmn the

to

his

own

terms, of of

r~ncl orchrds, plw33 tlculcnt were


Wi1S

ncglcctccl,
i~billltlOl~Ctl.

wliilc
ThC

nlmy
SCt0llC

disastrous intliistrics

result and

proiilising

prm.4 ical ly
for the sihsrqucntly

:h:UldOllCd

rcduring
of 17pon iiiorC

a with
hrning

arc21 of hloonl
thcsc ronrincccl iuncl cvcry facts, of

to a sccnc yet
as

l)uk tllc
:1pparCnt. rcgrcttihlc tlric to

rwson
I

dCSOliltio11 lc:wnCtl wCw spirit,

W:lS tht

IrOt

tlCsol:rtion.

tlic

I bccaine
the fcasitdity ILS well

contlitioil5 a IiLCk of

existing

l:wply imd to

strongly schinc,

coi$xktivc

of

ilip

tlctail,

tlic

~clfi~linC~~ years
iLll

of

:I

sin&

individud, Id firlcly g~~iiicd

who, con-

tllc

principal

fC;ltlllTS

of

tllc or

region,

coninspiraCOIII-

SCTCrill trol cd of from

previously,

firid
tion.

iriy

first

ji:dgnwnt,

ratlicr

i~rig:~tion-c:Ln:~l stone xntl cCinCnt,

construct:L dk-

I SiLIV

in iiicntd :mtl

rision i&w

111-j idcd

ICiLdillg

inunity
lllcll ~1illlW IlOt.

rcdizctl living
:lt the

: iiicn
iIRCp

mtl
:LS

wofirst

tiLllCC

Of fift(Vn water
onw Inan sought,

nIiIcs, to
to

;Lntl G1~XJ)lC

Of
the lliS

SllJ)-

ill :L golden siirrountling


working fields, or in at

iI

plriiig
I-I;Lring this

the
give

cntirc control

coniniuiiit~. of ccln:LI, ncigll-

XTtLtUlT niig-lrt
grows, \~incyitrds, follmdicr:~fts

olk;lincd

suggwt, orchrds

but iLll(l

liL\VS to

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lowed itlyllic
11101'c st:mcul

in their csistcncc,
dcprcssing far

own
bllt

dw(~llings
frW, ansict

; lcatlillg
frOil1

no
tllC!

wit11 tlw hour.


cait

In pr(wnce I rcw3idwwd Of
N:ltllrill

of this

iIi:~gn~fi-

ilt IWtSt,

picture, Studies wllich


iii tllc

Irofcsaor phciioliicna
was n-ritws artistic Id to

\:LII of
pro-

its, thn

:111< 1

circiini-

I)ykrs in liglit

AppCiL1:lIlCCs,

1110rc

Ilappily
Of l~cwi tllc

if tllc_v Id 01 1IlWll tllV


will to

Ilc :m;il~zc~s
Ihwrt, of 1IiS _vct ilnd

tllc
I

rclll;Lill(Xl in tllc ClY)\Vdc(l citiw, ,rnpro(ludirc


It w-oIIld in f:lrllIS II;LVC tlI;lt Tvitll KilSt. my

folllltl liiqol
scllclllc~.
1Iikrt.I tllc forof hilitr.

iltlllIiriltiOll :intl

tll:Lt, kccncr

sc*icIitific scnsi-

;lCCllIqilC\

](jnpr
f:lytller

I)liLCCy
III?

in OlYlPY t0 il(l~illlC( of tiilw


:I (I:l~

loiifi-cllcrisllctl witll
Iwcolrw

T.cxriIIg Ihivc~rhidcl

lillltl tlw gwiit

\illlC?_,

Ilest

visited tit-,

I{tlt

tllcb csigvncics
1 IlCSt Iilllll illl(l sl)cYIt

Il;~stenc~tl 111(
Ill?

or:iIIR(~-IIrolIIcinR

oll\v:ll.d. ill tllc I~j(p of

i\ll(ll~ilS

(i\ll?_OIlS, to

wllicll

is tlvstiiictl

ollr

t]lc> iiotctl

sccllic

plww

of tllc worlcl. I coultl illl:qinc as tll(> :lssc~l+(Yl coimrunit.v, tlvrotcYl to

rhis

v:~llc_v, also,

s(i:Lt of :I flourislling (]iLtC.-~~!ltllr~~ siilcr


t]IiLt tlIc

it is pocitivcly
COIIlIllClY(

fruit

Of

will gsI()\V t IICW. of tllc spot consist gipl~tic


of

At present, ii) :lg(l swrrc~tl


illltl

tllc xttractions
plllrl-trees :

tlwir

trl.:nks
gr;Lccful,

1)~ tlw fcstiwl f:u-like givilrg lc:Lr(5

fires of tlw Ilidiilns,


c10\\11s iLl1

their

l)luish tll?
0111~

Oricnt;kl

c+YcTt to 21s tllct


tlIP?_ IIIilkC 1lWtl tlICll1

IillldSCiL~K.

trlll~
IlTCS Of

as Intrrcstillg
(i~lifO~llii1, t0

f:ll~l(~lls Big
tiiw

:llld

il~~~~Ili~illti~ll~~~~

ccp:~11~

rcnowlK!~l.

llwir Of tllc itself


iL

fruit,
Slllilll, i1r:Il)iilll

11:ingiiig
IlilS (l:ltC, vet :l

iii
tlIc

IOllg pCll~1:LII1S,
prcciw wliich flilVOr

fil)rO~lS :Ultl

fiLCt

WoUltl in of
c:lIIyon,

:lrplc Crlltllrc.

for

tllC

c5tal~lisl~iilc11t Froiii upon rou~l~ supd on either


ilrWlS r:LIlgC,

scientific thy,

i~llOtll~~

tlrc (lriiio, ant1 rc;lcllctl \vo

visitctl l)y :I
tllc> ;I~)l)rOilVlICS Slll)llll)S Of of wliidi rw:dlcd to Ine thC

the

following of tlw

:Lntl difficult vim

rO:Ul, Ihscrt,

Ol)tiLillCtl :1 ;I
\ViXllS o\cr

2~s tlnwigll
thrk s\r-cpt

(;CllOil,

l)c'CiLlISC g~ww

Of tllf? tl&A, wlricll, hntcrn-like :Lnd glistlw wr! towns. t,llr 5.5 for

fr:LIIlC l~l:ltlc l)v tlW Iligll,


lI~~nt1. llw CJT

rising
vast

fiwly-licpt inilrs

:~n(l c~stc~lisirc~ tlispl:iyctl aillid Witllin ant1

:il)oilt,

their

of snntl, ;\Ioll:Lrt~

Iding Ikwrt

to a (listant

iiiorriltain frolll (liffcrillg

wl~icl~ scptxtw one nnothr

tllv (0lor:do

wlol)c5 of gol(l .Y tciiiilg foliqr. stlYY>t arc suggwtiw

IICilY?_,

(lark
fowign

tlw city,
of

tllc from

: tllv

~IIxsscs

IliLIIIC'Sylil;v tl 1oqs ,'

ii1 color-tone

:lncl v:ir_ying

inspiring

: while

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THE streets
palms, abnndon rcation
tlK!ll~sclvcs,

CRAFTSMAN
But yet this title is a too restrictive by whicll to dcsignth lhc a building Glenwood tensely suggestive. one so inis first ndaptAnd

slM&!d

by

gr:lcful

acacixi

and peppers

arc so dcliglittime aud to

ful as to cause one to forget all desire of sliclter. is provided

of all, (alifornian cd to climatic

: that is, perfectly

And yet, a unique place of rci;t and rccfor visitors in the Glen-

and loc,zl conditious.

this result ~vould sccni to have been accom-

wood Hotel, tcrcsting special Frank study. Miller,

which,

hcc:~~~sc

of its most, inof

plishcd isting The wood, in the

througll Spanish but

the

study

of lmildings situated. Style of

es-

2~rcliitccture, I made an ol)ject Its builder sensitive romance planned Mission

in plt~ces similarly $1 ission

and owner, ;\Ir. tlic region, to cntcr of which may esamplc

certainly the Glenfrom 1~11

to the iLtmospl1CrC elcmcnt

prcdominntes

in the fqadc traveled visitors features

of historical his carefully 1x2 dcsignatcd the Spanish

investing structure, Style.

will recognize borrowed but

has allow-cd no vitiating

structure

more distant assimihted, fully

sources : borrowed,

~1%a successful

and united naturally

and gracewhole.

int,o a pleasing

and consistent

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The

original

inn built of ndobc, has hccn effect : being ~-all pierced now below

so to use tlw crude and humble adobe co?struction which, in itself, is ix reminder of ownership of California. it wcrc brought from while the canzp&le, The one of
it is

utilized joined

with picturesque to R scrccwlikc carriage

tllc JIcxican tilts roofing unncccssary ingenious

with a great rccciving

gzzteway, and nborc although which were

with niches for

bells, and for this reason,

the old Jlissions,

the name of cmnpunile,

to hay, is n successful repro-

it does not in the least resemble the cylindrical or square towers in Italy,

duction of the Franciscan

style. By this USC of a relic which most archi-

isolated forllled

from

the churches of

which they

tccts would linve destroyed visitor, at his wry pathy


For one

ruthlessly,
given await R

the forehim

a part, in order t,llnt the vibrations and conncctcd camthe space enor aclv:LnCCtl

cntr:uwr, is put in symand


which

of t.hc bells sl~ould not sllilke ttlc masonry. lhc adobe building pani1.e +nding itig, suggest thus tzross tl le

with the the

region

taste of

esprricnces

would be indeed dead to all scntinot imagine what possi-

c~loscdupon tlircc sides by the modern buil&


h:LhLCitnS,

mcnt who could

bilities of en~joyment, incident to Southern life, lie conccalcd within the


Ilw WidlS.

~iLt~\V~l~S SC011 oftcn

in tlw Moorish

struc-

tures in Spain.

It was a happy

tt10ug11t

cstcrior

features

of

the Glenwood
857

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THE tlt+e sinlplc,


plcs usunlly tccturc might tcred tlrc in Ronic, ~.:dls, terrace, of in accordance ol~~vcd wi~i-m countries. for Seville. of the with its or with the Vie
The

CRAFTSMAN
princiarchfaCadc
plas-

the

marks
arc

of the

the all which

brush
clelncnts

with windowof

which and

it was doorof an good


Si11110

in the domestic

:lpplicd, f r:Llll~h, cniotionlcss rcscrving humor :~rchitccturc

simple

$1 system

CiLSilv 1x2 mistaken

iL street-front windows, Mustradc

prcscnts, interior

so to speak, courts its


tllC

lj Iorcncc,
or

countcn:~ncc for the smiles.

to the street,

nhilc

tlw disposition pcrsco,

and

It So ricquircs

supporting twcausc special hew p1iwcs ; all olwxved,

potted twfore arc locnlit_v. limit without

palms-all seen perfectly The in

arc many
idlPtCd

familiar, different
to

interest. son. Who, lwforc windows hcnutics


~lllc

that It is grilled to they evident

is t~wakencd tantalizing towns, and wlint and of in other gates wonder shcltercd

by
illld

n silent

pcr-

mysterious. stopp4 blinking am 1 also the

this is and The shows

in continental

has not smell, dcliglits

simplicity for its own could not

which sake,

partlv

I_)iWtly to stroycd very

espensc, disastrous

1x2 dc-

concealed?
iLW

result. which

WlVilllt:l~CS

simplicity portions

roughness

of the plnstcr,

plainly

of

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THE
csterior, illrlstmtion. tllc classic t:iincd, the of the gray tlic ant1 two of whicli I have

(01,ORADO
chosen for iiiaim to green wood, tlrltl in tile plnntctl

1)ESERT
t,o the in which, out, In wlidcst in return, (:lliforni;r, form, the and most the it work :I gospel of nialnrinl evil &out of life
PildrC2

In the long scrcrity tlic of lint, color

wall of the Wing, pcrfcctl_v confined of curves

rcgioiis, mtl under


SCrril.

&sorbing

it, it gives Ilc:Lltll.

sclicinc, story

coiitinues,

of t,lw plaster projecting with of points, the foliage

mcl t,lw dark mtriral trees. the

a modern tllc point

second

COIltlYlSt firlcl~ lusurimicc lint At ccrtaiil opposite

From
illSOy

of view tllilll

of ;ucliitecture It c1e1no11lessons

tlispl:~~ctl

tllc

pwgola

is clO(~llcl~t.

of tropical haking

strates :~rcliitccturc curws, seen ilS thove fronts witll(alicould into

niorc phinly do th to

1rliHly dry construct.ion Iv00d WYc:lls, tllosc lniilders, in It

also,

groincd-arch tllc tllc effect. origin

; tlw
dling like which SilliSat il

rcl:~scs its scwrity, in tlic tnwhr1-tech tllP 1)iLlCOlliCS. out making tlic And

f)SClltiO-C:L~)itiLlS of grw~tlqflilSl1 light, Cllllllilliltl~~l buy mid \Ychtminstw.

p:d1n-trc~~ of Gotllic

pediiiicnts

licrc tlic mrrow long

woritlcrf~:l

of tllcb \PllC~tiiLIl p:ll:lCCS iIrC SUggWtCd spcrtator


tllc

\illlltS Of tllc I:nglisli iti tllc iri I-lcnry

to be in :I

rliaptcr-llouse Scventlis

~011~101iL~ 11pl
fOl?liiL

Grand which of tlic

(iLIl2ll--fOr

Cliapel

1ltLs cli:~rnIs

IWiW cot1lpilrisOn

with f:wing
SllOIVS

those the

of tlv2 &+lc view interior

of the Sea. wing-this time squarcP With saiilt, 115 Oltl in step Jilllc f:lilS intrrior and
to

Anotlwr

of tlic ldow

me in whicll Iwilding, :\S it of wliirli tlrcrcforc, tlic httw For arch,

to trC:lt so simple, merely

of

tile

;111 ikllllOSt COll~~~lt1liLl CffcCt. lionorcd it trmslatcs pugoh, csistcncc only IlOt<? of tllrollgll tlic pergola

of tliis iw, I sldl, room,


iI

strong :illudc to to

ith well, lliLlI1c(I fr01u :I nlurll aud worltl \vlricll Imlt,


Zcrter

suggest
do.

WOllltl

k)C lr1.V plCilSllW

its CllCill~[)tllS of

fro01 011r work-:i-thy silcncc

into tllilt
iLlltl cl?! ict,

my cd I

illustr:Ltions refectory. round

~7,rccxnine

ant1 the this room rafters, \VoUld ilnd which sun,

l)c:LCc, cloistcrccl \viLS lwokcn niusid rising Hut yet

dining St rippd

1 sl~o~~ltl prcfcr wcrc

l)g tllr

Of tll( Sil_ntl~Ll~(l 1llOllk iLlld tllc


Sostcrs

ll~)<lll tllc StOTl? J):L\CL 117PS :IIltl iLir


us

Of its lllO~lC~~1~ t:hlc lllikx)nry :llld phstcr

iI~)})(ifltlrlcrltS, work (ll:lstitJ from :L new like

the plaiii tllc crude

tlic csposcd

tllc r:dm tells

to I leaven. tllilt of tlw


IlilS

fonii,

in all rcspwts wwc of out St.

, SUCll tL I)liWC ilS tllat


ant1

:l IlCW missionary old Yr:uicisr:ni. to tllc :lp srircccclctl

11ilStilkCl1 tllc

pl:irc
e11(':1-

in xhirli Olxdicncc the light Stremd

tllc Yaws Of Jowrty, :~ssuincd, Ihncis,

,111 ilaC of sricncc of faith. I%~ 1liLS l)ecn trans-

l_vptnS, nilti\c

to AllStl:Lliil,

l.!pon

tlie world.

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THE
PREHISTORIC PHIS, A. BROWN EKNI3SSII:E, kansas various valley to the arc prehistoric of Mississippi particularly relics; the POTTERY BY IN TENNESSEE. ANNA

CRAFTSMAX
MEM13.

T
over yielding one of 3Iound of Jlrs.

and Arrich in of

the mounds
Mississippi

shapes

and sizes scattered river archaeologist and a rich designs. In in Memphis, of this year, collections to the city of of

the

enthusiastic in singular Museum, in March complete Alason

thousands the Cossitt

of stone implements, Library most

Imrvcst of pottery there was installed, the Builders Car&i&n While

pottery

ever seen : the gift of Mrs.


Figure II. Swastika and inverted pyramid

Rlemphis.

in the possession

Xlason, it bccamf known as the finest private collection tery There fully The from from in arc of its kind in the world, favorably the nearly Smithsonian one thousand varied being and it has been compared with the potInstitution. pieces in and wondcrthe limit4

all, the designs striking,

if one considers collection

resources of the potters Memphis the fact

of that remote age. is interesting in it came This place

that every piece

one mound in Arkansas. about forty

is situated personal

miles from the city, halfin ThC

and each piece was dug, under lLIrs. Masons supervision, the by a half-Indian, unbroken. ncgro workman, recovering occupying ation, Fiaure I. Greek scroll pattern
860

who soon became expert treasures

mound rises in a rectangle, an d covers a piece

in a wooded flat, of ground village, quite if it

a remote corner of a large plantfor a good-sized built.

large enough were compactly

Indeed, it may have

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PREHISTORIC
been the place of a village, ilar to this. The mound as investigations now stands two show many to have been built on sites sim-

POTTERY
ashes, The which pottery seemed to have been made placed of the to over each interred clay peculiar Memphis, body. contiguous

is generally to the country

but many pieces of diflcrent maspirit existed

terial show that a commercial probably the result of trading

even among t.hcse primitive craftsmen to the cast and to the west. wcrc fashioned The

; being
vess&

with nations

for many diffcrent uses, and

have often the shape of birds, beasts, fishes, human beings ; while some are idealized ohSects. scroll the The Certain pat&a Greeks design pieces have peculiar swastika, I.), ancient (Figure from the is intri&c marks. by One bears the famous or Greek Egyptians.

borrowed

and the specimens

it arc csceedinglv I rare. This is one of the best known. Others like it have been found terranean
Figure III. Eayptian type

bearing

in a few instances on the Medisea floor, of older the possible flotsam than the civilizations

and jetsam world country, it has deposits

remcmb,ers.

ol-thrcc feet above the surrounding and possibly, cr ; since, the low land surrounding been filled in with the rich alluvial brought others refuges the drive The planters by the overflows. that this in the valley were it is believed mound

when built, stood much higli-

From this fact, and many up as


AS

thrown just

for the villagers to-day

and farmers,

nhcn thr

Mississippi their cattle,

overflowed, build mounds, during

on which to

the high-water in graves just of

season, when the river has left its banks. pottery was all found which had been made side by side, on the outer edge of the rectangle,-possibly beyond the village walls. each grave was recognized by a little The presence heap of
Figure IV. Peruvim type of farr

at the time of wood

Another mid (Figure

design II.),

shows the inverted pyraused by potters and dccOGI

the excavations

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orators
BIany Egyptian

of

the in tppc

IIZetlitcrranean rcprcscntccl

countries.
ill72 distillctlg

Illcsc from

represent the stern

RCCIlriltCly tllc figure-head tllC OIY~~l~I~ClltiIl piccc (Figure VIII.). of the boat

of tlic faces

fIYIll1 tlIC l)rOW, illld

(Figure I\. ). in

III.),

many

arc

leruvinn ohserrcr im3ning frogs, resent tile of which

(F igurc finds of
fisllCs

Ilie nniiuirl
tlould

forms tllc iWC


lllOdC1

itre IlSl~tIll~ KOOd, il_ltlIOI~~lrlr OCCiLSiOOiLll~~ tllc liimsclf certain iltltl trirtlcs. il turtle
>Lltd

as to ThWC

&signs. to clctcrminc, or a c:uncl in order to

011c, the

is tlificiilt

may with

rcpcclui~l tllc

either

:1CCllriLC_~, for t,llc l~cad is cruddy


legs hO\vCd,

firsl~ioned, Illitke or Wider, tlic origiV.).

vcsscl
nal

IlsCfI~l i1S a lioldcr


is lost

of foot1 until

tlic Iwdy lms hcen tlistortcd


outline i1i ohclirity

(Figure

SOlIlC Of tlI(! jars


:IrL' jiW

ilIT So CiLrCfL~llyIllOddCd rcprescntecl, \-I.), vessel, tllC 1CgS


iL

tllilty if :Ln ilIlilIliL1 h is mndc VII.).


Illost

IIlild~~ 1lOllOW(Iigure to l)C


it

iLlld wlicn CiLch hvl,


(Fig-

triple
neck,

ILS well ns tllc slender


ure

is 1~110~

Ille
~rl0dclrd

nOt:hlC jiLr in this


of

collection
iltl

is

in cx:u.+ ilnitation

Old Norse more This piccc of


WiLlY
WHS

rowing
thl

vessel,

of

the years

design
iLg0.

in use In

il tllOllSiUld
jilr,

securing the iriicldl~~ evitlcntly iI11 CXilCt \vils It was


vcsscl

tllc

tllc old digger part, leaving

shttcrcd intact

or bowl

tllc cm1 pieces.

C:IlIp of tllC \iking Wilt iK!rOSS tllC open will h


t:rken

: th

lIo:Lt, which in (lliCiL#I.

Wit from this from


tllc

NOrWiLy to

tllC (~Oll~~lIlIiiLllKsposition, rcmcmbcrcd fIY)llI tlIC


it

that

Yiking
:I11 old COilSt. of

rcprodiicM Way,
tllilll

ilCCllriltClJ

SillltlS on

Normore

iLftCr IIilVing tlmusancl

l~uxl
il.

hricd
pX!l~liill

for

yC!ilrS.

SCVC!lXljars
scciiiing

llil.vC

pttcrn,

to he 0vcrl:licl

wit11

cords imhrtion

of twisted iii of day the tlic tile in

grass.
Clily,

This
arId

cfFert water-jars of the

was
ilIl

produced to this and

is cvidcntly

net-inched tllc possession


Figure V. Camel or turtle design

found Aztecs

Pcrn-

ViiLn Indians.

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PRF,HISTORIC
Tllesc
hilS tICcI1

POTT-ERT
this pottery the rol)y is csccptionally vtlluiLble. In of the Norse vcsscl lies the long-

pieces Of
ilssCrtCd hy

WiUT

clear Oile Or two


112_LndiClXft. It

tlebated points in primitive scverd

good

authori-

t,ies that the art, of gl:LCtlg \viLs unknown in lmhistoric


shows
iL

t~iincs. The Jlcmphis collcction


fish-SlliLld jar or h)\Vl, Of :L red

color csqriisitcly ability jar Greek is


dS0

gl;uxd

(Figure
1hC

IX.).
SRiLSt ik:l,

The
Or

to use tliKercnt, colors in the smnc


pWvCI1.

scroll

pattern

:drcady

ment~ioncd,

sor7ght proof turous shores.


tllc

that at one time the advent0uCllctl


1Ilust~

SCil-killgS

tllc

ihwricrLn
SCCll t,y

los they thing

ll:lw!

l,ccn

ilborigincs,

:tncl this little clay vessel is binding the history of It


Phst,

the t;mgiblc

the Ncn- with that of the Old World. J3uildcrs country,


SiLW

niay be tllat son10 trader from tllc -1Ioundtr:lvCling to the

this strange
COiISt,

lit,tlc craft

over

on the

Atlantic

ant1 1llodclcd for his pcoplc Or can it bc that., arm through

its uIlfimlili:Lr outlines.


vc~~~l WLS

at sonic time, in those dini iL~C!$ the strange pulled bg sturdy

being

wrought

on

one

of

tlic

vases

in red,

yellow, Ihc
One

gray

itnd brown clays. contains


iLI1

collection

innulllerid~lc
;\nd lliLtCllCt3.

hpcar- iIn< :Lrrow-JlcildS, &SW


Of tllesc itsCs refutes

old theory that


Jliis CsmIilS

pudding-stone to bc
plC is

or COIlglOIllWilt~ i5 too hard


implcmcnts. SllilpCd, :IIld polish1

hlliLJWd into bCiLUtiflllly

highl_y :*s a mirror csccllcnt


t11c cpoCll.

(Figure the

S. ).

Other of
Figwe IX. .Jar in fish mttertr, fine glaze the showing scnlex am1

celts in this assculblage of irnplclnents ilrC csa~nplcs of stone-work point of

Grllf

and up the Mississippi,


hospitable nat,ivcs

and

thilt

l+oln

an arch:wological

view,

won&ring,

rcproduccd

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THE
it in c]iLv, title? as it swung at anchor in

CRAFTSMAN
th rlot

impress

itself peoples.

on

tllc

ilniLginat.ion

of

yellow ~1~

backward of the pottery old it is, cannot nom 1x2 Ct~n


t0

antiq7lity ,Just

Another
1llC by

CXpt~L~liLtiOll
l)r. is ClOltey based

IlilS

t)cwl

Sllgg&,ett IlC!&t of

questioned. sa J* _ tivc
11luctl hog.

how

JIiLKll. 011 to tllat

IllC

Professor

Schlicmnnn,

in his

CStlilllSspent

Or11iLlIlLllt CyC WrtiLin is SO

Cspectancy. something Wllell a this scnw of is

The in not toss. EL

i~rchLtCOtOgiC:~t time He iii the study

investigations, of tllc site of

~LCcuStOrrlcd

mcicnt

i~ss0cinti0n, the is S>IV;LgC

found distinct
tile

there

evidences

of lying

six one

won iItllOllg to

csperienccd pCOplC ttlC

pcrfcct under
to *is, Of 1000 lw the

mid ttlc
B. found

civilizations
IiLteSt Of

CyC

is iL(~~*~lStOltlC(t iUC

other;
(. a

ttWU1

diltillg

dwell

011 vegctal It is only

forms when

which they

always to bc

lhcattl civitimtion

t11c oldest
SillliliLr

of
to

the
ttltit

prcscd. present,
Of tlcscrt

ccascl

as in ttic
~liM32S~ loss Cilll

csrcptiOlliL1

circumstnllccS tOWllS, ttl:Lt the

Allll2lGCiLll

Jloulld-l)uildcrs.

Tlicrcancient
t0 ttlC

or WiLllCtl arise.

forc, (iLt15
liiug

this
IllLISt Of

liidiwork
dtLtC itself. of is t)iLCk

of

the

Arlicritwgin-

Sellsf

of is

:lllllOSt

It
paucity

very
of

prOt)iLt)lC

ttliLt

the

rcputcd frotrl ttw folk

tinic

orli;~ltic~nt:ltioll wortcl iitllOt>gSt

tterivcct primitive

14:viclcnccs relics. Ttlcre great ; red

triLYV1 il.lT
pottery 1ll:dc Pipe-stolic arc slwlt~ flolll Rocky

lllillly of

in

tllCSC

vegetable lllily bc

CliLy f
of tlw

rolrl
the

pilrtly

dllc

to

0111 1lOt

rccogniziiig are not ttic

ttlc

QlliLl.l.iCh from

it as
SiLllle

xucli.
8S

Ihcir illld

convc1iCions tllcy
to ilW

Norttwcst

ttwrci WCILpOWi

Pa-

ours,

0ftCtl

siitisticd

cific,
Iilllp,

stollc alltt

tllL!

At)[)iLIiLCtli;Lll iIIorllltilins. alld proofs iiitcrcsting t)y to kindly rULd. of

with feet

what rmtistn.

iLppLl3

us to hc a \-cry imper-

fro111
:Llld ttlc raw,

ttlc

Tllcse SlKYlr a

jiU3 llcnds,

pots, Sole

arrow-points

B:~ck\v>d set hcullty if ttic


ill

~CO~)~CS ll>Lve to iiutrrrc, of t0


dt, iLIlt

t)c tilltgllt

to

relliihilig 1110St

it is Very tt0~lbtful form


lhigtit

vanislicd in for

f01111 i1

etegan~e 2l_J)JK!&
I)lCiLSC

ttic

of

flower
colors

01
wc

tmssagc N:Ltllrc

history, twr

prcscrvccl ctiilthcti

t(!iLf
kllO\v

ttlcltl. alltl it is

yOllllgcst

ttlC

color CilllSCS

or SCellt
tllCtl1 t0

of

flO\VClY

Uld

I~i~~CS which

I
So

bc

worn Wticrc

or

usctl

in decoration. arcI represcntctl prot):d)ly find by


ttliLt

turs

1x3211 frequently fornis arc rnrcly

retnarkctl represented cspliuiation


that plinlt, actively

tllilt,

pIids
ShiLlI

Savage
ilS il

plant

by
1lliLy life iS or

~WOpl(S IV{
rutc

s;lvagcs.
be

A poSsible
in it US ttlc ttocs fact

their

ctiiptoymcnt the

is primarily sclcction curv(3 for

due

to

found

other forms
SilkCS.

C:LIIHCSthan and gr;iccfiil

of beautiful their own

passivq

llothing

ilggressid~

COlllpillY!tt

with Thus

the

irrcit does

pressiblc

vitality

of

aniinals.

-hi//l

< l:rYl/l&I/ &%rirs

ill iId

Srir,,/iJir

964

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INSECT

FORMS

IN DECORATION

Adaptation

of the dragon-fly,to

a lace pattern.

Mile. Olga Slam:

Arst prize

FORMS. FRENCH

DECORATIVE STUDIES TRANSLATED BY IRENE

OF INSECT FROM THE

sion: that is, of different materials. cially ence. favored by the designer,

But it

is usual that one of these materials is speand that the others suffer by reason of his prefer-

SARGENT

T
petitors. The were :

HE

prize contest, opened in Febwas an important

ruary, 1904, by the editors of Art


et D&oration,

As to the study from Nature, it reveals above all, the sense of precision, which is not, as must be conceded, the only quality indispensable to a true artist. Indeed, one may conjecture that the contrary is sometimes the case, and that a given drawing, most successful as a scientific study, does not imply that the use to be made of it kill be adequate artistically. On the other

one, considered from several points

of view. If the dimensions of the required designs were small, the variety of motifs demanded was great, and the nature-study necessitated was purposely widely extended, in order to attract a large number of comsubjects proposed in the contest adaptations life of the

Three different decorative an d a complete study from

dragon-fly : the three adaptations demanding strongly defined separate treatments in passing from a belt-buckle in metal and enamels to lace, and from lace to a sketchy interpretation. Nothing can be better adapted than such exercises to display the decorative sense of an artist and his understanding of different mediums of expres-

Dragon-fly designs for silver belt-buckle. Horn: 5rst prize

Mile. Olga

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INSECT

FORMS

IN

DECORATION

Calopterix ViW3 (dl%gOn-fly): mamilled t& dismetera; wing; proflle with flight: leg; articulations of the wings. M. Andre Herpin: second prize

wings

raised;

position

of body in

hand, there exist admirable from simple, well-executed gives greater doubtedly, ural object use of restricts

works resulting sketches. assurance In Unin the it jusof the nat-

critic of glass,

may

plead

against by

the employment the and magnifying which are what one

details

discovered

an exact knowledge

or the

microscope,

invisible popular since suspects

to the naked eye. interest of scientific

In truth, circles, For no

its form,

but at the same time, treatment.

can be possessed

by such,

imaginative

outside

tice to this necessary

element of success, the

their existence?

this reason, in works that than in no The only repul-

their use in magnified of decorative sive monsters. tions are usually

proportions,

art, can engender

It is to be regretted too prolific, details. could requirements. flat drawings rather

the designs submitted too sterile, in enlarged Furthermore,


I)raaon-fls design for silver belt-buckle. third grim &I. M&euc:

in our prize competi-

wise answer decorative

relief of masses must be carefully

indicated.
867

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INSECT

FORMS
influenced the contest here the first prize Olga Her Slom, of

IN DECORIATION
clear, nothing pleasing and rich. It would leave

T
to be

HE

above

considerations governing to award Mademoiselle complete.

the jury described, of

to be desired, if the edge of metal either by cutting form. It has, which Beside a or by details slightly the continuous of lightness

were made thinner in appearance, perforations, and, so modifying,

to the work the

whose treatment most studies from

of the whole was judged sheet was, perhaps, too well

The lace design is also interesting. furthermore, this, the quality should characterize it emphasizes a lace-pattern.

Nature

filled with specimens, true proportions,

but it shows, in their

very exact studies of the

the theme proposed:

male and the female rical diagram, this instance, from The Her the to the understanding work of

insect.

The

geometand

result lady

which

all the contestants Finally, as being prize which although was

were not they might to M. and 269

so necessary

to analysis

able to obtain. be criticised The Andre

the sketches of this

of the whole, and, in is absent Slom are the other contestants. notes.

are creditable, second Herpin,

so well presented, made by Mile. a belt-buckle

too simple. awarded for his three strong

adaptations design for

principally

in no way

inferior

to her scientific

compositions expressive.

are frank,

is unified,

In this instance,

the sheet of

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THE
studies is the weaker. portion since mass and relief portant parts. The sesses much character, whose bodies form to be executed white enamels, duce a linear confusion. in gold, is admirable sketch, here play although The blue, for

CRAFTSMAN
though good, upon a somewhat large scale. also, is his design noticeable much, Very for a belt-buckle, of the into

of the work ; but unimposproand the insects belt-buckle, green its simple however, triangles,

which is slightly principally insect. would metal. is faulty But gain

marred by a heavy touch, in the wings that the drawing

spherical

it is plain

were it translated

The lace pattern in presenting units

of this contestant a series of isolated means work Skzillc of of conthe

without the

P!l ::,5* &,ft

winners that of

of M.

the three

prizes, deserves

mention. His drawings in$;i .Y:!zr elude a lace pattern which is 1 most of
M. f%zille: honorable mention

pleasing,

although

the

six radii formed too apparent.

by the bodies are quite

the dragon-flies

and striking excellent fault, The

design.

The lace pattern and would be

has

As a whole, it may be noted that the competition many France revealed earnest, who the fact sympathetic to designers that there are in long students the path

qualities

without

if the ornaments winner of the

in the background third prize, his sheet M. of al-

had been reduced Mbheut, obtained contestants studies executed

in scale. his rank among through in a faultless the many

are following

since indicated upon The

by that great whose book a world-

lover of divine Nature, Michelet, Insect wide currency.

largely

has attained

manner,

970

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ORIENTAL
ORIENTAL AND KINGSLEY RUGS CURTIS has, in all ages, The the very rug, a

RUGS
an d carried, the far since designs, invaders Spanish The East the with her sword and the still blanket by the conquests, farther is made early to West: from the come various from simple Every through Spanish

: THEIR
BY

DESIGNS JESSIE

SYMBOLISM.

Navajo furnished

c
the women carvings arc come

I VIT,I%ATTON
kind fashion The of

and borrowed, Moors. oriental from rugs and The

by .them, from of commerce region, arc and

kinship. is often

ncwcst oldest,.

hand-made

with which of Egypt,, On arc like the the that Egypt, very Icast, about those

Iilrgely
towns parts stitch

the Caucasus

wc, to-day,

adorn our homes, has an anccsand Babylon. on looms from, at

of of

Turkey India.

Persia, looms

try as ancient as the monuments or the ruins of Nincvch tombs of weaving must rugs date Bcn-Hassan,

stretchers, the warp. bc identified make for

held together A band-made

by pegs. rug

is knotted,

as it is drawn

can always which all can Formerbut, and

those of the Orient. in our time ; yet thcsc twenty-fifth found Euphratus, met mans arts century in the closely in. approval fossil before (%rist. excavations resembling These forms, beauty in all ages, fixed name of Arius Others

by this knot, seen by bending It is a proof with no more danger

the pile apart. of deception in modern occupation. crowded

themselves,

than in the axioms. times, boys Owing to

ly, the weavers were women and girls; their dark

wc now delight

figures,

having have beby arc

have made this an

forever rugs,

homes, much of this work must be either in the intense cold of a Sometimes relieves may the come to dye the winter. talk Death or )n the bitter in and

their own intrinsic Carpets, mcntioncd ancient nasius, pets; went, probably,

and value.

done in the open ak; llcat of summer, warm friend tedium work. of The country joins friend the task. men tend

the ancient in Scripture Even

and in many of the and Athain carIt creeds of

classics. occasionally

forgot

but Egypt, perhaps,

the home of letters, was, the rug. to with Cadmus, Greece. filled The

the original

weaver, and another finishes the the flocks, the looms. cleansed to-day. The wools used in running The water, or an

the birthplace

wools, prepare all thoroughly Italian village

The rare beauty with sentiments, Mohammedan, with a religion of living forms

which color can assume in forms of attracted with that Byzantium.

are the sheep, Angora

goat and camels hair,

the finest WOOIS, the symbolic his love forbade

as clothes are washed in a Tyrolese, good rugs, ing about,

splendor, way, has

dyes used in next animal,

the copying with the But she

and none others are worth writare first vegetable, The madder produces : indigo gives blue, tumeric, shades; from

in any realistic art, along

seized on this symbolic it seem his own special Mohammedanism years younger has so unceasingly itself

but never chemical.

church and city of Justinian,

and has made thousand forms the world,

two reds aild a yellow ; certain berries : brilliant greens and yellows; and combined saffron kertnes an d and sumac cochineal with yellow, give are green; other derived

inheritance. is many for

than the artistic woven

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ORIENTAL
insects. might Color also has a symbolic become significance : red symbolizes something represents cult Mohammed reasons oriental the prayer upon. found Nature, their the derstood. first stitch All zeal, faith-whatever

RUGS
beauty, as in Greece, where truth was the where and conscience mythology both truth of all expression, symbolism was the supreme and beauty or it has sunk of India, thought,

a soul passion ; blue, truth, High, why it is diffiwas sacred to in to are only unFor these

into the absurd

eternal as the sky above ; green the Most

were lost

forever. to worits letadoptbut

to tell, and this color

The Jew, forbidden ship idols, followed living thing.

by his religion the law beyond

and his descendants. It belongs and

we seldom see green used freely rugs. especially color

ter, and dared not create the image of any This law Mohammed ed, but, with the art-instinct he chose what could was a suggestion wisely ages created which Egypt, of such. Assyria, again of the Orient, He selected, had

rug, which was not to be trodden shades every in .a harmony have ever quite any true art. for

not be an image,

in these rugs, the Orientals, near neighbors, creed of

and the Venetians,

and well, that decorative solely as ornament. has combined

art of the Greece, the Mo-

These rugs mean love of labor: Every time like the love-knot, while the flowers,

This

hammedan

and again, by strict combinaof sentiof

is tied,

but failed to exhaust, because, like the notes in music, its figures laws and are capable tions. are governed of countless

to strengthen significance; the shrubs, sacrificed fabrics. puny

; form and color have a sacred


the fruits, and even the insects have been of these beautiful will outlast our antiques

As music is the expression in color and form. pencil and paper, line. in the far-off

to the service The

ment in sound, this art is the expression sentiment Give a child

lives, and, what is not always true of they gain in value each year Beauty Economy is not their sole also makes its

and his Thus did forests line color

human beings,

first attempt his savage is found

is the straight ancestors,

of their existence. excuse for being. claims.

of Asia, begin their art.

The straight

in every rug of the Orient: rugs, especially

lends it a charm, it divides part from part.


.FIGURES IN ANTIQUE RUGS

Some exquisite the Caucasus in-adaptations have cross-bars, parallels times rugs, been pole, to

those from line. or These or somesole many has meeting the In

T
all its tiful. pagan unholy

region,

have their chief charm as diagonals,

HE figures, in an antique rug, are an evolution all peoples limitations, The human of of forms having which belong an artistic is an of sense. inborn one is the in of

of the straight either Often lengthwise, figures, is crowded named It suggested

running simple

For the human race, in all its wanderings, religion instinct: mythology,

.at acute angles. very additions

color alone, are line.

so, likewise, is a love of the beauexpression art. the other, these two With

to the straight

the diagonal unfortunately

into a very This barbers at its

small space between black lines. the

nations, wedlock,

were joined form

until art became

idolatry.

but it had no such significance

Art has either risen to the highest

first formation.

rather earth,
913

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ORIENTAL
short-lived, eternity. but sure, is not the our life always found encompassed human, breaks beginning, and being. by the It ever and The tells part unrest, earth of of many ever in the and

RUGS
pyramids, Sumaks figures as in the Khilims and in Bokharas, different the and Sehnas. of the rhomboid is a characteristic display all

But exactness
zigzag earthly means ending, These Africa cially Then, ping, like

Afghanistan geometric while fabrics:

Beloochistan their

eternal constant

squares and diamonds in Oriental of and found among color latch in products,

arc found everywhere usually set at right and harmony The hook frequently. particularly of the square It is and both art these of of the have is in the

motifs are
used

to change.

in both pottery They borders

angles to the rug ; simplicity giving the them beauty. a pattern,

tcxt,iles among

all the early races of Asia, arc cspcof rugs.

and the Americas. in the outer

border rug,

Oriental

there arc the irregular then beginning those which Bokhnra. break

lines, stopdirection, of

the simple figures of the Caucasian,

in another

is used to break the formality the relief drama, of color clement: what

the monotony

and to shade one color into another. comedy the gargoyle and line. in architecture, contrasts, As Mohammedan

the ro& ty,-that

These show unccrtainhimself, if decorative of For fava of art. era. they These line ornaof thousands

man must seek beyond species

the soul is to bc satisfied. ments are the oldest art, and they years twenty orite Only, back of the

rests in music.

It softens

may be traced

is never literal, but always suggestive, the plane. changing been given But all the transitions and sentiments

Christian

solid forms arc always the simple surface centuries

centuries ornament, WC regard of

they were the worlds and, to-day, them solely that spoken in

form

large part of the vast sum of decorative as objects the beauty ; thoughts before thoughts existence. The Mohammedan substantial formed various glory rhomboids themselves (Figures geometric forgetting man,

to them, until, drawing, the beauty mans and his life, head

as Michelangelo and variety of

has exhausted has exhausted these figures. Early his hands carrying be made. both in

the Mohammedan

earliest

decoration, in spite of

books were born, meant the grandest life has yet furnished: of earth is the endlessness of

something was

beside for and, to

needed

the instability

objects

from

place to place,

.
loves the solid and the into I. triangles, and squares, II.), and beneath his hand, and lines soon

in the reedy Nile region, by these plaitings in pottery binations its look of color of

baskets began

Soon the beauty of form created was transferred to art, comloses III.). and weaving. Here

have their opportunity, (Figure

figures, until we have the All these forms

and a vacant spot, filled with basketry, loneliness.

diaper patterns

spread out in their greatest

in the Alhambra.

Often the reeds, at the bottom of the basket, assumed the appearance had its own suggestion before often it was glorified of the cross, which of on suffering Calvary. long We

assume many varieties of color, until mathematics is translated from a science triangles into beauty and changes We find these to an art.

piled into one, or into squares or

find this in the Sumak rugs, where -it


275

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THE
breaks the line of the large rhomboids.

CRAFTSMAN
By moon into a star. This form is in constant use. Some prayer rugs have simply stars to indicate the place for the head and knees. Vacant places in rugs are often starred, with sometimes a goodly constellation, possibly to indicate the conjunctions planets at the time of weaving. as well as the basket forms. as we walk. of the These de-

some strange absurdity, the Mohammedan has mutilated Santa Sophia, by scratching out the crosses throughout rugs. the building ; yet he has woven it again and again in his These basketry forms have not the of suggestion which belongs to They mean less of heaven, grandeur

the line motifs.

signs lend themselves to ornamentation quite The stars indicate heaven, even when we tread on them They come from those early superstitions which show how that religion permeated with her sentiments even savage man. All these lines, solids, basketry, ment. knots, stars, are the earliest Mohammedan ornaAll, as we see, are forms from lifeless matter; but to them have been given thoughts, feelings, sentiments,-a higher life. To-day, they have the vitality of many long theirs.
DEVELOPMENT OF ORNAMENT LIVING FORMS FROM

but more of earth: that man has become a creator, that he is making a home for himself, and that all which pertains thereto of convenience claims his interest. Beads and baskets have always been the factory of the On them he has expended his insavage. ventive skill and his delight in color combinations. These basket forms of the rug They are the first records of civilization. forestall and foretell the multitude of modern inventions which make life comfortable for us of the twentieth century. The flexible birch came early into use for tying purposes (Figures IV. and V.), for gates to fences, and oars to the thole pin. The peculiar knot thus used has been called the reefer knot. This is an especial characteristic of the Kasak rugs. It is a much It shows traveled form and is found in Britain, on altars, and often in the Orient. us Nature serving man, as she is ever ready to do. Early man was content with this material world. Heaven lay about the infancy of our race. The next step was upward to The sky, with wonobjects made by God.

centuries in the past and of which shall be

many more in the future

L
object of

IFE is ever making its claims on living beings, and art is never quite content until she has made every earthly her special possession, particularly But the MoNaturlife.

the objects which have life.

hammedan, with his dread of idolatry, long hesitated to treat such in his art. mere animate existence,-plant ally the first to occupy him were the forms But savage and simple peoples regard examples of vegetable life as too passive for repetition. Only as they catch a higher Therefore, the plants to the soul meaning from them do they care to repeat them as ornaments. which they use must appeal

drous forms marshaled in majestic order, This sciengrossed man as astrology. ence soon entered the field of art, and a disc or crescent came to mean the moon: a form which is found in pottery much oftener than in the rug, for the weaver selects straight lines, and soon turns curves into angles, the

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ORIENTAL
rather than to the senses. The vine, because of its grace, but chiefly because from it is made the wine which brings tion to their dulled But its many curves int,crfcrc that it can scarcely the Greek particularly (Figures symbolic bed of tion : The leaves open VI. fret. Eastern
and

It t-TM
bistans. serrated
mtl X.).

First, outlines;

flower and leaf arc simple then plain; (Figures finally, VIII., we IX.

eshilnraused.

reach the Greek fret. Sometimes ornaments

senses, is often

the blossom in many

loses its kinds of

with t,lie wcafrom

Icavcs and is a mere rosette, which is one of the


rugs.

vcr, and very soon it is so convcntionalizcd be distinguished

border

Finally

WC have the Swastika

(Fig-

ure XI.) nothing art, as At the lotus.

and the half Swastika,

which are mostly of dark of and colors, of

No flower has been so much used in art,, VII.). first, it was

else than the Greek fret interlaced.


up

One large Sutllak rug is made t.hcsc figures, light, with spaces baskctry elaborate changes None, motifs, mations emigrant. in 3500, the mounted temple might lotus. 13 cgs. combined exquisite being large and

small, the form.

of the sun. the lotus.

We find this inscripWhen the doors of it,s At com-

in a multitude harmony,

sun rises, like a hawk, from the in sapphire-colored brilliancy,

intervening This is a No

filled with a combination

in a rectangular

it has divided the night from the day. sunrise, these blue and white blossoms, pletely covering iature of the heavens. then rest calmly, hiding tality. was not this as an emblem The this thought; of Later,

rare and very beautiful species of ornament unless of

rug and shows how so many linear so

a sirnplc figure may become. has undergone the

the waters, look like a minas the bloswaters, muddy

at the hands of ancient draftsmen. we except mere which arc as universal speech, as the excla-

som was seen to rise from

like a safe soul upon them, resurrection sure of and immorwit.h it of the faith. eternity;

all their filth, it came to be regarded Egyptian he felt was animated it was firmest was buried

has every wandered home as this Egyptian along

far from its original B. C. the

It is first found it entered Northern it. The sword it.

the Nile along and the soon but and

It then journeyed Greece, Europe bravely, Our column hardy

mere hope, It

Euphratus, pediment. to resist

For ages, the lotus was used as a proof thought. with mummy toward form in the dark the in art, sky. It tomb; is ever again

Corinthian

it was its it

surrendered

Belgae

raised aloft in the monuments which pointed varying according to the purpose it undcrgocs WC find it, in Rabistan, blossom ahnost (Figure

Caesars claimed

they were conquered Ireland Thus, forefathers carved

by the conventionalized Puritan and table to and it on columns

serves, and from in the process very old rugs, a portrait of XV.), except

the changes

of evolution. especially Natures

the gospel of

of mans resurrecall tongues

tion and redemption countless tribes, thousands

has been preached

that the artist used whatcvcr Then we find the leaf This is a common variety of in the Bain a great

in all climes and times.

Since the

color suited his rug. and flower pattern, rugs. interlaced. occurring

lotus first entered the reahn of art, nations have risen and fallen, its ideal of life, frorn faith to fact, the world has altered has changed resurrecbion

Both forms are frequent

yet, for almost fifty-five

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ORIENTAL
centuries, this tropical blossom has been sculptured in wood and stone, woven by hand and factory looms, until, as one writer Says, It has multiplied and replenished the iaarth. Beauty alone could not give any Only as a talisman of form such length of days, such mastery over men and nations. realm of art. eternity could it thus hold its own in the An oriental rug that has no which has form of the lotus within its borders lacks something of the one thought engrossed the ages. appeals only occasionally its adaptability

RUGS
is easily recognized, which is a proof that changes. it has suffered few evolutionary

Sometimes the central figure expands into an immense rose, as in the rose of Kirman. In the Ispahan rug, an ancient. relative of the modern Kirman, a conventional rose joins with other shapes, mostly mathcmatical, to form a medallion which may be repeated length. A bursting blossom, quite changed to a conventional form, is frequently found in rugs, dotting the central surface, running down parallel cross-bars, or entering into borders. Thus other flowers are not forgotten, even though their symbolism is not sufficient to give them the world wide currency lotus. The few vegetable creations thus used, endless variety in which these shapes appear, show how the Eastern mind, with its child-like imagination, can multiply a figure or a thought, into infinity itself and give a soul to every substance. One whose birthplace is Asia, although that has always characterized the several times throughout its

The tree, grandest of vegetable forms, to the artist of the Orient; and then not for its beauty, or to ornamental decoration, but chiefly since it entered into sacred literature in the Eden story, and from thence Sometimes tiny trees form themselves into large ones, as in the Princess Bokhara ; but these are stark and stiff, as if run in a metal mold, or borrowed from some childs Noahs ark. Some critics have suggested that Again, these we smaller ones are candelabra. sifted into other literatures.

find the tree filling the whole body of the rug, more stiff and solemn than the cypresses which shade the dead throughout the Orient. The sheep feeding at their roots, the birds in their branches, both with figures as formal as the trees, may suggest the tree of life. Leaves, especially the maple, or plane-tree, a native of Asia, are often found. AS we go farther to the east in Persia, we find less of the conventional, conseThe quently a closer approach to nature,

it is extensively used in the East and copied everywhere, has been called the palm leaf (Figure XIII.), or the pear pattern. It rather resembles a gourd with its bent neck ; but this would take all poetry from one of the most beautiful ornaments of the East. Sir George Birdwood has suggested from that it is a flame just bursting forth from a cone, and that it was copied shippers. the crown jewels of Persia, that country of fire-worThis explains its coloring in the rugs, where it appears like a mass of rubies, emeralds, sapphires, diamonds. But no reason of state can quite justify the extensive use of this figure, for even beauty suc879

rose (Figure XII.) is the special flower which delights this land. It surrenders enough of its natural grace to the weavers art t.o become a conventional figure ; but it

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THE
cumbs to the changing use for centuries.

CRAFTSMAN
there is the same unity in art as we are forever finding in nature. The sheep that furnish the wool for the rugs are often copied, as if for a sort of testimonial of their services. They are We always stiff and angular, like toys.

fashions of time. it as a flame, a

Religion alone has ever held any pattern in Taking child of the sun, we have Eastern reverence for Natures grandest object translated into beauty and holding the centuries. As we rise to animal life, we find fewer forms in art: the dread of that one word living seeming to have passed from the art of the East. But Jewish command as an influence over the entire conventional the serpent-story imagination, took strong hold of the symfreits even course along

sometimes see the fear of Natures forms or the carelessness of the weaver in these. I know a rug in which the central figure is surrounded by four provided sheep, one of which Anatomy need has left his tail behind him, but has been with five legs. never trouble the purchaser of an Oriental rug, as it certainly never entered into the thoughts of the weaver. There are Mosul rugs displaying a regu(Figure XX.) lar menagerie of animals. One has to study hard, in order to distinguish the sheep from the camel, the goat from the cow, in this herd. Often these are in pairs; it may be a preparation for the ark, or the work of some person who had accepted the Indian belief of the transmigration of souls. from Nature, is often found. a relative of the alligator, suggestions. The salamander, almost exactly copied This, being offers its sacred

and snakes swallowing them-

selves or bound in a hopeless coil,-a bol of evil undoing its own deeds,-is

quent in pottery and is sometimes found in the rug, though it does not serve the weaver so readily as the painter. The Egyptian and far Eastern nations (Figures claimed, not the monkey, but the alligator, as their most ancient ancestor. XIV., XV., XVI. and XVII., signs on pottery.) alligator de-

The teeth of the crea-

ture were a talisman, and they prayed before the dead alligator which had once the power to prey upon them. (Figures of XVIII. and XIX.: as the lotus. signs in rugs) convention This animal alligator deIt is quite

Sometimes, a face, rather of the man in the moon style, or the childs attempt at picturing rug. the human face, is woven in a This may be a prayer rug, the face

has almost as many stages

as far from the original object in appearance, and it commands a territory almost as extensive. The last stages of both designs are difficult to distinguish. Sometimes the crab is used, although this is so much like the square with the hook and latch border, and likewise the extended palm of man, that one is often mistaken for another. Thus, symbolic figures are forever running into one another, showing us that
280

for the worshiper to touch with his own, or it may mean humanity in a generic way. a type of Chinese art. Sometimes this has additions which give it These are the. far

Eastern limit of rugs and show the influence of locality on the Mohammedan. We have now examined the chief figures of the oriental rug. All have a growth, just as surely as the flower in the field, the

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ORIENTAL
tree. of forms. tion of the forest. They follow from natures natures laws even in their deviation about them. They and of

RUGS
In color, tories, softer, bloom natures nothing these richer in all the worlds rugs. with face. surpasses They time, until facgrow the equals purer,

There is no sense of a sudden creabear the insignia many and varied art in conventional the long

thus gained

the best of In color also,

the centuries

silks in its shimmering for the high shadows ; always of lights, the

nations. is utterly promise

A new form meaningless. from

laws are followed: while

red and yellow in the are colors

It has no ancestry past, no One future.

blue and green primary

to make its appeal

of life in the longer

preferred.

All the shades employed which is like the faith the other to says, I to manage Balzac

writer says of such, Like pine away and die. is the happiest All growth, man from sought His conventional whether for to and

alien plants, they

unite in a harmony friends: a higher dont beauty

We would add, This forms that Gothic have had of art, who forms they

one ever helping of life.

event in their short lives. Oriental, or Gre-

know how these Orientals are drunk with light.

put the sun into their stuffs. peoples

The Eastern

cian, belong which, pagan

to that universal convenience, savage truth.

language we call

We use these rugs, sacred among the people who wrought things of life. great religious inheritances of eternity them, as we do the common To their makers they spoke truths. We themes They to of are family the the the of of surrendered and us under deity and

but which is one of our noblest inheritances ancestors, As these blindly and bravely to find God in to Nature,

beauty

have lost their resemblance have gained tradition, sentiments fulness ures,-the of

stress of poverty. soul, and forget, a people

tread on thoughts

a soul breathed the ages. of

into them by of sacred The very restin these figin races living

which is the exchange along the Orient contentment speaks

in our reckless living, and the conscience the beatitudes itself.

ideals, the constancy their religion

who translated into beauty

the sunshine,

and satisfied with simplicity.

881

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THE
ABOUT OLIVE THE JAPANESE PERCIVAL, LONDON NE of JAPAN our BOXES. MEMBER SOCIETY

CRAFTSMAN
BY OF pictorial artists of that country did not disdain to become occasional craftsmen, and many of them have left their gold-lacquer signatures on little boxes. One could, if one chose, learn much of the art, the history, the religion customs of beautiful the sole study of Japanese boxes. Very little is known regarding the majority mired and of their foreign since the them by admirers; days of and the Old Japan through

racial

prerogatives conven-

seems to be the easy acceptance of all things beautiful, ient and desirable, as if they were Rather too often we and quite careless of the

created solely for us. remain ignorant intent of the designer.

. When, for example, we are told that the

although they have been very generally adcollected Madame de Pompadour and Marie Antoinette. Few of the best boxes of Old Japan have come to us, and the few arc in the museums of our greater cities; yet among these there are some which fully convince us of the superiority of the as Japanese artist in his ideas of construction - and design, adapted to innumerable purposes and materials. The commoner boxes, finding their way to our shops, are those designed to contain the sacred books in the temple; to carry the family picnic luncheon, or medicine, or perfume, or a mans seal ; to hold incense, or tobacco, or ink, or a mirror, or a fan, or poems (one of the everyday refinements of Japan is writing poetry !) ; and in which to send gifts or letters. The material most commonly employed is wood and it is lacquered, or carved, or else entirely dependent for its artistic value upon the beautiful, the natural bronze, wood. used. brass, copper satin-like surface Tortoise-shell, and porcelain of are ivory,

Japanese boxes we have so long used as convenient receptacles for our gloves and handkerchiefs, were really designed as cov-

Three work-boxes

at left;

four letter-boxes

at right

crings in which to send ceremonial gifts, or to hold the sacred books of a temple, we smile (but not at ourselves) at the absurdity of the Japanese idea. our opinions,-inherited pictorial, It has been one of to be sure,-that and

art has little to do with aught except the and that any real feeling power is not to be expected in mere design or craftsmanship. Yet, ages ago, the farwere suffiart in the to the away, quite isolated Japanese ciently advanced to recognize humblest object neither apology masses. 282 nor

and material, and offered explanation

The greatest and most successful

also frequently

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JAPANESE
One of the most satisfactory photograph bako work or boxes imaginable is the Bmto-

BOXES
pierced at the ends and strung with a silken cord. This box was worn by the gentleman of Old Japan suspended from his girdle, and in it he carried medicines, perfumes and his seal. An imposing array of objets dart was the chhtelaine ese gentleman ! of a conservative JapanFirst of all, he wore at his together

of the Japanese, which is in reality to one another, with a lid for the When the Japanese family-

a pile of boxes of a uniform size, fitting perfectly uppermost. cherry-trees maple-trees), a bento-bako

man takes a holiday to see the blossoming (or, perhaps, the wisterias, or or the he has a luncheon packed in (of porcelain or lacquered the iris-fields, or the lotus-ponds,

girdle an ornamental button, called a Netsuke, to which were attached by silken cords the many little articles indispensable to his comfort. Usually, the netsuke was of ivory or wood, exquisitely carved and sufficiently large to stay above the sash, and not be pulled through by the weight of the attach-

wood), and tied up in an immense square of print, or silk. He then thrusts a stout bamboo stick under the knot, and, followed by his litt.lc wife and children in their best

workmanship, proached.

especially

of ments,-which included a medicine-box, a arc of tobacco-box, a pipe, a pipe-case, a purse and a writing-case, with paper, ink and writingbrush. When one considers that each of these articles was the work of a skilled artisan and artist, and that the materials chosen wcrc ivory, metal, brocade, leather and rare woods, it is possible to get an adequate idea of the splendid total. Many famous signatures were once seen on old inros:-such names as Yosei, Zeshin, Korin and Hokusai, and some of the best lacquer work was done on these little boxes. We cannot all know much about good lacquer, as the export of

the tiny inner boxes, is exquisite and unapSome of the old kogos ivory, with an all-over, inlaid decoration in gold, and silver ; the crest of the family bcing the

motif.

The common, modern ones of porcelain, arid arc

are most frequently

found even in our department stores, where they are sold to hold pins, collar-buttons, or cold-cream ! Perhaps the most fascinating of all the many boxes offered by the Japanese is the Znro, or medicine-box, which is an original little contrivance bento-bako, on the principle of the but in the form of deep trays,

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JAPANESE
choosing occasions, ones of the fukusa gave to be used on such to show as the occaand the social of

BOXES
roundings, parents, that eight all its owner possessed, once upon a time, two good parents, on; had, likely, brothers ant 1 aunts, eminently four grandand so and time

a fine opportunity of breeding, the gift,

perfection of

great-grandparents,

sion, the recipient, position portant ese bride the family symbols, consideration.

and sisters, uncles respectable

the giver

were all subjects

Fukusas
family:

were once an imsome were plain but others showed long-life forship of good gods.

endeared to him ; that bicnskance and family order have flourished irnlllelrlorial--there heritcd heirlooms, in his line from that were no black plate, portraits, sheep to minia-

part in the outfit of every Japanof high crest,

squares of silk, or tripe, the New Years

make him ashamed-and tures, pictures, in historical

he has in-

the regulation

rare volumes, diaries, letters to link him up properly and progression. in history. of our niche succession

tune, or the seven household

and state archives FVc are covetous

C
Aboclt

IVILIZEL) loving

man, and especially

one

We want to belong as stray atoms

somewhere and to somespace either

of Anglo-Saxon creature.

descent, is a homeTo him the dwellin-

thing, not to be entirely cut off by ourselves in boundless thing gcographi&l ness. not. our before or chronological. The human

ing-place stitution.

stands for his most important mainly

The arts, sciences and traditions as they are to minister is the goal of life. then, there must in life parents, hours of

mind is a dependent

and so is happi-

he pursues,

WC may not, indeed, have inherited We may not remember that either of parents or any of our grandparents us, ever gloried in the quiet posses-

unto it, and its fruition his dwelling-place,

the house we live in ; the chances are we have

he a very great deal to be said, indissohlbly


i~ssOCiatCY1

as

it is with everything childhood, comfort-ones

worth children,

having-ones personal

sion of an ideal homestead; of goodness-for world appear

but for the sake


the

wife, sweetheart, and next to these

the sake of making

a more decent place to live in that they did, and that it


~1s pretend

one's own

leisure and recreation. The thing home one builds must mean someskill. beside artistic both and engineering and

-let

us pretend
Let

is now ours. worthy

that God has

l~cn so good to

LIS L , and

that we have proved

It must presuppose, expression,

by subtle architectonic in its sur-

of His trust.

in itself

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THE
THE PLAY PRINCIPLE. LOVELL TRIGGS. the end of art,

CRAFTSMAN
These halls are not made for practical use, but serve as festal structures, or avenues of assembly, in which their owners may plume in its is and display themselves. and taste are lavished Foundations The greatest care upon the work.

BY OSCAR

EAUTY,

essence is Pleasure. the accompaniment functioning

Pleasure

of the active This I denom-

are laid in the ground, and a The courts at

of personality.

bower of grass and bushes, several feet in length, is arched overhead. the end of the bower are paved with small round pebbles, and bright stones, shells and feathers are so displayed that a color adorn ment is secured. ing intended for used during Such structures, not benests, but simply to be period, are

creative activity

of personality

I purpose in this paper to exinate Play. amine the principle, the phenomena of play, and having found their meaning, to apply the principle to the solution of some problems in industrialism and in education. The properties of play may be determined by a study of its modes among animals, and of its processes, when it becomes artistic. humanized and consciously What, in fine, are the conditions under which necessity becomes freedom The function that beauty and the serves in

a special festal

wholly ideal in their nature, and evidence the presence of the spirit of play. The aesthetic display in man began with the same reference to his mate, but the feeling was gradually extended to comprise outside persons, and having assumed sociological import, it became in time a most efficient instrument in the struggle for existence. The savage adorned his body, decorated his utensils and weapons, shaped and colored his dwelling place. To the adornment of his home he further employed sculpture and painting. Under excitement, he sang-a simple musical chant, and to its rhythms he danced, and out of the dance poetry and the drama arose. Everything in primitive life of the points to the immense importance aesthetic activity. mately. When

useful is idealized and transfigured? evolution is an important one. Not infre-

quently the law of the survival of the fittest means the survival of the most beautiful. The graceful feathers of the lyre-bird, the gorgeous coloring of the peacock and humming-bird, the calls of monkeys, birds and insects, the brilliancy resent evolutionary beauty. of flowers:-all selection repin lines of

Fair form and colors are the sumImpressionability to beauty

mons sent from objects to objects for fusion and union. implies a conscious aesthetic sense on the part of those creatures thus affected. That there is aesthetical feeling among the lower forms doubt. of life is proven beyond a The famous bower-birds of AusFor use grass.

The quality of the art and the stage of culture correspond intimen ceased to hunt, and the richness of

settled as agriculturists,

their art compared with the former poverty, is a sign of social advance. But this very improvement is in part due to the order and unity introduced particularly into the fluctuating life of hunting tribes by various forms of art, the dance, in which activity

tralia furnish the most notable instance of aesthetic display among animals. during the time of courtship construct bowers of twigs and these birds

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THE
whole greater What impulse associated? pcnded Among for family groups engaging, of social union. now is the source and with Among what the life

PLAY
furthered the artistic

PRINCIPLE
activities istic ! running conscious form and note the common dance, the The complex song, and leaping, rhythm. characterform of by The

is distinguished

process forms

is it, of life.

the higher by a conthe artistic by a decoration, sense for by percepbuilding, is done What the is is and first?

lowest

of the cry, is characterized Carving, Color a simple Finally, construction, series there of to of cutting, of form

life all the energy

of being

seems to bc es-

scious sense of time. outcome knowledge the complex bright objects, design. of

in sustaining

and preserving

is differentiated

the higher orders, where the conflict is afforded The energy in some by Play in the effort directed into ideal action. not fully free exhausted as

of life is less fierce, opportunity escape of being, form implies of

is distinguished of

tion of color harmony. the higher under added Plainly design. The in form the knowledge

to s~lpply physical

needs, engages ideal desire.

cspression,

of proportion.

more or less conscious freedom cess of life functioning, determination, and a certain To justify

second

from physical some conscious

need, an essatisfaction, let me pass in from

in the first series the activity is order The presence dances in color, order

some degree of sclf-

aimless ; in the second the introduction savage time, paints engage

evidences sings in to

power of abstraction. this statement

of mind into the process. in rhythm, builds in proportion, exercise. purand the acThe in order,

review a series of activities ; advancing the simple to the complex to men. The simple aimless running mals and men in play complex a cry song. of more forms advanced into

and from animals about of aniin to

because it is pleasing

to him psychically

in an ideal self-determined is carried freedom, purpose

Here, then, play-activity his play pose, pleasure. Where tivity but

becomes aesthetic ;

rises into the more passing

on with conscious self-determination, does not enter, denominated play.

of the leap and gesture, civilization successive and

forms of the dance. develops as of The notes, a bird,

The simple shout and and pleasing and such color cutas issues in human clawing

is not truly the order

deer in running controlled. notes, The

strikes his hoofs is mechanical bird sings builds

purposeless

and not selfin successive ants build

ting of animals and men became some form pleasure-giving carving in form. construction, and The for objects simple pleasure The proceeds purposeful delight adornment, with sense of

the beaver

dams,

hills, bees construct are not intentional. scious, tionary gence, merely

cells; but these results The animal is unconof evoluintelliof the result

leads to decoration a sense of struction, for harmony. nests with bright men, to building proportion. Now examine

and with to confeeling of these

under the control

adornment

forces ; the excellence dependent

not being

upon conscious

with a sense of form,

and, among

but upon fixedness of habit and the of the line of improvement. its color, but it has no in a field. Birds sing
887

with a conscious the later modes

very narrowness

The flower displays sense of its harmony

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THE

CRAFTSMAN
He looks out oer yon sea which sunbeams cross And recross, till they weave a spider-webMeshes of fire some great fish breaks at times, And talks with his own self.

pleasing notes, but not, as in a choir, with a knowledge of a general harmony. Mentality is perhaps most readily perceived in music. The cries of animals and the notes of birds can hardly be designated The indefinite shouts and irregas song. ular cries of primitive man were expressions which had not yet arrived at aesthetic value. Sounds become musical when mind controls the succession and coordination. Music ascends from simple concord of two notes to ever more complex phrases, strains, songs and above choruses :-ever the plane of higher and higher until in sensation,

In

one

of

these sensory

experiences:

namely, when he looks out over the sea and watches the play of sunbeams, Caliban is receiving an aesthetic effect which has no relation to his bodily pleasures; it is not.a sensuous pleasure only, but, also, an intellectual enjoyment. Furthermore, he is a creative artist. Thus he compares himself with Setebos : Tastethhimself no finer good in the world
When all goes right, in this safe summer time, And he wants little, hungers, aches, not much, Than trying what to do with wit and strength, Falls to make something; piled yon pile of turfs And squared and stuck their squares of soft white chalk, And with a fish-tooth, scratched a moon on each, And set up endwise certain spikes of tree, And crowned the whole with a sloths scull a-top Pound dead in the woods, too hard for one to kill. No use at all in the work, for works sole sake.

orchestral and symphonic is almost wholly mental.

music the effect Into the work of

art reflection, intention and invention enter. A convenient savage for our scrutiny in these respects to exhibit is Brownings Caliban: He a is primitive man, yet one sufficiently evolved racial characteristics. undeveloped, yet old enough to be taught of deity by his dam, and to think somewhat for himself. His sensory experiences are of a low order. Within the range of his interests, his senses are keen, but only now and then does he see or hear aesthetically. He bas learned the look of things in relation to his physical safety. He would examine The clouds and sunsets as tokens of storm.

The conditions of his artistic activity are t,hus his physical safety, satisfaction, consequent excess of energy. and He is freed from external objects and permitted to give his ideal faculties full play. does, thus conditioned, harmonized and well All that he is characterized by ordered. He was

the presence of design; all is proportioned, under no compulsion to make these objects ; he was purely self-conditioned and manifestly pleasure. Evolutionary aesthetics, then, establishes several important facts about art and the artistic impulse. The essential characteristic of artistic expression is freedom. Art is not a product of necessity or related to use. It affords gratification to instincts in doing so, he works to the end of

range of his interests is shown in his first reflection :


Will sprawl now that the heat of day is best, Flat on his belly in the pits much mire, With elbows wide, fists clenched to prop his chin, And white he kicks both feet in the cool slush, And feels about his spine small eft-things course, Run in and out each arm, and make him laugh; And while above his head a pompion-plant, Coating the cave-top as a brow its eye, Creeps down to touch and tickle hair and beard, And now a tlower drops with a bee inside, And now a fruit to snap at; catch and crunch288

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THE
and feelings tical activity

PLAY
only

PRINCIPLE
of art, therefore, is the history of a freely developing personality. As the soul expands and contains more, it expresses more. Mediaeval art is, in a sense, greater than Grecian art, since it contains more of life and experience. Gothic art may be inferior in point of skill and manipulation, but its soul is greater, its feeling more intense, its grasp of ideality more complete. The ancient world has no counterpart Michelangelo, face and his turbulent, is wall strenuous to with his fierce, vital, electric soul.

which find their exercise

when necessity and use are satisfied. activity is an end in itself. tribes engage practical.

Prac-

serves as means, aesthetic When savage in warfare, their energy is

When victory is celebrated with

dancing, the aesthetic is brought into play to the degree of the pleasure experienced by the dancers in their own rhythmic movements. In art, man is not the creature of fate, but the arbiter in the ideal realm, at least, of his own destinies, the maker of his own
w0rld.

The artist is absolutely

the

The difference between the classic and the mediaeval expressed in Gilders poems of the Two Worlds :. one the world of the Venus of Milo: Grace, majesty, and, the calm bliss of life, No conscious war twixt human will and duty.
Here breathes, forever free from pain and strife, The old, untroubled pagan world of beauty. The other is the world of Michelangelos Slave : Of life, of death the mystery and woe, Witness in this mute, carven stone the whole! That suffering smile were never fashioned so Before the world had wakened to a soul. To the same effect is a passage in Low-

only free man. And connected with this attribute is that of self-determination. He When moved conscious by of the impulse to create, the artist proves his individuality.
realize, plation. Freedom artist

becomes
for

possessing ideal faculties which, in order to


he must objectify Thought must is not lawlessness. his contemexpressed. When the himself be

But inner con-

trol is exchanged

for outer law.

creates a form

and embodies

therein, he is made aware that he is a free, self-determining, The third law-abiding personality. implied by the characteristic

other two is what I shall call, for want of

ells Cathedral : The Grecian gluts me with its perfectness. But ah! this other, this Gothic that never ends, Still climbing, luring fancy still to climb, As full of morals half-divined as life, Graceful, grotesque, with ever new surprise Of hazardous caprices sure to please, Heavy as night-mare, airy-light as fern,

a better term, ideality.


tion the of art to reproduce skill for

It is not the functhe real world. we

We have senses of our own and can take


artists granted. What want displayed and defined is personality.

What is the mans mystery?

As we have

seen, simple play becomes aesthetic, when it is conscious and conducted in freedom to the end of self-realization. Order, proportion, harmony are laws of art, not from any enactment on the part of critics, but from the very nature of mind. Mind is itself an The history order, a rhythm, a harmony.

Imaginationsvery self in stone! Your blood is mine,ye architectsof dreams, Builders of aspirationincomplete. To illustrate the growth in ideality one might bring a Greek of the age of Pericles into the Western world. How much of the mediaeval and the modern would he comprehend ! He would stand before a Gothic
989

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THE
Cathedral transept with amazement. the sign and nave, everywhere of the yearning far higher than The of the structure, of aspiration, ual ing. would nor truth

CRAFTSMAN
ured by the vast arches space tivals, for of the manufactory shows, pomps, exercises, that spanned building. the Fes-

meaning

of the Cross in the symbols of the soul Olympian Concert, he

may be as important for which trade and

as the realities of the streets, opportunities ideal commerce are the preparation ground. Worlds When the complaint Fairs represent and the backis heard that waste, of

to reach through heights:

material forms to a spiritpass his understandthe sensory How experience could of he, calm

these would have neither

If taken to a Symphony the ideality necessary

economic

it is well to be reminded meaning When

of that saying

to comprehend

Schiller : Man only plays, only completely determined. ideality :-these aesthetic An stated. play. truth important It

when in the full

the different who thought tenanted Heroic lery of What and What vast the tumultuous

movements.

of the term, he is man, and he is man, when he plays. he is free, he is selfof self-determination, man plays

to enter the region struggles of

by Zeus, feel the mighty Symphony

passion,

Beethovens

Freedom,

Take

him into a galhe not be bewilof modern life? faces ? on the not the

are the characteristics remains

painting-would the complexity would in Millets reading

dered by

now to be a man esof freedom

he make of the pain peasant

is this:

whenever

power

presses himself and self-control, his occupation the he receives artist:

under conditions or field of of and

conception laborious

could he have of the tragearth? So would

he is an artist-whatever activity-and gains the of an gain

edy and depth of the life conducted more recent psychic he beyond While Chicago the the Worlds I watched experiences Fair

the rewards reward force. are by These personality,

of the race at folk beside I

pleasure,

his comprehension? was building Java Wheel. They their fold fences the simple Ferris any The utterly

of an enlarged ing personal Fine Arts aesthetic an instinct a privilege that of the work; field.

and an increasare called The the only limited It means

What no

erect their complex

huts and wattled gigantic with was

have to-day

which is common through

to all, usurped changes

could not see that the Javians the wheel were hardly ical grasp. ciples greater of mystery even curious.

looked upon

that should be shared by all. historical artist, in these more

wonder. beyond were many

has come about spheres, under extend enjoys We may

whole mechan-

specialized live probis to alone

is the only all others, compulsion. that into freedom every

free man in the world in some degree, Therefore, that field the world

The ideality

of the wheel, the prin-

its construction,

than that of their simple dw-ellings. Titanic sport of a summer, prophetic meas-

lem of freedom

in the modern of

The whole Fair, by the way, was a colossal play :-the a buoyant hibit for intentions lyric endeavor a moment just meant to exthe scope of

the artist

industrialism. thus far We

summarize

our freedom

the hidden

in these terms : Man is free politically. have struggled and have won with thrones the victory. If

of an ideal people,

and tyrannies we suffer

whose ideality
290

was but inadequately

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THE
misgovernment to blame. ters. to-day, we have

PLAY
ourselves matand If own ourto

PRINCIPLE
problem. satisfactory personality. slaves. desire. his To It is simply compromise and leaves the situation unchanged. The only

So man is free in religious and have gained

We have battled with priesthood to our conscience. is at our

solution lies in the consecration Toil is a curse a freeman must so to none but and be He changed must be

ecclesiastic&m we remain doors. free, selves. them

the right

of labor to the ends of life, to the ends of it is pleasure

of worship according evil,

the fault

In these realms we are practically shapers of laws and creeds for and special retarded These matters have already receded interest, a devotion bespeaks development.

Conditions

that the laborer genuine granted of Art labor, ciation

can find in his very work now enjoyed of ideal by the creation. that as

satisfaction.

in special

the privilege

artist only : the privilege self-determination, and labor

of free expression,

But, in the way of work, in what is for most of us most intimate, we are little better than slaves political living liberty but under necessity, to masters. the right liberty obeying Nc,w, as to be a does not but and machines, lawlessness, mean rather service, freedom attending

must so be associated

the one be extended delightful as art.

and made universal

and the other be redeemed and made It was some such assowas making, when he It was that Thoreau

does not mean license and rather as religious to have

law to oneself

said, at work in his field of beans:

the right

no religion, in worship

not I that hoed beans, or beans that I hoed. He had in mind a celestial kind of agriculture and was raising of virtues, thought a transcendental manliness, crop clearcrops. of patience,

to be self-directive so industrial from labor, liberty

does not mean in labor. of I% Various Thus, setlabor, or, in the right

but freedom for

For this right of self-directive the terms of this paper, play, world by ting the modern world of guise the situation compromises a partial we distinguish drudge, hoping dulge yielding our higher

and high-mindedness.

It is better as applied at the

t,o produce in modern mirth,-when spectacle. fleeman the

great men than abundant industrialism I submit that

is battling. warfare. is enjoyed. our activities;

The reversal of this proposition

as we may, the industrial

is provocative

is in a state

one is not too angry

have been agreed upon, wheref reedom between

how to make a the problem of

at play of

out of a slave at work is history, of to-day. in a democracy Shall a product, is

problem

aside a portion

of the day to toil and when we can inMeanas by and of an of the

democracy,

the problem

this much to submission, desires and live a moment and instinctively. play. this

The problem education

of education

to escape at night,

is the same as that.of be motived special culture, life?

industrialism.

by the desire for

spontaneously and a longer labor clamor freedom, eight-hour so

a sort of objective

while, we clamor for shorter hours of labor time for bonds, will long So long division is under continue. day untransformed

or for a special character, even yet too formal concerned prevailing and not enough

a form of interior too much The ideal education is

It seems to me that our education and objective, with knowledge in our centers

and machinery, of

But the granting is no real solution

with character.

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THE
that of the cultured gentleman:-a

CRAFTSMAN
culture and for freedom, self-control, tive character. It was not without reason that Lincoln was called by Lowell The can. ment of the democratic as love. forgot Frederick First AmeriHe had a said of him: For this man was the very embodiidea. ideal action, crea-

special, possible to the few, a culture dependent upon refinement, intelligence knowledge of books in a library, a culture that tends to separate men, that erects barriers between the wise and the not-wise, that is selfish and unsocial. tries and from class. a This is an ideal which we have inherited from feudal counthe theory of the leisure and not in are unis without The cultured man, in fine, is preHis sympathies

culture that was broad as life, as generous Douglas He was the first man in whose presence I I was a negro. That is a sublime testimony, and signifies what I mean by an inclusive character. cated in our schools. stroyed him. life processes, Lincoln was not eduThe college might contemplates the the

pared to live in an aristocracy democracy. His touched. vitality. imagination

His fellows have no interest to However attractive meanings of

have instructed him, but it would have deDemocracy possibility of education through the simple or at least, through expert selection of those especially fitted for education. Lincolns associate in democa man who escaped for the culture of the ratism was Whitman, who, in secret striving the intellectual personality he

him, save as they are comprehended in the same exclusive circle. the ideal may be, it is destined to fade away before the slowly unfolding democracy,-fade as the ideals of kings and Democracy demands

knights and priests have faded and become lost in the distance. a man of generous sympathies, with imaginative, if not actual community, in every experience, a genuine social being, a fluid and attaching living, coterie, not but in in character : one capable of an an exclusive inclusive aristocratic democratic

the traditional discipline of the schools, but life, achieved a character that so combined and the sympathetic, comprehended individual and the social, that in his own humanity. If Lincoln was the only man, Leaves of Grass is the only book to which Douglas might come and find himself sympathetically comprehended. One of the greatest lines in modern literature is Whitmans address to the poor outcast: Not till the sun excludes you do I exclude you. In one of his poems, he proclaims the ideal of life in a democracy: I announcenaturalpersonsto arise. I announceuncompromising liberty and equality. I announcesplendors and majesties to make all previouspolitics of the earth insignificant. I announce adhesiveness, I say it shall be limitless, unloosened.

society, and one able to live at large, not with condescension, but with full sympathy. Now, personality is the one common possession of all men-this and unifying is the comprehensive It is of no acprinciple.

count to hold men together by a written constitution. A nation is compacted by love and sympathy. Extend the essence of each until he comes to include the multitude ; until his right becomes the right of all, and his law the law of all. great men ; the rest follows. Produce Educate the

interior men; avoid the ceremonial; educate

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THE
I announce chaste, armed. I announce spiritual, I announce meet its

PLAY

PRINCIPLE
In the kindergarten the principle of play is frankly adopted. The application of th e prmclple * in the upper grades, where traditional ideas are intrenched, has yet to be accomplished. By the introduction of Manual Training, which is only a name for the educational older pupils. principle In the of self-activity, is afforded the progressive more a means of self-expression

the great individual, fluid as nature, fully affectionate, compassionate, life that shall be copious, vehement, bold. an end that shall lightly and joyfully translation.

The

educational

problem

presented by

the lives of these two men, the first practical democrats the world has known, is profound and not easily solved. agination sonality history ideal ? dividual activity? play ? They represent the gather. ages of this selfour of ideal around which the sympathies and. imof men must henceforth and to their making They exhibit a special development of perhave gone. through Might Dare we face of for

schools there is taking place a reconstruction of the school program with the various art studies as the coordinating center. Vacation schools in the larger cities are experimenting with the new ideas, and it is not unlikely that the success of their freer methods will bring about extensive modification of the traditional curricula. All these are signs of the evolution of play; of

Might not education assist the insome method we not adopt

whole educational system the principle

the effort made by modern man to adopt social forms to current idea. That this adjustment of man to his immediate environment the slightest doubt. will continue in all The evolutionary Nature creates and the fields of human endeavor, there is not forces are always at work. Mans creative power

Man has something to learn, someThe educational watchword The watchword of of knowledge,

thing to receive, but also something to give and achieve. of a former generation, the generation of culture, was discipline. is observation. the watchword, by modes of the present, the generation

Might not the future, the play? The need of the

to-day, as in the early ages of the world. is deepening widening. There are many evidences of

generation of personality, take for its sign hour is education by execution, by creation, self-realization-controlled By such modes alone the personality is extended and the individual rounded full-circle. The beginnings of such education have this being been made in the kindergarten; always by the motive of helpfulness.

increase in personality, most notably, perhaps, in the arts which still afford the field of purest play. I refer particularly to the instance of music, the art at present in most rapid process of development, the one most capable of bearing the high emotionalism and the complex idealism of the modern world. The history of music shows that an enormous distance has been passed. from Mozart to Brahms. of composition. Then Once the former came Beethoven 993 was thought to have reached the perfection with newer modes. Then followed Wagner

the latest, the most modern in spirit and most democratic section of our educational system. This is the childrens age, and a little child is leading us away from our formalism and traditionalism, and compelling a more sincere study of the actual field.

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THE
and Brohams To-day, and Richard Strauss, adding music. Wagner tion. the But something to the expressiveness Mozart is simple, to a

CRAFTSMAN
each of hardly child.

interesting,

apprehensible

T
Europe should dwelt point :

HERE which

is a question one can of opinion.

in regard

to

scarcely

tlnd any It is wellbut all over that

diffcrencc

nigh universally and America

agreed by men of

is now at the point of the

of full recepto follow composers. to the in

all parties, not only in England, it is deeply over-crowded to be deplored

But few have the capacity complexities latest will not Brahms ear, as Mozart What signify, farther

and our colonies,

that the people

be as simple

continue

to stream into the already districts. speaking special some years ago County emphasis Council, on this

ordinary

is now to the critdoes this growth if not that the race

cities, and should thus further

ical musician? apprehension is advancing interior region, In conclusion, up by saying being, man determined rial needs. has life, The

deplete the country Lord Roscbery, as chairman with very

and farther

into the

of the London

where harmonies are realized the matter may be summed at every stage an of his selfpossessed existing origin ideal

and ideals formed? that,

There always don: millions hazard, working each other

is no thought

of pride associated I am of Lonof these by

in my mind with the idea of London. haunted by the awfulness appalling fact as it would by the great cast down,

side by side, but by matcis the of this freedom regions;

apart from his life, as conditioned lost in the dim evolutionary

appear

on the banks of this noble stream, each in their own groove regard without heeding and their of other, of unor knowledge each

poets and some scientists postulate Certainly, engage life, higher the higher animals

a certain a of and by and

own cell, without other, without numbered a wen. now? blood having lives-the

degree of sentient life in the material atom. experience grades degree of freedom. in play. activity grades, this In such moments, they In the lower is merely it takes golden play; in t&c

the slightest heedless of men.

idea how the Sixt,y years called it into the what is it and

casualty Cobbett,

thousands If

ago a great

Englishmen,

the rational creation. age, foretold

it -was a wen then, system half the life

significant

form of artistic

A tumor, an clcphantis

sucking

In some future poets and prophets, will be play, joy

its gorged

it tnay be that all work will be song,

and the bone of the rural districts.

all speech

will be universal.

994

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EARNING
ON THE EARNING WORK ONES OF ONES LIVING HANDS. RIPLEY BY BY

A LIVING
and strength f ar superior the individual
in every

as ones

business

must, how

must be its general effect upon to that of work uncongenial when, during exercising

ANNAH

CHURCHILL

To the glory of Christ, I, Johannes Bosscaert, honestly bound this book. (l+om an old book-binding.)

particular, of one rather

working

hours, powers, days

instead

ones highest

reserves them until the in a peculmediaeval

T
portance they as well enough -or

work is over. lies principally between the incongruity of

HE

so-called

arts and crafts

moveiar course imput

The difficulty nature Where

ment in America

has accumulated of timely

sufficient power in its brief to make it a matter that craftsmen somewhat Are

the work, conditions

and the surrounding of life and thought. century patiently, his craft, workman absorbed sat in laboriously,

present-day

here should

the fifteenth following

one or two

searching we doing

questions our work just well

over his work-bench devotedly doing

to themselves as to what they mean by what arc doing. as it can be done-or

his work as well as it could be done, his recompense his satnot only life at social conto support that living,

his life simple to a degree, just enough isfaction craftsman

to find a market?

Have we chosen

llandicraft opportunity economic

solely because of the commercial it seems to offer for the moment of its as deeper well? artistic Is our and work claims

lying in the work itself, the modern finds himself confronted of how to support complex

because

by the problem ditions erally of to-day, prevailing

all, under the extremely of how far it is possible

honest in the sense that Johanncs honest.ly bound his book hundreds ago? And

Bosscaert of years

but also by the question to accept the genstandards of mercenary

if not,, why handicraft? of handicraft above variis mainly that a necessary end the reactionary

The advantage

success, and at the same time to be true, or, at least, not to be untrue, his individual Which question work. us directly a commercial to the vital It Most age. brings to the claims of

ous other means of livelihood thereby one may accomplish by an ennobling means,

effect of the work upon the worker tending to develop the mind as well as the hand and cyc, to bring action. upon As the faculties Handicraft which live generally is a form into of reacts new imdecay if some to united again pulse. confined, form the mind. no action work, in life, then,

of what WC mean by success. about us would uncompromis-

is undoubtedly of the people ingly judge to mercenary be judged.

our success or failure according standards, I have heard of living The and expect
SO

self -expression, any

expression producing thing will

to

the mind,

it said of those or, I might Charles Life, a virtue which seems to Simple

who are cultivating better say, spirit have found Wagners a fitting

a manner,

so a vital The

impulse

without which

of expression

is worse than useless in thought leads If this kind of business time ones

name in M.

little book,

is no thought. occupying

that they are in most cases making of necessity-so unlikely, such choice can be sincere.

can be used as ones the best of

it seems, that any

295

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THE
If any craftsman purely for

CRAFTSMAN
their fine public spirit, their perfect. citizenship; the mehtersinger of old Nurnberg, the leather-workers of Spain, or the enamel and metal workers in their little booths along the streets of Ispahan, we find alike among them all, stronger than aught else, this note of sincerity. In making our modern application of these mediaeval arts we cannot revive the past altogether, but in our effort to apply what has been good in the past, let us, first of all, emulate Johannes Bosscaerts honesty of purpose. There are deeper principles involved than the mere binding of a book. First, make your work, whatever it is, an expression of your individual self. doing Secit. ond, let each single piece of work be done is as well as you are capable of Third, remember the lines : Who works for glory, misses oft the goalWho works for money, coins his very soul. Work for the works sake then, and it may be All these things will be added unto thee, -and

is using the opporcommercial advan-

tunity created by the revival of interest in

handicraft

tage, at. the sacrifice of the quality of his work, let him consider Johannes Bosscaerts quaint honesty, and pause ! Handicraft We need Better the is primarily an art., rather than a business, and must be considered as such. the best in art now, or no art. hand-work. other-both as vital rich

clean, machine-made product than shiftless Neither can substitute for the are necessary. Happily, we believe there are other elements in success as the accumulation intellectual, of money. spiritual, life-it The successful life is the life of full and development, physical ; and in choosing our work in lifeour work by which to support of the utmost importance that we remember that the value of money is a means to this development, not an end in itself. The modern craftsman should realize all the historic tradition of the past as well as his personal responsibility to the present, and at least so far honor the achievements of the workmen of the Middle Ages as not to treat lightly the crafts which they enand seriousness. dowed with such dignity exceedingly fascinating

be patient

! is a very safe aim. The

Excellence

craftsman who excels, who has attained at last, may find his craft even a considerable financial success, but it has been gained by artistic fidelity, and it is through artistic fidelity alone that he has won his place among the little group of the master-craftsmen of to-day. Whether he works individually in a small Paris ntelier, spending his six or eight hours a day of many months on some one object; the heart of or whether he works in training many New York,

Space will not allow a digression into the subject of mediaeval craftsmanship, though the mere mention of early European Guilds and Leagues, to say nothing of the genius of the Orient as proven for all time in weavings and manuscripts, marvellous tiles and hand-wrought metals, pottery, inlay, carvings, jewelry, enamels, is endlessly suggestive. Whether we picture the rug weaver of the Orient, or in the monasterys scriptorium the

craftsmen under him to express themselves, to do each smallest, part of their work with their whole might--the It is wonderfully spirit is the same. worth while to have made

the Italian monk laboring over his illumination


996

burger-craftsmen

of Bruges or Ghent, with

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STORY
lating to feel that thereby-by

OF THE
den of

RUG
Eden-an enclosed pleasance or

something beautiful, and it is vastly stimuthe full expression of ones best-one life. Thoreau says: may conquer

park, full of choice trees and rare flowers, animals of the chase, and birds. very scheme of the typical This idea The field, recurs constantly in Persian design. derived from it-a rich, varicolored

the practical bread and butter problems of It is truly actually as it is true really, it is true materially as it is true spiritually, that they who seek honestly and sincerely with all their hearts and lives and strength to earn their bread, do earn it, and it is sure to be very sweet to them. A very little bread-a very few crumbs are enough if it be of the right quality, for it is infinitely nutritious. The living earned by such effort is the smallest part of its reward.

carpet seems The field

hedged about with its borders. of

is frequently obviously intended. for a field flowers, and sometimes a wood or au According
be

orchard of fruit-trees.. to design, Oriental rugs may or floral Persian and East Indian and Caucasian carclassed as of purely Aryan,

type, including embracing

rugs ; of Turanian, or geometrical, patterns Turkoman pets; and of a combination of the two, as represented in Turkish, Kurdish, and Chinese weaves. The literally, Oriental has imitated Nature or translated her into textiles, sometimes very and again with great freedom. In the sumptuous old Persian carpets, intended for regal homes, full hunting scenes with a great deal of action are wonderfully pictured; hunters on horseback, with their dogs, among the forest-trees, are in pursuit of animals of the chase ; and in others, more .quiet landscapes, with trees, flowers, and birds, are imitated. One which Mr. Stebbing describes in his book on the Holy Carpet is of this nature: Various trees of the forest, planted in horizontal lines, are connected on each line by the serpentine course of a stream, forming growth shallow pools, with a of wild flowers on the bank-the

THE

STORY

OF THE

RUG

T
Later, Walter

HE origin of design is surrounded by mystery, but it is generally conceded that the first designs were geometrical, copying, doubtless, of rush mats, which preceded instincts of these a-;

the plaiting

carpets in the evolution of floor coverings. as the artistic early weavers were developed, into their fabrics they wove

the beauty in form

well as color which they saw about them. Crane, in his Basis of Design, would make the floral Persian carpet the imitation of the Persian garden, for he says: The love of the sheltered, walled-in, and natural garden is very evident in their literature, and the influence of their flora upon their designs of all kinds is evident enough. The idea of the Eastern paradise is a garden. We have it in the Bible in the Gar-

mud-flats left by the receding water very carefully indicated in the weaving. --Mary Beach JAgton in "How
to Know Oriental Rugs.

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A CRAFTSXlAN

HOUSE

CRAFTSMAN NUMBER House

HOUSE: VI. Number Series equally VI. for

SERIES

No traces of a style the attempt having

have been allowed of the exterior :

OF 1904,

to enter into the composition of 1904, The as duction of a mod&,

T
ings.

been limited to the prorefined dwelling. to the sills of the first brick, rakedtreatand and story. wide, This the roof

HE

Craftsman is adapted intended

The walls reaching set with black

may be judged

from the elevation, well to suburrural surroundhome, it feet, prove

story windows arc laid in Harvard mortar second out joints,

ban districts, If

and to purely

as arc also the piers supporting with that of separating

as a suburban

the projecting ment, together dormer-windows, to the front;

will require a frontage

of at least fifty

in order to render it effective, a distinct advantage.

while an addiwould

give accent and distinction it from the multi-

tion of ten feet to this estimate

tudes of its own class, if ranked according

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THE

CRAFTSMAN

.-

to its building front, effect, is found

costs.

Another much to

detail of the the general device of band

made of a special impervious a darker like the window tone.

cement-like

composition, green, showing

contributing

to moisture trim,

and stained although

in the structural

the mortise spanning at right are

and tenon

used at the corners

It may bc noted also that with warmth from the heat the house: parlor, so becoming, during if the cold

of the building angles with white

to unite the wooden to it.

the veranda is fitted with winter sashes, and can be supplied ing system of desired, months signed The shingled applied a sun

the piers, with the timbers running above, the walls of laid Washington wide to the

From the point indicated faced or shingles pine, cedar, weather,

of the year, for a southern picturesque same

since the house is dcexposure. of green the house is as the side stain being roof

and stained brick.

to a rich nut brown, with the deep red deserving openof the limeis

which chords of the Harvard mention, ings shaped stone ; veranda, are: bricks, the

admirably

with the same stock moss (brushed

walls ; the window

Smaller details of the exterior, the basement which arc spanned low steps

on) to the wood, as to the The chimby similar to those of the chimney-pots

doors, windows, and all casings. ney is faced the basement a white again showing with brick, wall, cap;

by flat arches ascending floor, to which

and have slip sills of local

and is surmounted

concrete

which are of bush-hammered the veranda

the deep, warm red.

stone ; finally,
300

From the veranda the entrance door leads

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A CRAFTSMAN into the living-room, which occupies the full depth of the house and has windows upon three sides, one of which (the western) projects into a shallow bay; thus affording space for an ample window-seat. chimney-piece In the of this room Harvard brick

HOUSE

the house, and situated at the left of the entrance, is of sufficient size to meet the needs of a family of four or five persons. A bay springing the entrance pierced by from from the side opposite the living-room, and at a high

a window placed

are again used, being here laid in mortar colored with o&e. The fireplace, as may be read from the floor-plan, is situated well toward the rear end of the east wall of the living room, and is flanked on the left by a book-case, and on the right by a corner-seat. Reyond the book-case, and toward the front of the house, the stair-case rises, screened to the first landing by a continuation of the paneled oak wainscot, which is carried around the room to a height of six and one-half feet. The wainscot is stained to a rich nut brown, above which a canvas frieze, with a design stenciled upon a tan-colored background, shows to excellent advantage ; the applied colors ceiling plaster, being is left of brown, grayThe green and indigo blue.
DINING

level, is designed to contain the sideboard, which exactly fits the space. Around the entire room a paneled wooden dado is carried on a line with the window sills, above which the walls are covered with

Kma-m-i

hVING KCn,M ___-______________ __________________ 4.3.0 x 3.44-e

KCOM

-----_--_ --__---_ ..---_--..____________

cream-tin ted rough, under

the float, and is divided into panels by oaken beams. In this room the Scotch rugs of brown and green are well relieved against the floor, which is of matched boards of medium width, stained to a very dark green. The dining-room, occupying about half the depth of

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THE
Japanese

CRAFTSMAN
to the landing on the main staircase. This room is isolated in situation and closed from the main portion of the house in every direction by at least two doors.

grass cloth, to a height of six

feet, six inches; at the latter level, a mold-

On the second floor a roomy hall gives access to four sleeping rooms : three of which are of good size and all having The remainand a in ample closets.

ing space of this floor is occupied by a bath-room large linen closet. The bedroom,

shown

illustration, contains a pleasing effect in the sharp-angled ceiling and the long window seat running beneath it. Here the walls are covered with Japanese grass cloth to the height of the rail, above which the walls and ceilings are colored to a warm tint, in order to insure a pleasing play of lights and shadows. The movables are of the beautiful maple wood which is obtainable in a soft, satin finish, ing covers the joint between the grass cloth and the frieze. The color-effect of this room is yellow : the various tones of this color being supported by the dark green of the floor and the deep brown of the oak movables. The kitchen and its dependencies are finished in cypress and are most conveuiently planned ; the kitchen being provided with stairs leading to the cellar, and also and the textiles are chosen in accordance with the exposure of the room. Throughout the house simplicity has

been the first essential sought, in order that no one portion might be prominent to the detriment of all others. The estimates have been made with great care, and it is believed by the architects that if their instructions be followed, the building costs will not exteed three thousand, eight hundred dollars.

303

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SOS

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SOP

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A FOREST A FOREST BUNGALOW OHDS tllougllts the wing4 ify their to mouth. thisclves, of which nic:~ning, like tlicy the arc modthe

BUNGALOW L:~WrclK!c. advanced iI structure of the later, illustrations, period. in elevainches more is

W
pus
1lillllC

type,

ils may be learned

by rcferin response

once to the accompanying to the The


dc~il:~~ls

uon- 0fYcrcd I)y The (raftsman, of the vacation here presented Bungalow

messengers, Formerly,

as they rcflectit pic-

from

mouth

tion, is designed abolee the

to be set low, with the first eight grade. building piers pillars is supported of masonry upholding still cm-

Bungalow,

wllen pronounced, of those who heard

floor at a level not exceeding surrounding The cstcnding while the k)y rough

cd in the minds

below the fl\ost line :

the roof are tree trunks, covered with their bark. The ploped rough frame matched tcrcs of the East Indies.
And

structural

timber

is hemlock or spruce, from the mill ; the being covered with boards, surfaced on

to those represent

who were unable to to themselves the or Caloffered : or with house story, roof. is no longer idea of the habitation its single or story has passage and developed to new thatch, of the passing obSide elr~ation

suburbs of Bombay cutta, the dictionaries the following Bungalow,-a cottage of a single a tiled. or thatched Such definition adequate. The convenient and countries. Bungalow. under type scured, rondack native little The extended definition

the inner side. laid on the outer in order the walls shingles,

This boarding additional covered

may be overpaper, and split warmth, with

during

side with building lastly

to assure are

or tiles, are no longer Camps to British

the essentials cottages India

this name, and in which the primitive is wholly coast, accent forests, the Atlantic the Adi-

laid wide to the weather and left The large area to acquire a natural stain. of the roof wi-ith its dormers, by shingles ; in this instance kind ; br~!sll-coated is also covered of the ordinary 305

and the shores of the Saint

to a deep moss-green.

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306

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A FOREST

BUNGALOW is left exposed with the intervening panels either stained to


brown, a warrn

or hung with burlap, as desired. The ceiling is not covered: the exposed floor-joists of the second story beamed effect. building thus giving it a

A cross-section at the rear of the


IVlNG RODII

contains, at the right:

bedroom, ten by fifteen feet in size, with dependent closet; next, an ample space is devoted to the staircase which opens into the living room ; while the large square rcmaining at the left of the rear cross-section, forms a well-ventilated, convenient kitchen, provided with a built-in cupboard, a sink with drain-board, and a second cupboard or closet made by utilizing the space beneath

The batten doors can easily be made upon the site; the flooring of the veranda is of two-inch plank ; the chimney is built of boulders gathered from stones the locality, used as with field binders to

tllc stairs. ____..-- _-.-..... -- ...___ r. _____. --______...____.___.___..---___ _.__ .___ ___.___,
r ..-. -. . .._-.. .._-..-...--.. -...__ __.--...-.-... -..---..._.._.___. _______.~

strengthen the masonry. The space of the first floor is apportioned into a living room, kitchen. The first of these rooms has dimensions of fourteen feet, six feet; inches by twenty-four
BED RQDM

bed

room

and

one end being occupied

by a fire-place large enough to contain a four foot log. The hearth is formed of large flat stones set in a bed of earth, and the floor of the room is laid in matched pine boards, six inches in width. The studding of the side walls
L.

Second floor

_._____ _..______--._--_._-__ _.____ ___. ----_._.__. ___._._ __..,____.._ _..____ plan


307

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308

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A DINING
The second floor contains three bedrooms, with storage being room under the eaves at the rear of the building

ROOM
insure a proper surfaces The play of shadows upon the

of the woods and textiles. walls above the wainscot in a soft by an to the top or tan

: this extension of space


that the Bungalow, is a habitation much than cristed

in itself a proof

of the window casings are covered with Japanesc grass cloth, shade. point This mentioned leather, covering is met at the up~xqoaken plate-rail,

in its later development, more convenient in its primitive form.

and agreeable

four inches in breadth, which runs about, the entire room, forming THE LAR DINING FRIEZE HE dining room shown in the opposite illustration by a simplicity can not but charm which is marred Its of the the capacomapcrudeness. from ROOM OF THE POP1andsr:~pe frieze browns , greens able being poplars, foreground scene suggestive a base-line to a paper shades of of Italy design with and in old tapestry and heliotrope of Northern of the unit

; the agrec-

T
beauty, Low judicious bility parative tating ration.

composing

a background

mountains,

curves which might be the wind-

by no element of results

ings of t,lie Po. The frieze is headed by a cornice of rather bold band, The adding oaken executed projection, consisting of a wide dcntils, rugs, and a simple edge, the curtains and greens and pillows already

like that of the old interiors largely employment of color.

Countries,

Its scheme

d&
repeat

has, furthermore,

the very

valuable at a slight

in oak, like the plate-rail. mentioned,

of easy production,

cost, and of being successfully important previous changes

t.hc browns

plied to any ordinary

room without necessior deco-

to the basis of the scheme high notes movables sounds a low continuous

of yellow ; while the rich, deep color of the bass to the decoration of a violoncello theme, like the part

The only requirement it shall bc well-lighted

of the room is that by day, in order to

in a string orchestra.

309

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MANUAL
MANUAL JOHNSON, TRAINING, TLE, TRAINING. INSTRUCTOR CITY SCHOOLS, BY B. W.

TRAIJVING
of living Manual for themselves and for others.

MANUAL SEAT-

training

is proving

of great ser-

N A
boy mere training. pass daily

vice in education.
tiox+nc! m&a!

The process of acquisidiaciphe

WASHISGTON educator Animals of prominence once said: but The the boy a deor

are both greatly motor-activity and mental

helped of can be trained, then, of

by

the self-directed The gained,

the shop.

knowledge

development translate

serve the boy and girl, but as means to into results. what one He nor man opand balgiving and purposes

can be educated. something acquisition

not as ends in themselves, well-defined

velopment, The

girl must comprehend

more than of knowl-

A noted Bishop was asked : To other, is due the majority replied : Thinking without doing. thinking,

great cause, do you think, more than to any of failures? without doing ; doing

rdge and mental discipline they are but the half scheme of education: to do, developed into

are essential ; yet

of any well balanced the means to an end. atid girls who business

and neither thinking the learning; enjoying for sought its proper To-day, by for little the

The test of our schools is the power to act, in the boys the very serious

The education to work, portunity studying. ance in is doing. thinking doing

of the past empha-

sized the thinking, had to do

thinking

expression

Thinking

in our schools are made only when real condidealt with: ahead. and a strong this is

possible, things come to

tions are to be met, and real motive behind and a real outWhen how true, how the whole boy work deep potent The graphs endeavor The is the interest accompanying are to evidences carry out goes and develphotoof an these of of

oped by this stimulus to wokk!

ideas in the schools of Seattle. desk, made by a boy in his third different year eighteen

the high school,

is one of sevin deis making

.L-.L-..-_

. .._..

.LI

.__

_ _.

i
Presented green. Superintendent of

eral examples, sign. Cabinet

Chair: 310

Flemish oak: cushion of horsehide in mottled by the High School st,ndents to Mr. F. B. Cooper. City Schools, Seattle, Washington

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MRSUAL

TRAINING
ties may induce discouragement, but the boy finally feels the divine satisfcction of seeing his conceptions realized and his own work completed before his eyes. Definite knowledge, good judgment, and efficiency are evident. To incarnate a noble thought is to live. perience and the forming the thing made. It is with pleasure that the Editors of The Craftsman note such encouraging signs of the times as those indicated in the article contributed by Mr. Johnson. Cities of the Eastern section of our country arc a11too prone to disregard the great impetus toward culture which is stirring the West, and even now producing admirable results. It is this exof right habits

that will outlast the knowledge gained and

taught in the third year when sufficient skill and knowledge have been acquired in the two years previous work logues to permit any constructive Catafurniture problem to be easily solved. are studied and

shops are visited by the class, and the elements of design and construction there found, are explained by the instructor. Each pupil then prepares his sketches of the object he desires to make, and from them hc makes his own working drawings and details; adapting them to his own ideas of form, proportion, and design. He then draws up his specifications and stock list, pays for the material required, and proceeds to work out his idea from the drawing into concrete form. Many difficulDesk (open): finish inner compartments of white spruce, natural

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THE
FLOFTER AND MOTIFS FOR PILLOWS

CRAFTSMAS

CI;RTAINS

T
zinc.

HE designs
here prcsent.cd for curpillows arc all to canvas tains and bc csccutcd fabric, upon an imported in the pages the use of which has been of this ?rIagain all colors Finally, materials are linens, also and now obtainable range of shades. is to be done with linen flosses, generally employed based upon or, it are toor, at

often advocated imported,

The applied

and an estcnsive t.he couching

which arc at once more durable and effective than the silken thread for the same purpose. The designs floral forms, were better to of these articles, say, are rather more realistic, of motifs the whole which plant,

less conventionalized with new art. instead until the

than the majority day composed principles

in accordance

; since

least, the entire flower here appears, re-drawn originals scarcely in a series of are obscured studies,

of floral details which have been drawn and to the point of being

more than linear fancies.

ROWmotif

T
being Motif,

HE the of

pillow

showing

the Rose the with

Motif canvas ; flowers all the

is covered with russet-green applique' forming linen, pomegranate

outlining

done in sea-green. wrought also with the Roseas the covdescribed is

The curtain

is of the same material scheme already

ering of the pillow seen in the first illustration ; the color repeated, wit11 the addition that the bands

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FLOWER

MOTIFS
This design as yet produced and the drawing color-scheme, old IIutch is one of the most successful in the present is further long series, enhanced by the

which recalls the fine effects of pictures. affording less opporof line than composiwell held

and Flemish Motif,

The Poppy tunity tion: the tulip, grateful

for grace

and freedom

is yet a most pleasing to the eye, and the motif

the arrangement

of the leaves being

forming

the base of the design are of grass with dull red floss, and stems are ivorked in shows effectively upon quality a which straight

green linen, applied that the long a pale against The greenish familiar applied green, dull green. sea-green Tulip blue

the russet of the canvas. Motif canvas is executed of a color

in old tapestries. and the design

The flowers are

in warm yellow, the leaves are bluerises from a band of being done in seaPoppy motif

red ; all outlines

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THE
together by the bands placed above below the floral units. The design appears background, in grass-green in gray-green, and all outlines

CRAFTSMAN
and

upon a pomegranate

with the lower band of leaves

appliqub, and the top-band


the flowers in pomegranate, in sea-green.

Poppy motif

A variant upon flowers anthers strong The realistic

of the Poppy the design

Motif

occurs i with linen, th th i

a second pillow;

being wrough

a green-blue in gray-green in tan-color, blue.

background, bloom and

the outlines

Trumpet-flower of the designs, background from

Motif, is wrought

the

mos

upon in

gray-green

: the flowers obtain

ing bold relief

their application

Puppy motif

The curtain is of greenish in gray-green band of

displaying blue canvas, bloom

the Poppy

Motif

with the flowers to the fabric


Trumpet tloww motif

linen, and the lower applied

blue-green

by floss of a strong,
314

deep blue shade.

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C.HIPS
pomegranate shade. In this instance, the outlining of the calyx and corolla is done in floss of a warm yellow-green, and the stamens in tan-color. It may be added that these designs gain much in execution: the substance and texture of the materials forming and the color employed. an integral part of the harmony based upon the line with the reversed throat of the flower in brick red, were temporarily so acute, his sense of A few moas a bolt ownership was strengthened. ments later, his mood changed, strikes from the blue.

A feeling of pain, upon the conHe

as intense as his former happiness, a sense of suffering wrong verging sciousness of servitude, seized him.

grasped his design, as if to save it from a hostile hand, and, while feeding his eyes upon what he regarded as its perfections, his frame contracted with anger. A thought destructive of calm, swept through his mind,

CHIPS FROM THE

CRAFTSMAN

as a sudden violent storm blackens and de+ troys the beauty of a summer day. In imagination he saw the object which he had already conceived by the effort of his knowledge and experience, finished and complete, going out from his workshop to be forever lost to his parentage. He was denied the privilege of the artist who signs the work which he produces. manual, the mark of His own sign his tool which he

WORKSHOP

T
body;

HE Craftsman sat in his workshop, unmindful of everything about him. The fresh beauty of the of youthful year, the discomfort

the first heats he passed unnoticed, living for the moment only in his work. rapid execution. in solid form. Before him lay a design showing few lines and It was his first conception He was aglow, mind and of an object which, later, he was to realize his pulses beating, his brain quickIn this special labor he had as

wielded with absolute conscientiousness and The accuracy, counted him for nothing. line dividing found abyss the fine from the industrial into which precious values arts, appeared to him as expanded to a prowere dropped from the weak grasp of the hopeless. He saw the artist craftsman ignored. protected and the

ened by the joy and pride of having created something. yet experienced nothing to cool his ardor. The always unforeseen, inevitable disappointment coming from the impossibility to adjust the ideal to the real, had not occurred. The thing upon which all his mental powers were concentrated, appeared to him adorable and perfect. silently apologizing He was not its to the world for

He saw his own creation

ill-treated at the hands of other workmen less skilful and less honest than himself; its excellences half-understood by them and debased by servile copying : that euphuism for At length, his fertile fancy robbery. showed him the factories of the country yielding imitations of his cherished object, multiplied to infinity and deformed to the point of positive ugliness and vulgarity, like those malformations, those structural
315

faults, as he would be later, when he should see it developed from the design which was its embryo, and standing in three dimensions before him. And because his pride, his joy, his love

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THE
vagaries journeys. Together with the spreading of

CRAFTSMAN
longer continuing not falsify, to produce. He would in order to earn easily that he He could not create enthusiasm, nor yet

nature which caused him to

shudder as he met them in his walks and develop-

might idle afterward. without the spur of

result of the evil. unclean, and grace. through

ment, the Craftsman also saw clearly the The caricatures of his cherished creation, palpable Like eries, brought original. things common and falsehoods unworthy and mockchildren,

could he suffer his creations to meet with indignities offered them by his unworthy colleagues. Overcome thus by depression, his The susemotions slackened, even as his thoughts had previously ceased to direct him. pension of, his powers became almost complete. The avenues of his senses closed. He perceived nothing but the heaviness of his own heart. spection became But gradually less absolute. his introHis eye

discredit upon their model

they involved their parent in their own disThe persons of moral and aesthetic his creation-for what earnest, rectitude to whom he had sought to appeal noble work is accomplished without hope of meeting the reward of sympathy and appreciation-those very persons, despising the caricatures, came also to slight and to suscruelly misrepresented. to good pect the type which the falsified objects so Thus, the incentive craftsmanship was removed, the intelligent worker dissuaded from devoting his powers to the further development of the fmer industries, and art separated from the life of the people to be made the exclusive possession of the few: a condition always hostile to social progress-indeed plainly indicative of social decay. Arrived at this point of his revery, the Craftsman lost momentarily the steps of his argument in the maze of his emotions. centrated effort, through the His nature had become intensified through conisolation necessary to the pursuance of thought and work, through, also, the attainments of certain successes productive And now of legitimate self-confidence. he abandoned Since he saw de-

caught involuntarily surroundings.

certain details of his

He began minutely to note

the tools upon his working bench, as another, plunged in equal despair, but differently circumstanced, might have traced out the interlacing lines of a Moorish pattern on wall or rug. The sight of external objects brought The distraction and then developed a thought in the mind of the despairing workman. design of his new object which he had The pres-

raised his hand to destroy, he smoothed into place upon his drawing board. ence of the traditional tools upon his bench brought to him pictures of other times and memories of happier conditions. He turned in thought to the period when art was still religion and craftsmanship was the lay sister of art; when there was little question of lower or higher, provided that the thing wrought by the tool for the daily domestic service of man, like the cup or the chair, received the impress of the genius of the workman to the same degree as did the things wrought by the brush, or the chisel, solely to gratify Following the aesthetic sense. in substance, this argument

himself to discouragement. feated, he approached


316

the use and end of honest production

the decision of no

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BOOK
sion that, to judge functions The of his

REVIEWS
himself, to advocate for his colleagues, a representative sign to be impressed upon each one of the objects formed by his hands, as a token of his own responsibility, as a right to which he was entitled by reason of

the Craftsman could not avoid the conclufrom historical precedent, which is another name for fact, his and destiny were equal, parallel this great strong truth and united to those of the artist. : consciousness of legitimate obstacles and suggested to him the advantage to be taken position. he saw Amid and difficulties,

his attainments, as a public safeguard, and finally as an incentive and spur to generous, honest action, thrown out like an exhortation or battle-cry, to influence and encourage whomever it might. The Craft.sman series of articles upon

clearly the way to relieve his own despair, to force the respect of the people and tbereby to regain his historical position, to improve economic conditions in the republic of which he could not but recognize himself as one of the most useful citizens, finally to contribute to the spread of the gospel of beauty, which is also the gospel of content and of temporal happiness. In pursuance of his new resolutions, the Craftsman grasped with eagerness a sheet of paper upon which he traced a signature, symbolic and characteristic, which he would impress upon each one of his subsequent creations, Similar signatures, he reasoned, had been the deep-lying causes of the economic prosperity and political importance of a government such as Florence, and of municipalities such as those of Flanders. The devices of the old guilds and of their master-workmen were responsible in their time for the map of Europe. Why then, reasoned the Craftsman, could not the modern representatives honesty and good agents in maintaining of the newer America? of these oaths of become strong the internal peace The good accomfaith

the Spanish Missions in California, which is suspended in the current number, owing to the late arrival of Mr. James manuscript, will be resumed in the July issue. The succeeding article will ,treat of the interior architectural effects and the mural decorations of the most interesting chapels established by the Franciscans in the locality under consideration. BOOK REVIEWS. BY J. C. CITIESOF TO-MORROW, It has

ARDEN

by Ebenezer Howard, is a new book on an old theme. sufficient improvement over all

that has preceded it to make it an original work. The theme is the ideal city. It gives

plans, methods, costs, all possible details for planting cities, instead of having them grow, as London has, like an immense tumor, to have plenty of parks, wide streets, school houses, play grounds, museums and all else that pertains to city life, without tearing down expensive property, to make them. Also, it shows how to avoid the smoke nuisance, stale vegetables, garbage and the other unpleasant nuisances of

plished by the Clothdressers Company for Florence might certainly be repeated in a modern sense for a broader fatherland. Again hopeful to the point of inspiration, the Craftsman resolved to assume for

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THE
our present city life. farming

CRAFTSMAN
I am disappointed in Boston. it was a beautiful it beautiful? city. But I thought why isnt It

It also settles the

question, which, by its loneliness,

has come to be one of the serious questions of the present time. Most of the former schemes have carried communism to excess, even to the breaking up of family life. Looking Backward, the best, probably, of The Garden Cities predecessors, took away too much individualism from life, and no mere physical comforts can ever compensate for the loss of character which complete communism must cause. The Garden City shows how to create ideal cities, ideal farms, ideal factories. No one city is to go much beyond thirty thousand inhabitants, but other cities are to be planted in the same manner near by, thus creating a circle of circular cities in groups which might, in time, depopulate London and Birmingham. The book is English English and written, of course, from standpoint, to America an but the theme is far where cities

asked the Boston lover.

has no yards around the houses, replied the child, fresh from a Syracuse home. The first part of Little Gardens is for the South End, Boston, Upper New York, and the slums, and tells each what to do with limited spaces, ranging from a square yard to 25x60 feet. A veritable oasis can be realthe inized from city deserts by following

genious plans of Charles M. Skinner. Mr. Skinner tells what to avoid and why, how to care for the soil, fertilizers and tools. He even adds a water garden with its water blooms, and shows how to keep out mosquitoes without kerosene. Next, garden country gardens are considered. The to the Color There is more space, a wider range. may be made to conform when there is any. architecture,

should be scientifically considered in order to be aesthetic, and the rainbow followed, as We can paint the earth Natures law. with flowers that gleam like jewels. Next the author treats of the seasons of flowers. frost. In the choice the blossom the beautiful place. added. A of of flowers, the vase, and a foremost flowers is can so the blessed Virgin, ten best One can have bloom from frost to

more applicable

grow in an hours time to great size, and the rush for new homes moves with the rapidity of lightning. We suggest that some syndicates attempt Garden City, for manufacturing plan of The a scheme on the in the new We commend by

west or the deserted east. living.

the book to all interested in better ideals of [Garden Cities of To-morrow, Ebenezer Howard London: $1.25.] Swan, Sonnen-

Venus is given

list of

As an experienced

physician

schein & Co. ; illustrated ; pages 151 ; price

do all his doctoring the gardener are duly considered.

with ten drugs, Vines

with ten plants.

Creepers are human

bent on rising, no matter what the means. LITTLE GARDENS." A little girl often, taken to Boston to visit her new mothers old friend 318 on Newbury street, shocked a caller, an old time Bostonian, by saying: Many flowers are wisely characterized: the iris fragile as a form in tinted ice ; nasturtiums soak in sunshine, then give it back in generous measure ; shrubs, trees, exter-

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BOOK
nal decorations is rather are well on treated. Mary author heart. hard

REVIEWS
lines are given precedence in form-especially the mission furniture, that in to form and workmanship leaves nothing be desired. duced. Among pictures, photographs and carbons of the old masters should be given the first place. They educate one to buy The Spirit of the modern works aright.

The Ann,

who often mothers the flowers with her great Any one with a hit of flower space [Little Garwill find the book helpful.. D. Appleton & Company ;

Old mahogany may be intro-

dens, by Charles M. Skinner; New York: illustrated ; pages 250 ; price $1.25 net.]
THE SIMPLE HOME, by Charles Keeler@,

The last chapter,

was written primarily for Californians, but as home is a universal institution, and much of the book is on general principles, it must apply to the entire world. The Home, first chapter, The Spirit of the traces the subject back to pre-

Home, may be condensed in one sentence: All art is a form of service inspired by love. [The Simple Home, by Charles Keeler. Illustrated with ten photographic reproductions. 55 pages. Size, 7x5. Canvas, paper label. Paul Elder and Com-

historic man. hospitality, The

It is a plea for simplicity, truth. is a chapter largely out

pany, San Francisco : 75 cents net.] In these days, when every family is ransacking the attic for ancestral belongings, books that may identify things thus found, are quite essential to the family library; especially when the discoveries thus made lead one to purchase additions and thus become an amateur collector. For this reason The Illustrated Handbook of Inforby mation on Pewter and Sheffield Plate, Wm. Redman, is worth owning. We learn from this book that pewter was the first table luxury of European royal palaces ; that the early Edwards and Henrys and both the weak and the cruel Richards dined on pewter; that the silver age came in with the Georges, although the Charleses and Queen Anne possessed a small number of silver spoons : two or three, perhaps. The plates are very helpful, giving shapes and signs with full explanations. Prices are also given, though they are much more moderate than in the junk shops of our own city.
319

Garden

of our sphere, as plants that blossom the entire year, and tropical their mingled fragrance, in our own section. lives by Mother, contact shade trees with are all impossible

But gardens that will bring nature to our homes and chasten our with the great Earthbelong to us all.

The furnishings of the home, in these days of rented houses, should interest every reader. quence. A color scheme is of first conseWhite is excluded as out of har-

mony, a blaze that refuses to be toned down, though where cleanliness is a feature, white may be used, as on the evening dinner table, and in the bedroom. Warm colors are preferred to cold, a neutral tint to one too aggressively paper pronounced. carpets Figured wall and figured are tabooed.

They are too suggestive of the machine that made them. All possible furniture, as sideboards, window seats, book-shelves, should be a part of the house architecture, straight

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This

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Iwivei~w:mi. hg JOY \VIWCIT. (:omslock. by ninety$4.00.]

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; price

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