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Unit 1: Study of Matter

Classifying Matter

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Pure Substance - matter or "stuff" that has the same composition throughout Ex. Salt, Sugar, Water, Baking Soda

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Elements - substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances Atoms: the smallest particle that cannot be broken down without losing its properties

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Compounds:
> a substance that is made of two or more simpler substances > can be broken down into simpler substances > Simpler substances can be either elements or other compounds > Properties are different than the substances that make up that compound EX. Water is consists of hydrogen and oxygen that are both gases at room temperature

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Pure Substance

Element

Compound

Ex. Au, Na, Al

Ex. H2O, CO2

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Mixtures: > retain some of the properties of the individual substances > Composition of mixtures is not fixed and can vary > can be classified be how well the parts are mixed

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Heterogenous Mixtures: > Parts of the mixture are noticeably different > EX. Sand Homogenous Mixtures: > Mixture is evenly mixed throughout that individual substances cannot be easily be identified

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Types of Mixtures:
> Solutions: small particles that do not settle and cannot be filtered out homogenous mixtures light passes through EX: tap water

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Suspensions: > heterogenous mixture that separates into layers over time > Can be filtered > Can scatter light > Needs to be shaken to mix > Ex. Protein Shakes, Sand and Water

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Colloids > Medium sized particles that cannot be filtered out > Homogenous > Can scatter light > EX. homogenized milk

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Physical Properties- can be observed without changing the substance chemically Viscosity- resistance to flowing > the thicker the liquid the higher the viscosity > viscosity decreases as a liquid is heated Conductivity- ability to allow heat to flow > metals are good conductors

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Malleability- ability to be hammered with out being shattered > gold is malleable, ice is not > most metals are malleable Hardness - the measure of how material will resist scratching Melting Point - temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid Boiling Point - temperature at which a liquid changes to gas

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Density: Ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume Can be used to identify the purity of a substance

m D V

Using Properties to Separate Mixtures: Filtration - process of separating particles based on their size Distillation - the process of separating solutions (liquids) based on their boiling points

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Physical Change:
> Substance in the material remains unchanged > Physical properties of the substance changes EX. Size, Shape, and phase(solid, liquid, gas) > Some physical changes may be reversed

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Chemical Properties

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does not change based on quantity independent of physical change ability to produce a change in composition of matter can be observed when one substance is changing into another

Flammability ability to burn in the presence of oxygen Reactivity the ability to combine chemically with other substances > EX. Rust(Iron III Oxide) forms when oxygen reacts with iron

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2.3

Recognizing Chemical Changes: Chemical changes occur when a substance reacts and changes into a new substance > New substance will have a new set of chemical properties There is a change in color The is a gas produced
> EX. When baking soda and vinegar are mixed

A precipitate is formed. A precipitate is a solid that forms from a liquid mixture.