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Remember from last lecture, single element (2 nodes)
matrix can be written as follows
u 1 e
k e
u 2 e
e
e
k
e
u
e k
u
= F
1
2
1
F 1 e
1 e
2 e
F 2 e
e
e
e
Element e
-k
u
+
k
= F
1 e u
2
2
e
e
u
e u
= F
1
2
1
e
e
e
u
+
k e u
= F
1
2
2
The stiffness matrix from:
1
2
1
2

1

2

k

e

- k e

- k e

k

e

1
2

Lets write the individual matrix for each element

1,

2

1

Nodes

2,
3
3
3,
4
R 1
Node 1

K 1 (u 2 – u 1 ) K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )

Node 2

K 2 (u 3 – u 2 ) K 2 (u 3 – u 2 )

Node 3

K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )

K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )

Node 4

K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )

K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )

Node 5

R 1 – unknown reaction force

P

u 1
u 2
u 3
u 4
1
k
1
2
k 2
3
k 3
4
k 4
5

ele. 1

4
4, 5
k
e
k
e
Element 1
1
1
k
e
e
k
1
1
This is a plain
matrix
1
2
3
4
5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
5

ele. 2

ele. 3

ele. 4

k
e
k
e
Element 1
1
1
k
e
k
e
1
1

Element 1 is elated to nodes 1 & 2 So we can place this matrix in the plain global matrix at the intersection of nodes 1 & 2

0

 

 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
 0 0   0 0 0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

0

R 1 – unknown reaction force

R
1
K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )
K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )

Node 1

Node 2

K 2 (u 3 – u 2 ) K 2 (u 3 – u 2 )

Node 3

K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )

u 1
u 2
u 3
u 4
1
k 1
2
k 2
3
k 3
4
k 4
5

ele. 1

ele. 2

ele. 3

ele. 4

 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

  K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )

3

  Node 4

4

  K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )

5

K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )

Node 5

P

1

2

3

4

5

u 1
u 2
u 3
u 4
R
1
R 1 – unknown
reaction force
k
e
k
e
Element 2
Node 1
2
2
1
K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )
K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )
ele. 1
k 1
k
e
k
e
2
2
2
Node 2
Element 2 is elated to nodes 2 & 3
So we can place this matrix in the
plain global matrix at the
intersection of nodes 2 & 3
K 2 (u 3 – u 2 )
K 2 (u 3 – u 2 )
ele. 2
k 2
Node 3
3
1
2
3
4
5
K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )
 0
0
0
0
0 
1
ele. 3
k 3
0
0
0
 2
  K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
 Node 4
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
5
  K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )
k 4
ele. 4
K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )
1
2
3
4
5
Node 5
0
0 
5
1
P
0
0
2
0
0 0
 3
0
0
0
0
0
 4
0
0
0
0
0
  5
k
e
k
e
3
3
k
e
k
e
3
3

Element 3

Element 3 is elated to nodes 3 & 4 So we can place this matrix in the plain global matrix at the intersection of nodes 3 & 4

 

1

2

0

0 0

0 0

0

0

0

0

0

3
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

0

0 0

0 0

3
4
5
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
k
e
k
e
3
3
0
3
k
e
k
e
0
4
3
3
0
0
0
5

1

2

3

4

5

u 1
u 2
u 3
u 4
R
1
R 1 – unknown
reaction force
Node 1
1
K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )
K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )
ele. 1
k 1
2
Node 2
K 2 (u 3 – u 2 )
K 2 (u 3 – u 2 )
ele. 2
k 2
Node 3
3
K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )
ele. 3
k 3
K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )
Node 4
4
K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )
k 4
ele. 4
K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )
Node 5
5
P
k
e
k
e
4
4
k
e
k
e
4
4

Element 4

Element 4 is elated to nodes 4 & 5
So we can place this matrix in the
plain global matrix at the
intersection of nodes 4 & 5
1
2
3
4
5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
 0
 0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
4
 0
0
0
0
0
  0
5
1
2
3
4
5
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
k
e
k
e
0 0
4
4
4
0 0
0
k
e
k
e
5
4
4
u 1
u 2
u 3
u 4
R
1
R 1 – unknown
reaction force
Node 1
1
K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )
K 1 (u 2 – u 1 )
ele. 1
k 1
2
Node 2
K 2 (u 3 – u 2 )
K 2 (u 3 – u 2 )
ele. 2
k 2
Node 3
3
K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )
ele. 3
k 3
K 3 (u 4 – u 3 )
Node 4
4
K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )
k 4
ele. 4
K 4 (u 5 – u 4 )
Node 5
5
P
The final global matrix of the system is obtained simply by
assembling or adding the individual element matrices
1
2
3
4
5
The overlapping
k
e
k
e
1
1
0
0
0 
1
k
e
k k
e
e
k
e
0
0
2
1
1
in the system
global matrix
2
2
k
e
0
k
e
k
e
k
e
0
3
2
2
3
3
0
0
e e
k
e
k k
k
e
4
3
3 4
4
0
0
0
e
e
k
k
5
4
4
The assembly of the above matrix gives the global matrix of the system
 k
k
0
0
0
1
1
k
k
k
k
0
0
1
1
+
2
2
0
k
k
k
k
0
2
2
+
3
3
0
0
k
k
k
k
This method gives
the same matrix
which we have
developed from
individual equilibrium
3
3
+
4
4
0
0
0
k
k
4
4
equation for each
node

To calculate the stiffness of any element

c
b
b wall
1
a
A
2
B
a
C
3
D
a
4
F

k = stiffness

E = Modules of elasticity

A = cross sectional area ( width x thickness )

l = length of the element

Example 1

For the suspended plate which is fixed to the roof as shown in Fig. below

a. Model the plate in suitable FE form.

b. Calculate the stiffness of each element, k e

c. Write the element – nodes table.

d. Set the global stiffness matrix of the model.

e. Solve for the elongation in each element

E = Modulus of Elasticity = 100 GPa
All dimensions in mm
t = thickness of the plate = 1mm
a = 20 mm
a
a
a
a
a
100
200

10 kN

Example 1

Element(e)
Nodes
1
1,
2
2
1,
2
3
1,
2
4
2,
3
a
a
a
a
a
100
Element 1
200
1

Element 2

Element 3

2

Element 4

3

10kN

Model the plate in suitable FE form.

10 kN

k = stiffness E = Modules of elasticity A = cross sectional area ( width x thickness ) l = length of the element

To calculate the stiffness

Since elements 1, 2, & 3 have the same area. Module of elasticity & length, hence their stiffness are equal K 1 = K 2 = K 3

E = 100 GPa
t = thickness of the plate = 1mm
a = 20 mm

Individual matrix of each element

Element 1

k

1

e

k

1

e

k

1

e

k

1

1

0

2

0

0 0

0 0

k k

2

1

e e

k

3

k k

e

2 1

k

e

0

e

e

3

Element 2

Element 3

Element(e)

Nodes

 

 

3

0

0

0

k

2

e

k

2

1

2

3

e

k

2

k

2

e

e

 

  

k

3

e

k

3

e

Element 4

k

e

4

k

4

e

k

4

k

4

e

e

e

k

2

e

k

1

e

k

2

1

k

e

e

k

e

k

3

e

k

3

e

4

k

e

4

0

k

e

4

k

e

4

k

3

k

3

e

e

1 1,

2 1,

3 1,

4 2,

2

2

2

3

k

+

1

k

1

k

+

2

k

2

0

k

3

k

3

k

1

k

+

1

k

2

k

2

+

k

3

k

4

k

3

+

k

4

0

k

4

k

4

k
k
3
1
k
k
+
k
3
1
2

k

2

+

k

2

0

k
3
+
k
3
4

k

2

+

k

k

4

k

4

k

4

k

0

+

1

k

1

Substitute the above k values into the developed global matrix gives

K

G

= 10

7

6

0

6

6

11

5

0

5

5

Remember from last lecture
G
]
=
G
[K
{u
}
{F
}
Zero because its a fixed point
So we can write the matrix as
6
6
0
  u 
1
0
7
10
6
11
5
u
=
0
2
0
5
5
u
10000
 
3
In any matrix if there zero then the column
and row of the zero will be cancelled
6
6
0
  u 
0
1
7
10
6
11
5
u
=
0
2 
0
5
5
u
10000
 
3 
U 1 =0 because it’s a fixed poin
11
5   u 
0
7
2
10
=
5
5
u
10000
 
3

10

7

 11
5   u 
0
2
=
 5
5
u
10000
 
3

We get from this matrix two equations

Multiplying the matrices (refer to matrix lecture slides) gives

Two equations with two unknowns can be easily solved and get

U

U

U

2

3

1

=0.167mm

=0.367mm

=0

Example 2:

The beam shown in the figure below is cantilevered at one end and is pulled by a force of 100 N at the other end. Calculate the total elongation of the beam.

h

=

0.0425m

1
h
= 0.0275 m
2
E1
h2
E2
h 1
0.1m
0.1m

100 N

E= 200000 Pa

38

Ex 2: Solution

Use 2 uniform cross section elements.

h
= 0.0425m
1
h
=
0.0275 m
2
E1
E2
h2
h 1
39

100 N

Two Elements Stiffness Matrix

R

E1
E2
100 N
100 N
1
k
1
k 2

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

By using the method to assemble the global matrix from individual elements matrix. The resulted global stiffness matrix for the system is:

K=

Ex 2: Solution

Since this is a uniaxial 1-D problem, the elements can be simplified as 2 springs in series.

R
1
k
1
k 2
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
h
= 0.0425 m
h
= 0.0275 m
E1
E2
100 N

100 N

with element stiffness, k i = E * A i / L Where A i =2h (cross section area is square)

k 1 = [(200000*0.0425 2 )/0.1] = 3612.5 N/m k 2 = [(200000*0.0275 2 )/0.1] = 1512.5 N/m

42

Ex 1: Solution

Global Stiffness Matrix**:

K=

=

43

Ex 2: Solution

Arranging the problem in matrix form (K*x = F) yield;

=

A known solution, u1 = 0. Thus the problem can be reduced to (by eliminating first column & first row):

44

=

Ex 1: Solution

-1

Option 1 solution: Using the inverse matrix method, x = K

* F ;

-1
=

=

=

Refer to previous matrix lecture slides

45

Option 2 solution: Use two equations solution

=

Two equations with two unknowns can be easily solved and get

U

U

U

2

3

1

=0.027

=0.093

=0